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© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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SUBSTANTIVE CONVERSATION TOOLS FOR COACHES Julie Boyd

This is a selection of inventories, from the manual of the same name, which may provide the basis for personal/professional reflection and substantive conversations. © Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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Welcome to Substantive Conversation Tools For Coaches This is a collection of reflection tools and inventories which have been created over four decades and used constantly over that period. They are designed for individual teacher and individual school use. Any consultancy usage must be negotiated with a written agreement prior to use. While they are based on the work of respected practitioners, they are not a standardised tests but a rather checklists for self-evaluation. The answers are intended to provide personal insights which may lead to changed behaviour and are based on the following assumptions.

Psychologists describe behaviour as a function of perception. The feelings, beliefs, conditions, attitudes, and understandings of a person constitute the directing forces of his or her behaviour.

People differ in how they perceive a situation, work at tasks, interact with others, and make decisions.

People behave differently depending on the circumstances, that is, behaviour changes

There is no single "right" way for people to behave, but most people have an operating style that is most common and comfortable for them.

What is comfortable and "right" for one person may feel uncomfortable and "wrong" to another.

An organization functions best when it capitalises on the strengths of each individual, encouraging the celebration.

PLEASE USE CAREFULLY AND WITH DISCRETION

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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Substantive Conversation Tools For Coaches: INDEX TITLE

PAGE NUMBER

Synergy Questionnaire

4

Lifestyle Scale

5

A Learning Model Tool

7

Leadership Styles Matrix

12

Leadership Skills

24

Leader Effectiveness & Adaptability

27

Understanding Your Leadership Behaviour

33

The Whole Person Inventory

36

Self Assessment Inventory

40

Personal Style Inventory

42

Responding Empathically Exercise

46

Interpersonal Effectiveness Profile

47

Interpersonal-Cognitive Style Questionnaire

57

Learning-Style Inventory

63

Learning Style Reflection

69

Goals For Personal Development Inventory

78

Group Relationships

80

Analysis of Personal Behaviour In Groups

82

Team Building

84

Assertiveness Inventory

88

Conflict Opinionaire

90

Teaching Style Inventory

92

School Program Quality Self Assessment Instrument

95

Understanding Individual Differences

101

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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SYNERGY QUESTIONNAIRE INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING THE QUESTIONNAIRE The Synergy Questionnaire comprised of 20 pairs of statements. For each pair, you are to indicate which of the statements is more descriptive of you and/or your environment. Same of the statement may seem to be equally characteristic of you or equally uncharacteristic. Nevertheless, please select the statement which relatively characteristic of you and/or your environment. For each questionnaire item, divide five points between the A and the B statements. 5 = completely characteristic. 0 = completely uncharacteristic Remember, there are no right or wrong answers. Divide the five (5) points between the A and B statements of each item. 1. When I interact with other: ______ (A) I want to express my ideas. ______ (B) I want to incorporate my ideas with theirs.

11. When I start a project, I like: ______ (A) to know what the end product should be. ______ (B) to have the end product evolve as I work on the project.

2. As a person, I like: ______ (A) things and people change. ______ (B) things and people to be constant.

12. In a work group, all the people: ______ (A) are equal. ______ (B) are different.

3. When I think about reality: ______ (A) it is what is happening today. ______ (B) it is what is happening tomorrow.

13. What power I have to influence others comes from: ______ (A) my interactions with them. ______ (B) their interactions with me.

4. In my work place, I like people: ______ (A) who help me accomplish my goals. ______ (B) who are working hard to accomplish their goals.

14. Meetings should: ______ (A) begin and end on time. ______ (B) be as long as needed to accomplish the task.

5. When I analyse a problem, I always look for: ______ (A) the similarities. ______ (B) the differences.

15. Space is important as a means of: ______ (A) giving me a place to work. ______ (B) describing the differences between people.

6. I feel that my destiny is: ______ (A) essentially under my control. ______ (B) under the control of those with whom I interact.

16. I like working relationships to be: ______ (A) emotionally neutral. ______ (B) emotionally charged.

7. To me my work place: ______ (A) enhances pain. ______ (B) diminishes pain.

17. I enjoy: ______ (A) completing a task by myself. ______ (B) working with others whether or not the task is completed.

8. To achieve high productivity, the emphasis must be on: ______ (A) people and things. ______ (B) people and ideas.

18. In my family relationship, I want all decisions: ______ (A) to be made by consensus. ______ (B) to be made by compromise.

9. A person is limited only by: ______ (A) the boundaries of the social system. ______ (B) interaction with others. 10. My creativity comes from: ______ (A) my own internal energy. ______ (B) psychic energy caused by others.

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19. I like to give my personal energy to the accomplishment: ______ (A) of group goals. ______ (B) of my own individual goals. ____

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches

20. People exercise power: __ (A) by persuasion


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LIFESTYLE SCALE DIRECTIONS: Read each statement and apply the following scale to each statement. Your first reaction is probably the most accurate so work rapidly. 1 = NEVER applies to me. 2 = SELDOM applies to me. 3 = applies SOMETIMES to me. 4 = applies OFTEN to me. 5 = PERFECTLY applies to me. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

______ dislikes riding airplanes. ______ enjoys being neat, hair in place, and immaculate dresser. ______ extremely sensitive to hurting others’ feelings. ______ likes attention for task completed. ______ life is full of hardships, but it’s worth it. ______ dislikes swimming. ______ seldom satisfied with one’s accomplishments. ______ likes to have continual praise from others such as your peers or boss. ______ really bothered when making a mistake. ______ really tries hard but usually gets the short end of the stick. ______ has had or is having problems with sexual relationships. ______ accomplishes much more that co-workers and may call this fact to their attention. ______ excellent at finding fault with self. ______ likes to hear what is “wrong with themselves”. ______ likes to tell others how it could have been done. ______ likes to have the last word in conversations. ______ very knowledgable about a particular topic and takes pride in this. ______ dislikes arguments and find self attempting to be the peace maker. ______ felt punished a lot as a child. ______ anticipates future circumstances; often heard to say, “See, I told you …” ______ does not like surprises such as rule changes at the last moment, uninvited company, etc. ______ doesn’t like mistakes to be made by peer or subordinate. ______ viewed by others as sweet and likeable but also innocent and a bit naïve. ______ likes to find fault with other people and good at finding the worst in them. ______ holds people to their end of a bargain; and gets righteously indignant when they don’t deliver. ______ always busy; can work at two or more projects at the same time. ______ believes that everything has its place and that everything should be in its place. ______ very sensitive and vulnerable and can easily be hurt by others. ______ often feel you are carrying a lot of burdens around with you and don’t think you deserve them. ______ depressed a lot of the time about a lot of things. ______ doesn’t waste a minute; always has something to do. ______likes to make sure that things run like clockwork. ______ concerned with whether others approve of what I do. ______ life really seems like a barrel of “rotten apples.” ______ very religious person and feel you live up to your religious convictions to the point that you try doing things all of the time.

Please Stop. Don’t go back and change your answers!

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


LIFESTYLE SCALE SCORING Place the numerical value for each question on the line to the right of each number. Directions: Add the value in each column to obtain a score for each of the five scales. Scale C ________ 1 ________ 6 ________ 11 ________ 16 ________ 17 ________ 21 ________ 22

Scale P ________ 2 ________ 9 ________ 26 ________ 27 ________ 31 ________ 32 ________ 25

Scale N ________ 3 ________ 4 ________ 8 ________ 18 ________ 23 ________ 28 ________ 33

Scale V ________ 7 ________ 10 ________ 13 ________ 14 ________ 19 ________ 30 ________ 34

Scale M ________ 5 ________ 12 ________ 15 ________ 20 ________ 24 ________ 25 ________ 29

Total ________

________

________

________

________

The five scales are: C = Control, P = Perfectionist, N = Need to Please, V = Victim, M = Martyr

Directions: Chart your scores on bar graph

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


LEADERSHIP STYLES MATRIX This collection of material on leadership styles is intended to help you: • assess your own leadership style • more fully appreciate your style and capitalise on your strengths • increase your effectiveness for working productively and in harmony with others • increase your understanding of alternative leadership styles Because people have complex and overlapping values and beliefs, it is impossible to describe a person as having a specific, unalterable behaviour style. However, some opposite behaviour patterns can be recognized that operate on a vertical continuum of informal and formal and on a horizontal dimension of dominant and easy going. The intersection of these opposites forms four quadrants which can be said to represent four broad categories of behaviour style: the promoter, supporter, controller, and analyser.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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What follows is a brief description of each of the four styles. THE PROMOTIONAL STYLE. Promoters get involved with people in active, rapidly changing situations. These people are seen as socially outgoing and friendly, imaginative and vigorous. Because people react to behaviours as a result of their own value biases, some see the promotional style as dynamic and energetic while others perceive the same behaviour as egotistical. In a work situation, promoters can get things going but may sometimes settle for less than the best in order to get on to something else. When faced with a task, these people can generate creative ideas for work, but are less likely to follow through to get the task done. If a group or organization can accommodate this style, it will benefit from enthusiasm, but must tolerate a lack of concern for details. Promoters are frequently highly competitive and may need to learn to work with others in a collaborative manner. THE SUPPORTING STYLE. Supporters value interpersonal relations. these people try to minimise conflict and promote the happiness of everybody. Some people see the supporting style as accommodating and friendly, while others describe it as wishy-washy and “nice”. In a work situation, supporters may find it difficult to say “no,” thus they frequently find themselves overcommitted. They can be counted on to do what will please others. Supporters are people-oriented and non-aggressive. They will rely on others to give directions about how to get the tasks done. THE CONTROLLING STYLE. Controllers want results! They love to run things and have the job done in their own way. "I'll do it myself”, is a frequent motto of the controller. Those people can manage their time to the minute. Some see them as businesslike and efficient, while others refer to them as threatening and unfeeling. In a work situation, controllers will make sure tho job is done. They will get impatient with long discussions about "the best way" or "the way to please everybody." Controllers are confident in their ability, take risks, and push forward. THE ANALYZING STYLE. Analysers are problem solvers. They like to get all the data before making a decision. Some say they are thorough, but others complain that they’re slow. These people are frequently quiet and prefer to work alone. In a work situation, analysers bring valuable conceptual skills. They ask the difficult, important questions. Interpersonally, they may seem aloof and cool. Analysers may miss tho deadlines, but they'll have all the reasons to support the delay.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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A COMBINATION OF STYLES. Most people have a variety of response patters, so depending on the situation they may behave differently. Successful people come from all quadrants on the matrix. Success is not dependent on the style, but on how well you capitalise on the behaviours that come moat naturally and how much you take risks and experiment with behaviours from the other styles. For example you may think of yourself as basically being a talkative, dominant group member. You've gotten feedback from others that you have a tendency to “beat a dead horse” in order to make your point. Awareness of the Behavioural Matrix is intended to expand your response ability. By increasing your awareness of the options that exist, you can improve your leadership or participant behaviours. Thus, in the next meeting you can monitor your behaviour and model it after that of a supporter or an analyser.

BEHAVIOURAL MATRIX INFORMAL

EASY GOING

DOMINANT

FORMAL

© Julie Boyd 2010

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CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH BEHAVIOURAL STYLE Asks WHO? (personal question) Decisions easily made and easily changed Warm, friendly Flexible Persuasive Imaginative and creative Insightful Out front, forceful ommunicates well Enthusiastic

Asks WHY? (personal, non-goal questions) Decisions are agreeable to others Good listener Friendly competitive Values, close, lasting friendships Allows others to initiate Puts others at ease Willing to take direction s a human angle

Asks WHAT? (results-oriented question) Decisions made easily and rapidly willed Performs to capacity Quickly responds Competitive Persistently thorough Eagerly ambitious Uses time well Likes workable and logical solutions

OW? (technical, analytical questions) Hesitant decision maker Thrives on data: facts and concepts Systematic and orderly Quiet, non-threatening Allows others to initiate Problem-solver Goal oriented, but slowly and carefully Persistent

INFORMAL

   

     

inconsistent childlike agitated afraid of confrontation lacking in conviction manipulative

      

domineering impulsive arrogant coercive high pressure impatient unstable

      

flexible youthful enthusiastic tactful adaptable socially skilful

 

impractical gullible paternal passive overcommitted selfdepreciating obligated perfectionist

       

idealistic trusting helpful receptive responsive modest loyal aspiring

      

dull stingy unfriendly compulsive plodding critical stubborn

      

practical economical reserved thorough methodical analytical steadfast

     

DOMINANT

© Julie Boyd 2010

controlling quick to act self-confident forceful persistent urgent eager to change

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EASY GOING


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BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS RATING FORM Name of person being rated: ______________________________________________ Directions: Circle one of the numbers to indicate how you see the person you are rating. For example: Dominant 1 2 3 4 Easy-Going The rater here decided the person he we rating was more easy-going than dominant, but not easy-going enough to rate a 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26.

Appears confident Passive Responsive Easy-going Takes charge Formal Disciplined Communicates readily Accepting Appears unorganised Initiates social contact Asks questions Overbearing Reserved Appears active Relaxed Withholds feeling Relationship oriented Pushy Discriminating Extrovert Warm Subtle Distant States information Quiet

Š Julie Boyd 2010

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Reserved Aggressive Self-controlled Dominant Goes along Informal Spontaneous Hesitant communicator Challenging Appears organised Lets others initiate Makes statements Shy Fun loving Appears thoughtful Assertive Expresses feeling Task oriented Gentle Impulsive Introvert Cool Direct Close Saves information Talkative

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© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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EACH BEHAVIOURAL STYLE WILL EXCEL IN A SITUATION WHERE People are involved, ie., committee work New possibilities need to be brainstormed There is a defined structure with boundaries Follow through is forced by someone else Inspirations are allowed and encouraged There is a lot of attention (they’ll take anything, including negative putdowns) They can talk about what is learned, ie., tons of discussion There is action-oriented activity; ie., role playing, drama, learn “x” tables by jumping rope at the same time Environment is optimistic, changing Surrounded by friendliness and warmth

They can please others Harmony, respect and good feelings exist Research and learning is on people facts Structure, supervision and guidance is available There is much reassurance, support and personal attention Ideas can be developed that will benefit others Relationship skills can be applied to get the job done. ie., committee work They can give and give and give Their loyalty is valued

Organised information abounds and is valued They are allowed to take responsibility and leadership It is fast moving and challenging There is a chance to assume a leadership role Competition abounds There is freedom to accomplish tasks their own way There is an established authority to respect Academic achievement is highly valued

They can work by themselves It is unemotional, factual, practical There is freedom to ponder The leader gives a systematic, structured framework Routine is the watchword There is a lack of pressure, low-key Much attention given to task results Value is placed on accumulation of facts They can save face even when they may be wrong There are rules for dealing with others

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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EACH BEHAVIOR STYLE WILL FEEL STIFLED AND HAVE DIFFICULTY IN A SITUATION WHERE

Physical activity is restrained Tasks are analytical, systematic and/or disciplined There are many detailed, logical presentations; they want the bottom line and could not care less how you got there There is only routine with no room for adventure and action-oriented activities Allowed to go any which way on a project without understood boundaries and direction

Left to own direction Task achievement is the dominant goal Socialising is not allowed Conflict is normal

The situation is not under their control Their goals are thwarted It is not fast moving Leaders “wing it” There are many distractions No one appears to be “in charge”

Little organisation exists Nobody reaches out to them Inconsistency is routine Pressure abound Loud, multi-stimulating activity exists The leader is dominating, controlling Decisions are not based on facts

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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TO MAKE THE BEST USE OF YOUR STRENGTHS

1. Capitalise Find as many opportunities as possible to use your strongest style. Do what you do best. “If you’ve got it, flaunt it.”

5.

Augment

Work with other people who have the strengths you don’t. Provide checks and balances for each other. Learn about what others do by watching, appreciating. “You do your thing, and I’ll do my thing.”

6.

Extend

Take the risk. Try some new behaviours. Find safe environments to practice behaviours form one of the other quadrants. “The only way to do it, is to do it.”

7.

Control Excesses

When the chips are down and the pressure is on, resist the temptation to go back into the old tried and true method of responding. Practice moderation. “Balance is the key to power.”

