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L E A R N I N G

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LEARNING TOGETHER An Guide To Interactive, Cooperative and Collaborative Learning

Email: info@julieboyd.com.au www.julieboyd.com.au


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Learning Together A Julie Boyd and Associates Manual Based on original material first developed in 1990 Published 2001 Revised 2004 Revised 2009 Š Julie Boyd PO Box 66 Hastings Point, NSW 2489 Phone/Fax 02-66764217 Email: info@julieboyd.com.au URL: www.julieboyd.com.au ISBN:

1-876153-36-8

The material contained in this manual is COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored, transmitted, adapted, or copied in any form electronic or otherwise, without prior written permission. Published simultaneously in Australia, New Zealand, United States of America and Japan

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An Introductory Note Teaching has changed a lot over past decades. The rise and rise of technology in learning has been hailed as a ‘tipping point’ in education. The dilemma we now have is that in some cases students are now NOT learning the skills to enable them to build and maintain the effective face to face relationships which form the basis of a healthy society. The ability to conduct SUBSTANTIVE CONVERSATIONS is a focus of most education systems- for students and staff. Creating opportunities and structures in which these conversations might occur is the focus of this manual. Creating effective learning opportunities for our students is the responsibility of all teachers. Taking advantage of those opportunities to grow and expand experience, skill and knowledge bases is the responsibility of all students. Developing and shaping learners is an exciting endeavour for all. There have been a number of major developments in teaching and learning over the past two decades, all of which are need to be integrated to impact effectively on our work with students. Cooperative Learning was first introduced to Australia more than two decades ago by practitioners such as Julie Boyd, Sue Hill, Joan Dalton and Polly Eckert. . Thousands of Australian teachers have been influenced in their teaching through the workshops of these practitioners. In 1990 the Australasian Association for Cooperative Education was created by Julie Boyd and Joan Dalton to provide opportunities for educators to share practices and skills in a modeled collaborative environment. It continues to this day. In recent years the introduction of further fields of study and endeavour such as brainbased learning, resiliency, multiple modes and intelligences, sensory learning, metacognitive learning, mindful learning, lateral thinking, learner-centred assessment, digital learning have all evolved either adding confusion or exciting new overlays to teacher’s practice. It is the effective integration of all of these new ideas, concepts and practices which provides the challenge for the teaching profession, along, of course, with the daily challenges of managing large groups of students. This manual is based on highly successful co-operative learning workshops which have been provided to teachers by Julie Boyd and Associates since 1984. They do not provide a step by step approach but rather a collection of snapshots used during those workshops and combined with new information designed to assist teachers to consider the numerous aspects of creating an effective learning environment for students. Further expanded information on the topics touched on in this manual may be found in other manuals including: 1. Active Learning and Cooperation: A Compendium of Generic Teaching and Learning Strategies K-12 2. School Based Professional Learning 3. Effective Middle Schooling; A Manual For Middle School Leaders 4. Creating Resilient Youth: A Curriculum Framework for Middle School Students and Beyond 5. Integral Curriculum for Effective and Relevant Learning


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6. Educare: The Anatomy of Possibility: Brain Compatible Teaching and Learning (Tim Burns) 7. 101 Energizers to Enliven, Engage and Enhance Learning(Tim Burns)

A full catalogue of resources, which includes a National Curriculum designed integral curriculum units for years 2-12 can be found at www.julieboyd.com.au check the ‘Products’ pages

In a field which provides constant daily challenges, the capacity to continuously enjoy our practice while we seek to improve and do the best we can by our students is an enormous task for us all. We wish you well in your endeavours to continuously improve your practice as a teacher. Julie Boyd

To give you heart and to encourage you in your endeavours to improve your teaching practice, here is a youtube video of the world’s worst teacher! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fw3XqD70ptE

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The Responsible Use of Technology The influence of technology, particularly computer based technology is both exciting and terrifying. Exciting because of the potential it opens up for individuals and cooperation. Terrifying because of its capacity to impact developing brains, limit abilities to communicate face to face and dehumanise society. The current penchant for many aspects of education, from the provision of computers and hardware to the funding of professional development for teachers by the computer giants needs to be viewed very carefully. Technology is wonderful for: Connectivity Access Information Entrepreneurship We need to guard against its capacity to Speed up Isolate De-humanise Potentially skew intellectual and social development, and (albeit unintentionally) sacrifice children’s need for time for; Reflection Interpretation Assimilation Conversation Socialisation This manual reminds us that building relationships is a crucial component of being human, and that this must be balanced with the use of technology.


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E Change- a manifesto! Education is a highly complex endeavour. To create an E-Change requires a systemic and systematic rethink, and re-actioning of education. This is my attempt to begin that process. We need:

1. An understanding of the purpose of schools and multiple learning environments.

2. A sophisticated, systemic awareness of the world around us and how to live in harmony with it to provide a CONTEXT for teaching.

3. A multi-platform of environment, technology and wellness driving education into the future to provide the PROCESS by which we facilitate learning.

4. An understanding of how deep CONTENT knowledge is immersed in a systems approach to healthy progress.

5. A systemic and integral approach to improving student and teacher learning

6. An understanding of minimal exit outcomes and standards for all students, and measuring what matters.

7. An understanding of how human behaviour is created and how it can be changed.

8. An individualised, developmental approach to learning for students, parents, teachers, principals and administrators.

9. An understanding of the broad range of research bases which are impacting education and how to translate these into learning environments and teaching practice.

10. An understanding of the pragmatic aspects of developmental learning for students and adults, and the requirements and impacts of learning environments

11. An understanding of Curriculum, how it is constructed, how it is mapped, to achieve alignment with learning environments, pedagogy, and assessment

12. An understanding of accountability, teacher evaluation, student improvement and the linkages between these.

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13. To understand the responsibilities of being a professional operating within a professional community.

14. To create multiple entry pathways to the profession

15. To develop a ‘both, and’ approach rather than ‘either/or’ when discussing strategies.

16. An understanding of roles and responsibilities and how to actively educate each group of ‘stakeholders’. 17. An ability to conduct substantive conversations about the art and craft of teaching and learning.


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Learning Today

To be able to continuously grow professionally means having an understanding of the issues and conditions which affect us as teachers, as well as a principled approach to our work which enables the effective integration of what we know about effective learning, teaching strategies and matching meaningful and challenging curriculum with learner centred assessment.

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Substantive Conversations Substantive Conversations involve sustained teacher-teacher, teacher-student, and student-student interactions around intellectually substantial topics which lead to shared understandings and deep learning. This manual is designed to explore methods to create substantive conversation, including structuring interactions; the expectations and responsibilities of those involved in dialogues; the impact of our communication on others; and sustained exchanges and the continuum of appropriate modes of interaction. Cooperative and Collaborative learning strategies form the basis of most substantive conversations in classrooms. The strategies used are equally transferrable to working with adults. Activating background knowledge What do I already know about this subject? What do you know about this? I wonder if…. Predicting and reasoning This is going to be about… because…. Being purposeful Why are we exploring this? Asking critical questions What is this about? What people are in the text? Why? Who is left out of the text? Why? Who is the author? How do I feel? Think? Act? What view of the world is being built? What other views could be presented? Who benefits from this? Who is disadvantaged by this? Decoding language What does this mean? Clarifying context and situation What do you think this means? I think it means…. Monitoring and repairing behaviour and learning That doesn't make sense because…. Paraphrasing How can I say this differently? I think you are saying that…. Inferring Does this mean….? Is this about….? Is this related to…? Reflecting I had a similar/different experience….


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Summarising I understand …. Giving opinions and reasons I believe that… because…. I don't think that… because…. I think that's accurate because…. I agree with this because…. I feel strongly in favour of this because…. I oppose that idea because…. Expressing uncertainty I'm not sure that I agree because…. I'd like to find out more about that so I can clarify my thoughts.

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FUNDAMENTALS of WORKING IN GROUPS 1. PEOPLE: SEPARATE THE PEOPLE FROM THE PROBLEM.

2. INTERESTS: FOCUS ON INTERESTS, NOT POSITIONS.

3. OPTIONS: INVENT OPTIONS FOR MUTUAL GAIN.

4. CRITERIA: INSIST ON USING OBJECTIVE CRITERIA.

5. CELEBRATE YOUR ACCOMPLISHMENTS. Use Patience,

Be Persistent,

Take the Initiative,

Show Flexibility,

Model Risk-Taking,

Willingly Share,

Empathically Listen,

Be Open to New Ideas

Enjoy the Creativity


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From INFORMATION to WISDOM

Information may be passed on from a teacher to a student; Knowledge, however, is constructed when ideas are used in a relevant context by the learner; Wisdom is discovered through a learning relationship in which both teacher and student stand to gain a greater understanding of the world and use their understandings for the betterment of the world.

making it useful,

Wisdom

applying one’s learning from experience, selecting knowledge

constructing meaning giving it form selecting information

acquiring experience collecting data

Knowledge

Information

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The Web of Learning

Assessments Learning Strategies Multiple Intelligence

Tests

Projects

Curriculum Specific Discipline Integrated

Environment Discipline

Portfolios

Thinking

You and th e Students

Whole School Social Skills

Resiliency

Social

Academic

Performance

Task

Self Management


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FORCES DRIVING EDUCATIONAL CHANGE 2010 http://jboydedu2.wordpress.com/

1. Changing World

2. Changing Work

3. Resiliency/Prevention

4. Intelligence/Body and Brain-based/Constructivist and Developmental Learning

5. Results/Outcomes-Oriented Learning

6. (Natural) Systems Thinking

7. Expanded Learning Environments and School-work-Higher Learning

8. Communication

9. Technology

10. Environmental Consciousness

11. Useful Assessments and Accountability

12. Increased urbanisation

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Teaching and Learning Issues for consideration by teachers today: 1. Breadth and Depth of Repertoire of Strategies 2. Capacity to align strategies/learning environments/curriculum/assessment 3. Sophistication of own teaching frameworks and conversations 4. Interest in/Commitment to Learning 5. Understanding of own field and how it integrates with others 6. Appropriate (age, developmental, type) use of technology. 7. Simultaneous Technology/Educational conversion of curriculum 8. Self preservation/wellness 9. Personal/Professional Risk Assessment 10. Personal/Professional Cartography of Education


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Teaching and Learning: Some STRATEGIES Lecture Listening Graphic Organizers 4 Corners Round Robin Turn to a Partner Learning Contracts Concept Maps Conferencing Drama Questioning Shared Reading Learning Buddies Cloze Activities Science Fairs Re-enactment Web Journal Reading for Meaning Sequencing Reader's Theatre Word Sorts (Picture) Books/Recordings Computers/Technology Games Literature Circles Oral Presentations Graphing Retelling Interest Groups Predicting Journal KWL(Know,Want to know/learn) Dialogue Predicting with Justification Posters Writer's Workshop Modeling

Jigsaw Diagramming Think-Pair-Share Overheads Brainstorming Learning Stations Field Trips Venn Diagrams Interview Dance Summarize Raps/Poetry Retell Manipulatives Projects Wait-time Shared experience Video Peer Coaching Role Play Linkage Illustrating/Drawing Films/Slides/Photos Sustained Silent Reading Story Telling Book Talks Research Simulations Classifying Direct Instruction Dialogue Word Games Debriefing Think Aloud Paraphrasing Discussion Demonstration Lecture Burst Commercials Inquiry Estimation

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Criteria for Instructional Strategies Tool or Method Generic Way of Organizing people and thinking Process Facilitate Learning Repeatable Want Children to Internalize.

Cooperative Group Strategies Inside-outside (Concentric Circles)

Jigsaw

Think-Pair-Share

Brainstorming

Think-Pair-Write-Share

Interest Groups

Think-Pair-Share-Write

Numbered Heads Together

Heads Together

Round Robin

Community Circle

Fishbowl

Roundtable

Interview

People Search

Paired Reading

Round Robin

Carousel

Literature Circles

Discussion Web

Milling

Group Consensus

Pair-Share

Expert Groups

Turn to a Partner

Conversation


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Cognitive Organizers Web Semantic Map Fishbone Flow Chart Story Maps Mind Maps Visualizing Inquiry Projects Imagery Reflection Teach to Someone Else Categorization Multiple Answers Scaffolding Data Collection Kinesthetic Movement Guided Reading Mix & Match Read Aloud

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What is Co-operative Learning

The effective use of co-operative learning requires us to understand that co-operation means working together as 2 or more for the mutual learning benefit of all. To achieve this involves building skills, values, attitudes and competencies to enable increased academic learning and social capacity. Co-operative Learning is a flexible yet highly structured way of working with students with considerate ways of treating each other and working together (disciple-ine)


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Co-operative Learning means Understanding the Philosophy of Both Co-operation and Learning School Change Students’ Future Needs How We Learn

Establishing A Learning Community Environment Class-Building Team-Building Social Skills and Values

Understanding and Using Co-operative Structures Simple More Complex

Refining and Redefining the Teacher’s/Principal’s Role Planning Introducing Observing Intervening Processing Assessing

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The Focus of Teaching has Shifted FROM

TO

Teacher centred - teacher as expert

Student Centred - developing a love of learning

Passive learning - focus on task and content

Active learning - student reflection - teacher as learner and leader

Conformity - one-way - win-lose

Creativity - many ways - risk-taking - success

No focus on student - thinking - interaction

Focus on student - self-understanding - learning how –to-learn - thinking and interaction

Dependency

Independence/Interdependence

Academic ability - testable and compared to the norm

Authentic assessment - measurable, anecdotal, individual

External control

Internal control

Depowerment

Empowerment

Learning is - ‘pieced’ - discrete - ‘what do I do next to keep them occupied

Learning is - planned - whole - contextualised - meaningful, purposeful - connected - economical - ‘how can I help children learn’


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Co-operative learning: What the research says

* Promotes higher achievement and stimulates cognitive development

*Helps students take increasing responsibility for their own learning

*Builds positive peer relationships

*Builds acceptance and understanding of difference

*Provides support for managing individual differences and benefits the education of ALL

students

*Is equally applicable P-12 as a classroom strategy

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How We Learn.

We remember 10%

of what we read

20%

of what we hear

30%

of what we see

50%

of what we see and hear

70%

of what is discussed

And:

(reading and saying)

80%

of what we experience (reading, saying, doing)

95%

of what we teach someone else. Wm. Glasser


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Co-operative Groups Definition:

a co-operative group is three or more students who are held together by a common purpose — to complete the task and to include every group member.

Co-operative Groups Aren’t * The newest right answer * Best or only way to teach * Groups of students doing individual work

Co-operative Groups Are * One more strategy to: - deliver curriculum - teach skills of co-operation * Structured and highly organized * Appropriate for all - ages - subject areas - types of students * Based on research

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Groupwork Co-operative Learning

Traditional Groups

Positive Interdependence

No Interdependence

Individual Accountability

No Individual Accountability

Heterogeneous

Shared Leadership

Shared Responsibility to Each Other

Homogeneous

One Appointed Leader

Responsibility Only to Self

Task and Maintenance Emphasised

Only Task Emphasised

Social Skills Taught

Social Skills Assumed

Teacher Observes and Intervenes

Groups Process Their Own Effectiveness

Values Made Explicit

Reciprocity Anticipated

Teacher Ignores Group Functioning

No Group Processing

Values Not Made Explicit

Reciprocity Not Understood


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Co-operative Team Learning What is co-operative team learning? Co-operative team learning is a general teaching strategy that can be used with any age group and any subject matter. We call it “team” learning because its most distinguishing characteristic is that students work together in small learning teams, helping each other to accomplish individual and group tasks. By discussing assignments, conducting experiments, solving problems, writing essays and reports, resolving conflicts, and achieving consensus, students learn important collaborative skills at the same time that they master academic material. How does co-operative team learning differ from other forms of “group” work? First, co-operative learning teams are typically heterogeneous with respect to academic and social characteristics. Students come to understand, value, and respect diversity of background and talent through experiencing how all members contribute to each other’s success. Second, these teams are carefully structured by the teacher to ensure that all members feel a sense of positive interdependence, that is, that the success of each depends on the success of all. Thus the classroom becomes a model of “Spaceship Earth” in which students directly experience the meaning of collective responsibility and interdependence. Third, co-operative learning tasks are designed to ensure that one or two students cannot dominate the group or do all the work. Individual accountability is an integral part of the method, and each member’s participation and learning are essential for achieving the group goal. Consequently, team members are motivated to help each other learn, to check each other’s work, to take time on drill and practice, and to encourage each other to complete homework assignments. Finally, teachers spend time explicitly teaching their students the interpersonal skills required for effective teamwork. We are not born co-operative! Team members learn both task-oriented skills for working together effectively (how to coordinate efforts collaboratively, how to communicate well) and group maintenance skills for being together positively (how to encourage and relate well to others, how to monitor and process the group’s interaction). Is there more than one way of doing co-operative team learning? Yes. A variety of specific techniques have been developed for different educational goals, from basic skills acquisition to higher-order thinking and creativity. The best known are the Johnson’s’ “Learning Together” model, Slavin’s “Student Team Learning” methods, Aronson’s “Jigsaw Classroom,” Burns’s “Groups of Four,” Kagan’s “Co-op Co-op,” and the strategies for “Group Investigation” and “Synectics” described by Bruce Joyce. Specific programs such as “Tribes,” the “Life Lab” garden project, “Finding Out/Descubrimiento” maths/science program, “Companion Reading,” writing “Response Groups,” “City Building,” and other group simulation programs for social studies are also forms of this approach. Once teachers understand the basic principles of cooperative team learning, they can design their own methods to fit their specific situation. What are the special benefits of co-operative team learning? Co-operative team learning techniques are particularly appropriate in desegregated schools, in multi-cultural classrooms, and when “mainstreaming” physically or educationally handicapped children because they promote the positive feelings of mutual appreciation, support, and respect among students. Research has demonstrated impressive academic, social, and psychological gains among these students when co-operative team learning methods are properly used. Aren’t these gains among minority and disadvantaged children obtained at the expense of the majority children? No. What is good for minority children has proven to be just as good for majority children. Academic and attitudinal improvement has been shown within all segments of the school population. How about the high achievers? Aren’t they going to suffer by having to work with low-achieving students?

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No. Research has shown that by working with low-achieving students to help them master academic material, high achievers gain even more. All teachers know from personal experience that through teaching they best learn mastery of their material. Furthermore, co-operative team learning methods provide many opportunities for high achievers to become “experts” in certain subject matter to share with their team-mates. What about individual variation? Doesn’t everyone in a co-operative learning team have to do the same work and proceed at the same pace? No. Actually, there is more enhancement of individuality in co-operative learning teams than in a conventional classroom because 1) the unique contribution of each team member is given recognition; 2) students learn to integrate and synthesise different points of view, to consider multiple alternatives, and to test their ideas against those of others; 3) for many tasks students have different material, suiting the learning level and pace of each member; and 4) team members can each be evaluated according to individual criteria so that no one is penalised by the achievement level of others. Are all students forced to work in learning teams, even if they prefer to work alone? In conventional classrooms all students are “forced” to work independently, even though research has shown that most would prefer to work together in co-operative groups. It can be argued that learning to work together collaboratively is as basic a skill as reading or writing, and therefore should be a required subject for all students. Even in the most co-operatively organized classrooms, however, learning teams occupy only part of the day, and normally no one is forced to participate who doesn’t want to. Working together is a privilege, and it is the rare student who wants to be left out of the fun for very long. Doesn’t co-operative team learning contradict the current emphasis on direct instruction and back-tobasics? No. The teacher still begins most lessons by presenting new material to the class as a whole. But this direct instruction is reinforced and assimilated through group discussion and problem solving within each learning team. The acquisition and retention of basic facts are more fun in learning teams, which increases children’s motivation to learn. Furthermore, retention of basic facts is enhanced by more opportunities for oral practice with each other. What about classroom management? Doesn’t group work encourage noise, arguments, and showing off? Co-operative team learning must always be accompanied by an effective classroom management system, but it is different from that used in most conventional classrooms. There is a greater emphasis in co-operative classrooms on self management and team management rather that teacher management. Talking and helping among teammates are allowed during group work, but not during direct instruction or individual testing. So children learn to be flexible in their behaviour. They also have more fun, and this sometimes results in a greater releasing of energy. Children new to co-operative group work will need time to learn how to control their behaviour within this type of classroom. By teaching students to work together co-operatively, aren’t we making them unfit to function in a competitive world? No. Modern social systems require a highly complex coordination of effort, and the business community spends millions of dollars each year training its employees in the necessary interpersonal skills. Even in co-operative classrooms children have many opportunities to learn to work competitively or alone. By learning when it is appropriate to co-operate, when to compete, and when to take individual responsibility for their work, students become thinking, problem-solving, and flexible adults.


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Basic Elements of Co-operative Learning

Face to face interaction

Heterogeneous grouping

Positive interdependence * limited resources * roles * same goal * division of labour

Individual accountability

Reciprocity

Academic and Social Skills monitored and processed

Cooperative Learning is as much an attitude a set of beliefs a system of positive relationships and a way of building a learning community....... as it is a set of teaching strategies

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“I've come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom. It's my personal approach that creates the climate. It's my daily mood that makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child's life miserable or joyous. I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humour, hurt or heal. In all situations, it is my response that decides whether crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanised or dehumanised.� Dr Haim Ginott. Teacher and Child


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Attitudes Fostered By Co-operative Learning * Love/Joy of Learning

* Curiosity/Challenge of Learning

* Balance/Respect for Self and Others

* Responsibility for One’s Own Learning and Behaviour

* Acceptance and Honouring of Differences

* Perseverance and Self-Discipline

* Contribution Beyond Self

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WE CARE ABOUT EACH OTHER AND WE HELP EACH OTHER LEARN


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Classroom Goal Structures CO-OPERATIVE

We sink or swim together I can attain my goal only if you can attain your goal

* small, heterogeneous groups Ideal Conditions

* other students as major resource * teacher acts as consultant * interdependence between group members * evaluation is according to a set criterion

INDIVIDUALISTIC

We are each in this alone My goal is not related to your goal in any way

Ideal Conditions

* separate working area * separate work materials * teacher is the primary resource * self-paced * evaluation on individual basis- set criterion

COMPETITIVE I swim you sink; I sink, you swim. I can only attain my goal if you do not Ideal Conditions

attain your goal

* small, homogeneous groups * maximise the number of winners * compete against people at the same ability level * not a " life or death " situation, but for fun and review, change of pace * evaluate by comparison to others' work

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An Effective Co-operative Learning

Lesson or Unit * Requires conceptual thinking

* Requires explaining and integrating others' ideas and perspectives

* Uses hands on learning and a variety of resources

* Is interesting, challenging, and meaningful, for each group member

* Incorporates the basic elements of a co-operative learning lesson:

Positive interdependence Individual accountability Heterogeneous grouping Emphasis on academic and social skills Opportunities to process/reflect on one's work, learning and participation


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Attributes Common to All Collaborative Approaches

1. Common task or learning activity suitable for group work 2. Small-group learning 3. Co-operative behaviour 4. Interdependence (often referred to as positive interdependence) 5. Individual accountability and responsibility

Attributes Which Vary Among Collaborative Approaches 6. Grouping procedure: (eg., heterogeneous, random, student selected, common interest) 7. Structuring positive interdependence (eg., goals, tasks, resources, roles, division of labour, rewards) 8. Explicit teaching of interpersonal, relationship, co-operative, or collaborative skills 9. Reflection on social skills, academic skills, or group dynamics 10. Climate-setting through class building, team-building, trust-building, or co-operative norms 11. Group structure 12. Attention to student status by the teacher identifying competencies of low status students and focusing peers' attention on them, when demonstrated 13.

Group leadership

14. Teacher's role

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Where to Begin With Classroom Change 1. Use more interactive teaching.

2. Map your taught curriculum, instructional strategies and assessments.

3. Know the outcomes, key ideas and concepts (understandings), skills and processes, and attitudes and values you are to teach (curriculum frameworks).

4. Articulate what you are teaching across departments and grade levels.

5. Link curriculum and your teaching and learning strategies.

6. Link curriculum , teaching and learning, and assessment, by using unit development process.

7. Use the key ideas and mindshifts of assessment (ie., on-going, variety of methods and assessors, no secrets, self-assess, assessments as moments of learning, etc.).

8. Within grade levels or departments, bring in unmarked student work and see if you would assess it the same; then develop criteria and rubrics to use for your grade levels or department.

9. Link curriculum and assessments to overarching student outcomes or performance goals

10. See the connection between your learning and your students’ learning.

11. Get yourself a learning buddy to plan and reflect with.

12. Become a facilitator of learning!!


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Creating a Learning Community

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Creating A Learning Community

Involves:

* Environment/Setting:

* Class Building:

* Team Building:

* Social Skills and Values:

T O G E T H E R


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Fortunately there have always been teachers who have not only wanted more for their students than participating in a good behaviour game and getting the "right" answer to someone else's questions, but have also known how to get the job done. These teachers stand out! They have done more than trust students, call on students to take the initiative, and value what students thought---they had the talent to bring a group together, keep it together, and teach it how to learn together. Their teaching demonstrated that they knew the contribution social life can make to learning. I think of these teachers as being masterful at making learning communities. . . because community in itself is more important to learning than any method or technique. LIFE IN A CROWDED PLACE: Making a Learning Community Ralph Peterson, Heinemann Publishers, 1992

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Learning Environments

Developing a feeling of EMPOWERMENT and COMPETENCE - through developing self control and a sense of self-worth

Creating a sense of BELONGING - to each other - to the class - to the school - to the community - to the global community

Understanding Basic and Physical SURVIVAL NEEDS

Making provision for EXPANDING CHOICES and MAKING RESPONSIBLE CHOICES - in learning and behaviour to develop autonomy

Adapted from Wm Glasser

Instilling a LOVE OF LEARNING - through inquiry and self-discovery -through ENJOYMENT * of school * of life and learning


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The Resiliency Shield

LIFE-SKILLS for self and societal growth

PARTICIPATION In a range of activities beyond their usual experience

CARING AND SUPPORT OF ADULTS AND PEERS

HIGH EXPECTATIONS of self and teachers

BONDING the development of positively supportive relationships

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BOUNDARIES established by adults, peers and self


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The Resiliency Process Model

RESILIENT

STRESSORS ADVERSITY LIFE EVENTS

REINTEGRATION

PROTECTIVE FACTORS

BODY, MIND & HEART PROTECTIVE SKILLS AND TRAITS

COMFORT ZONE

REINTEGRATE TO COMFORT ZONE

REINTEGRATE TO SURVIVAL DISRUPTION

REINTEGRATION APPROPRIATE INTERVENTION eg. SELF &

REINTEGRATION WITH LOSS

OTHERS

© Polly Eckert and Julie Boyd Adapted from work by Glen Richardson


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Connections BASIC NEEDS

+

RESILIENCY STRATEGIES

=

OUTCOMES

High Expectations

Social Competence

Caring and Support

Academic Competence

Choice

Participation

Problem Solving

Autonomy/ Respect/Power

Preferred Selves

Autonomy

Meaning/Love of Learning/Fun

Preferred Future

Hope

Belonging

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Classroom Covenant, Rights, Responsibilities Classroom Rules: * * * *

Be responsible for your own learning and behaviour. Show respect for self and others - no put downs to self or others. You have the right to ask to help and the duty to give it. You are not done until your group is done.

Classroom Covenant: Rights * I have a right to be happy, and to be treated with kindness in this room. This means that no one will laugh at me, ignore me or hurt my feelings. * I have a right to be myself in this room. Fat or thin, fast or slow, boy or girl. * I have a right to be safe in this room. This means no one will hit me, kick me, or pinch me. * I have a right to hear and be heard in this room. This means that no one will yell, scream or shout and my opinions and desires will be considered in any plans we make. * I have a right to learn about myself in this room. This means that I will be free to express my feelings and opinions without being interrupted or punished. Classroom Covenant: Responsibilities * I have a responsibility to respect myself and others. This means no put downs to self or others. * I have a responsibility for my own learning and behaviour. This means I will make a good effort to do my best. * I have a responsibility to ask for help and the duty to give it. This means that I will let someone know I do not understand and I will make sure if someone asks me for help that they receive it. * I have a responsibility to be prepared. This means that I will have the supplies and books needed for class everyday.

Including the class in the discussion and decision-making process of classroom guidelines will assure a clearer understanding and stronger commitment from students The format of the classroom guidelines will vary according to personal and classroom taste. What is important are clear and concise boundaries which are consistently enforced. Students not only need them, they WANT them!


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Creating A Learning Community Environment/Setting

* Room arrangement and bulletin boards * “Our” classroom activities and feelings class meetings, community circles * Class rules, norms, covenants student input “ownership” into rules/norms * Teacher models: ground rules/norms, effective communication, trust building and personal sharing * Teacher integrates individual/group activities into whole class focus

Class/Team Building:

* Group members develop “We” feeling/sense of team/cohesiveness * Group members share personal information; learn and care about each other as people * Group members learn and practice social interaction skills (communication and decision-making) * Group members feel a sense of interdependence (we sink or swim together) * Group members establish a mission and set common goals

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

CLASS and TEAM BUILDING MEANS * Group members develop "We" feeling/sense of team/cohesiveness

* Group members share personal information; learn and care about each other as people

* Group members learn and practice social interaction skills (communication and decision-making)

* Group members feel a sense of interdependence (we sink or swim together)

* Group members establish a mission and set common goals


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Establishing a Learning Community

Positive Practices

Group Dynamics

* Reflection Time

* Non verbal communication

* Unfinished Business

* Self disclosure

* Confidentiality

* Risk taking

* Respect for self and others

* Listening

* Clues to start

* Questioning

* Total quiet signal

* Values

* Small to larger groups

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Individual Needs in a Group Behaviour is driven by the need to belong. And, in order to experience a sense of belonging, students need to feel CAPABLE, feel CONNECTED with teachers and classmates, and feel that they are able to CONTRIBUTE to the group. The drive to belong often results in conflict, often known as “misbehaviour.” As we discipline co-operatively, we need to look for the motivation behind misbehaviour and attempt to meet that particular “need” in the student. Then, we build the self-esteem of the child through encouragement.