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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CONFLICT SITUATIONS: A WORKSHEET

My style is ___________________ My strengths are: Identify someone closely associated with you (ie., superintendent, Identify what you can do to Identify ways you can manage principal, spouse, Identify etc.) his/her strengths supplement/assist Identify you most likely the conflict and his/her style conflict him/her

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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MY STYLE AND PERSONAL CONFLICT SITUATIONS

My style is _________________________________ My strengths are: Identify the style of someone closely associated with you (ie., superinetendent, principal, spouse, Their etc.) strengths are:

© Julie Boyd 2010

What I can do to supplement/assist Our most likely conflict will We be:can manage conflict by: them:

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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STYLISTIC DIFFERENCES with

Promoting Style

Needs to learn

Patience Discipline

Measures progress by

Applause

Controlling Style

Humility

Supporting Style

Analysing Style

Determination

Spontaneity

Attention

Activity

Will ask

Friendship

Takes endorsements from Social skills — likes to getting be the job done wellFriends and — “If they still likeKnowledge me, good at winning I must be doing it on time people right.”

Needs to be given

Some structure within which A position that requires Structure for the goal and Some methods of dealing with to reach the goal relying on methods for the task other people cooperation with others

Relies on the power of

Feeling — expects that Personality — hopes to be Acceptance — uses Expertise — gathers more “winning ways” will strong enough to compliments to get data when in doubt carry him or her “wing it” approval through

Motivated by

Friendly people New opportunities on

Most effective environment is Changing Youthful Optimistic

© Julie Boyd 2010

Responsibility Authority Achievement

Trust and security Need for services Appeal to loyalty

Competitive

Respecting Supporting Reassuring Idealistic

Challenging Opportunistic

Routine Structure

Unemotional Scientific Practical

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LEADERSHIP SKILLS This questionnaire asks you to describe yourself as a member and leader. For each item, give the number "4" to the phrase that best describes you. "3" to the item that is next best, and on down to: "1" for the item that is least like you. 1. My strongest skills are: a. Analytic skills b. Interpersonal skills c. Political skill d. Flair for drama 2. The best way to describe me is: a. Technical expert b. Good listener c. Skilled negotiator d. Inspirational leader 3. What has helped me the most to be successful is my ability to: a. Make good decisions b. Coach and develop people c. Build strong alliances and a power base d Inspire and excite others 4. What people are most likely to notice about me is my: a. Attention to detail b. Concern for people c. Ability to succeed, the face of conflict and opposition d. Charisma 5. My most important leadership trait is: a. Clear, logical thinking b. Caring and support for others c. Toughness and aggressiveness d. Imagination and creativity 6. I am best described as: a. An analyst b. A humanist c. A politician d. A visionary ____ ST

Š Julie Boyd 2010

____ HR

____ PL

____SY

____ Total

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


21 Leadership Skills Scoring

1. Structural leaders emphasise rationality, analysis, logic, facts and data. They are likely to believe strongly in the importance of clear structure and well developed management systems. A good leader is someone who thinks clearly, makes good decisions, has good analytic skills, and can design structures and systems that get the job done. 2. Human resource leaders emphasise the importance of people. They endorse the view that the central task of management is to develop a good fit between people and organizations. They believe in the importance of coaching, participation, motivation, teamwork and good interpersonal relations. A good leader is a facilitator and participative manager who supports and empowers others. 3. Political leaders believe that managers and leaders live in a world of conflict and scarce resources. The central task of management is to mobilise the resources needed to advocate and fight for the unit's or the organization's goals and objectives. Political leaders emphasise the importance of building a power base: allies, networks, coalitions. A good leader is an advocate and negotiator who understands politics and is comfortable with conflict. 4. Symbolic leaders believe that the essential task of management is to provide vision and inspiration. They rely on personal charisma and a flair for drama to get ~y people excited and committed to the organizational mission. A good leader is a prophet and visionary, who uses symbols, tell stories and frames experience in ways that give people hope and meaning.

Computing Scores: Compute your scores as follows: ST= la+2a+3a+4a+5a+6a HR=lb+2b+3b+4b+5b+6b PL= 1c+2c+3c+4c+5c+6c SY=ld+2d+3d+4d+5d+6d

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


LEADERSHIP SKILLS SCORING This Leadership Skills instrument is keyed to four different conceptions of organizations and of the task of organizational leadership. Plot each of your scores on the appropriate axis of the chart below: ST for Structural, HR for Human Resource, PL for Political, and SY for Symbolic. Then read the brief description of each of these orientations toward leadership and organizations.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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LEADER EFFECTIVENESS & ADAPTABILITY Directions: Assume YOU are involved in each of the following twelve situations. Each situation has four alternative actions you might initiate. READ each item carefully. THINK about what YOU would do in each circumstance. Then CIRCLE the letter of the alternative action choice which you think would most closely describe YOUR behaviour in the situation presented. Circle only one choice.

1

2

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

Your subordinates are not responding lately to your friendly conversation and obvious concern for their welfare. Their performance is declining rapidly.

Emphasise the use of uniform procedures and the necessity for task accomplishment. Make yourself available for discussion but don’t push your involvement. Talk with subordinates and then set goals. Intentionally do not intervene.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

The observable performance of your group is increasing. You have been making sure that all members were aware of their responsibilities and expected standards of performance.

Engage in friendly interaction, but continue to make sure that all members are aware of their responsibilities and expected standards of performance. Take no definite action. Do what you can to make the group feel important and involved. Emphasise the importance of deadlines and tasks.

SITUATION

3

4

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

Members of your group are unable to solve a problem themselves. You have normally left them alone. Group performance and interpersonal relations have been good.

Work with the group and together engage in problem-solving. Let the group work it out. Act quickly and firmly to correct and redirect. Encourage group to work on problem and be supportive of their efforts.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

You are considering a change. Your subordinates have a fine record of accomplishment. They respect the need for change.

Allow group involvement in developing the change, but don’t be too directive. Announce changes and then implement with close supervision. Allow group to formulate its own direction. Incorporate group recommendations, but don’t direct the change.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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5

6

7

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

The performance of your group has been dropping during the last few months. Members have been unconcerned with meeting objectives. Redefining roles and responsibilities has helped in the past. They continually needed reminding to have their tasks done on time.

Allow group to formulate its own direction. Incorporate group recommendations, but see that objectives are met. Redefine roles and responsibilities and supervise carefully. Allow group involvement in determining roles and responsibilities but don’t be too directive.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

You stepped into an efficiently run organisation. The previous administrator tightly controlled the situation. You want to maintain a productive situation, but would like to begin humanising the environment.

Do what you can to make group feel important. Emphasise the importance of deadlines and tasks. Intentionally do not intervene. Get group involved in decision-making, but see that objectives are met.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

You are considering changing to a structure that will be new to your group. Members of the group have made suggestions about needed change. The group has been productive and demonstrated flexibility in its operations.

Define the change and supervise carefully. Participate with the group in developing the change but allow members to organise the implementation. Be willing to make changes as recommended, but maintain control of implementation. Avoid confrontation; leave things alone.

SITUATION

8

9

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

Group performance and interpersonal relations are good. You feel somewhat unsure about your lack of direction of the group.

Leave the group alone. Discuss the situation with the group and then you initiate necessary changes. Take steps to direct subordinates toward working in a well-defined manner. Be supportive in discussing the situation with the group but not too directive.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

Your superior has appointed you to head a task force that is far overdue in making requested recommendations for change. The group is not clear on its goals. Attendance at sessions has been poor. Their meetings have turned into social gatherings. Potentially they have the talent necessary to help.

Let the group work out its problems. Incorporate group recommendations, but see that objectives are met. Redefine goals and supervise carefully Allow group involvement in setting goals, but don’t push

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


25 SITUATION

10

11

12

Your subordinates, usually able to take responsibility, are not responding to your recent redefining of standards.

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS Allow group involvement in redefining standards, but don’t take control. Redefine standards and supervise carefully. Avoid confrontation by not applying pressure; leave situation alone. Incorporate group recommendations, but see that new standards are met.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

You have been promoted to a new position. The previous supervisor was uninvolved in the affairs of the group. The group has adequately handled its tasks and direction. Group inter-relations are good.

Take steps to direct subordinates toward working in a well-defined manner. Involve subordinates in decision-making and reinforce good contributions. Discuss past performance with group and then you examine the need for new practices. Continue to leave group alone.

SITUATION

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

Recent information indicates some internal difficulties among subordinates. The group has a remarkable record of accomplishment. Members have effectively maintained longrange goals. They have worked in harmony for the past year. All are well qualified for the task.

Try out your solution with subordinates and examine the need for new practices. Allow group members to work it out themselves. Act quickly and firmly to correct and redirect. Participate in problem discussion while providing support for subordinates.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


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HOW TO USE THE SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL

Determine what you want to accomplish through your follower(s).

FIRST

ASK: "What is the task or goal?" Determine the maturity level of the follower or group that is relevant to the task.

SECOND

MATURITY IS: ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION "Is the individual or group able to set high but realistic goals?"

RESPONSIBILITY "Willingness to assume responsibility?" "Ability to assume responsibility?"

EDUCATION EXPERIENCE "Does the individual or group have the education and/or experience that is necessary to accomplish the task?" MARK THE MATURITY LEVEL OF THE FOLLOWER OR GROUP M 1? …….. M 2? …….. M 3? …….. M 4? …….. THIRD Draw a line from the maturity level up to the leadership style curve. The point where the lines hit is the MOST EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE that is appropriate for that follower or group. S 1? …….. S 2? …….. S 3? …….. S 4? …….. Give the follower or group the appropriate combination of task behaviour and relationship behaviour

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


28

TASK BEHAVIOR IS: The extent that a leader engages in spelling out the role of an individual or group. The extent that a leader tells an individual or group what, when, where, and how to do the task. RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOR IS: The extent that a leader engages in two-way communication, listening, supporting, facilitating, and giving psychological strokes.

KEY WORDS FOR APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP STYLES TELLING: high task/low relationship SELLING: high task/high relationship PARTICIPATING: high relationship/low task DELEGATING: low relationship/low task

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


29

UNDERSTANDING YOUR LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR When you are a member of a group, what is your leadership behaviour like? In what ways do you try to influence other group members toward accomplishing the group’s goals? The purpose of the survey below is to get a description of your behaviour in groups in order to introduce a discussion on leadership theories. Circle the letter to the left that most appropriately describes your likely behaviour — (A) always, (F) frequently, (O) occasionally, (S) seldom, or (N) never — in connection with the given statement. Each of the items below describes aspects of leadership behaviour; respond t each one according to the way in which you would be most like to act if you were part of a problem-solving group. Then read the next two sections, after which instructions will appear for analysing your responses to the survey. A:F :O :S :N

1.

A:F :O :S :N

2.

A:F :O :S :N

3.

A:F :O :S :N

4.

A:F :O :S :N A:F :O :S :N

5. 6.

A:F :O :S :N

7.

A:F :O :S :N

8.

A:F :O :S :N

9.

A:F :O :S :N

10.

A:F :O :S :N

11.

A:F :O :S :N

12.

A:F :O :S :N

13.

A:F :O :S :N

14.

A:F :O :S :N

15.

A:F :O :S :N

16.

When I am a member of a problem-solving group … I offer facts, give my opinions and ideas, provide suggestions and relevant information to help the group discussion I warmly encourage all members of the group to participate, giving them recognition for their contributions, demonstrating receptivity and openness to their ideas, and generally being friendly and responsive to them I ask for facts, information opinions, ideas, and feelings from other group members to help the group discussion I try to persuade members to analyse constructively their differences in opinions and ideas, searching for common elements in conflicting or opposing ideas or proposals, and trying to reconcile disagreements I propose goals and tasks in order to start action within the group I try to relieve group tension and increase the enjoyment of group members by joking, suggesting breaks, and proposing fun approaches to group work I give direction to the group by developing plans on how to proceed with group work and by focusing members’ attention on the task to be done I help communication among group members by showing good communication skills and by making sure that what each member says is understood by all I pull together related ideas or suggestions made by group members and restate and summarise the major points discussed by the group I ask members how they are feeling about the way in which the group members and restate and summarise the major points discussed by the group I coordinate group work by showing relationships among various ideas or suggestions, by pulling ideas and suggestions together, and by drawing together activities of various subgroups and members I observe the process by which the group is working and use my observations to help in examining the effectiveness of the group I determine why the group has difficulty in working effectively and what blocks progress in accomplishing the group’s goals I express group standards and norms and the group goals in order to make members constantly aware of the direction in which the work is going — the progress being made toward the group goal — and in order to get continued open acceptance of group norms and procedures I energise the group by stimulating group members to produce a higher quality of work I listen to and serve as an interested audience for other group members, weighing the ideas of others, and going along with the movement of the group when I do not

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


30

A:F :O :S :N

17.

A:F :O :S :N

18.

A:F :O :S :N

19.

A:F :O :S :N

20.

disagree with its action I examine how practical and workable the ideas are, evaluate the quality of alternative solutions to group problems, and apply decisions and suggestions to real situations in order to see how they will work I accept and support the openness of other group members, reinforcing them for taking risks, and encouraging individuality in group members I compare group decisions and accomplishments with group standards, measuring accomplishments against goals I promote the open discussion of conflicts between group members in order to resolve disagreements and increase group togetherness

The procedure for analysing your responses to the survey is as follows: If you circled (A) give yourself 5 points, (F) is 4, (O) is 3, (S) is 2, and (N) is 1 point. To get you total score for task functions and maintenance functions, which will be discussed fully in a moment, write the score for each statement in the following table.

Task Function _______ _______

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

Maintenance Function

1. Information and opinion giver 3. Information and opinion seeker 5. Starter 7. Direction giver 9. Summariser 11. Coordinator 13. Diagnoser 15. Energiser 17. Reality tester 19. Evaluator

_______ _______

2. Encourage of participation 4. Harmoniser and compromiser 6. Tension reliever 8. Communication helper 10. Evaluator of emotional climate 12. Process observer 14. Standard setter 16. Active listener 18. Trust builder 20. Interpersonal problem solver

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

Total for task functions

_______ Total for maintenance functions

Locate yourself on the Task-Maintenance Grid by finding your score for task functions on the bottom, horizontal axis of the grid and move up the column corresponding to your Task score to the point of intersection with your score for maintenance functions. Place an “X” at the intersection that represents your two scores. Numbers in parentheses correspond to the major styles of task-maintenance leadership behaviours.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


Task-Maintenance Grid

This identifies basic styles. Note that the Grid measures the degree of concern for and not the actual behaviour of these two variables. A description of the Grid styles follows.

Grid Types 9.1 The slave driver. He (she) doesn’t let people get in the way of task efficiencies. Production must be achieved at all costs. 1.9 The nice-guy. He (she) wants to be liked and believed in the “contented cow” theory: if he (she) is nice to people, they will produce. 1.1 The zombie. He (she) doesn’t really care about production or people: he (she) is simply taking up space.

9.9 The ideal or optimum style. The 9.9 manager tries to maximise both concern for production and concern for people. He (she) feels that people are happiest when they are on a winning team and that conflicts should be brought to in the open and dealt with. He (she) expects performance will be best when managers and workers strive toward shared goals.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


32

WHOLE PERSON INVENTORY PHYSICAL POTENTIAL PERSONAL LIFE

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

Take good care of my general health, including exercise, diet, and rest. Enjoy using my body in sports, exercise, or dancing Welcome sexuality as part of an intimate relationship Manage my time and energy to meet my own rather than someone else's priorities Consider money primarily a resource for achieving my personal priorities. Consider my living and work environments as resources for enhancing my satisfaction in living

Provide a nurturing environment for treatment. Maintain a balanced workload, within the limitations of my work setting Am alert for nonverbal communication in colleagues (facial expressions, posture, movements, tone of voice, etc.) Take a straightforward attitude about providing a service for which people pay

SIGNS OF TROUBLE — Am often tired and lacking energy. — Am eating, drinking, or smoking more than I feel I should. — Tend to put off visiting the dentist and having health check-ups. — Am too busy or too tired to exercise regularly. — Am often too busy to get away for a vacation. — Use many of my vacations to attend professional workshops. EMOTIONAL POTENTIAL PERSONAL LIFE

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

— Am in touch with my feelings most of the time and respect them — Pay attention to my feelings as a necessary part of intuition — Give my feelings due weight in making decisions — Feel free and able to express my feelings in appropriate ways — Respect the feelings of others and their right to express them in appropriate ways

— Respect my colleagues' feelings even though they differ from mine — Give colleagues permission to express their feelings in a safe atmosphere — Value my own feelings for what they can tell me about my colleague, our relationship, and the process — Respond to the colleague's deeper needs (as I see them) rather than reacting to his wishes or demands. — Feel free to express my personal feelings to colleagues interfere with treatment goals.

SIGNS OF TROUBLE Find that most of my colleagues have to work through similar feelings — often the same ones that I have to work through myself.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


33

BALANCE POTENTIAL PERSONAL LIFE

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

— Am aware of some Power greater than myself. — Have a sense of my own relationship to the larger world other people and the Power greater than myself — Usually feel firmly balanced and grounded — Am aware that the roles I play in life are merely expressions of my true self

— Try to help each colleague see his present pain in a wider context that also allows realistic hope — Help the colleague learn that he can feel responsible for his actions and yet acknowledge a reality greater than himself — Guide the colleague in his search for the true self beneath his roles. — Can accept a colleague's choices for himself even when they differ from what I would choose for him.

— Feel accepting and accepted most of the time

SIGNS OF TROUBLE — Find the world a basically hostile place. — Often feel that life is absurd and meaningless. — Believe that I am totally responsible for whatever occurs in my life and that my colleague is responsible for his. — Believe that outside forces control whatever occurs in my life and my colleagues' so we are in no way responsible. — Consider "counsellor" as my basic identity. — Find I am often critical of my friends' and colleagues' values. — Am convinced that my religion or spiritual path is the one true way and would convince my colleagues of this if I could. VOCATIONAL POTENTIAL PERSONAL LIFE

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

— Am usually decisive even though I realise that I sometimes make mistakes — Am willing to take risks — Usually follow through on decisions with wholehearted action — Am disciplined and steady in whatever I undertake — Am persistent in the face of difficulty or discouragement — Can accept patiently such unavoidable frustrations as weather, physical limitations, and the idiosyncrasies of people and institutions

— Live up to the treatment contract I have made with contract I have made with the colleague — Expect the colleague to live up to the contract too doing his part according to his capabilities — Am will to confront the colleague if he is not fulfilling the contract — Am willing to be directive when1 I feel the circumstances call for it — Am straightforward about my own needs and wants in the treatment relationship. — Am responsible in routine matters, such as punctuality, note taking, and following institutional procedures

SIGNS OF TROUBLE — Feel constantly overwhelmed with things that I cannot find time to do. — Am habitually late for personal and professional appointments. — Conforms to schedules and rules rather than making my own choices. — Find it very hard to say no. — Find it hard to change my position once I have taken a stand.

© Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


34 — Believe a responsible counsellor should be available to his colleagues whenever they wish to see him, without concern for his personal convenience. — Believe that a counsellor should not be expected to see colleagues outside regular appointments, regardless of the circumstances. — Rarely offer my own opinions and suggestions to friends or colleagues. — Feel uncomfortable in setting and enforcing reasonable limits for my children, subordinates, or colleagues. — Am strongly directive with colleagues and feel that failure to follow my directions should be seen as an unhealthy defence. — Believe that a colleague's avowed feelings, when they do not fit my professional picture of his situation, are probably defensive. — Expect colleagues to be able to get in touch with feelings promptly as they arise. — Believe that showing concern for the colleague openly undermines the professioial relationship.

SOCIAL POTENTIAL PERSONAL LIFE

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

— Am able to build and maintain satisfying relationships — Am open and honest with others without fearing the consequences — Reveal my opinions and feelings without seeking others' approval — Am willing to be vulnerable in sharing information about myself — Am direct and honest in expressing my needs and wants — Am in control of how much or how little of myself I reveal and do so prudently — Am willing to do my part in maintaining relationships

— Have a clear understanding of my relationship to my colleagues — Am honest with colleagues and with myself about what I can and cannot do — Make no promises about the outcome of treatment — Give the colleague my total attention while we are together — Can confront the behaviour of a colleague while still supporting him as a person — Have a clear perception of my own life and history, and of the part they play in the context of treatment

SIGNS OF TROUBLE — Find making and maintaining eye contact uncomfortable. — Find the demands of my work leave little time for my family. — Find the demands of my work leave little time for social activities. — Spend most of my leisure time by myself. — Spend most of my leisure time with others from my professional field or work setting. — Tend to avoid discussing unpleasant topics with a colleague. — Sometimes find myself making promises that I may not be able to keep. — Discover sometimes that colleagues are embarrassed at the personal information that I share MENTAL POTENTIAL PERSONAL LIFE — Am knowledgeable about many subjects — Enjoy learning new things and new skills — Can remember and acknowledge most events of my childhood, including painful ones — Am open and receptive to new ideas — Am imaginative in envisioning new alternatives — Know my limitations and do not hesitate to ask for information, suggestions, and help

© Julie Boyd 2010

PROFESSIONAL LIFE — Plan my work in an organized way — Am able to communicate clearly — Can recognize patterns — Can accept coaching — Make an active effort to keep informed — Know my limitations and do not hesitate to refer a colleague to another professional

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


35 SIGNS OF TROUBLE — Have little time to pursue hobbies or non- professionial activities. — Read mostly professional books and journals. — Tend to use the same style of treatment with all colleagues. — Try to fit colleagues into my theoretical model. — Am coolly objective, feeling that it is more professional to see colleagues as cases rather than individual persons. — Find I understand my colleagues so well that I often finish their sentences for them. — Spend considerable time explaining my theoretical approach to my colleagues during treatment sessions.

SPIRITUAL POTENTIAI PERSONAL LIFE

PROFESSIONAL LIFE

Am convinced that life has meaning and direction

© Julie Boyd 2010

Feel a spirit of hope most of the time and communicate it to colleagues

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


36

Self Assessment Inventory This is a self reflection exercise which may be used as the basis for discussion with a colleague, it may simply provide challenges for personal planning. Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes

Strength

Challenge

Engaging in Open, Supportive Communication Behaving supportively Listening actively Clarifying Expectations Eliciting what colleagues expect Defining your role Outlining school responsibilities Building Shared Influence Giving weight to colleague input Responding fully to group needs Dealing with Resistance Acknowledging resistance Creating strategies to deal with problems Establishing Credibility and Legitimising the Coaches Role Preferring useful functions Demonstrating expertise Asking clarifying questions Building a Support Group Identifying positive people Encouraging, facilitating groupwork Understanding Schools as Organizations Organizational models of schools Knowing teacher, administration, student needs Conceptual Framework Understanding philosophy of innovation Articulates and models one's own values, feelings Knows how to gather useful information and resources Diagnosis of Needs Determines needs of group/organisation Develops ownership of needs Works to develop action plan Collaboration Models collaborative behaviour Shares influence with colleagues

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


37 Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes

Strength

Challenge

Confrontation Gives appropriate, clear feedback Identifies, labels problems Conflict Management Anticipates conflict Mediates conflict Teaches conflict management Skills Problem-Solving, Decision Making Uses problem-solving practices Teaches problem-solving methods Resource Brokering Sees self as resource Uses talents of others Finds equipment, material, etc. Networks resources Uses information systems Maximises school-base support Provides followup Promotes district and other programs Taking Initiative Builds a shared vision Manages time well Uncovers problems Uses processes for checking implementation, progress Facilitating Change Creates clarity about the change, the change process, and expectations for change Delegates and monitors change Helps others build coaching skills, see their strengths Supports risk-taking Provides ongoing support

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


38

PERSONAL STYLE INVENTORY The following items are arranged in pairs (a and b), and each member of the pair represents a preference you may or may not hold. Rate your preference for each item by giving it a score of 0 to 5 (0 meaning you really feel negative about it or strongly about the other member of the pair, 5 meaning you strongly prefer it or do not prefer the other member of the pair). I prefer: la. - making decisions after finding out what others think.

1lb. - being thought of as a feeling person.

lb. - making decisions without consulting others.

12a. - considering every possible angle for a long time before and after making decision.

2a. - being called imaginative or intuitive.

12b. - getting the information I need, considering it for a while, and

2b. - being called factual and accurate. 3a. - making decisions about people in organizations based on available data and systematic analysis of situations. 3b. - making decisions about people in organizations based on

then making fairly quick, firm decision. 13a. - inner thoughts and feelings others cannot see. 13b. - activities and occurrences in which others join.

empathy, feelings, and understanding of their needs and

14a. - the abstract or theoretical.

values.

14b. - the concrete or real.

4a. - allowing commitments to occur if others want to make them.

15a. - helping others explore their feelings.

4b. - pushing for definite commitments to ensure that they are made. 15b. - helping others make logical decisions. 5a. - quiet, thoughtful time alone.

16a. - change and keeping options open.

5b. - active, energetic time with people.

16b. - predictability and knowing in advance.

6a. - using methods I know well that are effective to get the job done. 17a. - communicating little of my inner thinking and feelings. 6b. - trying to think of new methods of doing tasks when confronted 17b. - communicating freely my inner thinking and feelings. 18a. - possible views of the whole.

with them. 7a. - drawing conclusions based on unemotional logic and careful

18b. - the factual details available. 19a. - using common sense and conviction to make decisions.

step-by-step analysis.

7b. - drawing conclusions based on what I feel and believe about life 19b. - using data, analysis, and reason to make decisions. 20a. - planning ahead based on projections.

and people from past experiences.

20b. planning as necessities arise, just before carrying out the plans. 8a. - avoiding making deadlines.

21a. - meeting new people.

8b. - setting a schedule and sticking to it.

21b. - being alone or with one person I know well.

9a. - talking awhile and then thinking to myself about the subject.

22a. - ideas.

9b. - talking freely for an extended period and thinking to myself at a 22b. - facts. later time.

23a. - convictions.

10a. - thinking about possibilities.

23b. - verifiable conclusions.

10b. - dealing with actualities.

24a. - keeping appointments and notes about commitments in

1la. - being thought of as a thinking person.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

notebooks or in appointment books as much as possible.

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


39 24b. - using appointment books and notebooks as minimally as possible

.

25a. - discussing a new, unconsidered issue at length in a group. 25b. - puzzling out issues in my mind, then sharing the results with another person. 26a. - carrying out carefully laid, detailed plans with precision. 26b. - designing plans and structures without necessarily carrying them out. 27a. - logical people. 27b. - feeling people. 28a. - being free to do things on the spur of the moment. 28b. - knowing in advance what I am expected to do. 29a. - being the centre of attention. 29b. - being reserved. 30a. - imagining the nonexistent. 30b. - examining details of the actual. 31a. - experiencing emotional situations/ discussions 31b. - using my ability to analyse situations. 32a. - starting meetings at a prearranged time. 32b. - starting meetings when all are comfortable or ready.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

Substantive Conversation Tools for Coaches


40

© Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au


41

© Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au


42

RESPONDING EMPATHICALLY EXERCISE Step 1 For each of the following statements ask yourself, what feeling(s) is the person experiencing? What single word or short phrase describes the main feeling expressed? (As well as identifying the feeling try to capture the strength of the feeling). Share your word/phrase with others: what degree of consensus is there in the group? Examine minority opinions. Do these seem to fit too? a) Woman, 28, (High School teacher). "I don't seem to have a great affinity with the 12 to 13 year olds. I enjoy teaching the older kids but the younger ones irritate me quite a lot. I see my role as encouraging them to want to do things. And all I seem to encourage them to do is to well I don't encourage them to do very much. Most of the time is spent keeping them disciplined". She feels … b) Man, 30, (recently appointed school counsellor). "People seem to have different expectations of me, what I should be doing. I find myself feeling quite inadequate at times, when particular people are asking me or telling me certain things. I feel I haven't got anything to offer them. I don't have any firm opinions and I have little experience to fall back on. I feel they're expecting me to be somebody I don't think I am. Somebody with talents I'm not so sure I've got". He feels … c) Woman, 40, (Nurse working in a non-hospital setting). "I need to build up my confidence in myself and become more assertive with other people. The sorts of situations which matter are when I'm with people who are at an advantage ... have an advantage over me in some way. This varies, perhaps they have more academic qualifications and education than I have, and I feel that I somehow I don't quite measure up. Although I know that my own qualifications for my job are adequate I do feel that you know I just (voice fades) need to work on that". She feels …

Step 2 Now ask yourself, what is the feeling about in each case? What circumstances or people is it connected with? (Summarise in as few words as possible). Share your summary and discuss it with others. The woman's feeling relates to The man's feeling stems from The woman's feeling is connected with

Step 3 Now imagine that the person has made the statement to you. Try constructing a response which reflects the feeling expressed and relate it to the stated context. For a start use the form, "You feel ... because ..." Response to Woman (a) You feel

because

You feel

because

You feel

because

Response to Man (b) Response to Woman (c)

© Julie Boyd 2010

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www.julieboyd.com.au


43

INTERPERSONAL EFFECTIVENESS PROFILE • This exercise is not about how you see yourself. It is about how you expect others see you. Research has shown that most people estimate how others generally see them with a very useful degree of accuracy. • Set aside any ideas you may have regarding how you wish others would see you, how you hope they see you, or how you think they should see you. Focus instead on how you think they do see you — whether or not you necessarily like the answers. • Be honest. No one else need see this form unless you choose to show it to them. To complete the ratings: Consider a group of people with whom you interact on a regular basis. These should be individuals who interact with one another as well as with you' and an actual group in which you would like to have more satisfying and productive relationships.' 36. Read the question in bold type that follows these instructions. 37. Place an X in the box that represents your best estimate for each item, from Rarely to Often, using numbers 1 through 9. 38. Rate each item. Note: If you are unsure of any item just use your best judgement. This is not a test, but rather a systematic way to help you think about important relationships. Question: How do you expect you would be rated on each of the following traits, on the average, by other members of the group you have chosen as the context of this exercise?

1

Rarely 2

3

4

Sometimes 5

6

7

Often 8

1. Dominant 2. Sociable 3. Persuasive 4. Managerial 5. Moralistic 6. Tough 7. Rebellious 8. Funny 9. Warm 10.Egalitarian 11.Cooperative 12. Taskoriented 13. Persistent 14. Selfish

© Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au

9


44 15. Cynical 16. Unpredictable 17. Likeable 18. Trustful 19. Responsible 20. Obedient 21. Selfsacrificing 22. Resentful 23. Withdrawn 24. Indecisive 25. Contented 26. Silent

Interpreting your INTERPERSONAL EFFECTIVENESS PROFILE

1. Recognize your ratings reflect how you expect to be seen — which may or may not be at the optimum location. 2. If you are either "too high" or "too low" by more than one interval on the scale this may be an indicator of something that is interfering with your interpersonal effectiveness. 3. Use the following guide to indicate those items you want to explore further. Place a "+" next to an item if you were too high, a "—" if too low, or a "!" if you expected to be seen at the Optimum Location. 1. ________

8. ________

15. ________

22. ________

2. ________

9. ________

16. ________

23. ________

_______

10. ________

17. ________

24. ________

4. ________

11. ________

18. ________

25. ________

5. ________

12. ________

19. ________

26. ________

6. ________

13. ________

20. ________

7. ________

14. ________

21. ________

© Julie Boyd 2010

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45

COMMENTS on the PROFILE The shaded areas on the Interpersonal Effectiveness Profile (IEP) indicate the optimum location and represent a summary of research on teamwork and effective leadership. This research profile represents a generalised profile for a most effective member and approximates the most effective leader of a group. You will undoubtedly recognize that one of the limitations of the IEP is that it is based solely on your own perceptions. These perceptions may naturally be biased and somewhat distorted. Others are likely to have somewhat differing views of you, and these can also be important. The IEP is intended to be used as a learning tool to help you gain insight. It may be particularly useful in making discriminations between how you perceive your own motivation and how you feel your motives and behaviour may be perceived, and perhaps misunderstood, by others. A basic principle in human relations is "The message sent is not necessarily the message received." The IEP takes this principle into account by offering "hints" that are drawn from practical research in a wide variety of groups. The hints are presented as alternative ways to send messages and need to be viewed in the context of your particular situation. Use your own judgment when reading them. The "hints" for increasing interpersonal effectiveness immediately follow this section. There is a hint given if you are too high on an item as noted by your rating on the profile, and one if your rating is too low when compared with the profile. The "hints" begin with item number 1 (Dominant), and continue sequentially through item number 26 (Silent). No hints are given on several items for which it is not possible to be either too high or too low. In several instances, suggestions for reading additional material on related items are given. Because the items are interrelated, it is possible that suggestions offered on a related item could be more relevant to you than the suggestions for the item that was actually discrepant in your ratings. For this reason, it might be beneficial for you also to read these alternative items when noted. The IEP is distributed solely as an aid to help individuals clarify potential discrepancies in their interpersonal relations. It is hoped that the suggestions given in the "hints" wil1 be helpful in offering ways in which you might modify your behaviour to increase your personal effectiveness. Those individuals concerned about the results of their IEP ratings may want to elicit feedback from others and/or seek the advice of a professional counsellor.