Misbehaviour is generally based on one of the four immediate goals of the child: 1. 2. 3. 4.

The need for attention The desire for power, or to control A feeling of revenge, anger at the teacher or others The fear and avoidance of failure

These misbehaviours are determined by the degree of feeling connected and/or contributing and always within the context of feeling capable.


L e a r n i n g

STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Transforming

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T o g e t h e r


L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

The Group Development Cycle 1. Forming

Personal/Interpersonal Inclusion, Acceptance

Task Orientation

Personal/Interpersonal Polite, Cautious

Task Queries Task, Goals

Advancement to next stage requires each member to: * feel included and know other group members * know the purpose of the group * risk sharing ideas and feelings; be willing to enter into conflict There is a need for people to know and care about each other; clarifying of outcomes and goals 2. Storming Personal/Interpersonal Influence, Power, Stress, Control

Task Organisation Rules, Agenda

Personal/Interpersonal Conflict, Openness, Criticism, Power

Task Questions Capacity to do Task

Advancement to next stage requires: * the establishment of roles * the ability to listen and appropriately share one’s ideas * that individuals stop depending on their own views and risk the possibility of being wrong * an ability to give and receive feedback It is important to be aware that those who do not resolve status struggles do not move on to become effective in problem solving, nor are such members happy with the group. The group will fulfil its task but the solution is not likely to be an optimal one; they never satisfy all group members and, at best, are products of compromise. If some degree of acceptance or trust is not established, decision-making becomes hampered by closed and guarded communication. Decisions are made without deep commitment. There is a need for structured experiences which illustrate the nature of the conflict and how to work through and resolve it. 3. Norming Personal/ Interpersonal Affection, Openness, Listening

Task Data Flow

Personal/Interperso nal Cohesion, Team Spirit

Task Share Information Willing to Change

Advancement to next stage requires: * a need for each group member to trust him/her self and other group members * establishment of group norms and procedures * make plans with each person understanding each others contributions 4. Performing Personal/ Interpersonal Interdependence, High Commitment

Task Problem Solving, Creative

Personal/ Interpersonal Each contributes, Agree to Disagree

Task Adaptation, Support


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Advancement to next stage requires: * recognition that the group’s role is coming to an end and that with final meetings approaching, mourning will begin 5. Mourning Personal/Interperson al Disengagement

Task Confusion

Personal/Interperso nal Conflict, Anger, Pressure to Hold

Task Lethargy Completion

Advancement to next stage requires: * recognize that the group is coming to an end * understand that the task may be de-emphasised in favour of social-emotional considerations * evaluate the personal skills and knowledge of group processes gained * assert one’s individuality and separateness from the group 6. Transforming Personal/Interpersonal

Task

Recognition, Appreciation

Closure

Personal/ Interpersonal New Excitement

Advancement to next stage requires: * recognition that one part of the group is completed * evaluation of the groups learning through the stages of development * celebration of the accomplishments of the group * moving on to the new formation phase.

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Task Celebrate Recognition


L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Team Development Wheel Instructions: Place a mark on the circumstance of the wheel to represent the present status of your team

Performing

Forming

Mature Closeness Resourceful Flexible Open Effective Close,Supportive

Testing Polite Impersonal Watchful Guarded

Norming Getting Organised Developing Skills Establishing Procedures Giving Feedback

Storming Infighting Controlled Conflicts Confronting Opting Out Difficulties Feeling Stuck


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Class and Team Building Generic Activities Group name that relates to the unit Business card that relates to the unit Use sentences from poem, limerick, etc., to form groups and then have the group write one about itself Draw things about self or group Identify self or group with an object (eg. I am like a TV because. . . .) Give each group a weird object and have them guess what it is and write a commercial advertising this object Give mathematical value to letters and have them make up words of a certain value/statistics about each other etc. Design a class or group T-shirt Design a bumper sticker/poster representing class or group Write an ad or commercial about self, other or group Songs/raps Use objects (eg. donuts, toothpicks, straws, etc., to build/make something Guess and find classmates or teammates who have certain characteristics. Murals/collages

Interviews

Logos

Slogans

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

ABC of DISCIPLINE

Autonomy

Belonging

Competence


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Steps In a Consistent Discipline Plan Ignore (initially) eye contact, proximity directive, assertive defusing, diversionary deflecting, value statements

“Denise, you know our rule on ______. Please _______.”

Restate the rule and give the child a clear choice

“Denise, you know our rule about _____. You can choose to stop or you can chose to ________.”

Apply consequences consistently a nd/or other strategies; eg., class meetings, problem-solving process, contracting, withdrawal to another classroom space

“You can’t touch me. My dad said so.” “Your dad’s right. Ok, children, where are we.” Deflecting: “I can see you’re feeling uptight right now. (strong eye contact) “Let’s talk about it _______(later).” Value: “What are you doing?” “How does ______ help you to keep our class rule on ________?” “ What do you need to do to ________?” “How can I help you?” Defusing:

Strategies beyond the classroom; eg., counselling, contracting, student support groups, “time out”, suspension

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Response-able Disciple-ine A disciple is a follower so a key aspect of discipline is the modelling of the teacher.

A second consideration is the ability of the student to respond to the teacher’s directions (not their willingness- their ability!)

The Four key elements of responsible discipline for a teacher are

ANTICIPATE

HESITATE

INVESTIGATE

COMMUNICATE


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Responsible Discipline is achieved by:

1. Building relationships

2. Improving Skills

3. Investigating What Happened and Why

4. Questioning own strategies and attitudes

5. Optimising Student Involvement

6. Constructing authentic Solutions

7. Mending/Fixing and/or MakingRestitution

8. Being Flexible and Adaptable yet Congruent and Consistent.

9. Accentuating the Positives

10. Planning for a Successful Future

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT shows in * Appearance/ Bulletin Boards

* " Our" School Activities and Feeling Mission/Vision School Pride Student Involvement/Responsibility for Schoolwide Activities

* School Rules/Norms Student Involvement and Ownership Consequences related to Misdeed and Reparation Consequences which encourage Student Reflection and Responsibility

* All Adults Model Effective Communication Shared Decision-making School Rules and Norms Co-operation and Learning

* Principal and Other Administrators coordinate Individual/group/class activities into Whole School Focus


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

WHOLE SCHOOL CLIMATE can be addressed through

Staff meetings — small groups....move groups Goals set by parents, teachers, students Diversity Retreats Peer tutoring/class buddies Co-operative Teaching Everyone teaches Physical Arrangement Schoolwide Themes Training all staff Relook combination across classroom

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Teacher Support Systems * Reading * Professional Conferences and Meetings * Coaching * Continuing Support AFTER Inservice (grade level/subject area…) * Inviting Other Teachers In * Educating Parents * Peer Support Groups * Professional Dialogue * Action Research * Videos and Sharing With Others


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Peer Support Groups are most effective when

* Voluntary

* Have discussion topic (come from group)

* ‘Ticket-in-the-door’

* Rotating facilitation

* Meet in teachers’ classrooms or on neutral ground

* Have refreshments

* Use group memory ie. whiteboard agreed ideas

* Move from small to large groups

* Process the meeting

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L E A R N I N G

Typical Meeting

* Ticket-in-the-door

* Team Builder

* Sharing of Tickets

* Topic of Discussion

* Announcements

* Next Meeting

T O G E T H E R


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Partner Coaching/Observation Reflection

For an entire coaching and professional reflection program see our manual

School Based Professional Learning and Reflection

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

TEACHER'S RESPONSIBILITY

OBSERVER'S RESPONSIBILITY

* Be willing to take RISKS

* Provide a SAFE environment for risking

Try new approaches Question how things are working Trust in your partner's intentions

Be nonjudgemental, Maintain confidentiality Intend to support self- analysis of practices

* CLARIFY the focus * INITIATE the focus for observation and discussion

Request specificity Paraphrase

Decide what you want to learn more about * COLLECT the data * TEACH the lesson discussed Take mental notes

Observe carefully Record thoroughly

* PROVIDE the data Report data without judgement Ask questions to guide the teacher's reflection.

* INTERPRET the data Reflect: What does this data tell me? What can I learn from this information?

* USE the data Plan: What shall I continue doing. What shall I change/modify/abandon? When should I use a particular strategy? How will I use this learning experience in my planning?

* PROVIDE feedback on the process to your partner.

* GUIDE the planning Ask questions that clarify and extend thinking Summarise by

* REQUEST feedback on the process


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

What Leaders Need To Know About Co-operative Learning What Co-operative Learning is/isn’t How Co-operative Learning meets our needs and/or reflects your goals for education What are the stages of implementing Co-operative Learning in the classroom/school What changes teachers and students need to make and how to SUPPORT these changes What common mistakes teachers make in implementing Co-operative Learning What common mistakes teachers make in lesson design/adaptation What are parents’ concerns about Co-operative Learning; how to involve parents How does Co-operative Learning look at various grade levels What are Co-operative Learning methods or structures What is my role in instructional leadership for Co-operative Learning How, when to evaluate or coach a teacher How to develop a schoolwide focus for Co-operative Learning - discipline - Student council - cross grade or subject buddies - school themes

- “our” school feeling - integration with school mission and plans - conflict resolution

How to build teacher collegiality - model in meetings - committees

- coaching, teacher reflection - collaborative decision making

Facilitating Organisational and Individual Change What is and how to build a “Collaborative School”

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Teacher’s Role


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Teacher’s Role Planning

Academic Concept Social Skills Group Task Materials Needed How to Include Basic Principles Group Formation, Size and Makeup Curriculum Integration Co-operative Structures

Introducing

Brief Orientation to Task Academic and Social Goals Group Interdependence Individual Accountability Group Formation Process Roles Time Limits

Group Work

Observe (watch and write) Intervene with Open-Ended Questions

Processing

First, Ask Open-Ended Questions Later, Give Feedback Use a variety of Processing Methods

Remember:

Always make time for processing so that the students remember their learning

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Developing Co-operative Learning Lessons Questions to Guide Planning 1. What ACADEMIC SKILLS AND CONCEPTS and LEARNING STYLES will be included? 2. What SOCIAL SKILLS will be included? (One inherent in lesson design, another to meet the needs of students.) 3. How will GROUPS BE FORMED? How many students per group? 4. What ROOM ARRANGEMENT will be best for the lesson? 5. What ROLES will group members play? Will they be assigned? 6. What MATERIALS will be needed for the lesson? 7. How will INTERDEPENDENCE be structured? (Goal, resource material and information, task, roles, etc.) 8. How will ACCOUNTABILITY be structured? 9. How much TIME will be allocated for ... a) Introduction/Orientation? b) Group work? c) Processing/Wrap-up? 10. What will the OBSERVATION process be during groupwork? (Who will observe? Who will be observed? What will be observed?) 11. Is the lesson INTERESTING AND CHALLENGING for all students? 12. What EXTENSION activities will be used? 13. In addition to questions generated by observation, what OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS will be asked during groupwork and/or processing? (eg. including both academic and social skills.) 14. How will academic and social learning be ASSESSED?


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Common Problems in Lesson/Unit Development * Not allowing enough time for pre-planning * Taking an existing workbook lesson and putting students into groups to do it, instead of adapting the lesson to co-operative groups with social skills, appropriate group size, group interdependence and processing * Turning to textbook first, instead of examining the scope and sequence of concepts to be taught and then brainstorming ideas and manipulatives that could be used to teach it * Getting the skills and concepts the students are to practice mixed up with the task they are to do. Ask yourself, “What are the outcomes I want from this lesson?” “What specifically do I want the students to learn about ...?” * Not structuring the lesson for a high degree of academic challenge or creativity * Not making the activity purposeful. Use the activity for discovery or application and then structure appropriately * Doing Co-operative Learning in isolated lessons that are not tied into a curriculum or unit; or that will progressively develop student’s academic and social skills and learning styles * Putting too much into one lesson, you may need to stretch to 2-3 lessons * Not developing written and/or illustrative instructions for groups; or too many instructions so students do not decide on their own process * Not having needed materials ready for the groups * Using too large groups so students are sitting waiting to do task; lesson needs to be structured so all can be optimally involved * Teachers planning lessons in isolation, instead of sharing and brainstorming together

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Hindrances To Facilitating Learning Planning * Not planning. * Not having materials ready for lesson. * Not considering group size or methods in forming groups. * Not tying lessons into a curriculum unit or focus. * Not planning lessons that need a variety of perspectives, student-to-student interaction or interdependence.

Introducing The Lesson * Teaching the lesson, rather than merely introducing the lesson (makes the introduction too long and does not allow students to discover). * Forgetting one of the elements of the introduction, ie., academic skills, social skills (“sounds and looks like�), (how students are to be interdependent, how you will get individual accountability, how to form groups, roles, time limit). * Giving too many directions orally rather than in written form. * Not clarifying students’ understanding before sending them to groups.

Observing Groupwork * Not observing, not writing observation notes. * Not using data from observation to intervene and in processing. * Trying to observe all groups, instead of just a few. * Not staying at one group long enough to see what is really happening.


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Intervening In Groupwork * “Hovering� over groups, instead of letting them work. * Interfering to tell students something rather than asking questions of the group. * Interfering without observing the group first. * Interfering and staying with the group instead of letting them solve the situation without you there. * Interrupting, rather than interacting; stifling, rather than extending.

Processing Groupwork * Not processing, THERE IS ALWAYS TIME FOR REFLECTION. * Processing every group, rather than a sample (Go to individual groups as they finish for more in-depth processing. * Giving your feedback first rather than questioning and drawing out student learning and reaction first. * Not asking for specific examples of academic and social skills practiced in groupwork. * No wait time after asking open-ended questions; then following with closed questions.

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Forming Groups How? Randomly At beginning of year After they have done a lot of groupwork and you know they understand the need to work with everyone Non-Randomly Teacher selected groups (not recommended to put highest, lowest in same group) Student selected (selected because of topic)

When? Often at the beginning of year, so all know each other during the year, For the length of your unit For a certain period of time (ie., a month) Long enough to get past the “Storming Stage�

Size? Depends on goal of lesson(s) - Introduction - Practice - Mastery Depends on complexity of task(s) Best to start with small and build to larger size groups Rarely, more than four Age appropriate


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

GROUP FORMATION METHODS PUZZLE PIECES LINES OF POEM/SONG LOOK AGAIN PICTURES GRADE LEVEL ASSIGNED PARTNERS ONE THING DID THIS SUMMER TO REFLECT/NAME TAGS LINE UPS FOUR CORNERS NUMBER OFF DECK OF CARDS MATCHING COLOR STRIPS MATCHING RESEARCHER WITH BELIEF SYSTEM

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

CLIMATE SETTERS/TEAM-BUILDERS

WHOLE GROUP MURAL

MAKE A METAPHOR

SHARING REFLECTIVE PRACTICE

ARE YOU SOMEONE WHO?