Increasing Interpersonal Effectiveness 1. Dominant Too High: Reduce the amount you talk. Turn down the volume of your voice. Avoid "name dropping." Avoid bragging. Listen more. Try to see if you understand what the other has said. Don't throw your weight around. Try to be considerate and persuasive rather than forceful. Try to help the less forceful and less experienced members of the group to speak and to be heard. Encourage them and help build their confidence.

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46 Too Low: Increase your involvement. Talk more often. Increase the volume of your voice. Realise that your opinion and your participation are important. Consider whether your hesitation and silence may be influencing others to suppress their honest reactions.

2. Sociable Too High: Consider whether you are "hogging the show." Reduce your participation. Tone down your desire to expand your ego. Give others a chance to shine. Consider whether you may be working too hard to make people like and admire you. Too Low: Increase your attention to people; talk more to individuals about things that may be of interest and concern to them. Realise that many of them feel starved for attention and are unable to ask for it. Take the initiative and give them what they need.

3. Persuasive Too Low: Think harder to find the best all-around solutions to the team's problems. Listen carefully to understand what others are concerned about. Adjust the amount and times when you talk so that your views are heard, but be careful not to crowd others out. Pay equal attention both to friendly consideration and to task realism — don't neglect either one.

4. Managerial Too High: Tone down your desire to control everything and everybody by direct impersonal action. Show more friendly interest in individuals. "Go with the flow" a little more in trying to get the job done. Try to figure out why problems are occurring and deal with the causes. Read item for "Too High" under traits 1, 5, and 6. Too Low: Increase your involvement in getting the job done. Try to foresee in detail what will be needed. Plan, prepare, provide. Watch for changes in the context. Check up on results. Avoid being a pest.

5. Moralistic Too High: Consider the high cost of "being right." Pay attention to signs that you are arousing hostility. Hostility escalates — you have to break off your controlling disapproval or you may "lose the whole ball game." Release the pressure to get your way. Reduce your demands on others for conformity and performance on your terms. Start from scratch to build the relationship again, with attention and friendly consideration. Too Low: Consider whether you are just making things worse by trying ,always to be friendly. Express your dissatisfaction and disapproval (without harping on it) whenever it is important to avoid being stepped on or to improve communication or to help yourself and others see things realistically.

6. Tough Too High: Consider carefully the price you pay. Being tough on others in the group is always bad for teamwork. It arouses resentment, hostility, resistance — even if it may get others to fear you, to do what © Julie Boyd 2010

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47 you want, or submit to you in the short run. If you continue, your problems and those of the group will escalate. Read the advice for "Too High" on items 1, 4, and 5 above. Too Low: You may be suffering from low self-confidence and fear of hostility from others if you assert yourself, even appropriately. Try a little more assertiveness. The result may be better than you think. You deserve to be heard and to have an influence on whatever or whoever has an influence on you. Others will also take courage from you, and will support you. Read "Too Low" on items 1, 2, 4, and 5.

7. Rebellious Too High: You are not likely to change things much without a lot of support from others. General emotional rebelliousness will not gain much support. Consider whether your opposition to authority is well founded and focused on realistic complaints with which others agree. Read "Too Low" for items 3 and 4 and "Too High" for items 5 and 6. Too Low: You may be too conventional and conforming to realise that those in authority are not always right. You may be failing to do your part to keep things honest and E realistic by being too nice and uncritical. Read ''Too Low'' on items 1. 3. 5. and 6.

8. Funny Too High: You are probably helping the group over rough spots on topics and problems about which the members are sensitive, anxious, hostile, depressed. and so on. This contributes to teamwork and is a parr of leadership. But if you are too high on this kind of behaviour, you are probably exploiting your audience for your own selfish ego gain. Read "Too High" on items 1 and 2 and 'Too Low" on items 3 and 4. Too Low: What can you do if you take yourself too seriously? You may be all tied down with anxiety about not doing the right thing, doing the wrong thing, displeasing authority, being conspicuous, and so on. Read 'Too High'' on items 4 and 5 and '' Too Low" on items 1, 2, 6, and 7.

9. Warm Too High: Warmth is a valuable quality for teamwork. but if you are too high you may be neglecting the task problems of the group in favour of gratifying personal relationships. You may be too threatened by fear of opposition or loss of love. Read 'Too Low'' on items 3, 5, and 6 and "Too High" on items 2 and 8. Too Low: You are losing some of the most important rewards of teamwork. and are failing to give it to others. If a social relationship does not start with warmth, it is usually hard going from there on. Read 'Too Low'' on items 2 and 8 and 'Too High'' on items 4 and 5.

10. Equalitarian Too High: .Are you trying too hard always to be friendly? Think for yourself. Don't be afraid to question the wisdom of ideas and courses of action. Take action independently from time to time instead of soliciting input from the group. Feeling equal with others and wanting everybody to have an equal sav is helpful to teamwork, but a constant concern with equality may in fact be motivated by fear of domination and a need for help. In this case it is important to increase self-confidence. Read "Too Low" on items 2, 4, 5, and 6. Š Julie Boyd 2010

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48

Too Low: Do not always put yourself first. Try to think of others and their possible needs. Begin to approach people instead of having them seek you out. Volunteer to work on a project with other group members. Take the risk in sharing your personal feelings and beliefs. Smile more often. Say hello and acknowledge others. Respond warmly to the friendly approaches of others.

11. Cooperative Too Low: Make certain ,you understand the problem or situation before making up your mind. Try to remain open and flexible. Paraphrase what others have said; ask about their points of view. Listen carefully, summarising from time to time, to be certain people know you are listening and seriously evaluating their opinions. Once a decision has been made, put your efforts into realising the goal.

12. Task-Oriented Too High: You may be a "workaholic" an over-achiever and compulsive conformer. Permit yourself to do something nonproductive once in a while. Try something that may be creative, even though risky. You may be working with blinders on. Allow yourself time to reflect not only on what you are doing, but on other ways of doing it. Take more of an interest in others as individuals. Too Low: Sharpen your analytical skills — think through a problem and write down a strategy before you act. Solicit the help of a team member who is well-organised and well-disciplined to help you set timetables and deadlines for projects. Avoid putting things off by publicly committing yourself to deadlines. Determine to finish a fixed number of tasks in the time available, and don't quit until you have finished it them. Volunteer to take notes during meetings to help you concentrate. Formulate your thoughts before you speak. Be concise and stay with the topic at hand.

13. Persistent Too High: Consider that you may be putting too much emphasis on authority and rules. Remember that all groups have a number of values and goals that have to be balanced against one another. Listen to other options seriously. Be open to unique and untried ideas. Listen more and give fewer opinions and evaluations. Help keep the tone of the group open by interacting with others, noticing how others are reacting. Instead of ploughing forward with the task, involve those who are silent or appear to be concerned or withdrawn, and find out why. Too Low: If you believe your solution is really the best one, make certain your ideas are heard and understood by others. Don't back down just to avoid an argument. The best solution is not necessarily the most popular. Analyse the situation carefully by making a list of pros and cons of each solution, and argue the merits of your position. Present facts. Share your former experiences with the methods you are recommending. Volunteer to take on the task personally.

14. Selfish Too High: Don't be too quick to think you have accomplished a goal alone. Discipline yourself to comment on two positive aspects of any proposal, keeping your reservations to yourself. Volunteer to help someone complete a task, taking pride in his or her accomplishment rather than in your assistance. Develop a small project for which you teach others a special skill you have that could be beneficial for others to learn. Place yourself in the position of working with others when meeting the objective will Š Julie Boyd 2010

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49 require team effort and you cannot be successful without the help of others. Get beyond yourself and your own needs by talking with others, learning about their lives. Too Low: Take a little more credit for your personal accomplishments, acknowledging your contributions openly. Put your own needs before those of others from time to time — you are important too and have needs that deserve to be met. For example, if someone has approached you with a request at a bad time, tell this person kindly but firmly you will get back to him or her at a better time for you. Read as well "Too low" on items 5 and 6.

l5. Cynical Too High: Accept information more frequently without challenging it. Learn to build on the ideas of others rather than dismissing them or cutting them down. Trust the motivations of others instead of immediately questioning them. Not all ideas are bad ones; not all people are always out for purely selfish gains. Honestly approach a task with the possibility of success in mind, instead of failure — but take on the task. It is easier to criticise than to accomplish. If you think a plan will fail, come up with a method of succeeding instead of a list of the reasons it will fail. Become active in problem solving instead of problem defining.

16. Unpredictable Too High: Think before you react. Do not just bounce around impulsively from one reaction to another, indulging your emotions and calling attention to yourself. Learn before a meeting what the agenda is and prepare before you get there. Try to identify the ultimate goals, and find steps to achieve the important objectives. List the facts and relevant issues involved, and be able to support your opinion with facts instead of merely intuition. If your intuition is correct, there will be available facts to back it up. Volunteer to keep the group on the topic by summarising what has been said thus far m a meeting. Too Low: Relax. Express your reactions to a situation more often in terms of how it makes you feel, instead of using rational explanations. Be more willing to look at alternatives and accept solutions that might not have enough data to back them up but seem intuitively feasible. Experiment with new behaviours and solutions instead of always attacking a problem in the same manner. Don't take a stand until have you have explored several approaches, including some "new" ones. It is often easy to make a poor solution seem "logical." Rely on your intuition as well as logic.

17. Likeable Too High: You may be avoiding work. Voice your opinion more frequently on work related issues. Take responsibility for accomplishing a goal. Confront others from time to time if they are impeding the group's work — creative solutions can come from well-managed conflict. Try a new role — assign someone else in the group the task of looking after the friendly mood of the group and assume more work-related leadership. Help set agendas and time frames, and monitor to make certain the work is getting done. Too Low: Don't be afraid to laugh with others and have fun. Getting the work done does not always require a sombre and serious atmosphere. Learn to poke fun at yourself by monitoring your facial expressions and posture. The stiffer you are, the less likely it is that you are enjoying what you are doing. Humour is a good way to release tension. Take an interest in others instead of merely the task. Be

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50 sensitive to silent members, asking them if they understand and are comfortable with what is happening, and give them an opportunity to contribute.

18. Trustful Too High: Challenge more often the way things are done and the reasons for doing them; Others may be depending on your judgment and have a right to know you will be sufficiently critical of decisions and methods to take their interests into account. Seek information from each member in an open forum . Be particularly attentive to the misgivings and fears others may have so as not to gloss over realistic expressions of concern. Play the role of the devil's advocate more often. Bring up those topics others seem reluctant to address. When you see people are getting uncomfortable with a topic, push it a little further to clear the air. Too Low: Be more trustworthy yourself. Reduce any tendencies you may have to compete and "win at all costs" in interpersonal relations. Slow down, relax with others more often, take a genuine interest in their lives, and defer to their feelings more often. Don't talk about your own real or imagined achievements or power. Listen more to others; try to recognize where your prejudices and stereotypes may have prevented you from finding commonalty and good in others. When you find commonalty, focus on it as much as or more than on differences. Accuse people less and show more respect for their perceptions.

19. Responsible Too Low: Pay as much attention to the welfare of the entire group as you do to individual members. Find opportunities to defend and stand up for the group in difficult situations, especially with outsiders. Show more enthusiasm and demonstrate your concern for the group by taking action on long-standing problems that affect the entire group. Demonstrate your loyalty to the group on a more regular basis — in good times and in tough times. Keep your promises.

20. Obedient Too High: Obedience is important in any group. Automatic and impersonal obedience, however, may inhibit creativity and impede growth. Increase your overall interaction with each member. Gain increased flexibility by asking more questions about members' concerns, ideas, and, in particular, motivations for group membership. Place more emphasis on commitment and less on compliance. Take on the role of mediator and conciliator more often. Show enthusiasm when positive changes are proposed. Seek alternatives and support innovations. Practice gaining support for creative solutions by role-playing with a trusted friend. Model risk-taking behaviour by trying out new approaches. Too Low: Consider whether you are too quick to dismiss the established ways of doing things. Balance your enthusiasm for your own ideas with a broader perspective. Gain a greater appreciation for the history and legacy of the group by talking with the "old timers" and studying historical records. When talking with others, paraphrase their ideas so they know they have been heard. Offer solutions that incorporate and integrate the ideas of others more often. Be more trustworthy in doing what you sav you will do — avoid being secretive. Meet deadlines if you establish them.

21. Self-Sacrificing

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51 Too High: Don't shame people or try to make them feel guilty by complaining about how much you have done and how faithful you have been. What you consider selfsacrifice on your part may be seen by others as self-serving and accusing. If you even suspect others resent you for reminding them of how much you are doing compared with how much they are doing, or how much you have to endure because of them, stop behaving this way. Instead, create opportunities to accept and approve others without regard to excellence or failure of performance. Take more regular time off from the current situation for relaxation and encourage others to do the same. Read "Too High" on item 20 and "Too Low" on items 9 and 18. Too Low: Don't be too free and easy in your commitment to the group or its work. Others may see you as lacking real concern about their welfare. During emergencies, for example, everyone may be required to work overtime, "go the extra mile," and contribute "above and beyond the call of duty. " Don't wait for an emergency. Demonstrate your commitment with greater regularity by being more attentive to the day-to-day tasks, being more disciplined about routine matters, and showing a greater interest in the close details required for success. Take on some of the less glamorous, more mundane jobs.

22. Resentful Too High: Resentment can be corrosive and erode even the best of relationships. Resentment is likely to have roots in the real or imagined loss of status, prestige, love, approval, or other injury to your self-picture. "Getting even" can become an instinctive short-term goal, yet forgiveness is usually what is required to heal the relationship. If you find it difficult to forgive at this point, you may find the tolerance at least for accepting the good will of some members of the group who wish to intervene and help you and the other(s) achieve some degree of reconciliation. Too Low: If real and unjustified injury has been done, and you do not at least feel and recognize resentment, you may just feel sad, sluggish, and depressed. It may be better to admit resentment, and start trying to do something more realistic to remove the causes.

23. Withdrawn Too High: You may be giving signals that indicate you are unhappy, dissatisfied, and losing interest in the group. If you feel some spark of hope in the situation, and decide it is worth it to continue to invest in the group, it is often possible to overcome even the most bleak of conditions. You at least have some control over your own attitudes. Make a firm decision not to quit. Make this public. Make an even firmer decision to recommit yourself to the group. Ask other group members you trust for their help in making your participation more satisfying and productive. Become more assertive. Take the initiative on practical matters more often. Do your homework so you are prepared with facts and concrete solutions.

24. Indecisive Too High: Recognise that others may interpret indecisiveness as unwillingness on your part. Are you unwilling? Consider whether or not you find yourself preoccupied with a fear of failure, perceived injustices, a loss of control, a reduction in status, or some other generalised feeling of uncertainty. If you are feeling a loss of confidence, either in yourself or in authority, a productive way to improve this situation is by making small but significant steps, which result in success. Make a contract with a neutral person you trust to help you identify any fears that may be making your life stressful and to develop a process for overcoming these anxieties.

25. Contented Š Julie Boyd 2010

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52

Too High: Don't be complacent. And don't be a "free rider." Instead, challenge yourself and others. It may help you to recall a time in the past when you were most excited about an adventure precisely because the experience contained some measure of risk and uncertainty. Use this memory as a guide to examine the practical day-to-day routines in your life and see how you can get into more effective and stimulating action. Identify existing or potential threats to the welfare of the group and confront these head-on. These do not need to be major issues but will require some increase in vigilance on your part for the good of the group. Redouble your efforts to spur yourself and the group toward growth. Too Low: You may give the impression of being uncomfortable with close relationships and find it difficult to accept support and help from other people. A tendency on your part to be self-reliant, and yet demanding of others, may lead others to believe you are dissatisfied with them and unable to count on them. Be more accepting of people and learn to value them regardless of their contribution. Take the time to listen to them, seek their counsel, and let them help you more often. Relax more often. Don't take yourself so seriously. Broaden your perspective regarding the value of others and learn to enjoy the company of other people. Let people know you care about them.

26. Silent Too High: You may be too silent for many reasons, probably none of which will be helped if you remain silent. When you do not communicate, others often begin to feel that you do not like them or that you are thinking negative things; and they may begin to dislike you. So you get into a vicious circle. Begin to get in touch with others. Put in a few words at any opportunity. What you say does not have to be important. The most commonplace remarks will do very well —t hey indicate you want to get in touch. That is the first and most important thing. From there on things will be easier, and there are certain to be others in the group who will help you. Too Low: Too much talk, as well as too little, makes other people uncomfortable and tends to arouse dislike. Try to arrive at a balanced and lively interchange, where you listen to what the other has to say, react to his or her ideas and feelings, and respond with your ideas and feelings. This is what "equalitarianism" really means, and it is the single best recipe for establishing satisfying relations with others and building effective teamwork.

Using the results of your Ratings CONTINUE / START / STOP EXERCISE You may recognize some ways in which you can modify your own behaviour to improve your interpersonal relations. If you choose to do so, use the space below to indicate what kind of changes you want to make. Try to keep your list simple, realistic, and practical.

I want to continue:

I want to start:

I want to stop: Š Julie Boyd 2010

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53

INTERPERSONAL-COGNITIVE STYLE QUESTIONNAIRE This questionnaire has no right or wrong answers. It is simply a tool that can help you identify your preferred style for making decisions and working with people. To be of maximum value in terms of self-understanding, it is important that you respond to each item as YOU believe you typically think and behave in your work environment, not as you think others see you, nor as you would like to be. The later are additional profiles of you that you may want to pursue. Try to respond to each item with your first impression. The REAL you is more likely to be revealed when you are not overly analytical. Relax and go with the flow. Each statement in this 30 — item questionnaire has four possible endings. Indicate the degree to which each ending best describes you by rank ordering them from (4) MOST LIKE ME, to (1) LEAST LIKE ME. Each ending must be ranked 4, 3, 2, or 1. Do not use any number more than once even if two or more endings seem equally like you. When communicating with people, I .... A. am direct and forthright. .... B. am articulate and social. .... C. am sensitive and pleasant. .... D. plan what I am going to say. When I am in a leadership position, I .... A. prefer to stay in control of things. .... B. have the ability to inspire others. .... C. understand and facilitate people. .... D. provide systematic, detailed directions. Peers would describe me as being .... A. results-oriented. .... B. gregarious. .... C. accepting. .... D. solid. When difficulty arises, I .... A. take immediate action. .... B. am excitable and sometimes overlook details. .... C. am concerned about its effect on people. .... D. am careful and logical.

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Page Subtotals: A _____ B _____ C _____ D _____

During a discussion, I tend to .... A. be self-promoting. .... B. be high-spirited and entertaining. .... C. listen intently to other people's ideas. .... D. be contemplative and objective. When planning, I .... A. always consider the big picture. .... B. am innovative and optimistic. .... C. involve others by getting their feedback. .... D. am detail-oriented and data-based. I think of myself as being .... A. tenacious. .... B. persuasive. .... C. facilitating. .... D. realistic. Most people think of me as .... A. confident. .... B. outgoing. .... C. accepting. .... D. persistent. When listening to others, I .... A. have a tendency to interrupt. .... B. show enthusiasm. .... C. am compassionate. .... D. appear serious. I get most upset when people .... A. don't show an effort in their work. .... B. don't get excited about their work. .... C. don't work cooperatively. .... D. don't follow the program as planned. During group discussions, I .... A. express my opinion frankly. .... B. am expressive and open-minded. .... C. like it when everyone participates. .... D. am a practical thinker.

Page Subtotals: A _____ B _____ C _____ D _____

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When people give me directions, I .... A. prefer that the goals are clearly stated in advance. .... B. prefer a global overview that allows for new ideas. .... C. listen carefully to avoid later conflict. .... D. prefer explicit, step-by-step instructions. After a confrontation with colleagues, I .... A. return to explain my position. .... B. raise the issue again in order to resolve differences. .... C. want to discuss the issues with them but usually don't. .... D. let sleeping dogs lie. I am sometimes accused of being .... A. inconsiderate. .... B. too oblique. .... C. too hospitable. .... D. too indecisive. I am happiest at work when .... A. the job gets done efficiently. .... B. I have freedom and flexibility. .... C. there is obvious team work. .... D. I am in a situation that is predictable. When my colleagues experience work problems, I am .... A. quick to refocus their efforts. .... B. willing to collaboratively problem solve. .... C. patient, loyal, and dependable. .... D. able to analyse the situation rationally. I prefer it when my supervisors .... A. leave me alone to get the job done. .... B. organize "think" tanks. .... C. use well-established practices. .... D. set standards that are precise and clear. During a serious conflict with someone, I tend to .... A. overpower them by challenging their beliefs. .... B. talk more than I listen. .... C. listen more than I talk. .... D. stay calm and try to stick to the facts.

Page Subtotals: A _____ B _____ C _____ D _____

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I respond to new ideas with .... A. a sense of challenge. .... B. with excitement. .... C. with scepticism. .... D. with impatience. If I were a boss, I would .... A. exert my authority when needed. .... B. be risk-taking and open to change. .... C. show great patience and my belief in people. .... D. take time to make decisions based on observable data.

I feel that I am a .... A. take-charge person. .... B. motivating person. .... C. democratic person. .... D. disciplined person. I think productivity and achievement can best be improved by .... A. having an efficient system for accountability. .... B. making work fun. .... C. paying attention to people's needs. .... D. planning and being thorough. The qualities I manifest during conflict situations are .... A. self-confidence and ego-strength. .... B. good communication skills. .... C. caring and openness. .... D. objectivity and order.

~ li

I consider myself to be .... A. efficient. .... B. dramatic. .... C. family-oriented. .... D. industrious. To improve conditions at work, I need to .... A. be more patient. .... B. pay closer attention to details. .... C. be more comfortable with conflict. .... D. make decisions more efficiently.

Page Subtotals: A _____ B _____ C _____ D _____

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My greatest needs at work are .... A. having personal power and feeling challenged. .... B. recognition and freedom. .... C. appreciation and security. .... D. a sense of order and time to think. I can achieve the best results when I .... A. do things myself. .... B. remain optimistic and intense. .... C. can cooperate with others. .... D. do comprehensive planning. My strength as a leader is that I am .... A. decisive. .... B. convincing. .... C. attentive. .... D. a long range planner. My value to any organization is that I .... A. am a problem solver. .... B. am a good communicator. .... C. get along well with most people. .... D. have highly developed critical abilities. When people with whom I work are hostile toward me, I .... A. usually respond to their issues in an assertive manner. .... B. try to use humour to diffuse the situation. .... C. show acceptance and listen as long as I can. .... D. remove myself from the situation.

Page Subtotals: A _____ B _____ C _____ D _____

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58 DETERMINING YOUR STYLE

Total the number of points that you have assigned to all of the A endings then enter that number on the A line below. Next total the points assigned to the B endings and enter that number on the B line below. Do the same for C and D endings. The total points for all four areas (A + B + C + D) should add up to 300.

PROFILE YOUR STYLE On the line graph below, enter the numerical score for each letter, A through D, with a dot at the appropriate place on the vertical line. Connect the dots to form a line graph.

YOUR SCORES AND WHAT THEY MEAN Your highest score indicates your primary interpersonal-cognitive style, that is, the way you are likely to work with people and to think about your issues. It is likely that you use this style fairly consistently in most situations; it is the one you are most comfortable using. Your second highest score indicates your secondary style for thinking and behaving. You could think of this style as an additional resource that you have available to you in your behavioural repertoire. Your third highest score indicates your tertiary style for thinking and behaving. Your lowest score indicates the style that you are least likely to use during your interactions with people and during problem solving. If you have a high score on A, you demonstrate an ACHIEVER style. If you have a high score on B, you demonstrate a PERSUADER style. If you have a high score on C, you demonstrate a SUPPORTER style. If you have a high score on D, you demonstrate an ANALYST style. Š Julie Boyd 2010

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LEARNING-STYLE INVENTORY This survey is for describing how you learn — the way you find out about and deal with ideas and situations in your life. Different people learn best in different ways. The different ways of learning described in the survey are equally good. The aim is to describe how you learn, not to evaluate your learning ability. You might find it hard to choose the descriptions that best characterise your learning style. Keep in mind that there are no right or wrong answers — all the choices are equally acceptable. INSTRUCTIONS There are nine sets of four words listed below. Mark the words in each set that are most like you, second most like you, third most like you, and least like you. Put a four (4) next to the description that is most like you, a three (3) next to the desciption that is second most like you, a two (2) next to the description that is third like you, and a one (1) next to the description that is least like you (4 = most like you; 1 = least like you). Be sure to assign a different rank number to each of the four words in each set. Do not make ties. EXAMPLE 0. _4_happy

_3_fast

_1_angry

_2_careful

(Some people find it easier to decide first which word describes them ( 4 happy) and then to decide the word least like them ( 1 angry). Then you can give a 3 to that word in the remaining pair that is most like you ( 3 fast) and a 2 to the word that is left over ( 2 careful). 1.___discriminating 2.___receptive 3.___feeling 4.___accepting 5.___initiative 6.___abstract 7.___present-oriented 8.___experience 9.___intense

___tentative ___relevant ___watching ___risk-taker ___productive ___observing ___reflecting ___observation ___reserved

___involved ___analytical ___thinking ___evaluate ___logical ___concrete ___future-oriented ___conceptualisation ___rational

___practical ___impartial ___doing ___aware ___questioning ___active ___pragmatic ___experimentation ___responsible

SCORING INSTRUCTIONS The four columns of words above correspond to the four learning style scales: CE, RO, AC, and AE. To compute your scale scores, write your rank numbers in the boxes below only for the designated items. For example, in the third column (AC), you would fill in the rank number you have assigned to items 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9. Compute your scale scores by adding the rank numbers for each set of boxes. Score items: 2 3 4 5 7

8

CE = ______

Score items: 1 3 6 7 8 9

Score items: 2 3 4 5 8 9

RO = ______

AC = ______

Score items: 1 3 6 7 8 9

AE = ______

To compute the two combination scores, subtract CE from AC and subtract RO from AE. Preserve negative signs if they appear. AC CE AE RO AC-CE: AE – RO: - = - = © Julie Boyd 2010

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A Model of the Learning/Problem-Solving Process By combining these characteristics of learning and problem solving and conceiving of them as a single process, we can come closer to understanding how it is that people generate from their experience the concepts, rules, and principles that guide their behaviour in new situations, and how they modify these concepts to improve their effectiveness. This process is both active and passive, concrete and abstract. It can be conceived of as a four-stage cycle: (1) concrete experience is followed by (2) observation and reflection, which lead to (3) the formation of abstract concepts and generalisations, which lead to (4) hypotheses to be tested in future action, which in turn lead to new experiences.

There are several observations to be made about this model of the learning process. First, this learning cycle is continuously recurring. We continuously test our concepts in experience and modify them as a result of our observation of the experience. In a very important sense all learning is relearning and all education is re-education. Second, the direction that learning takes is governed by one's felt needs and goals. We seek experiences that are related to our goals, interpret them in the light of our goals, and form concepts and test implications of these concepts that are relevant to these felt needs and goals. The implication of this fact is that the process of learning is erratic and inefficient when personal objectives are not clear. Third, since the learning process is directed by individual needs and goals, learning styles become highly individual in both direction and process. For example, a mathematician may come to place great emphasis on abstract concepts, whereas a poet may value concrete experience more highly. A manager may be primarily concerned with active application of concepts, whereas a naturalist may develop observational skills highly. Each of us in a more personal way develops a learning style that has some weak points and strong points. We may jump into experiences but fail to observe the lessons to be derived from these experiences; we may form concepts but fail to test their validity. In some areas our objectives and needs may be clear guides to learning; in others, we wander aimlessly. Interpretation of Your Scores on the Learning Style Inventory The Learning Style Inventory (LSI)1 is a simple self-description test, based on experiential learning theory, that is designed to measure your strengths and weaknesses as a learner in the four stages of the learning process. Effective learners rely on four different learning modes: concrete experience (CE), reflective observation (RO), abstract conceptualisation (AC), and active experimentation (AE). That is,

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61 they must be able to involve themselves fully, openly, and without bias in new experiences (CE); they must be able to reflect on and observe these experiences from many perspectives (RO); they must be able to create concepts that integrate their observations into logically sound theories (AC); and they must be able to use these theories to make decisions and solve problems (AE). The LSI measures your relative emphasis on the four learning modes by asking you to rank order a series of four words that describes these different abilities. For example, one set of four words is feeling, watching, thinking, doing, which reflects CE, RO, AC, and AE, respectively. Combination scores indicate the extent to which you emphasise abstractness over concreteness (AC-CE) and the extent to which you emphasise active experimentation over reflection (AE-RO). One way to understand better the meaning of your scores on the LSI is to compare them with the scores of others. The "target" in Figure 2-1 gives norms on the four basic scales (CE, RO, AC, AE) for 1,933 adults ranging from 18 to 60 years of age. About two-thirds of the group are men and the group as a whole is highly educated (two-thirds have college degrees or higher). A wide range of occupations and educational backgrounds are represented, including teachers, counsellors, engineers, salespersons, managers, doctors, and lawyers. The raw scores for each of the four basic scales are listed on the crossed lines of the target. By circling your raw scores on the four scales and connecting them with straight lines you can create a graphic representation of your learning style profile. The concentric circles on the target represent percentile scores for the normative group. For example, if your raw score concrete experience was 15, you scored higher on this scale than about 55 percent of the people in the normative group. If your CE score was 22 or higher, you scored higher than 99 percent of the normative group. Therefore, in comparison with the normative group, the shape of your profile indicates which of the four basic modes you tend to emphasise and which are less emphasised. It should be emphasised that the LSI does not measure your learning style with 100 percent accuracy. Rather, it is simply an indication of how you see yourself as a learner. You will need data from other sources if you wish to pinpoint your learning style more exactly (eg., how you make decisions on the job, how others see you, and what kinds of problems you solve best). Beware of stereotyping yourself and others with your LSI scores. Your scores indicate which learning modes you emphasise in general. It may change from time to time and situation to situation.

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The four learning modes — concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation, and active experimentation — represent the four stages of the learning process. The inventory is designed to assess the relative importance of each of these stages to you so that you can get some indication of which learning modes you tend to emphasise. No individual mode is better or worse than any other. Even a totally balanced profile is not necessarily best. The key to effective learning is being competent in each mode when it is appropriate. A high score on one mode may mean a tendency to overemphasise that aspect of the learning process at the expense of others. A low score on a mode may indicate a tendency to avoid that aspect of the learning process. An orientation toward concrete experience focuses on being involved in experiences and dealing with immediate human situations in a personal way. It emphasises feeling as opposed to thinking, a concern with the uniqueness and complexity of present reality as opposed to theories and generalisations, an intuitive, "artistic" approach as opposed to the systematic, scientific approach to problems. People with a concrete experience orientation enjoy and are good at relating to others. They are often good intuitive decision makers and function well in unstructured situations. People with this orientation value relating to people, being involved in real situations, and an open-minded approach to life. An orientation toward reflective observation focuses on understanding the meaning of ideas and situations by carefully observing and impartially describing them. It emphasises understanding as opposed to practical application, a concern with what is true or how things happen as opposed to what is practical, an emphasis on reflection as opposed to action. People with a reflective orientation enjoy thinking about the meaning of situations and ideas and are good at seeing their implications. They are good at looking at things from different perspectives and at appreciating different points of view. They like to rely on their own thoughts and feelings to form opinions. People with this orientation value patience, impartiality, and considered, thoughtful judgment. An orientation toward abstract conceptualisation focuses on using logic, ideas, and concepts. It emphasises thinking as opposed to feeling, a concern with building general theories as opposed to intuitively understanding unique, specific areas, a scientific as opposed to an artistic approach to problems. A person with an abstract conceptual orientation enjoys and is good at systematic planning, manipulation of abstract symbols, and quantitative analysis. People with this orientation value precision, the rigour and discipline of analysing ideas, and the aesthetic quality of a neat, conceptual system.

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63 An orientation toward active experimentation focuses on actively influencing people and changing situations. It emphasises practical applications as opposed to reflective understanding, a pragmatic concern with what works as opposed to what is absolute truth, an emphasis on doing as opposed to observing. People with an active experimentation orientation enjoy and are good at getting things accomplished. They are willing to take some risk to achieve their objectives. They also value having an impact and influence on the environment around them and like to see results.