PARTNER INTERVIEWS

LEARNING/BELIEF INVENTORIES


L e a r n i n g

Some Group Forming Ideas From Classrooms

Non-Random Groups

* Heterogeneous or homogeneous language ability * Heterogeneous or homogeneous mathematical ability * Heterogeneous or homogeneous reading ability * Interest in topic (group research) * Personality type mix

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T o g e t h e r


L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Random Pairs * Match states and capitals * Match inventor with invention * Match pieces of compound words * Match opposites * Match homonyms * Match figure with number of sides (may produce a variety of pairs, but person only needs to find one match) * Match animal with sound *

Match piece of clothing with body part (may produce a variety of pairs, but person only needs to find one match)

* Match common pairs (bread and butter, toast and vegemite ) * Match character with book or story (use stories read in class)


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Random Groups * Numbering off (If there are 30 students in class, and you wish to have groups of 3, count off by 10 and have students with the same number find each other.) * Holiday shapes (Christmas items, shamrocks with slightly different designs) * Drawing cards (same number to one table) * Matching puzzle pieces (all of group have part of whole) * Categorising (all fruits, vegetables, clothing . . .) * Cause and effect (things that cause happiness, that cause something to break . . .) * Math problems (group by same answer) * Word problems (group by math operation needed) * Maths manipulatives (counters, dice, tangrams . . .) * Lengths of yarn * Birthday months * Parts of speech * Lines to a poem, nursery rhyme, or song * Fairytale characters (Put the name of the fairytale on a table.) * Types of literature (On each table, put the name of a type of literature--animal story, adventure, mystery, etc. Have students match characters to the type of literature-Charlotte goes to the animal story table.) * Steps in a sequence (baking a cake, building a tower . . . ) * Facts found in certain books (items found in dictionary, atlas, encyclopedia . . .) * Things found in certain places (zoo, market, school . . .) * Letters in first or last name (A’s together, B’s . . .) * Feelings (things that are funny, sad, happy, boring . . .) * Words in a certain language (Hindi, German, Spanish, English, Chinese . . .) * Match action to season (winter--skiing,ice skating) * Match action to place (mountains--camping, hiking, rock climbing) * Other names for colours (eg., for red--scarlet, crimson . . .) * Pencils of the same colour or decorative pattern * Courses of food (entrees, desserts, salads . . .) * Things that can be done by or to an object (ball--bounce, throw, kick, toss . . .) * Actions of an occupation (carpenter--saw, hammer, measure) * Tools for an occupation (teacher--chalk, books, blackboard, pencils) * Days that dates fall on (dates that are all Mondays, Tuesdays . . .) * Things studied in certain subjects (social studies--history, geography, sociology . . . science — biology, chemistry, physics) * Things of the same colour (red--blood, cardinals, tomatoes ) * Groups animals by environment (desert, forest, ocean . . .)

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Co-operative Learning Structures 1.

Think - Pair - Share: Give students allotted time to think, ask them to pair up to discuss, then ask for some of them to share their answers with the class.

2.

Turn To A Partner: Students turn to another student and discuss the subject assigned. Brief discussion, then back to the whole class.

3.

Heads Together: The co-operative groups discuss an assigned topic for an allotted time then everyone comes back to the whole group and shares thoughts.

4.

Round Table: 1 paper, 1 pencil - say it, write it, pass it. Used to generate lots of ideas. Be sure to ask questions for which there are many answers. Students may pass and give hints. It should be a fast-moving activity.

5.

Simple Jigsaw: Students in a group are each assigned part of a paper (articles, worksheets, etc.) and the completion of such paper relies on each student doing their part.

6.

Expert Jigsaw: The purpose of expert jigsaw is similar to the simple jigsaw. Use these steps: -

Number heads in the home-team group

-

Each number is assigned to a task

-

Similar numbers group together to become an expert group

-

Give expert groups time to consume the materials and become experts ready to teach the subject matter

-

Ask each expert group to prepare a visual from which to teach (optional, but we like it!)

-

Experts return to home team groups and each teaches material

-

Process! Yes, there’s always time to process!

Variation: Ask each expert group to prepare 3-5 questions to check for understanding. Collect the questions and use them for your assessment upon completion of activity. 7.

Numbered Heads: Have groups number their heads. Use these numbers to get feedback from the group. Assures higher level of participation and accountability.

8.

Three Step Interview: A interviews B; B interviews A. They introduce each other to class.

9.

Whip: “Whip” around the tables or groups generating ideas. Similar to round-table, but has no writing component. You can also whip around a room with numbered heads to generate ideas.


L e a r n i n g

10.

T o g e t h e r

Concentric Circles: Also called Inside-Outside Circles: Group is divided in half. One half forms a circle facing outward. The next half forms a circle outside. The existing circle with students facing each other. Ask questions of the group. Partners facing each other discuss. Then ask either the outside or inside circles to rotate one person. Ask another question, etc. * Is an excellent tool to review for tests or check for understanding. Variation: Ask students to write 5 test questions with answers. Check their work. Have them use their own questions for the activity.

11.

Pairs - Check: When students begin working on an assignment call a pairs check. Students check with a partner to assure their answers match. If not, they find out why and seek help if needed.

12.

Line - Up or Value Line: Students are given an issue and asked to agree or disagree. The room is set up for a line to be formed with extremes on opposite ends. Students talk with each other to find where they fit in the line. Have them discuss their position and why.

13.

Co-Op Cards: Like flash cards but more structured. Students make the cards with the term on one side and the definition on the other. It’s used in three rounds. Pairs are assigned as teacher, learner. Round 1 - Teacher says side 1, teacher says side 2. Goes through teaching entire lot. Round 2 - Teacher reads side 1 aloud, learner says side 2. Round 3 - Teacher shows side 2 and learner identifies what side 1 is. Then switch teacher and learner.

Adapted from a range of sources

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

GETTING STARTED WITH THE JIGSAW MODEL

1. IDENTIFY A CURRICULUM AREA AND CLASS

2. SELECT NUMBER OF STUDY AREAS/'EXPERT GROUPS'

3. DEVELOP: - SPECIFIC QUESTIONS FOR THE 'EXPERT' GROUPS TO EXPLORE - METHOD OF PULLING FINAL INFORMATION TOGETHER

4. ARRANGE 'HOME GROUPS' IN APPROPRIATE SIZES

5. ALLOW HOME GROUPS TO MEET AND ALLOCATE TASKS

6. PROVIDE TIMELINE FOR COMPLETED WORK

7. PROVIDE INFORMATION REGARDING EVALUATION STRATEGIES AND CRITERIA


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

CONSTRUCTIVE CONTROVERSY Teacher Assigns the team topics

SESSION I: Team A Shares; Team B takes notes and asks clarifying questions Switch Roles

SESSION II: Team B shares and refutes Team A's Case Switch Roles - Take Notes and Ask Clarifying questions only

SESSION III: Switch Positions on Topic Team A takes Team B side and MAKES BETTER CASE than ORIGINAL TEAM

FIND AREAS WHERE ALL OF YOU HAVE AGREEMENT !! MAKE A STATEMENT.

Controlled Controversy In teams of 3--*Read for 6 mins. discuss and questions for 2 mins. *Plan your devil's advocate strategy *2 mins. to present your case; team member doesn't respond *Team member thinks---then asks group clarifying questions,and comments on people's comments *Together the three clarify and team member thanks others *Debrief the whole process Variations: take specific roles; "bullet-proof" the positive aspects as well Flipchart Explanation: -Devil's advocate strategy -Control the time -Control the parameters of criticism (not personal) -Target is to LISTEN

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L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Sample Co-operative Lesson Planning Form Summary of The Lesson

Academic Concept(s):

Group Size:

Social Skill(s):

Group

Value:

Group Task(s):

Time: a) Introduction b) Groupwork c) Processing

What materials are needed: by teacher? by groups? by individual students?

How is positive interdependence structured?

How will students be accountable for group contribution, for individual learning of academic/social skills?

What are some possible questions/areas to address in processing?


L e a r n i n g

Lesson Plan Academic Concepts:

Social Skills:

Values:

Task:

Structure:

Roles:

Time:

Processing Questions:

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T o g e t h e r


L E A R N I N G

T O G E T H E R

Why Observe? 1. To see what children are APPLYING/USING/INTEGRATING as academic concepts and social skills/values.

2. To determine if one should INTERVENE.

3. To gather information for PROCESSING what students are learning and practicing.

4. To determine what, how, if one needs to RESTRUCTURE the lesson.

Why Intervene? 1. TO ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO DISCUSS THEIR WORK (ACADEMIC OR SOCIAL) TOGETHER.

Help students to think about and manage their own actions by asking open-ended questions. Turn the problem or situation back to the group to resolve.

2. IF THE GROUP HAS TRIED TO SOLVE A PROBLEM AND CANNOT SEEM TO DO IT.

Teach an academic or collaborative skill. Help group members see a need for the skill. Label and define the needed skill. Encourage the practice of the skill.

3. TO REINFORCE THE USE OF ACADEMIC OR SOCIAL SKILLS.

4. TO CONTROL A POTENTIALLY HURTFUL SITUATION.


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Sample Observation Sheet

Group 1 Names

Roles

Social Skills

Academic Skills

Roles

Social Skills

Academic Skills

1 2 3 4 5 Group 2

Names

1 2 3 4 5

Reflection Questions: Feedback: General Comments:

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Why Process/Reflect? 1. Helps students to focus on academic and social goals of lesson. Not just the task. 2. Hearing ideas from other groups broadens one’s thinking. 3. Helps students assess their skills and the activity. 4. Reflecting on one’s learning broadens one’s understanding. 5. Further develops children’s listening and oral language skills. 6. Provides teacher with information on how students viewed the activity and what they learned.

7. Assists with memory of learning.


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Reflection Possibilities In order to vary reflection, you might want to:

1. Have students pair up to share what they have learned. Then, have random students tell what happened in their pair. 2. Have students make up a riddle about what they learned. 3. Have students make up a poem about what they learned. 4. Ask students to illustrate (no words allowed) the main thing they learned. 5. Pair groups to share what they learned and to discuss how they worked together within their individual groups. They may problem solve ways to improve group interactions. 6. Form new groups with one representative of each working group present to discuss what they learned. 7. Have groups present their product to another group. The group presented to them presents the product they heard about. 8. Ask groups to sum up their experience, both social and academic, in five key words or phrases. 9. Ask groups to write a summary of their social and academic experience in the group. Make a “newsletter”, using all of the summaries, or pieces of each. 10. Have groups act out what they learned (like “charades” of a major concept).

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Feedback “Feedback” is a way of helping another person to see and change their behaviour. It is communication to a person (or to a group) which gives that person (or group) information about how he/she affects others (or how the group is affecting one of its members).

1. IT IS DESCRIPTIVE, RATHER THAN EVALUATIVE. By describing one's own reaction to another's specific idea or behaviour, it leaves the other free to use it or not use it as the other sees fit. 2. IT IS SPECIFIC, RATHER THAN GENERAL. To be told that one is "domineering" will probably not be as useful as to be told that "Just now when we were deciding the issue, I felt that you did not listen to what others said because at the time, you were talking to someone else in the group; I wish we would summarise all points of view before deciding". Speak to specific data. 3. IT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT THE NEEDS OF BOTH RECEIVER AND GIVER. Feedback can be destructive when it serves only our own needs as the giver; the giver also needs to consider the needs of the receiver. 4. IT IS DIRECTED TOWARD THE BEHAVIOR WHICH THE RECEIVER CAN DO SOMETHING ABOUT. Frustration is only increased when a person is reminded of some short-coming or issue over which s/he has no control. 5. IT IS SOLICITED, RATHER THAN IMPOSED. Feedback is most useful when the receiver has formulated the kind of question which those observing can answer and this places a responsibility for openness on both.

6. IT IS WELL-TIMED. In general, feedback is most useful at the earliest opportunity after a given behaviour--depending on the person's (or group's) readiness to hear it and the support available from others. 7. IT IS CHECKED TO INSURE CLEAR COMMUNICATION. One way of doing this is to have the receiver paraphrase the feedback s/he has received to see if it corresponds to what the sender has in mind. Also, both the giver and receiver need opportunity to check the accuracy of the feedback with others in the group.


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Assigning Roles Always make sure that Roles are appropriate to the task. When?

For specific lessons To help reluctant learner When students are new to C.L. To stop misbehaviour

Why?

Insure equal participation Create ownership Provide an opportunity to contribute Keep students on track Insure the job gets done Make it easier for groups to accomplish their tasks

What?

Facilitator, Checker, Reader, Recorder, Encourager, Reporter, Materials Manager, Evaluator, etc. (appropriate to task and subject matter)

Recorder * Makes sure work is recorded and that what is recorded is agreed to by all members.

Observer * Watches the group as it works together. * After the group finishes, discusses with the group how the group worked together. Helps group discuss whether academic and social goals were met.

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Reporter * Tells the teacher or class what the group did when they worked together in their group.

* Makes sure the group work is presented and that all group members agree about what will be presented.

Reader * Makes sure the problems or directions are read and explained.

Safety Person * Reminds group to handle materials safely.

* Watches to make sure no one gets hurt (physically or emotionally: inside or outside!).

Encourager * Helps group members feel good about working together.

* Says things like: Good Idea! Thank you for helping! Let’s try that! * Shows interest and excitement about the group’s work.

Set Up * Makes sure the materials needed by the group are in order.

Clean Up * Makes sure everyone helps to clean up after the groupwork. * Is responsible for turning in books, folders, and answer sheets.


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Facilitator * Makes sure the group understands the task and works to keep the group on task. * Makes sure the whole group discusses a question before asking the teacher.

Checker * Helps to make sure everyone in the group understands by asking questions such as: Do you agree with the answer? Can you tell us how we got the answer? Do you understand?

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Seven Steps in Teaching Collaborative Skills 1. Engage students in identifying the need for the skill (using discussion, role-play, story, or situation).

2. Teach the skill (using the Looks/Sounds/Feels-Like structure or other strategy).

3. Practice the skill regularly, and have students give feedback on how well it is used.

4. Transfer the responsibility to the groups to remind each other to use the skill.

5. Ask reflection questions about the use of the skill in working groups, the class, the playground, at home, etc.

6. Point out times when you notice people using the skill well.

7. Notice and celebrate when the skill is “owned� as a natural behaviour in the classroom or school.


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Teaching Social Skills 1. Help Students see a NEED for the skill 2. Define WHAT the skill is. “Look” like; “Sounds” like 3. Give students opportunity to PRACTICE the skill Roleplay, Video, Label throughout the day Book that teaches the skill Class/group activities 4. Give students FEEDBACK on use of the skill 5. PROCESS the skill with the Groups/class

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Sample Social Skills Group Forming

* Move quickly and quietly to and from groups * Stay with your group * Make sure each role is carried out * Use eye contact * Include each other * Divide labour * Set-up, clean-up, share materials Communication

* LISTEN to each other * Share your opinion/reasons * Ask for help, give help when asked * Paraphrase * Extend others’ ideas * Ask questions


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Decision-Making

* Make a plan, before doing the task * Disagree in an agreeable way * Get many ideas before deciding * Use a variety of ways to decide * Show respect for minority views * Summarise all ideas before deciding * Work toward consensus

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T- Charts Should Be Student Generated! These are examples only. Staying On Task Looks Like Heads together Sitting close together Eyes on activity pointing to material looks at clock Pass materials to someone else

Sounds Like Let’s get started. Could you help us with this? We need to ... Next, let’s ... Can we talk about that later? Look at this. How much time is left? Let’s move on. Any other suggestions? You do that and I’ll do this. Four down, two to go. We’re halfway there. We’re on a roll. Let’s keep it going. We’re almost finished.

Using Names Looks Like Looking directly at person making eye contact

Sounds Like

I like that, Bill. Good idea, Mary. I’m not sure I agree with John on this. Betty, I’m concerned about this. I enjoy it Robert, when you join in. I think it’s Fernando’s turn. Sophie, why don’t you start?


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Get Group Back to Work Looks Like

Sounds Like

Pointing to product Tapping shoulder Eye contact Pointing to the directions Hand motions Holding wok up Passing work around Pointing to the clock

We need you to be part of the group. _____, what are your suggestions? What can we do next? Let’s go on ... Let’s skip this one and go back to it. Where are we now? How much time do we have? Let’s get back after it. Let’s keep going. I think we’re off task. We can talk about this later. Time is passing I think we’re off track. Are we getting away from the subject? Let’s start again.

Disagree Politely Looks Like

Sounds Like

Body language: * positive & interested forward lean * eye contact * pointing * open

Let me show you another way. I see what you’re saying and ... Consider this ... That’s one way you can look at this ... You would hear questions being asked for clarification. I believe there could be another approach. I don’t agree. I have a different idea. I disagree with you. I can’t go along with that. I would agree with that if ...

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Keep Track of Time Looks Like

Sounds Like

Someone watching clock Point to watch Motion to hurry Looking at watch Looking at directions

Don’t forget we have 5 minutes. How much more time? We’re running out of time. You’re wasting time. We only have so much time. Let’s move on and come back to that later. We’re ahead of schedule. We’d better pick up the pace if we want to finish on time. Your time is up. Let’s make a plan. Hurry up. Go on to the next one

Respond To Ideas Looks Like

Sounds Like

Forward lean Sit up straight Eye contact Thumbs up OK sign Smile or frown Puzzled look

Good point. Good idea. I like that idea. Thanks for sharing. Cool. I disagree. I don’t understand. Say some more. That would be difficult. What about ...? The part I like about your idea is ...


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Helps Others Without Giving the Answer Looks Like

Sounds Like

Leaning together Pointing to problems Handing back the pencil Pointing to a chart Writing out an example

Where did you start to have trouble? What do you think came next? Do you understand? What? What steps do you understand? Can you explain this to me? How do I find the answer? How did you get the answer? Let me show you how they did the example or a similar problem. What do you have so far? Let me give you an example. Do you remember when ...? Questioning rather than telling. Let me give you a hint.

Seeks Information and Opinions Looks Like

Sounds Like

Outstretched hand Leaning in Eyes on others Squinting eyes

What do you think? How do you feel about that? Is there something more? Explain what you mean by that. Does anyone have a different opinion? What else? What are your views? Can you add to that? I’m curious about ... What do you think about ...?

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Keep Things Cool Looks Like

Sounds Like

“Time out” sign Smiles Pats on back Shaking of head “Calm down” gesture Wink

Let’s not forget to ... Can we compromise on this? Maybe we all need to take a deep breath. Time out! Let’s not get carried away with this. Can we work it out together? We don’t want ____ to feel bad. It’s OK to disagree, but let’s discuss. Let’s keep our voices down. What are you upset about - how can we help you? How can you both get what you want? Paraphrasing..

Show Appreciation Looks Like Smile Wink Pat Touch Nod Thumbs up High five Hug

Sounds Like

Thank you. That was nice. You helped me. I appreciated it when ... I couldn’t have done it without you. The thing that saved me was ... I liked the way ... It really helps when

Check For Understanding


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Looks Like Sounds Like

Eye contact Forward lean Group involvement

Explain that. How did you get this answer? Can you show me? Give me an example? Tell us how to do it? How would you explain it to the teacher?

Shares Feelings Looks Like

Sounds Like

Smiles or frowns Arms folded Excited face Tears High fives

I feel ____ because _____. jealous angry frustrated concerned proud left out excited encouraged I feel ____ because _____. glad relieved irritated etc. I wish ... Let me tell you how I feel about this. I feel close to this group.

Criticise The Idea, Not The Person Looks Like

Sounds Like

Everybody involved body language – moving forward, smiles Non-angry expressions smiles Touch someone on shoulder

I’m unsure about what you just said. Could we add more to your idea? I disagree with the part where you said ... Maybe if we changed this it would help ... I like this part of your idea, but maybe we could do this differently. I think the idea needs a little work. Let’s look at that idea closely.

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Summarise Looks Like

Sounds Like

One person will be talking at a time. We’ll see the lesson progressing without getting bogged down. Writing out thoughts on schematic drawing. Students are verbally and

Short, orderly, conclusions. The first point is, next is ... Let’s review what we have written down. The main purpose of this is ... So what we’ve said so far is ... At this point, we are ... Would you all agree that we have come to this conclusion? Our key idea seems to be ... This is what we’ve agreed to so far.

Contribute Ideas Looks Like

Sounds Like

One person talking with others listening Taking turns Raising hands Showing paper

I have an idea! What about ...? This is the way I’d do it. This is my idea I suggest we ... How about this? What if we ...? We could ... My idea is ...

Invite Others To Talk Looks Like

Sounds Like

Leaning toward invitee Encouraging hand movements Smile Eyes on invitee

What do you think? How do you feel about this? Do you want to share? Your turn. Tell us about it? How would you do it? It’s your turn. I want to hear what you feel. Please give us your idea. What’s your opinion, (name)? Questions directed to the individual. Let’s each respond to that. Let’s go around once. Anyone want to add to that? You haven’t said anything yet


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Check For Agreement Looks Like

Sounds Like

Thumbs up OK sign Head nods

Do you agree? Did you get this also? Is this OK with you? Did we all get the same answer? How many say “Yes”? Shall I write it now?

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Additional Social Skills Task Skills Lower Elementary

Upper Elementary/ Junior High

Senior High/Adult

Check others’ understanding of the work Gives ideas Talk about work Get group back to work Repeat what has been said Ask questions Follow directions Stay in seat

Check others’ understanding of the work Contribute ideas Stay on-task Get group back to work Paraphrase Ask questions Follow directions Stay in own space

Check other’s understanding of the work Give information and opinions Stay on-task Get group back to work Paraphrase Seek information and opinions Follow directions

Lower Elementary

Upper Elementary/ Junior High

Senior High/Adult

Encourage Use names Invite others to talk Respond to ideas Look at others Say “Thank you” Share feelings Disagree in a nice way Keep things calm

Encourage Use names Encourage others to talk Respond to ideas Use eye contact Show appreciation Share feelings Disagree in an agreeable way Keep things calm

Encourage Use names Encourage others to talk Acknowledge contributions Use eye contact Express appreciation Share feelings Disagree in an agreeable way Reduce tension

Maintenance Skills


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Advanced Social Skills

Authentic Acknowledgment In education we are often not good at acknowledging our influence, our sources, who actually created the information we are sharing, or where an idea came from. While this is often extremely difficult, we need to realise that in not acknowledging other, we are, as the Japanese so eloquently put it, ‘taking away another brick in the wall of their sense of self worth’.

Compassionate Confrontation We, in Australia, tend to be particularly poor at confrontation. We will either avoid it and complain to others, or become overly aggressive which makes both of you more angry. Compassionate confrontation means not letting people get away with saying or doing things that are hurtful to you, but doing it in a way in which they can learn. I believe very strongly that if we are each prepared to practice this — we’ll see some very interesting behavioural changes in those around us!

Careful Consideration Acting considerately toward other people means ensuring that both their and your needs are both being met in whatever you do. This requires a sophisticated level of communication — both verbal and non-verbal. If you have a tendency to override others, try the 60/40 approach — ie. 60% for them, and 40% for you, until you get the balance more even. If the reverse is true — then reverse to 40/60.

Creative Conflict Conflict is necessary if we are to change, however we don’t have to destroy each other in the process. My wish is that as part of our practice of co-operation we would each value and practice the idea of conflict which keeps the self worth of each individual involved intact.

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Core Thinking Skills Focusing Skills Defining Problems Setting Goals Information Gathering Skills Observing Formulating Questions Remembering Skills Encoding Recalling Organizing Skills Comparing Classifying Ordering Representing Analysing Skills Identifying ATTRIBUTES and COMPONENTS Identifying MAIN IDEAS Identifying RELATIONSHIPS and PATTERNS Identifying ERRORS Generating Skills Inferring Predicting Elaborating Integrating Skills Summarising Restructuring Evaluating Skills Establishing Criteria Verifying


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Questioning

1. Ask them consciously — be aware of the impact of your questions and refine them

2. Open-ended

3. Higher level questions

4. Wait time

5. Probe — ask more than one question

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OPEN ENDED QUESTIONING SOUNDS LIKE...

What did you................……think How do you............…….….feel Could you................….……observe Would you.............……..….analyse

?

What is your........……....….perception Tell me...............……....……about How do you .........….......…perceive Recall/remember............……………….

Could you tell me more about what happened...........................................

What specifically did your group do...........................................................

What might you do differently about..........................................................

Help me clarify my thinking/understanding about…………………………..


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Questioning for Quality Thinking Knowledge - Identification and recall of knowledge Who, what, when, how, where Describe .......... Comprehension - Organization and selection of facts and ideas Retell .......... in your own words. What is the main idea of ..........? Application - Use if facts, rules, principles How is .......... an example of ..........? How is .......... related to ..........? Why is .......... significant? Analysis - Separation of the whole into component parts What are the parts or features of ..........? Classify .......... according to .......... Outline/diagram/web .......... What evidence can you find for ..........? Synthesis - Combination of ideas to form a new whole What would you predict/infer from ..........? What ideas can you add to ..........? How would you create/design a new ..........? What might happen if you combined .......... with ..........? What solutions would you suggest for ..........? Evaluation - Development of opinion, judgments or decisions Do you agree ..........? What do you think about ..........? What is the most important ..........? Priorities .......... How would you decide about ..........? What criteria would you use to assess ..........? Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy

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Bloom, Goldilocks and the 3 Bears Knowledge

What was the story about?

Comprehension

Why did she like the Baby Bear’s chair?

Application

If Goldie went to your house instead, what would she find to eat for breakfast?

Analysis

Which events in the story just couldn’t happen?

Synthesis

How would the story change if it was Goldilocks and the 3 Fish?

Evaluation

Is Goldie good or bad ... defend your position?


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Multiple Intelligences Symbolic – abstract

Verbal – Linguistic

Mathematical – Logical

Visual – Spatial

Spatial

Kinaesthetic

Bodily Kinaesthetic

Auditory

Musical

Synergic

Personal

Personal

Interpersonal

Natural

Intrapersonal

Sensory

Natural

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DEFINITIONS OF THE [EIGHT] INTELLIGENCES Adapted from Frames of Mind, The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, by Howard Gardner; with some slight contributions by J. Keith Rogers. No hierarchy is implied by this numerical sequence. All intelligences are equally significant. Every person is a unique blend of multiple intelligences, each at a different stage of development, and each observed in isolation from other intelligences. All aspects of life are enriched by the enhancement of any of the intelligences. Every person deserves opportunities for enhancing all of the intelligences. Every steward is responsible for making enhancement opportunities available for every person in the steward’s sphere of influence.

1. VERBAL-LINGUISTIC INTELLIGENCE [OBJECT-FREE] Verbal-Linguistic intelligence is the ability to use with clarity the core operations of language. People with verbal/linguistic intelligence have a sensitivity to the meaning of words—the capacity to follow rules of grammar, and, on carefully selected occasions, to violate them. At a somewhat more sensory level—a sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, inflections, and meters of words—that ability which can make even poetry in a foreign tongue beautiful to hear. And a sensitivity to the different functions of language—its potential to excite, convince, stimulate, convey information, or simply to please. People such as poets, authors, reporters, speakers, attorneys, talk-show hosts, politicians, lecturers, and teachers may exhibit “linguistic intelligence.”

2. MUSICAL-RHYTHMIC INTELLIGENCE [OBJECT-FREE] Musical-Rhythmic intelligence is the ability to use the core set of musical elements—pitch, rhythm, and timbre (understanding the characteristic qualities of a tone). For example, Leonard Bernstein had lots of it; Mozart, presumably, had even more. As with any intelligence, it is displayed in various degrees of intensity, from the avant-garde composer attempting to create music, to the fledgling listener who is trying to make sense of nursery rhymes. There may well be a hierarchy of difficulty involved in various roles, with performing exacting more demands than listening does, and composing making more profound (or at least different) demands than performing. Musical ability is hard to define or pin down. It has roots in emotion, affect and pleasure. As Roger Sessions put it, ‘music is controlled movement of sound and time…. It is made by humans who want it, enjoy it, and even love it.’ “Musical Intelligence” may be demonstrated by singers, composers, instrumentalists, conductors, and by those who enjoy, understand, use, create, perform or appreciate music and/or elements of music. 3. LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL INTELLIGENCE [OBJECT-RELATED] Logical-Mathematical intelligence is logical and mathematical ability as well as scientific ability. What characterises individuals with high logical-mathematic intelligence is a love for abstraction. Mathematicians must be absolutely rigorous and perennially sceptical: no fact can be accepted unless it has been proven rigorously by steps that are derived from universally accepted first principles. They must handle skilfully long chains of reasoning and be able to recognize significant problems and solve them. While science and mathematics are


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closely allied, they can be clearly distinguished. While mathematicians are interested in exploring abstract systems for their own sake, scientists are motivated by a desire to explain physical reality. For the scientist, mathematics is a tool for building models and theories that can describe and, eventually, explain the operation of the world. Mathematicians, engineers, physicists, researchers, astronomers, and scientists, may demonstrate “Logical/Mathematical intelligence.”