Identifying Your Learning Style Type It is unlikely that your learning style will be described accurately by just one of the four preceding paragraphs. This is because each person's learning style is a combination of the four basic learning modes. It is therefore useful to describe your learning style by a single data point that combines your scores on the four basic modes. This is accomplished by using the two combination scores, AC-CE and AE-RO. These scales indicate the degree to which you emphasise abstractness over concreteness and action over reflection, respectively. The grid shown in Figure 2-2 has the raw scores for these two scales on the crossed lines (AC-CE on the vertical and AE-RO on the horizontal) and percentile scores based on the normative group on the sides. By marking your raw scores on the two lines and plotting their point of interception, you can find which of the four learning style quadrants you fall into. These four quadrants, labelled accommodator, diverger, converger, and assimilator, represent the four dominant learning styles. If your AC-CE score were -- 4 and your AE-RO score were + 8, you would fall strongly in the accommodator quadrant. An AC-CE score of + 4 and an AE-RO score of + 3 would put you only slightly in the converger quadrant. The closer your data point is to the point where the lines cross, the more balanced is your learning style. If your data point is close to any of the four corners, this indicates that you rely heavily on one particular learning style. The following is a description of the characteristics of the four basic learning styles based both on research and clinical observation of these patterns of LSI scores. The convergent learning style relies primarily on the dominant learning abilities of abstract conceptualisation and active experimentation. The greatest strength of this approach lies in problem solving, decision making, and the practical application of ideas. We have called this learning style the "converger" because a person with this style seems to do best in such situations as conventional intelligence tests where there is a single correct answer or solution to a question or problem. In this learning style, knowledge is organized in such a way that, through hypothetical-deductive reasoning, it can be focused on specific problems. Liam Hudson's research on individuals with this style of learning shows that convergent persons are controlled in their expression of emotion.2 They prefer dealing with technical tasks and problems rather than with social and interpersonal issues. Convergers often have specialised in the physical sciences. This learning style is characteristic of many engineers and technical specialists. The divergent learning style has the opposite strengths of the convergent style, emphasising concrete experience and reflective observation. The greatest strength of this orientation lies in imaginative ability and awareness of meaning and values. The primary adaptive ability in this style is to view concrete situations from many perspectives and to organize many relationships into a meaningful "Gestalt." The emphasis in this orientation is on adaptation by observation rather than by action. This style is called

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64 "diverger" because a person of this type performs better in situations that call for generation of alternative ideas and implications such as a "brainstorming" idea session. Persons oriented toward divergence are interested in people and tend to be imaginative and feeling oriented. Divergers have broad cultural interests and tend to specialise in the arts. This style is characteristic of individuals from humanities and liberal arts backgrounds. Counsellors, organization development specialists, and personnel managers tend to be characterised by this learning style.

In assimilation, the dominant learning abilities are abstract conceptualisation and reflective observation. The greatest strength of this orientation lies in inductive reasoning, in the ability to create theoretical models, and in assimilating disparate observations into an integrated explanation. As in convergence, this orientation is less focused on people and more concerned with ideas and abstract concepts. Ideas, however, are judged less in this orientation by their practical value. Here it is more important that the theory be logically sound and precise. This learning style is more characteristic of individuals in the basic sciences and mathematics rather than the applied sciences. In organizations, persons with this learning style are found most often in the research and planning departments. The accommodative learning style has the opposite strengths of assimilation, emphasising concrete experience and active experimentation. The greatest strength of this orientation lies in doing things, in carrying out plans and tasks, and in getting involved in new experiences. The adaptive emphasis of this orientation is on opportunity seeking, risk taking, and action. This style is called "accommodation" because it is best suited for those situations in which one must adapt oneself to changing immediate circumstances. In situations where the theory or plans do not fit the facts, those with an accommodative style will most likely discard the plan or theory. ( With the opposite learning style, assimilation, one would be more likely to disregard or re-examine the facts.) People with an accommodative orientation tend to solve problems in an intuitive trial ant error manner, relying on other people for information rather than on their own analytic ability . Individuals with accommodative learning styles are at ease with people but are sometimes seen as impatient and "pushy." This person's educational background is often in Š Julie Boyd 2010

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65 technical or practical fields such as business. In organisations, people with this learning style are found in "action-oriented" jobs, often in marketing or sales.

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LEARNING STYLE REFLECTION A self-diagnostic tool for adults to assess learning style preferences. Directions On the following page are twenty sets of four behaviours. Rank the behaviours in each set based upon your own preferences, ie.those behaviours pertinent to the way you learn. Assign a 5 to the term which best characterises your learning style preferences, a 3 to the term which next best characterises your learning style preferences, a 1 to the next most characteristic behaviour, and a 0 to the behaviour which you feel least characterises your learning processes. As you read through the list of behaviours in each set, you may find it hard to choose the behaviour that best characterises your learning style preferences. This is predictable. Every learner operates in a variety of ways in different situations. Yet each of us does have preferences for some behaviours over others. Keep in mind that there are no right or wrong answers. All the choices are equally acceptable. The aim of the Inventory is to describe how you learn, not to evaluate your learning ability. . If you get stuck on an item, go on to the next.

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I. CHOOSING SELF DESCRIPTORS In each of the following twenty horizontal sets, rank the four behavioural descriptors in order of: first preference (5), second preference (3), third preference (1), fourth preference (0). Be sure to assign a different number (5, 3, 1, 0) to each of the four descriptors in each set. Rank the descriptors according to those which best describe you, ie., your learning preferences.

Descriptors are to be analysed horizontally as sets of four across the four lettered columns.

A

B

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Creative Facts Emotional Harmonising Speculative Developing Planning

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Patterns Doing Abstract Sharing Humanistic Concepts Logic

15. 16. 17. 18.

____ ____ ____ ____

19. 20.

____ ____

C

D

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Organised Values Literal Utilising Cooperative Searching Conversing

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Analytical Feelings Interpretive Imagining Independent Practicing Innovating

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Personal Theories Spontaneous Questioning Competitive Relating Implementing Human Interaction Pondering Personal Strategising Realistic People Products

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Details Collaborating Concrete Eureka!! Aesthetic Insights Empathy

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Possibilities Debating Ideal Trail and Error Theoretical Specifics Understanding

Romanticise Sensible Products Roles

____ ____ ____ ____

Socialise Mystical Ideas Laws

____ ____ ____ ____

Memorise Hypothetical

____ Emulate ____ Inspirational

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Routinise Emotional Images Loyalties Divergent ____ Expression ____ Methodical

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____ ____ ____ ____

Systematise Logical Sentiments Principles Discovery ____ Method ____ Experiential

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II. SELF-ANALYSIS PROFILE In each of the twenty sets of behavioural descriptors the words/terms correspond to four distinct learning styles. The learning styles are based on the different ways people collect information (their perceptions and make decisions about the significance of that information (their judgements). The two ways we collect information are "sensing" and "intuiting." The two ways we judge information are "thinking" and "feeling' The preference for sensing or intuition is independent of the preference for thinking or feeling. As a result, four distinct combinations occur.

FUNCTIONS 1. Sensing/Thinking (S-T) 2. Sensing/Feeling (S-F)

3. Intuitive*/Thinking (N-T) 4. Intuitive/Peeling (N-F)

Each of these combinations produces a different kind of learning style characterised by whatever interests values, needs, habits of mind, surface traits and learning behaviour naturally result from those combinations.

SUBJECTIVE RANKING Before scoring your learning preference profile please rank order the styles based upon your own immediate perceptions of your learning preferences. Please carefully read the style descriptions which follow and determine which description is "most characteristic," next most characteristic, third most, and least characteristic. Assign a 5 to your first choice, a 3 to your second, etc.

LEARNING STYLE DESCRIPTIONS Sensing-Feelers (SF) Overview** The Sensing-Feeling learner can be characterised as sociable, friendly, and interpersonally oriented. This type of learner is very sensitive to people's feelings: his own and others. He prefers to learn about things that directly affect people's lives rather than impersonal facts or theories. Approach to Learning The S-F's approach to learning is a personal one. He works best when he is emotionally involved in what he is being asked to learn. The S-F learner tends to be spontaneous and often acts on impulse, ie., in terms of what "feels right." He is interested in people and likes to listen to and talk about people and their feelings. He likes to be helpful to others and needs to be recognized for his efforts.

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69 The S-F learner, more than any other type, enjoys personal attention. He is very involved in his own personal and emotional development, and believes that without human relationships life has little meaning. He often needs reassurance that what he is doing is correct and will be approved. He is greatly influenced by the likes and dislikes of others. The S-F enjoys working with others and is particularly warmed by their approval. He is equally sensitive to indifference. He is often influenced more by his peers than by authority figures, and sometimes may lose sight of his own ideas while trying to go along with the group. He likes to think out loud, to work with others, to share his ideas, and to get responses from his friends. He prefers cooperation to competition. The S-F learner views content mastery as secondary to achieving harmonious relationships with others. He enjoys learning through encounters, group process, personal friendships, and tender (if not loving) attention. Learn Best The S-F learns best in a warm, friendly, supportive and interactive environment in which students are encouraged to share their personal thoughts, feelings and experiences, and to interact with one another. He benefits most when the instructional process emphasises collaborative approaches in which students share ideas and materials and work in small groups. The S-F enjoys group activities, games with lots of action in which everyone can participate and no one loses, discussions, reading stories about people and their feelings, writing and talking about things he likes to do, group process activities, and art and music which allow him to express his feelings. The S-F student needs to participate in group activities to develop his powers of empathy. He needs to have time and resources to learn about himself. He needs to have an opportunity to explore, change and develop attitudes and values in reference to others.

(Preference ranking ______ ) * "N" is used for intuition since in the larger profile "1" is used for introversion. ** The feminine pronoun is used to refer to the teacher: the masculine pronoun for the student

Sensing Thinkers (S-T) Overview The S-T learner can be characterised as realistic, practical and matter-of-fact. This type of learner is efficient and results-oriented. He has a high energy level for doing things which are pragmatic, logical and useful. Approach to Learning The S-T learner likes to complete his work rapidly and in an organized and efficient manner. He tends to be neat, well organized and precise in his work. His appetite for work and his need for immediate feedback is often a challenge for the instructor. The S-T learner enjoys work and needs to be kept busy.

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70 He would prefer to do almost any thing to that of remaining in his seat listening to someone speak. He needs to be active, to be doing, to see tangible results from his efforts, and to be in control of the task. The S-T learner prefers step-by-step directions when assigned a task: he becomes impatient if the instructions become long and involved. This type of learner more than any other wants to know exactly what is expected of him. He needs to know what he is to do, how he is to do it, and when it is to be done. The S-T learner will often lose interest in an activity if it moves too slowly, or if he can see no practical use for what is expected. The S-T learner needs clearly structured environments. The main focus of this environment is on factual mastery of some set of skills, and an opportunity to apply them to something practical, or to demonstrate proficiency in the skill. He prefers assignments which have right or wrong responses rather than open ended or interpretive ones. He is highly motivated by competition, learning games, and awards, etc. Learns Best The S-T learns best in an organized, systematic, activity-oriented, instructor-directed atmosphere. He needs to be actively engaged in purposeful work. The instructional environment requires well-defined procedures and content. This content needs to be presented in an orderly and systematic manner. The instructional emphases for the S-T are on competitive and independent approaches to learning. The S-T learns best when he can directly experience with his five senses what he is expected to learn. Motivation comes from being able to see the practicality of what he has learned and putting the new learning into immediate use. Thus the S-T learns best when he can see the utility for what he is being asked to learn. Sometimes the need for utility can be transferred to alternative reward systems such as merit, recognition, awards, etc. The S-T learner has little tolerance for ambiguous situations. He wants to know what is expected of him before he begins. He needs clearly stated ground rules. He works best when there are clearly stated objectives, and when achievement is quickly recognized and rewarded. The S-T learner likes games that are competitive, have clear rules, and lots of action. The S-T learner needs a clearly defined instructional approach with the focus on content mastery, the mastery of basic skills, or the immediate opportunity to employ what's been learned. In short, he needs well defined action activities with immediate tangible results. He learns best from repetition, drill, memorisation, programmed instruction, workbooks, demonstration, field trips, and direct actual experience. The S-T learner retains more from first hand experience than from reading or studying. He enjoys repeating skills already mastered over learning new skills. Action, repetition and feedback are his preferred methods for learning. (Preference ranking ______ )

Intuitive Thinkers (N-T) Overview The Intuitive-Thinking learner can be characterised as theoretical, intellectually-curious, and knowledge oriented. This type of learner prefers to be challenged intellectually and to think things out for himself.

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71 The N-T is curious about ideas, has a tolerance for theory, a taste for complex problems, and a concern for long range consequences. Approach to Learning The N-T approaches learning in a logical, organized, and systematic fashion. The N-T brings organization and structure to both people and things. He takes time to plan, and to think things through before beginning work on an assignment. He organizes ideas and determines what resources are necessary to complete required tasks. The N-T prefers to work independently or with other thinking types. He requires little feedback until his work is completed. He does not like to be pressed for time. When working on something of interest time is meaningless. He displays a great deal of patience and persistence in completing difficult assignments if they have captured his interests. The N-T is interested in theoretical models, constructs and ideas. His interest in facts is only in relation to the proving or disproving of theory. Otherwise, facts or details hold little interest for him. The N-T learner's approach to understanding things and ideas is by breaking them down into their component parts. He likes to reason things out, and to look for logical relationships. His thought processes follow a cause and effect line of reasoning. He is constantly asking "why?" His questions tend to be provocative as contrasted with questions requiring information or facts. The N-T is an avid reader. His learning is vicarious. He enjoys the use of abstract symbols, formulae, the written word and technical illustrations as a preferred way of collecting data. Learns Best The N-T learns best in an intellectually stimulating atmosphere in which he is challenged to think critically, analytically, and to be 'stretched" to increase his reasoning abilities. The instructional emphasis for the N-T is placed on independent and creative approaches to learning. He prefers to learn by discovery and experimentation The N-T learner needs the freedom to identify his own interests, to participate in selecting his own learning activities, and to be given the time and resources to develop his own ideas. The N-T learner enjoys independent research projects, reading on a topic of current interest, theorising, lectures, games of strategy, expression of ideas, debates, and projects which call for the use of intuition and thinking. The N-T enjoys solving problems, and talking with others about great ideas. He enjoys argument as a way of clarifying ideas. Nearly everything of interest to the N-T turns into oral or written words, or symbol systems. The N-T is interested in seeing things synoptically, in gathering as much information as possible about a subject, and following a cause and effect process in his thinking. The N-T always wants to know "why", and where is the evidence? (Preference ranking ______ ) Intuitive Feelers (N-F) Overview

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72 The Intuitive-Feeler can be characterised as curious, insightful, imaginative and creative. The N-F is one who dares to dream, is committed to his values, is open to alternatives, and constantly searches for new and unusual ways to express himself. Approach to Learning The N-F approaches learning eager to explore idea, generate new solutions to problems, and to discuss moral dilemmas. The N-F's interests are varied and unpredictable. He enjoys a wide variety of things. He prefers activities which allow him to use his imagination and to do things in new and different ways. He is turned off by routine or rote assignments and prefers questions which are open ended, such as "What would happen if. . .?" The N-F student is highly motivated by his own interests. Things of interest will be done inventively and well. Things which he does not like may be done poorly or be neglected altogether. When engaged in a project which intrigues him, time is meaningless. The N-F operates by an "internal clock" and therefore often feels constrained or frustrated by external rules or schedules. The N-F learner is independent and non-conforming. He does not fear being different, and is unusually aware of his own and other people's impulses . He is open to the irrational and not confined by convention. He is sensitive to beauty and symmetry and will comment on the aesthetic characteristics of things. The N-F learner prefers not to follow step by step procedures, but rather to move where his intuition takes him. He prefers to find his own solutions to challenges or problems rather than being told what to do or how to do it. He is able to take intuitive leaps. He trusts his insights. He often looks for new and different ways to solve problems. He often takes circuitous routes to get where he wants to go. He may solve a problem but not be able to explain how he arrived at his solution. Learns Best The N-F beams best in a flexible and innovative atmosphere where there are a minimum number of restrictions, many alterative activities, and where a premium is placed on creating his own learning activities or solutions to problems. The N-F's instructional emphases are on curiosity, creativity, and a clarification of personal values. The N-F enjoys activities allowing for personal self expression through artistic forms. The N-F enjoys creating things, designing projects around his own interests, reading, messy" activities (eg., sculpture, potting, mixing paints, etc. ), meditation, contemplation, fantasising, and projects allowing him to employ his intuition and feeling. The N-F needs to explore his creative potential, to find ways to express his ideas and beliefs, and to share his inspirations with others. He has an acute need to develop his own unique style of being. He has a keen interest in other belief systems, new projects, and possibilities for what "might be". He has a futures orientation. He is interested in things that might happen, but have not yet happened. (Preference ranking ______ )

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III. SCORING SELF DESCIPTORS To compute your Learning Preference Score for each of the four learning styles: 8. Remove insert sheet 9. Transfer the numbers from your answer sheet to the scoring sheet. For example, if, in the first set of behaviours, you ranked the behaviours.