4. VISUAL-SPATIAL INTELLIGENCE [OBJECT-RELATED] Visual-Spatial intelligence is the capacity to perceive the visual world accurately, and to be able to recreate one’s visual experience. It entails a number of loosely related capacities: the ability to recognize instances of the same element; the ability to recognize transformations of one element in another; the capacity to conjure up mental imagery and then to transform that imagery; the ability to manoeuvre and operate well in the world would have a high degree of spatial intelligence, as well as someone who works with graphic depictions of the spatial world, such as maps, diagrams, paintings or sculptures. Sailors, engineers, surgeons, sculptors, and painters may have highly developed spatial intelligence, as well as cartographers and architects. [“Visual-spatial” is a commonly-used adaptation of Gardner’s original term “Spatial Intelligence.”]

5. INTRA-PERSONAL INTELLIGENCE [PERSONAL] Intrapersonal intelligence is the ability to form an accurate model of oneself, and to use that model to operate effectively in life. Intrapersonal intelligence is, at its most basic level, the capacity to distinguish a feeling of pleasure from one of emotional pain and, on the basis of such discrimination, to become more involved in or to withdraw from a situation. At its most advanced level, intrapersonal intelligence is the capacity to detect and to symbolise complex and highly differentiated sets of feelings. One finds this intelligence developed in the novelist who can write introspectively about feelings, in the patient (or therapist) who comes to attain a deep knowledge of her or his own feeling life, in the wise elder who draws upon his own wealth of inner experience in order to advise members of his or her community, in psychologists and in philosophers.

6. BODILY-KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCE [OBJECT-RELATED] Bodily-Kinaesthetic intelligence is control of one’s bodily motions and the ability to handle objects skilfully. The role of the body is central, also, for inventors or actors. Those possessing high levels of bodily/kinaesthetic intelligence utilise their bodies, or parts of their bodies, as a means to fashion products, solve problems, or express themselves. Dancers, swimmers, acrobats, for example, develop keen mastery over the motions of their bodies, as well as those individuals, like artisans, ball players, jugglers, and instrumentalists, who are able to manipulate objects with finesse.

7. INTER-PERSONAL INTELLIGENCE [PERSONAL] Interpersonal intelligence is the ability to notice and make distinctions among other individuals and, in particular, among their moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. Interpersonal intelligence turns outward, to other individuals. Examined in its most

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elementary form, the interpersonal intelligence entails the capacity of the young child to discriminate among the individuals around him and to detect their various moods. In an advanced form, interpersonal intelligence permits a skilled adult to read the intentions and desires—even when those desires have been hidden—of many other individuals and, potentially, to act upon this knowledge—for example, by influencing a group of individuals to behave along desired lines. We see highly developed forms of interpersonal intelligence in political or religious leaders (a Mahatma Gandhi or Lyndon Johnson), in skilled parents or teachers, and in individuals enrolled in helping professions, be they therapists, counsellors, or shamans.

8. NATURALIST INTELLIGENCE [OBJECT-RELATED Naturalist intelligence is the ability to understand, relate to, categorise and classify and comprehend and explain the things encountered in the world of nature. It is particularly evident in farmers, ranchers, hunters, gardeners, naturalists, biologists, zoologists, botanists, entomologists, ecologists, ornithologists, ichthyologists, palaeontologists, anthropologists, and other specialists who study, classify, categorise, understand, adapt, utilise, explain, control, depict, and appreciate the natural world and bring these skills to bear on the general environment. Darwin, Audubon, and Gould are examples of well known naturalists. In the past, Naturalist been generally included in the Logical-Mathematical Intelligence and other intelligences.


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Verbal/Linguistic • Reading • Vocabulary • Formal Speech • Journal/Diary Keeping • Creative Writing • Poetry • Verbal Debate • Impromptu Speaking • Humour/Jokes • Storytelling

Logical/Mathematical • Abstract Symbols/Formulas • Outlining • Graphic Organizers • Number Sequences • Calculation • Deciphering Codes • Forcing Relationships • Syllogisms • Problem Solving • Pattern Games

T o g e t h e r

Visual/Spatial • Guided Imagery • Active Imagination • Colour Schemes • Patterns/Designs • Painting • Drawing • Mind-Mapping • Pretending • Sculpture • Pictures

Body/Kinaesthetic • Folk/Creative Dance • Role Playing • Physical Gestures • Drama • Martial Arts • Body Language • Physical Exercise • Mime • Inventing • Sports Games Musical/Rhythmic • Rhythmic Patterns • Vocal Sounds/Tones • Music Composition/Creation • Percussion Vibrations • Humming • Environmental Sounds • Instrumental Sounds • Singing • Tonal Patterns • Music Performance

Interpersonal • Giving Feedback • Intuiting Others’ Feelings • Co-operative Learning Strategies • Person-to-Person Communication • Empathy Practices • Division of Labor • Collaboration Skills • Receiving Feedback • Sensing Others’ Motives • Group Projects

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Intrapersonal • Silent Reflection Methods • Metacognition Techniques • Thinking Strategies • Emotional Processing • “Know Thyself” Procedures • Mindfulness Practices • Focusing/Concentration Skills • Higher-Order Reasoning • Complex Guided Imagery • “Centring” Practices


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Strategies to Extend Student Thinking Remember “Wait Time 1 & 2” Provide at least three seconds of thinking time after a question and after a response. Utilise “Think-Pair-Share” Allow individual thinking time, discussion with a partner, then open up the class discussion. Ask “Follow-Ups” Why? Do you agree? Can you elaborate? Tell me more. Can you give me an example? Withhold Judgment Respond to student answers in a non-evaluative fashion. Ask for Summary (To Promote Active Listening) “Could you please summarise John’s point?” Survey the Class “How many people agree with the author’s point of view?” (Thumbs up, thumbs down) Allow for Student Calling “Richard, will you please call on someone else to respond?” Play Devil’s Advocate Require students to defend their reasoning against different points of view. Ask Students to ‘Unpack Their Thinking’ “Describe how you arrived at that answer.” (Think aloud) Call on Students Randomly Not just those with raised hands. Student Questioning Let the students develop their own questions. Cue Student Responses “There is not a single correct answer for this question. I want you to consider the alternatives.”


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Checklist for Assessing Students’ Multiple Intelligences Name of Student: __________________________________________________ Check items that apply: Linguistic Intelligence _____ writes better than average for age _____ spins tall tales or tells jokes and stories _____ has a good memory for names, places, dates, or trivia _____ enjoys word games _____ enjoys reading books _____ spells words accurately (or if preschool, does developmental spelling that is advanced for age) _____ appreciates nonsense rhymes, puns, tongue twisters, etc. _____ enjoys listening to the spoken word (stories, commentary on the radio, talking books, etc.) _____ has a good vocabulary for age _____ communicates to others in a highly verbal way Other Linguistic Strengths:

Logical-Mathematical Intelligence _____ asks a lot of questions about how things work _____ computes arithmetic problems in his/her head quickly (or if preschool, math concepts are advanced for age) _____ enjoys math class (or if preschool, enjoys counting and doing other things with numbers) _____ finds math computer games interesting (or if no exposure to computers, enjoys other math or counting games) _____ enjoys playing chess, checkers, or other strategy games (or if preschool, board games requiring counting squares) _____ enjoys working on logic puzzles or brainteasers (or if preschool, enjoys hearing logical nonsense such as in Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland) _____ enjoys putting things in categories or hierarchies _____ likes to experiment in a way that shows higher order cognitive thinking processes _____ thinks on a more abstract or conceptual level than peers _____ has a good sense of cause-effect for age Other Logical-Mathematical Strengths:

Spatial Intelligence _____ reports clear visual images _____ reads maps, charts, and diagrams more easily than text (or if preschool, enjoys looking at more than text) _____ daydreams more than peers _____ enjoys art activities _____ draws figures that are advanced for age _____ likes to view movies, slides, or other visual presentations _____ enjoys doing puzzles, mazes, “Where’s Waldo?” or similar visual activities _____ builds interesting three-dimensional constructions for age (eg., LEGO buildings) _____ gets more out of pictures than words while reading _____ doodles on workbooks, worksheets, or other materials Other Spatial Strengths:

Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence _____ excels in one or more sports (or if preschool, shows physical prowess advanced for age) _____ moves, twitches, taps, or fidgets while seated for a long time in one spot _____ cleverly mimics other people’s gestures or mannerisms _____ loves to take things apart and put them back together again _____ puts his/her hands all over something he/she’s just seen

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enjoys running, jumping, wrestling, or similar activities (or if older, will show these interests in a more “restrained� way -- eg., punching a friend, running to class, jumping over a chair) shows skill in a craft (eg., woodworking, sewing, mechanics) or good fine-motor coordination in other ways has a dramatic way of expressing herself/himself reports different physical sensations while thinking or working enjoys working with clay or other tactile experiences (eg., fingerprinting)

Other Bodily-Kinaesthetic Strengths:

Musical Intelligence _____ tells you when music sounds off-key or disturbing in some other way _____ remembers melodies of songs _____ has a good singing voice _____ plays a musical instrument or sings in a choir or other group (or if preschool, enjoys playing percussion instruments and/or singing in a group) _____ has a rhythmic way of speaking and/or moving _____ unconsciously hums to himself/herself _____ taps rhythmically on the table or desk as he/she works _____ sensitive to environmental noises (eg., rain on the roof) _____ responds favourably when a piece of music is put on _____ sings songs that he/she has learned outside of the classroom Other Musical Strengths:

Interpersonal Intelligence _____ enjoys socialising with peers _____ seems to be a natural leader _____ gives advice to friends who have problems _____ seems to be street-smart _____ belongs to clubs, committees, or other organizations (or if preschool, seems to be part of a regular social group) _____ enjoys informally teaching other kids _____ likes to play games with other kids _____ has two or more close friends _____ has a good sense of empathy or concern for others _____ others seek out his/her company Other Interpersonal Strengths:

Intrapersonal Intelligence _____ displays a sense of independence or a strong will _____ has a realistic sense of his/her strengths and weaknesses _____ does well when left alone to play or study _____ marches to the beat of a different drummer in his/her style of living and learning _____ has an interest or hobby that he/she doesn’t talk much about _____ has a good sense of self-direction _____ prefers working alone to working with others _____ accurately expresses how he/she is feeling _____ is able to learn from his/her failures and successes in life _____ has high self-esteem. Other Intrapersonal Intelligence:


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What We Teach and Assess

Values/ Attitudes

Key Concepts

Strategies

Skills

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ESSENTIAL CURRICULUM ELEMENTS FOR STUDENT LEARNING CONCEPTS:

To Understand Timeless, Universal Ideas

KNOWLEDGE:

Information which is constructed into meaningful learning

SKILLS:

To be Able to Do —Use in a Context

ATTITUDES:

To Feel and Value — Cherish, Passion for

USE:

To Act and Know How to Act On or About


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Ways of Integrating The Curriculum Theme: An idea or a feature that is shared by, or recurs in a number of separate elements. * Place (for example, Egypt) * Event (for example, Landing man on the moon) * Era (for example, Depression) * Concept (for example, Friendship) * Generalisation (for example, Australia’s animals are marsupials) * Phenomenon (for example, Change) * Entity (for example, Pigs)

Issue: Identifies a specific question whose answer is a VALUE JUDGMENT about what should be the case. * Should recycling of products be legally required? * Should all government officials be elected for 4 year terms?

Inquiry: Identifies a specific question whose answer describes how things are or ARE LIKELY TO BECOME. * What is the most dangerous way to travel? * What will be likely jobs I could have in the future?

Problem: Identifies a specific question whose answer is a COURSE OF ACTION. * How can we reduce the amount of paper wasted in our school? * How can our school become more humane?

Project: Results in a “PRODUCT” of some kind. * Models or replicas. * Plays, skits, Dioramas, murals.

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Unit Development Outline

Appropriate COMPETENCIES/CAPABILITILES CONTENT

(teacher…student) Mentors/Role Models Family

Neighbourhoods Friends

MAJOR FOCUS CONCEPT RELATIONSHIPS

Gangs

Governments/ Countries

Presentation

Migration

Local Community CONTEXTS OUTCOMES QUESTI ONS

(a) Concept in these contexts (b) Curriculum Document - local - nat ional - international

Key Questions FINAL Performance ASSESSMENT eg preparation and presen tat ion of an au tobiography and b iolgraphy of a role model

COMMENCEMENT EVENT - e.g. m ovie/ book multimedia book

INDIVIDUAL/COOP/TECHNOLOGY Strat egies, struct ures and activiti es for student learning and research


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What We Teach And Assess A

=

Attitudes • Positive attitudes and perceptions about learning (climate and tasks). • Positive attitudes and perceptions about the world

S

=

Skills: Social Skills and Mental Habits

• critical thinking • creative thinking • self-regulation

K

=

Knowledge: Declarative and Procedural

• Acquiring • Integrating • Extending • Refining • Applying

U

=

Use Students need to be able to demonstrate the use of their knowledge (adapted from Dimension of Learning, Marzano)

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Necessary Mindshifts About Assessment

All students can and are learning.

The overall goal of assessment is SELF-ASSESSMENT.

We need to use MULTIPLE FORMS of assessment.

We need to use MULTIPLE ASSESSORS (self, teachers, peers, parents).

We need to look for SUCCESS and movement toward desired OUTCOMES or key learning results.

Human judgment can be reliable and valid.

The assessment is based on measurable, precise CRITERIA.

The criteria is NO SECRET to the learners.

We need to assess the PROCESS as well as the product, ie., assess metacognition (how one thinks) and meta-learning (how one learns).

Assessment is ON-GOING and continuous.

Assessment is NOT FINITE; it should not be limiting or set limits on student's learning.

Assessment results need to GUIDE INSTRUCTION.

The assessment, itself, is a LEARNING EXPERIENCE.


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Methods of Assessment 1. OBSERVATION Narrative-script or essay Checklist, Rating Scales Critical Incident Anecdotal Records 2. CONFERENCING Interviews-Pre, Post, During Students, others-parents, other students, etc. 3. PORTFOLIO, with analysis Best Work Collections In-Process 4. WRITING or WORK SAMPLES AND REPORTS Journals Case Studies, Periodic Reports Specific types of writing and examples of work 5. OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS 6. PROBLEM-SOLVING TASKS 7. EXHIBITIONS/DEMONSTRATIONS/PERFORMANCES Projects Panels Displays of Work Question and Answer Time 8. WRITTEN TESTS of all types 9. AUDIOVISUAL TAPING 1 0. MODEL-MAKING Graphs, Charts and Tables Specific Models showing mastery of information, such as scaled drawings, replicas, etc.

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What We Assess * PRODUCTS

=

Performance, projects (use and understanding)

* PROCESSES

=

Observation Interviews Feedback Checklist (how they learn)

* PROGRESS

=

Portfolios — Rubrics (growth over time)

(a) KNOWING

= TEST! (recall)

(b) UNDERSTAND

= All Above

(c) EFFORT

= Agreed upon criteria

`

= Shared with students ahead of time


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Assessment and Co-operative Learning What is being assessed? The academic and social skills that are stated prior to the lesson as the lesson’s goals. Academic skills including student’s thinking and learning processes. Academic and social goals should be clearly defined with reachable criteria.

How is the lesson being used? Is the lesson for discovery, inquiry, or application?

When is the lesson being used? Is the lesson at a place in the unit where students are in the process of learning/discovery or at the mastery point?

What, when, and how dictate the type of assessment. There is always assessment going on. Multiple forms of assessment allow for a variety of learning styles. Product and processes are assessed by multiple assessors. Individual accountability must be a part of all group work. Individual tests can still be a part of a unit. Students need to self-assess and receive feedback on social/group skills. Grades are not appropriate as feedback on social/group skills.

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Key Ideas about Assessment * Self-evaluation and monitoring * Assess Metacognition Metalearning

-

How they think How they learn

* Use multiple forms of assessment - Teachers, Peers, Parents, Self, Others - Narrative anecdotal records journals learning logs portfolios - Observational - Interviews - Scales and Tallies - Exhibitions - Videos Base assessment on OUTCOMES - reaching a GOAL No SECRETS; let students in on it Use just measurable, precise, attainable CRITERIA Assess PROCESS, as well as product ONGOING; needs to GUIDE INSTRUCTION

T O G E T H E R


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Why We Assess

ACHIEVEMENT

QUESTIONS:

Global Proficiency

Is the student a generally competent language user?

Placement

Where does the student stand in comparison with peers?

Diagnosis What are the student’s strengths and weaknesses?

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Teacher Observation Sheet Sample

Skill to be highlighted today is* on list. Others are to be practiced as reinforcement skills. Team Name _____________________________________________

Student Name 1. Contributes Ideas 2. Describes Feelings 3. Expresses Support, Acceptance 4. Encourages Others to Contribute * 5. Summarises 6. Coordinates Members' Efforts — Gives Direction 7. Relieves Tension by Joking 8. Interprets Data 9. Uses Logical Reasoning 10. Problem Solves 11. Identifies Main Ideas


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Using A Think, Pair, Share Structure for Teachers to Consider Issues Regarding Assessment Think 1. How have I assessed co-operative groupwork in the past? Both academic and social? 2. What is something I want to remember, think more about or try concerning assessment or grading co-operative groupwork?

Pair 1. What is something my partner shared about this issue? 2. How does what my partner shared influence my thoughts about grading or assessment of co-operative groupwork?

Share 1. What was the feeling of your grade level group about this issue? 2. Think What do I want to rethink as a result of “think-pair-share� or large group discussion?

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Thoughts on Assessment

1. One of the keys to school reform includes the premise that - Teachers should model themselves after athletic coaches, advising and encouraging students rather than lecturing at them; students should be “workers” who labour at their own education (Sizer, 1985). 2. According to Grant Wiggins (1989), we need to shift the responsibility in education from the teacher to the student and help students accept responsibility for their own learning. We need to endorse the viewpoint of “teacher as coach, student as worker” and stress teaching the “habits of the mind” (Wiggins, April, 1989); habits such as problem-solving, decision- making, analysis of divergent viewpoints, critical thinking, and self-evaluation which allow students to demonstrate thoughtful control over idea. 3. Many researchers believe that authentic assessment may hold the key to improving student achievement in our schools today by cultivating the higher-order thinking skills and problem-solving capacities necessary for improving performance. 4. Authentic assessments are challenging tasks that require the challenges and standards of performance that typically face writers, business people, scientists, community leaders, designers, or historians. They include writing essays and reports, conducting individual and group research, designing proposals, assembling portfolios, and so on. 5. Authentic assessments - often called performance-based or alternative assessments - seek to measure directly the student’s ability to perform in a subject area; therefore, they are designed to resemble tasks that a consumer or citizen might encounter in the real world. Such tasks require students to analyse problems, orchestrate skills, and generate ideas (Willis, 1990). They require producing, rather that reproducing, knowledge (Newmann, 1991) and require thinking of assessment as a process rather than as an isolated event. 6. Newmann suggests aiming toward authentic assessment in order to (1) motivate students and sustain the hard work learning requires and (2) promote the higher-order thinking and problem-solving capacities that are useful both to individuals and society. The use of authentic assessment techniques throughout instruction can provide valuable feedback helpful in making ongoing decisions about curriculum and instruction. 7. The American National Commission on Testing and Public Policy in a recent report stated that there needs to be “a fundamental change in the role of testing in our society that would see testing transformed from a gatekeeper to a gateway of opportunity.” One of their recommendations states that testing programs should be redirected from overreliance on multiple-choice tests toward alternative forms of assessment (From Gatekeeper to Gateway: Transforming Testing in America, 1990). 8. We need to begin anew, from the premise that a testing program must address questions about the inevitable impact of tests (and scoring methods) on students and their learning. If we are to change education to meet the demands of the information age, we must overcome our habits of using product-oriented assessment techniques to measure process oriented education.


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9. We need to redesign assessment to fit the goal of the restructured school: to prepare students for the complexities of the post-industrial era (Costa, 1989). 10. A genuine test of intellectual achievement doesn’t merely check “standardised” work in a mechanical way. It reveals achievement on the essentials, even if they are not easily quantified. In other words, an authentic test not only reveals student achievement to the examiner, but also reveals to the test-taker the actual challenges and standards in the field. 11. It is important that students be empowered for life-long learning: to lead fulfilling lives: a liberal education that allows people to tolerate ambiguity which is omnipresent in our society (Wiggins, 1989). 12. According to Elliott Eisner (1991), what really counts in schools is to learn how to help students formulate their own problems and teach them the tactics and strategies to solve them. This can be accomplished by altering the ways we assess out students. 13. Authentic assessment involves not only redesigning assessment techniques, but also reexamining and re-prioritising what we teach as well. It involves altering firmly entrenched beliefs about teaching and education held by some educators and administrators. In addition, in order to incorporate authentic assessment into our educational systems, it will require us to alter the delivery system and curriculum in order to maintain the integrity of the model. 14. Because of the complexity in designing authentic assessments, Wiggins (1990) encourages us to begin by asking ourselves the following questions: (1) What kinds of challenges would be of most educational value to students? (2) What kinds of challenges would give teachers useful information about the abilities of their students? (3) How will the results of a test help students know their strengths and weaknesses? and (4) How can a school adequately communicate its standards to interested outsiders and justify them, so that standardised tests become less necessary and less influential? 15. We must also consider carefully the role curriculum should play in our educational process. According to Wiggins, it must develop in students the habits of mind required for a lifetime of recognizing and exploring one’s ignorance. The modern curriculum should thus: (1) equip students with the ability to further their superficial knowledge through careful questioning, (2) enable them to turn those questions into warranted, systematic knowledge, (3) develop in students high standards of craftsmanship in their work irrespective of how much or how little they “know,” and (4) engage students so thoroughly in important questions that they learn to take pleasure in seeking important knowledge. 16. Archibald and Newmann (1988) suggest four guidelines in developing local plans to implement authentic assessment. They include: (1) Developing community input to gain political support and concentrate resources and attention to the project; (2) Developing teacher commitment by helping them understand how new forms of assessment will improve instruction; (3) Providing opportunities for full discussion of assessment problems and proposals through study groups to handle issues; and (4) Thinking big, and starting small because of the complexity of the change. The effects the change has on the ways we currently assess our students, our exit standards, the curriculum, our delivery system, and our current values on education, provide rationale for treating the change like

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a political campaign. It is important that it is well-planned and orchestrated to insure its success. 17. Authentic assessments are contextualised challenges which replicate situations and represent performances that consumers or citizens typically face or must do in the real world (Wiggins, 1989). These assessments involve a challenge of producing, rather than reproducing, knowledge (Newmann, 1990). They go beyond basic recall and lower levels of thinking by requiring the student to demonstrate their understanding and competency through a product, performance, or exhibition. The emphasis is on teaching “habits of mind” such as problem-solving, decision-making, analysis of divergent viewpoints, critical thinking, and self-evaluation. These habits can be used throughout their lives. 18. Advocates of authentic assessment believe that authentic assessment will foster in our young people the problem-solving abilities needed to be successful citizens in the 21st Century. Authentic assessment has many benefits. First, authentic assessment probes and prods the student’s mind to reveal what it knows and can do in action (Wiggins, 1991). They promote higher order thinking by presenting students with complex tasks such as open-ended questions and ill-structured problems. Authentic assessments serve the goal of greater teacher empowerment by allowing teachers to play the central role in designing, administering, and scoring assessments (Willis, 1990). These assessments are also more likely to motivate students because the student must play an active role in the process. 19. The move to authentic assessment will require a major shift in roles for many teachers. Because authentic assessment supports the notion of “teacher as coach, student as worker,” the student must take responsibility for his or her own learning. This means that the role of the teacher changes from merely teaching testing to seeing that the “habits of mind” are learned. This type of assessment also requires the teacher to play the role of assessor by requiring him or her to clearly articulate the evaluative criteria and standards upfront when the task is identified. Like a coach, the teacher must help their students know and internalise the standards for a winning performance. 20. According to Wiggins (1990), the new wave of assessment innovation promises to build the kinds of analytical skills that workers of the future will need. Unfortunately the change which needs to occur in order for us to move toward an authentic curriculum will not come easily. 21. Moving to authentic assessment is a complex, multi-dimensional change because it means not only changing the way we assess our students, but also re-examining and reprioritising what we teach as well. For many teachers, it will require altering some firmly entrenched beliefs about education and teaching. It will also require educators to revise their delivery system as they assume the role of a coach. Most teachers are largely unprepared for this complex task. For these reasons we must keep the complexity of the innovation firmly in mind as we work to implement it into the organization. 22. Because of its complexity, we can’t simply infuse authentic assessment into the classroom; however, a professional development paradigm could provide the anchored framework and organizational structure to help with the implementation process. Joyce and Showers have been successful using the paradigm to implement teaching strategies into the classroom (Showers, 1984) and attack the problem of transfer of teacher learning to regular and appropriate use in the classroom. Joyce, Murphy, and Showers (1989) have also applied the results of the training research to the improvement of a school.


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T o g e t h e r

Their study directly linked the training research to general school improvement goals. It confirmed the link between staff development, implementation, and student outcomes. The success these researchers experienced in implementing specific school improvements with the professional development paradigm holds great promise for assisting in the implementation of this multi-faceted innovation - authentic assessment. 23. Need to do a Paradigm Shift - with emphasis on: • Student as worker/teacher as facilitator • Thoughtful • Learning to learn • Co-operation and collaboration • Developing a community of learners/ leaders 24. Mastery of knowledge is not enough to survive. We have to know how to access knowledge and processes so we can apply them in a multitude of circumstances. 25. We must move to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. This will require a major paradigm shift. We can’t do it as schools presently exist. We have to get away from the add-on mentality. 26. It is like trying to change the structure - while maintaining the present structure. 27. If we are to change education to meet the demands of the information age, we must overcome our habits of using product-oriented assessment techniques to measure process-oriented education. (Wiggins) 28. The major dependent variables of schooling are not scores on standardised achievement tests, whether norm- or criterion-referenced: they are the kinds of ideas children are willing to explore on their own; the kinds of critical skills they are able to employ on tasks outside classrooms; and the strength of their curiosity in pursuing the issues they will inevitably encounter in the course of their lives. 29. Another aim that really counts in schools is teaching the young the importance of wonder. Wonder and imagination are fundamental not only in architecture, but also in science and in all creative aspects of human affairs. 30. If there is any single lesson that multiple-choice tests teach, it is for every question there is a single correct answer and for every problem a single correct solution. The correct solution is known by the test-maker or the teacher, and the student soon learns that his or her task is to converge upon the correct one. The tacit message is a message of convergence, of singularity, of homogeneity (Eisner, 1991). 31. Teachers and administrators don’t spring out of bed at 6:30 a.m. because of the desire to prepare, administer, score, and remediate after tests. 32. Tests lead to a preoccupation with production, workbooks and worksheets, and drills whereas teachers report that the major reward they derive from teaching is promoting, in broader and more imaginative ways, the growth and development of their students.

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33. The Chinese use the same ideograph to represent the concept of “danger” as they use for the idea of “opportunity,” recognizing that since opportunity and danger always occur together, their symbols should also be inseparable. This ancient culture, unlike the culture of schools, recognizes that it is impossible to make a significant move forward without encountering risks (Garth, 1990). The scent of danger should alert us, therefore, to the fact that we may be headed in the right rather than the wrong direction.


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T o g e t h e r

Lesson Plans and Activities

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Handshake Problem

TASK: SIT IN GRADE LEVEL GROUPS AND WORK OUT THE FOLLOWING PROBLEM:SUPPOSE EVERYONE IN THIS ROOM WERE TO SHAKE HANDS WITH EVERY OTHER PERSON IN THE ROOM. HOW MANY HANDSHAKES WOULD THAT BE?

ACADEMIC SKILLS: USE A VARIETY OF MATHS PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES TO ANSWER THE PROBLEM.

SOCIAL SKILLS: ENSURE THAT EACH PERSON IN THE GROUP CONTRIBUTES TO THE DISCUSSION.

ROLES: DETERMINE WHICH ROLES ARE REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THE PROBLEM AND ENSURE THAT THEY ARE DONE. REPRESENT YOUR ANSWER AND STRATEGY ON A TRANSPARENCY. BE PREPARED TO EXPLAIN YOUR PROCEDURE TO THE WHOLE CLASS.


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Life is Like A ...

Task:

Write a 3-4 sentence paragraph about life

Academic Concepts:

Use of Metaphor or simile Creative expression

Values:

Love of learning

Social Skills:

Expand on other’s ideas Get many ideas before deciding

Roles:

Facilitator Encourager Checker Recorder

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The Meaning of Life Some examples: Life is like a bagel. It’s delicious when it is fresh and warm, but often it’s just hard. The hole in the middle is its great mystery, and yet it wouldn’t be a bagel without it. Life is like eating grapefruit. First, you have to break through the skin, then it takes a couple of bites to get used to the taste, and just as you begin to enjoy it, it squirts you in the eye.

Life is like a banana. You start out green and get soft and mushy with age. Some people want to be one of the bunch while others want to be top banana. You have to take care not to slip on externals. And, finally, you have to strip off the outer coating to get at the meat.

Life is like cooking. It all depends on what you add and how you mix it. Sometimes you follow the recipe and at other times, you’re creative. Life is like a jigsaw puzzle but you don’t have the picture on the front of the box to know what it’s supposed to look like. Sometimes, you’re not even sure if you have all of the pieces.

Like is like an unassembled abacus. It’s what you make of it that counts.