S-F Sensing/Feeling Rank 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Personal Feelings Emotional Harmonising Cooperative Relating Conversing Human Interactions Collaborating Personal Sharing Humanistic People Empathy Socialise Emotional Sentiments Loyalties

19. ____ Emulate 20. ____ Experiential ____

S-T Sensing/Thinking Rank

N-T Intuitive/Thinking Rank

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Organised Facts Literal Utilising Competitive Practicing Implementing

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Details Doing Concrete Trail and Error Realistic Specifics Products Routinise Sensible Products Roles

____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

____ Memorise ____ Methodical ____

Analytical Theories Interpretive Questioning Independent Developing Planning

Patterns Debating Abstract Strategising Theoretical Concepts Logic Systematise Logical Ideas Laws Discovery ____ Method ____ Hypothetical ____

N-F Intuitive/Feeling Rank ____ Creative ____ Values ____ Spontaneous ____ Imagining ____ Speculative ____ Searching ____ Innovating ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____

Possibilities Pondering Ideal Eureka!! Aesthetic Insights Understanding Romanticise Mystical Images Principles Divergent ____ Expression ____ Inspirational ____

TOTAL

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IV. ANALYSING YOUR LEARNING PREFERENCES STRENGTHS OF THE PREFERENCES

STRENGTHS Very strong preference Strong preference Moderate preference Low preference Very low preference

STYLE SCORE 80-100 60-79 40-59 20-39 0-19

LEARNING PROFILE No one learning style adequately represents the complexity of one's learning behaviour. We all operate in a variety of ways in different situations. In reality, we often use a combination of styles at any one time. Therefore, it is important to identify not just one's learning style, but one's learning profile. One's Learning Profile consists of a "dominant style" (the highest score), the one most preferred and most often used: an "auxiliary style" (second highest score), the next most likely to be used: your "back-up style" (third highest score): and your "least used style" (the lowest score), DIRECTIONS FOR PLOTTING YOUR LEARNING PROFILE Having completed the scoring of your learning preferences, plot your profile below. To plot your profile enter the scores by style in the spaces provided. Enter the scores from the highest number (dominant) to the lowest (least used). Then enter a point (dot) in the appropriate column for each of the four scores. Finally, connect the points with straight lines. This plotting provides a visual estimate of the relative strengths of each style.

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GOALS FOR PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT INVENTORY This form is designed to stimulate your thinking about relationships with others and your skills in group situations. It is intended to facilitate your setting your own goals for development. The steps in using it: 1. Read through the list of activities and decide which ones you are doing the right amount of, which ones you should do more of, and which ones you should do less of. Make a check for each item in the appropriate place. 2. Some goals that are not listed may be more important to you than those listed. Write some goals on the blank lines. 3. Go back over the whole list and circle the numbers of the three or four activities at which you would like to improve most at this time. OK

Need to Do More

Need to Do Less

Communication Skills Talking in the group Being brief and concise Being forceful Drawing others out Listening alertly Thinking before I talk Keeping my remarks on the topic _________________________________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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Observation Skills 9 Noting tension in the group 10 Noting who talks to whom 11 Noting interest level of the group 12 Sensing feelings of individuals 13 Noting who is being "left out" 14 Noting reaction to my comments 15 Noting when the group avoids a topic 16 _________________________________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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Problem-Solving Skills 17 Stating problems or goals 18 Asking for ideas, opinions 19 Giving ideas 20 Evaluating ideas critically 21 Summarizing the discussion 22 Clarifying issues 23 _________________________________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

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77 Morale-Building Skills 24 Showing interest 25 Working to keep people from being ignored 26 Harmonizing, helping people reach agreement 27 Reducing tension 28 Upholding rights of individuals in the face of group pressure 29 Expressing praise or appreciation 30 _________________________________

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Emotional Expression 31 Telling others what I feel 32 Hiding my emotions 33 Disagreeing openly 34 Expressing warm feelings 35 Expressing gratitude 36 Being sarcastic 37 _________________________________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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Facing and Accepting Emotional Situations 38 Facing conflict and anger 39 Facing closeness and affection 40 Withstanding silence 41 Facing disappointment 42 Withstanding tension 43 _________________________________

________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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Social Relationships 44 Competing to outdo others 45 Acting dominant 46 Trusting others 47 Being helpful 48 Being protective 49 Calling attention to myself 50 Standing up for myself 51 _________________________________

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General 52 Understanding why I do what I do 53 Encouraging comments on my own behaviour (seeking feedback) 54 Accepting help willingly 55 Making up my mind firmly 56 Criticising myself 57 Waiting patiently 58 going off by myself to read or think Š Julie Boyd 2010

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78

GROUP RELATIONSHIPS This is a check list to help you evaluate your meeting and to increase sensitivity to some of the relationships in the group. Circle the number of the rating scale that corresponds to your evaluation of the meeting in each of the following categories. For example, if you feel that responsible participation was lacking, circle 1; if you feel that responsible participation was present, circle 7; if you feel that the responsible participation of the group was somewhere in between, circle an appropriate number on the scale. 39. RESPONSIBLE PARTICIPATION was lacking. We served our own needs. We watched from outside the group. We were “grinding our own axes”.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

RESPONSIBLE PARTICIPATION was present. We were sensitive to the needs of our group. Everyone was “on the inside” participating.

40. LEADERSHIP was dominated by one or more persons.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

LEADERSHIP was shared among the members according to their abilities and insights.

41. COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS was poor, we did not listen. We did not understand. Ideas were ignored.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMUNICATION OF IDEAS was good. We listened and understood one another’s ideas. Ideas were vigorously presented and acknowledged.

42. COMMUNICATION OF FEELINGS was poor. We did not listen and did not understand feelings. No one cared about feelings.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMUNCIATION OF FEELINGS was good. We listened and understood and recognised feelings. Feelings were shared and accepted.

43. AUTHENTICITY was missing. We were wearing masks. We were being phony and acting parts. We were hiding our real selves.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

AUTHENTICITY was present. We were revealing our honest selves. We were engaged in authentic selfrevelation.

44. ACCEPTANCE OF PERSONS was missing. Persons were rejected, ignored, or criticised.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ACCEPTANCE OF PERSONS was an active part of our give-and-take. We received one another, recognising and respecting the uniqueness of each person.

45. FREEDOM OF PERSONS was stifled. Conformity was explicitly or implicitly fostered. Persons were not free to express their individuality. They were manipulated.

© Julie Boyd 2010

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

For use only with written permission

FREEDOM OF PERSONS was enhanced and encouraged. The creativity and individuality of persons was respected.

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79 46. CLIMATE OF RELALATIONSHIP was one of hostility or suspicion or politeness or anxiety or superficiality.

47. GOALS were fuzzy, contradictory, or just plain missing. We weren’t sure of where we were going. 48. PRODUCTIVITY was low. We were proud, fat, and happy, just coasting along. Our meeting was irrelevant; there was no apparent agreement.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

CLIMATE OF RELATIONSHIP was one of mutual trust. Evidence of respect for one another was apparent. The atmosphere was friendly and relaxed.

GOALS were clear to all. We had a definite sense of direction.

PRODUCTIVITY was high. We were earnestly at work on a task. We created and achieved something.

USING THIS INFORMATION TO HELP THE GROUP — -

Have each individual complete this scale independently.

- Have an individual or a couple of people average the rankings for each category from all the individual responses. -

Prepare a group profile.

- You may want to spend some time in the group discussing feedback that the group profile provides — in terms of strengths and weaknesses and development of the group over time.

-

Using a scale like this is most useful if it is used regularly to help the group assess its own growth and movement.

© Julie Boyd 2010

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80

ANALYSIS OF PERSONAL BEHAVIOUR IN GROUPS This form is designed to help you think about your behaviour in groups (such as staff meetings and committees). First, read over the scales and on each one place a check indicting the place on the scale that describes you when you are at your best. Label this mark “B”. Do the same for the point that describes you when you are at your worst. Mark this check “W”. After marking all the scales, pick out the 3 or 4 along which you would most like to change. On these scales draw an arrow above the line to indicate the desirable, direction for changing your behaviour. 49. Ability to listen to others in an understanding way ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW HIGH 50. Ability to influence others in the group ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW

HIGH

51. Tendency to build on the previous ideas of other group members ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 INFREQUENT

FREQUENT

4. Likely to trust others ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW

HIGH

10. Willingness to discuss my feelings (emotions) in a group ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UNWILLING

WILLING

11. Willingness to be influenced by others ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UNWILLING © Julie Boyd 2010

WILLING For use only with written permission

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81 12. Tendency to run the group ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW

HIGH

13. Tendency to seek close personal relationships with others in a group ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW HIGH 14. My reaction to comments about my behaviour in a group ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 REJECT

WELCOME

15. Awareness of the feelings of others ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 UNAWARE

AWARE

16. Degree of understanding why I do what I do ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW

HIGH

17. Reaction to conflict and antagonism in the group 0

________________________________________________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

LOW TOLERANCE

HIGH TOLERANCE

18. Reaction to expressions of affection and warmth ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW TOLERANCE

HIGH TOLERANCE

19. Reaction to opinions opposed to mine ________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOW TOLERANCE HIGH TOLERANCE © Julie Boyd 2010

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82

TEAM BUILDING 1. To what extent do I feel a real part of the team? 1 Completely a part all the time

2 A part most of the time

3 One the edge, sometimes in, sometimes out

4 Generally outside, except for one or two short periods

5 On the outside, not really a part of the team

2. How safe is it in this team to be at ease, relaxed, and myself? 1 I feel perfectly safe to be myself, they won’t hold mistakes against me.

2 I feel most people accept me if I were completely myself, but there are some I am not sure about.

3 Generally, you have to be careful what you say or do in this team

4 I am quite fearful about being completely myself in this team.

5 A person would be a fool to be himself in this team

3. To what extent do I feel “under wraps,” that is, have private thoughts, unspoken reservations, or unexpressed feelings and opinions that I have not felt comfortable bringing out into the open? 1 Almost completely under wraps

2 Under wraps many times

3 Slightly more free and expressive than under wraps

4 Quite free and expressive much of the time

5 Almost completely free and expressive

4. How effective are we, in our team, in getting out and using the ideas, opinions, and information of all team members in making decisions? 1 We don’t really encourage everyone to share their ideas, opinions, and information with the team in making decisions.

2 Only the ideas, opinions, and information of a few members are really known and used in making decisions.

© Julie Boyd 2010

3 Sometimes we hear the views of most members before making decisions and sometimes we disregard most members.

4 A few are sometimes hesitant about sharing their opinions, but we generally have good participation in making decisions.

For use only with written permission

5 Everyone feels his or her ideas, opinions, and information are given a fair hearing before decisions are made.

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83

5. To what extent are the goals the team is working toward understood and to what extent do they have meaning for you? 1 I feel extremely good about goals of our team.

2 I feel fairly good, but some things are not too clear or meaningful.

3 A few things we are doing are clear and meaningful.

4 Much of the activity is not clear or meaningful to me.

5 I really do not understand or feel involved in the goals of the team.

4 Above average in progress and pace of work

5 Works well, achieves definite progress

6. How well does the team work at its tasks? 1 Coasts, loafs, makes no progress

2 Makes a little progress, most members loaf

3 Progress is slow, spurts of effective work

7. Our planning and the way we operate as a team is largely influenced by: 1 One or two team members

2 A clique

3 4 5 Shifts from one Shared by most Shared by all person or clique of the members, members of the to another some left out team

8. What is the level of responsibility for work in our team? 1 Each person assumes personal responsibility for getting work done.

2 A majority of the members assume responsibility for getting work done.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

3 About half assume responsibility, about half do not.

4 Only a few assume responsibility for getting work done.

For use only with written permission

5 Nobody (except perhaps one) really assumes responsibility for getting work done.

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84

9. How are differences or conflicts handled in our team? 1 Differences or conflicts are denied, suppressed, or avoided at all costs.

2 Differences or conflicts are recognized, but remain unresolved mostly.

3 Differences or conflicts are recognized and some attempts are made to work them through by some members, often outside the team meetings.

4 Differences and conflicts are recognized and some attempts are made to deal with them in our team.

5 Differences and conflicts are recognized and the team usually is working them through satisfactorily.

10. How do people relate to the team leader, chairman, or “boss”? 1 The leader dominates the team and people are often fearful or passive

2 The leader tends to control the team, although people generally agree with the leader’s direction.

3 There is some give and take between the leader and the team members.

4 Team members relate easily to the leader and usually are able to influence leader decisions.

5 Team members respect the leader, but they work together as a unified team with everyone participating and no one dominant.

11. What suggestions do you have for improving our team functioning?

Criteria

Strongly Agree 4

3

Strongly Disagree 2 1

1. Cooperation: 2. Communication Within the Group: 3. Goals: 4. Creativity: 5. Handling Conflict: 6. Support: © Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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85 7. Openness and Trust: 8. Commitment: 9. Climate: 10. Decision-making: 11. Assessment/Evaluation: 12. Leadership: 13. Processing our Own Group Work: 14. Communication Outside of the Group: General Comments:

Š Julie Boyd 2010

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86

ASSERTIVENESS INVENTORY SITUATIONS degree of discomfort or anxiety none

a little

a fair amount

much

very much

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

2) Compliment a friend..........................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

3) Ask a favour of someone ..................

[ ]

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4) Resist sales pressure ........................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

5) Apologise when you are at fault........

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

6) Ask for a date..................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

7) Admit fear and request consideration. .....................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

8) Tell a person you are intimately involved with when he/she says or does something that bothers you....................................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

9) Ask for a raise.................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

10) Admit ignorance in some area..........

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

12) Ask personal questions.....................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

13) Turn off a talkative friend..............

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

14) Ask for constructive criticism..........

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

15) Initiate a conversation with a stranger......................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

16) Compliment a person you are romantically involved with or interested in...................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

17) Request a meeting with a person.... .........................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

18) Your initial request for a meeting turned down and you ask the person again at a later time....................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

19) Admit confusion about a point under discussion and ask for clarification.......................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

1) Turn down the request of a good friend to borrow your car..................

11) Turn down a request to borrow money..............................................

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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87 20) Apply for job.......................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

23) Request expected service when such is not forthcoming, eg. in restaurant........................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

24) Discuss openly with the person his/ her criticism of your behaviour..........

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

25) Return defective items, e.g. store or restaurant..........

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

26) Express an opinion that differs from that of the person you are talking to......................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

27) Resist sexual overtures when you are not interested..............................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

28) Tell the person when you feel he/ she has done something that is unfair to you.....................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

29) Accept a date...................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

30) Tell someone good news about yourself ...................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

31) Resist pressure to drink....................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

32) Resist a significant person's unfair demand...............

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

33) Quit a job........................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

34) Resist pressure to "turn on"........................................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

35) Discuss openly with a person his/her criticism of your work.....................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

36) Request the return of borrowed items.......................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

37) Receive compliments.......................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

38) Continue to converse with someone who disagrees with you...................

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

39) Tell a friend or someone with whom you work when he/she says or does something, that bothers you.............

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

2 21) Ask whether you have offended someone................. 22) Tell someone that you like them........

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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88 40) Ask a person who is annoying you in a public situation to stop................

Š Julie Boyd 2010

[ ]

[ ]

For use only with written permission

[ ]

[ ]

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[ ]


89

CONFLICT OPINIONAIRE This opinionaire is intended to explore your general tendency regarding conflict. In situations where I find a conflict of my wishes and others: 1. I try to find a compromise solution. A D 2. I am usually firm in pursuing my goals. A D 3. Rather than negotiate the things on which we disagree, I try to stress those things upon which we agree. A D 4. I would rather let others take responsibility for solving the problem. A D 5. I make an effort to get my way. A D 6. I tell the person my ideas and ask for his/her ideas. A D 7. I avoid taking positions which would create controversy. A D 8. I would try to soothe the other's feelings and preserve relationship. A D 9. I try to show the person the logic and benefit of my position. A D 10. I will let the other person have some of his/her position if she/he lets me have some of mine. A D 11. I attempt to get all concerns and issues out in the open. A D 12. I sometimes sacrifice my own wishes for the wishes of other persons. A D 13. I give up some points in exchange for others. A D

Š Julie Boyd 2010

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90

14. I assert my wishes. A D 15. I consistently seek the other's help in working out a solution. A D 16. I try to postpone the issue until I have had some time to think it over. A D 17. I propose a middle ground. A D 18. I feel that differences are not always worth worrying about. A D 19. I always share the problem with the other person so that we can work it out. A D 20. If the other person's position seems very important to him/her, I would try to agree. A D

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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91

TEACHING STYLE INVENTORY For each of the following phrases printed in italics, rank the four statements given in the order that completes the phrase to your satisfaction. Give your most favoured statement a rank of 4; your next favoured, 3; your next, 2; and your least favoured statement, a rank of 1. Place your ranking for each statement in the square to the right of that statement. These responses can form the basis of one, or a series of coaching conversations. 1 In planning, I am likely to - survey the problem and develop valid exercises based on my findings - begin with a lesson plan — specify what I want to teach, when, and how - pinpoint the results I want and construct a program that will almost run itself - consider the areas of greatest concern — and plan to deal with them regardless of what they may be 2

People learn best - when they are free to explore — without the constraints of a "system" - when it is in their selfish interest to do so rom someone who knows what he or she is talking about - when conditions are right — and they have an opportunity for practice and repetition

3

The purpose of learning should be o develop the participants' competency and mastery of specific skills - to transfer needed information to the learner in the most efficient way o establish the learner's capacity to solve his or her own problems o facilitate certain insights

4

Most of what people know hey have acquired through a systematic educational process

© Julie Boyd 2010

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92

hey have learned by experience in trial-and-error fashion - they have gained through a natural progression of self discovery rather than some "teaching" process - is a result of consciously pursuing their goals — solving problems as they go 5 Decisions on what to do ust be based on careful analysis of the task beforehand - should be made as the learning process goes along and the learners show their innate interests and abilities hould be mutually derived, by the learner and teacher - are based on what learners now know and must know at the conclusion 6

Good teachers - gain proficiency in the methods and processes of how to teach — and then bring in the content - recognise that learners are highly motivated and capable of directing their own learning — if they have the opportunity - master the field themselves and become effective “models” for the learners - consider the end behaviours they are looking for and the most efficient ways of producing them in learners

7

As a teacher I am 1east successful in situations - where learners are passive, un-talkative, and expect the trainer to do all the work hat are unstructured, with learning objectives that are unclear here there is no right answer hen I am teaching abstractions, rather than concrete, specific ideas

8

I try to create - the real world — problems and all — and develop capacities for dealing with it - a learning climate that facilitates self-discovery, expression, and interaction

© Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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93 a stimulating environment that attracts and holds the learners and moves them systematically toward the objective - an interesting array of resources of all kinds - books, materials, etc. — directed at the learners' needs 9 Emotions in the learning process re utilised by the skilful teacher to accomplish the learning objective ave potential if the teacher can capture the learners' attention - will propel the learner in many directions, which the teacher may follow and support - provide energy that must be focused on problems or questions

10

Teaching methods hould be relatively flexible but present real challenges to the learner hould be determined by the subject ust emphasise trial and feedback ust allow freedom for the individual learner

11 When learners are uninterested in a subject, it is probably because hey do not see the benefit hey are not ready to learn it he instructor is not adequately prepared the lesson f poor planning 12

Learners are all different ome will learn, but others may be better suited for another activity - the best approach is to teach the basics well and put learners on their own after that - with an effective training design, most tasks con be mastered by the majority of learners - an experienced teacher, properly organised, con overcome most difficulties

13 Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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94 Evaluation of instruction - is done by learners regardless of the instructor; the instructor should be a sounding board - should be built into the system, so that learners continually receive feedback and adjust their performance accordingly - is ultimately decided when the student encounters o problem and successfully resolves it - should be based on pre-established learning objectives and done at the end of instruction to determine learning gains 14

Learners seem to have the most regard for a trainer who aught them something, regardless of how painful uided them through experiences and well-directed feedback ystematically led them step-by-step nspired them and indirectly influenced their lives

15 In the end, if learners have not learned he teacher has not taught hey should repeat the experience aybe it was not worth learning t may be unfortunate, but not everyone can succeed at all tasks

Š Julie Boyd 2010

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95

SCHOOL PROGRAM QUALITY SELF ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT SELF ASSESSMENT FORM

Rate your current program by scoring each statement on the scale of 1 (low) to 5 (high). Total scores within each category (maximum points per category = 25 points).

NOT AT ALL LIKE OUR PROGRAM

Ia

PROGRAM GOALS AN OBJECTIVES 1. Learning goals and objectives are designed or selected by teachers in the school

VERY MUCH

1

2

3

4

5

2. Goals focus on improving student performance

1

2

3

4

5

3. Learning goals and objectives are clearly defined

1

2

3

4

5

4. A value system emphasising academic achievement is shared by staff, students and parents/community

1

2

3

4

5

5. Program goals are communicated to parents

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________ Ib

EXPECTATIONS FOR STUDENT LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR 1. Standards for learning are both challenging and attainable

1

2

3

4

5

2. An orderly, productive working atmosphere is generally maintained and time spent on classroom management is minimal

1

2

3

4

5

3. Students are expected to complete their work and meet recognised standards of quality

1

2

3

4

5

4. All students are given approximately the same number of response approximately the same number of response opportunities

1

2

3

4

5

5. Positive techniques are the primary means of managing student beahviour

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

Š Julie Boyd 2010

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96 COORDINATION OF THE REGULAR SCHOOL PRGRAM WITH OTHER SPECIAL PROGRAMS 1. Program curriculum is congruent between regular school curriculum and special programs

1

2

3

4

5

2. Program attention is focused on building good continuity across grade levels and programs

1

2

3

4

5

3. Special program teachers know how their instructional objectives fit

1

2

3

4

5

4. Specific provisions are outline for coordination between teachers in special programs and the regular classroom

1

2

3

4

5

5. Collaborative curriculum planning and decision making is typical

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

III

PARENT AND COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT 1. Procedures for involvement are clearly communicated to parents and used consistently

1

2

3

4

5

2. Parents and volunteers have options for becoming involved in activities that support the instructional program

1

2

3

4

5

3. Staff members provide parents with information and techniques for helping students learn

1

2

3

4

5

4. There is frequent two-way communication between parents and staff

1

2

3

4

5

5. Parents are aware of their responsibilities for helping students learn

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

IV

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING 1. Emphasis is given to staff development/training and teacher skill building

1

2

3

4

5

2. Staff development opportunities are related to staff needs

1

2

3

4

5

3. Staff members provide parents with information and techniques for helping students learn

1

2

3

4

5

4. Staff development and training are supported with time and other necessary resources

1

2

3

4

5

Š Julie Boyd 2010

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97 5. Feedback from instructional observations emphasises improving instruction and boosting student achievement

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

V

LEADERSHIP 1. School leadership has a clear understanding of the school’s mission and is able to clearly articulate it

1

2

3

4

5

2. School leadership believes that all students can learn

1

2

3

4

5

3. Leaders initiate organised and systematic school improvement procedures

1

2

3

4

5

4. Leaders carefully monitor new practices

1

2

3

4

5

5. Leaders are viewed by teachers as having relevant instructional expertise as well as management skills

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

VIa

INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS, METHODS AND APPROACHES 1. Teachers focus student attention on lesson objectives by stating them plainly and referring to them frequently

1

2

3

4

5

2. Teachers set and maintain a brisk instruction pace

1

2

3

4

5

3. Academic tasks are matched to lesson content so student success rate is high

1

2

3

4

5

4. Teachers know which outcomes are of highest priority and the strategies needed to help students attain them

1

2

3

4

5

5. Regular, focused reviews of key concepts check on and strengthen student retention

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

VIb

USE OF ACADEMIC LEARNING TIME 1. Classes and other activities start and end on time

Š Julie Boyd 2010

1

For use only with written permission

2

3

4

5

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98 2. Classroom routines are smooth and efficient

1

2

3

4

5

3. Teachers have assignments or activities ready for students when they arrive

1

2

3

4

5

4. Very little time is spent on non-learning activities

1

2

3

4

5

5. Students are actively and successfully engaged in learning activities for a significant portion of each day

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

VIIa

MONITORING STUDENT PROGRESS 1. Assessment procedures routinely check student progress

1

2

3

4

5

2. Teachers encourage parents to keep track of student progress

1

2

3

4

5

3. To check understanding, teachers ask clear questions and make sure all students have an opportunity to respond

1

2

3

4

5

4. Observable systems are used to monitor the academic progress students

1

2

3

4

5

5. Teachers use assessment results for instructional improvement and to evaluate their own teaching methods

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________ VIIb

FFEDBACK AND REINFORCEMENT 1. Assigned work is checked; students are given quick feedback

1

2

3

4

5

2. Feedback to students is tied to learning objectives

1

2

3

4

5

3. Correction or reteaching occurs in response to student errors

1

2

3

4

5

4. The classroom is characterised by frequent and consistent reinforcement for academic achievement and excellent behaviour

1

2

3

4

5

5. Feedback to students is specific and clear and help them understand and correct errors

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

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99 VIII

SCHOOL AND CLASSROOM CLIMATE 1. Classroom behaviour conforms to explicit standards

1

2

3

4

5

2. A secure, attractive environment is provided where the emphasis is on academic achievement

1

2

3

4

5

3. Students are allowed and encouraged to develop a sense of responsibility and self-reliance

1

2

3

4

5

4. Teachers pay attention to student interests, problems and accomplishments both in and out of the classroom

1

2

3

4

5

5. A task-oriented but relaxed classroom atmosphere is maintained where students find encouragement and little criticism

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

IX

EXCELLENCE RECOGNISED AND AWARDED 1. Teaching excellence in the program is recognised

1

2

3

4

5

2. Awards are set at several different levels of performance, providing all students with opportunities for success and recognition

1

2

3

4

5

3. Recognition is based on comparison to standards rather than comparison to peers

1

2

3

4

5

4. Students’ accomplishments for academic achievement and excellent behaviour are recognised

1

2

3

4

5

5. Parents are told about student successes

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

X

USE OF EVALUATIN RESULTS 1. Staff follow simple routines for collecting, summarising and using student achievement information

1

2

3

4

5

2. Test results, grade reports, attendance records and other assessment methods are sued to spot potential problems

1

2

3

4

5

3. Assessment results are used to evaluate the program and target areas for improvement

1

2

3

4

5

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au


100 4. Program improvement efforts are periodically reviewed; progress is noted and the improvement focus is renewed or redirected

1

2

3

4

5

5. Local program evaluation results are compared to state and national results as one gauge of program effectiveness

1

2

3

4

5

TOTAL _________

PROGRAM SELF-RATING SUMMARY SHEET List the total points rated for each category in Column 1. In Column 2 rank the categories from the lowest total score to the highest total score. Review the rankings for identifies strength areas and potential areas for program improvement. Column 1

Column 2

Total score for category

Rank categories: lowest score is 1, next is 2, etc.

a. Program Goals

_________

_________

b. Expectations for Student Learning and Behaviour

_________

_________

Coordination with Regular School Program/ Other Special Programs

_________

_________

III

Parent and Community Involvement

_________

_________

IV

Professional Development and Training

_________

_________

Leadership

_________

_________

a. Instructional Materials, Methods and Approaches

_________

_________

b. Use of Academic Learning

_________

_________

a. Monitoring Student Progress

_________

_________

b. Feedback and Reinforcement

_________

_________

School and Classroom Climate

_________

_________

Excellence Recognised and Rewarded

_________

_________

Use of Evaluation Results

_________

_________

Category

I

II

V VI

VII

VIII IX X

SCHOOL ___________________________________________ Š Julie Boyd 2010

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www.julieboyd.com.au


101

_________ Classroom Teacher _________ Special Education Teacher

_________ Principal _________ Other

UNDERSTANDING INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES BACKGROUND This activity is based on the original work of William Moulton Marsden and John Geier. Rather than an inventory, this is designed as a physical movement activity for several reasons: a. People behave differently in different situations e.g. at home, at work, in meetings, in staffrooms. This enables for situation specific perceptions. b. Individuals will often perceive themselves differently to how others see them. This allows for these different perceptions to be highlighted depending on who is making the decisions.

c. Individuals who would like to experience different aspects of personality have the capability to physically move into a position which will assist them to do this.

INSTRUCTIONS Forced Situational Choice. (e.g. choose how you see yourself at work/at home. OR How you think others see you OR how you see a workmate/leader. This is a 4 Corner activity i.e. designed so that participants, through forced choices, end up in one location. 1. If you consider you are more ACTIVE (Outgoing, extroverted) move to the RIGHT (Group A) 2. If you are more INTROVERTED (Reserved, Introspective) move to the LEFT (Group B) 3. Group A- Are you more DIRECT, RESULTS ORIENTED, COMPETITIVE or Sociable, Persuasive, Sympathetic 4. Group B- Are you more A TEAM PERSON, EASY GOING, PATIENT or SYSTEMATIC, CONSCIENTIOUS, ORIENTED TOWARD HIGH STANDARDS © Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

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102 © Julie Boyd 1991

© Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au


103

WHAT DO THEIR DESKS LOOK LIKE DIRECTORS

IN Trays, Out trays, Large desk. High Backed Chair

INFLUENCERS Depends who’s coming. If it’s someone they are cleaning up for, their messy truth is is their desk drawers STABILIZERS Their desks contain things helpful to others like paper clips, band aids, asprin, herbal tea CONSCIENTIOUS Highly organized. Will have all kinds of technology on their desks to assist in efficiency. Also the only findable copy of the discipline policy we agreed to 4 years ago, and the lesson plans for the past 6 years. Their filing systems are immaculate and they have contingency plans and contingency on contingency plans

MANAGING CHANGE. IT’S 9am Monday morning. How is each group handling it. DIRECTORS

Have been there since 7am working out how to achieve the changes with the utmost speed and efficiency INFLUENCERS Still in the staffroom talking about the weekend. They regard themselves as dealing with the change but the boss is not so sure STABILIZERS They are really worried. They haven’t got over the last change yet. And are not sure that everyone’s needs have been consulted and catered to in this latest crisis. CONSCIENTIOUS In the change a new piece of equipment had to be purchased. They have spent weeks researching the best option and have listed positives and negatives of every alternative. They’re quite sure they have the right decision, and everything is neatly filed and accessible in the filing system.

© Julie Boyd 2010

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www.julieboyd.com.au


104

DIRECTORS Positive

Outgoing, Direct, Competitive

Negative

Impatient, Win/lose style, Resists Authority from Others

Needs

Results, Authority, Challenges

Fears

Challenges to the authority, Sloppy results from those they direct.

INFLUENCERS Positive

Outgoing, Sociable, Sympathetic

Negative

Disorganised, Inattentive to detail, Impulsive

Needs

Recognition, Change, New ideas and trends

Fears

Rejection, Stagnation, Detailed work

STABILIZERS Positive

Introspective, Team person, Easy Going

Negative

Safety seeking, Holds grudges, Resists change

Needs

Security, Approval, Acceptance

Fears

Competition, Having to stand out as better or worse, Unplanned challenges

CONSCIENTIOUS Positive

Introspective, Conscientious, Systematic

Negative

Fault finding, Over-critical, Defensive

Needs

Correctness, High Standards, Quality work

Fears

Criticism of Work/Ideas, Imperfection, No Adequately Explanations.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au


105 ISSUES FOR DISCUSSION 1.

To each corner:

Discuss and share the strengths of people who are in this corner Discuss and share what people in this corner will find to be their biggest challenges 2.

To each corner :

Discuss and share how people in this corner what behavior in other people escalates a conflict situation for them Discuss and share what behavior in other people would resolve a conflict for them. 3. SKILLS and TRAITS While it is difficult to develop new traits, this activity can be used to see what traits are prominent in participants in other corners which may be desirable to work on developing. E.g. A Director may find it useful to develop the empathy and consideration traits of a Stabliiser. An Influencer may need to develop more of the organizational skills of the Conscientious group. 4. LEADERSHIP When working with a group that may include a leadership team, the activity may be used for Workers to place members of the leadership team as they are seen by other workers. OR may provide an opportunity for members of a leadership team to determine where the ‘gaps; are in their team. 5. BALANCE The ultimate goal is to develop the trait of all four corners and to be able to apply those traits appropriately in given situations. E.g. If a team is missing a representative from one of the four corners, it may be that someone in the team will need to take on the traits of the missing corner in order for the team to function at its optimum.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au


106

More materials are available through

www.julieboyd.com.au. New tools and information for coaches and teachers will be available on our website each week.

Š Julie Boyd 2010

For use only with written permission

www.julieboyd.com.au

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SUBSTANTIVE CONVERSATIONS: A Collection of Tools for Promoting Professional Conversations  

SUBSTANTIVE CONVERSATIONS: A Collection of Tools for Promoting Professional Conversations  

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