Life is like new product development. Market research is the decision by the parents to have children. Product conceptualisation is conception. Development of prototype is birth. Debugging of prototype is learning. Successful sales is working. Product maturation is retirement. And product obsolescence is death. Life is like a maze in which you try to avoid the exit. Life is like riding an elevator. It has a lot of ups and downs and someone is always pushing your buttons. Sometimes you get the shaft, but what really bothers you are the jerks.

Life is like a poker game. You deal or are dealt to. It includes skill and luck. You bet, check, bluff, and raise. You learn from those you play with. Sometimes, you win with a pair or lose with a full house. But whatever happens, it’s best to keep on shuffling along. Life is like a puppy dog always searching for a street full of fire hydrants.

Life is like a room full of open doors which close as you get older.

What do you think life is like?


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Jigsaw Task:

Present material from expert group to home group.

Academic Skills:

Identifying main ideas Summarising

Social Skills:

Move quickly Stay with the group

Attitudes:

Responsibility for one’s own learning

Time:

30 minutes

Process: 1.

What were the main ideas of these articles?

2.

How did you make sure that you presented the main ideas and summarised?

3.

How would you adapt this jigsaw activity to your class?

4.

What questions do you have about co-operative learning?

Jigsaw Structure Use the jigsaw structure to read, discuss, and share the information in the articles provided or watch a video for different purposes as designated by teacher. The group in which you are now seated will be called your home team. Each home team should number off from 1 - 4, now. Next, divide the packets on your table so that each member receives the pages that match his/her number. (The packets are the same for each group.) Then move to your expert groups. (Expert groups are made up of all members who have the same material). In your expert group you will have approximately 15 minutes to read, discuss, and plan how to present the material to your home team. 15 minutes -3 minutes

read

7 minutes

discuss

5 minutes

plan presentation

Expert teams disburse and return to home teams where information is presented. Each member should teach the home team group for 3 - 4 minutes.

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New Inventions

Task:

Create a new use for the object shown and write a radio/TV commercial.

Academic Concepts:

Persuasive writing Creative expression

Values:

Curiosity Challenge of learning

Social Skills:

Give reasons for your answers get many ideas before deciding

Roles:

Facilitator Recorder Checker Prop Maker

As a group, brainstorm some possible uses of your the object shown. (eg., candle trimmer or other obscure object). Once deciding on a use, write a commercial advertising the object to the public. Present your commercial to class.#


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T o g e t h e r

Bagel Problem

Task:

Cut your bagel into 12 pieces using only 3 cuts. A “cut� needs to be defined before beginning.

Academic Concepts:

Problem-solving strategies Illustration of ideas

Values:

Perseverance

Social Skills:

Divide labour Extend each others ideas

Roles:

Timekeeper Cutter *Illustrator Facilitator (* will draw solution on overhead)

Time:

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Sharing and Introductions Concentric Circles (K-8) * DIVIDE class in half. * HAVE first group form a circle, facing out. (Move chairs, or sit on the floor.) * HAVE second group form a circle around them, facing in. Each person should have a partner. (You can join in if class has an odd number.) * GIVE class a question to ask their partners. - Choose questions appropriate to your age group. - Start with unthreatening questions, such as: “What do you like to do in your spare time?” - Move to questions which focus more on feelings: “Describe something that someone did with you or for you recently that made you feel good.” * GIVE each partner one minute to answer. * TELL students in the outside circle to move one place to their right, so everyone has a new * GIVE the class a new question to ask each other. * REPEAT as long as there is time and interest. After the Exercise: * DISCUSS within family groups, - Some new or surprising information you learned about someone in your class. - Think of someone who really listened to you. How did that feel? What did that person do which made you feel listened to?


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Sharing and Introductions Significant Object (K-8) This exercise works well with any age group and can be very rich in sharing. Holding an object helps to overcome shyness with strangers. * PROPS: An object of importance or significance to each participant which they can tell a partner about. These can be something they happen to have on their person or in their bag or backpack, OR Ask students in advance to bring something special from home they’d like to talk about. (In this case, be sure to have a safe place to keep these special objects until time to go home.) * USE a random method to pair up participants, or ask them to choose someone they do not yet know very well. * EXPLAIN that each person will have five minutes to tell their partner about their significant object: what it means to them and why, how they got it, any stories associated with it. * ENCOURAGE the listening partner to “active listen”; that is, show you are paying attention non-verbally and interrupt only if you don’t understand something and want clarification. Tell them they will need to listen carefully because later they will need to introduce this person to someone else by telling them what they have heard. * AFTER four minutes, warn the pairs that they have one minute for the first person to finish talking about their object. At five minutes ask them to finish their sentences and switch. * WHEN both partners have introduced themselves by telling about their significant object, have the pairs get together with another pair.

* GIVE the teams of four 15 minutes for each person to introduce their partners, telling what they learned about them from their significant object.

* CALL the whole class to attention and ask each group of four persons to discuss for one minute what they learned from this experience. What do they know about each other that they didn’t before? How do they feel now that they know each other better? (Grades K-2 may simply discuss what they liked about doing this with their friends.)

* AFTER one minute, ask the groups to choose someone to report back to the class what they have discussed. As they report, you facilitate by pointing out common themes or differences among the groups. If there is time, group members other than the chosen spokesperson may add statements.

* FOR upper elementary and middle school students, ask each group to discuss among themselves what they now know about the resources of the class as a whole. What talents or expertise or interesting past experiences have they discovered among their friends? How could these help the class?

* GIVE three minutes or more to talk about these things and then have the groups report to the whole class. While they do this, you should list the resources and ideas on a sheet of butcher paper that can be posted for future reference.

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Variations on the Significant Object * EACH child draws a picture of themselves or draws anything of special interest to them. They each then tell about it to their partner. * TAKE the class outside and ask each person to choose an object from nature (such as a stone, a leaf, a shell) that has special meaning for them. Or have them bring a natural object from home. In pairs they explain to each other why the natural object is significant to them. * HAVE an assemblage of various objects ready and ask participants to choose one that means something to them, or “beckons” to them, and explain to a partner why. * TAKE the group to a junk yard, museum, or gallery and have each person select something that speaks meaningfully to them. Again, they explain why to a partner. * AS with the Significant Object from home, these variations may also serve as “active listening” exercises, with partners explaining to another pair what their partner said


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Sharing and Introductions Friends Team Up (4-8) * PAIRS who consider themselves friends try to predict how their friend will answer several questions. The rest of the class guesses whether the predictor will be correct. * ASK for pairs of students who think they know each other fairly well to volunteer for this exercise. * GIVE each pair a sheet of questions for each partner and send one partner outside to fill out the sheet in privacy. * HAVE the inside partner guess aloud how the outside partner will answer. * AS each inside partner guesses, the rest of the class guesses whether or not they will be right. - Keep a score sheet. - Place number of the question along the top and names of the pair along the sides. - For each prediction, record whether you think the friend will be right (write +) or wrong (write -). * BRING partners back in and compare answers while the audience checks their guesses. * REFLECT on the activity with the following questions: - How well do we know each other? - What was the most surprising thing you learned? - What did you learn about someone that was new?

The same exercise can be done with pairs who do not know each other well.

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Imaginary Ball Toss (K-8) This is a good exercise for reinforcing name learning within a group in a non-threatening way.

* WHOLE Class or Family Groups stand in a circle. * AS Facilitator, pretend you have a large ball in your hands. * TELL the group that you will toss the imaginary ball to someone whose name you call out: “Nan to Jed.” * RECEIVER must pretend to catch the ball, and then toss it to someone else, calling out their name as they do so: “Ted to John.” * AFTER a few rounds, when the “ball” is tossed back to you, make it into something else: an egg, a watermelon, etc. * AS they want to change it again, let your students’ imaginations run rampant!


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Interview Questions “We Like” Collages

Task:

Make a collage, using magazines provided, that describes some of the favourite things of your group members.

Academic Concepts:

Sorting and classifying

Values:

Honouring and accepting differences

Social Skills:

Coming to agreement before making product; dividing labour when working Recorder

Roles: Facilitator

Cutter Encourager

Uncommon Commonalities Task:

Discuss with your partner, things you might have in common that would not be true of the other two people in your group of four.

Academic Concepts:

Prediction using prior knowledge

Values:

Honouring differences Respecting others

Social Skills:

Extend each others’ ideas

Roles:

Recorder Facilitator Cutter Encourager

Time:

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Name Tag Maths 1.

Put your name on a name tag.

2.

If “A” is worth one cent (.01), and “B” is worth two cents (.02), and “C” is worth three cents (.03) etc., figure out the value of your name.

3.

Help your teammates find the value of their names.

4.

Total the value of all team members’ names.

5.

Make up a team name that comes as close to $1.00 value as possible.

6.

Write down other $1.00 words (there really are several; Hint: think of coins, things associated with fall holidays, etc.)

Dinner Party Task:

Individually, make a list of 5 people (famous or not; living or dead) who you would like to invite to a dinner party. (You are automatically there and not one of your 5.) Make a group list of 5 people for the dinner party.

Academic Concepts:

Problem solving strategies Analysing and synthesising data

Values:

Honouring Differences

Social Skills:

Disagree in an agreeable way

Roles:

Recorder Checker

Facilitator Encourager


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Some Co-operative Games Team Games Siamese Soccer – Set up for a regular game of soccer (teams, goals boundaries, etc..) but make the field a little smaller. Players pair up on each team and tie their ankles together (as in 3-legged races). They can kick the ball with either their free foot or the “big foot.” Other suggestions: have the goalie be two people tied back-to-back at the waist; have two balls — one for each team — going simultaneously. Rock/Paper/Scissors – Each team decides (in a huddle) which of the three symbols they will use for each “challenge.” In two lines on either side of a centre line, the teams face each other and begin to chant “Rock/Paper/Scissors” and throw their symbols. The team that throws the winning symbol chases the other team, trying to tag an many of their players as possible before they reach their free zone. When a player is tagged, s/he joins the other team. (It’s a good idea for each team to decide on a second symbol choice in case both teams throw the same symbol in a given challenge.). A variation of R/P/S/ is Giants/Elves/Wizards. Hagoo – In the language of the Tlingit Indians of Alaska, “haggo” means “come here.” Teams stand facing one another forming a 2-3 foot gauntlet. The two players, one from each team standing at opposite ends of the gauntlet, are the challengers. They bow to one another, say “hagoo,” and walk forward without smiling or breaking eye contact. If they can continue down the gauntlet without smiling or looking at any of the team members, they rejoin their own in victory. If they break eye contact or smile, they join the opposing team. (It’s a good idea to have a referee at either end of the gauntlet to check eyes and smiles.) Team members can jeer, laugh and make faces to get the challenger to smile, but they cannot make physical contact with him/her.

Variations of Tag Blob Tag - The blob begins as a single person who's “it.” As soon as “it” tags someone, that person joins hands with the Blob and becomes part of it. Everyone the Blob catches (only the outside hand on either end of the Blob can snatch at players) joins hands with it and becomes part of the chain. It eventually corners the few stray players left (providing you have clearly marked boundaries). The last person caught can always allow the Blob to split itself into parts so it can organize raiding parties on those who haven’t been caught.) Hug Tag - Players are only safe from the person who is “it” if they are holding on to one other player. You can make it more challenging by increasing the number who must be hugging three, four, and even five.

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Co-operative Games Involving the Entire Group (20-30 Players) Yurt Circle – The name of this game derives from the Mongolian nomads’ tent in which the roof pushes against the walls in perfect equilibrium, keeping the structure standing. An even number of players form a circle, facing the centre, holding hands and almost touching shoulders. We go around the circle with each person saying “In” or “Out” (like numbering off). At the count of three, all the “Ins” lean in toward the centre of the circle, and all the “Outs” lean out. Everyone’s feet remain stationary. Once your yurt circle is stable, you can count to three and have the “Ins” lean out while the “Outs” lean in. Eventually, try switching in rhythm. People to People – An even number of players, each paired with a partner, stand in a large circle with the “caller” in the middle. The caller begins chanting “People to People.” Players join the chant. Then in the same rhythm, the caller yells a direction like “Head to Head” or “Hip to Hip.” Each pair follows the direction and remains touching the given body parts until the next call is made. (No X-rated instructions, please.) When the caller eventually calls “People to People” again, everyone scrambles to find a new partner. The “odd man out” is rewarded by becoming the new caller. (Primary grade children may need an adult helping them call.) A fun variation is to have two people call at a time. One person calls out the first body part and the second person calls out the second body part. Spirals – Players join hands in a large circle. Teacher designates someone to be the leader. S/he drops hands with the person on his/her left and begins leading the human rope around the circle. If the person on the leader’s left remains stationary and everyone remains holding hands, eventually the circle will form a tight spiral around the centre. To unfold the spiral, have the centre person duck down and begin to crawl through the forest of legs. Everyone else, still holding hands, should follow until once again the group forms an unbroken circle. Lap Game - A good way to end a game period with a real sense of unity is to have the group from a tight circle (shoulder-to-shoulder). Then everyone turns to the right (so they are facing their neighbour’s back) and at the count of three, gently sits down on the lap of the person behind them. It helps to hold onto the waist or shoulders of the person in front.)


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Co-operative Games for Groups of Six - Twelve Aladdin’s Jewels - One person chosen as Aladdin stands guard (ie., kneels on all fours) over his “jewels” (a handkerchief placed on the ground). Everyone else forms a circle around him and tries to steal the treasure without being tagged. If you get tagged, you are instantly frozen in place until the end of the game (which usually isn’t long). (Some people “fake” being frozen in order to trick Aladdin and capture his jewels!) Whoever gets the treasure starts the game over and becomes the new dragon. When there are two or more teachers, try these: People Pyramids - Each pyramid contains 10 people. Four stout-hearted ones kneel side-by-side to form the base. Three somewhat lighter souls crawl on top, followed by two even lighter creatures. The pyramid is topped off by one very small, agile daring individual! Be sure to have two spotters to avoid any injuries. Catch the Dragon’s Tail - Eight to twelve people form a line, each holding on to the waist of the person in front of them. The last person in the line has a handkerchief sticking out of his/her pocket which is the dragon’s tail. When the leader yells “Catch your tail,” the head of the dragon (ie., the person in front) attempts to grasp the handkerchief. Of course, if anyone in the dragon lets go, the dragon’s dead and has to fall down! Once the dragon catches its own tail, the line can be split in the middle so the middle people get a chance to be in the favoured first and last positions. Knots - A group of six to twelve people stand shoulder-to-shoulder in a circle facing the centre. Each person holds hands with two other people who are not standing next to him/her. To untangle the knot, people have to go over and under arms without letting go of hands. (Note: pivoting on your handholds without actually letting go will find yourselves in a large circle or, occasionally, two interconnected ones.

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FURTHER ACTIVITIES


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Sample Primary Activities Managing Learning Time BEGINNING Be ready to tell one playground rule… Be ready to tell me the names of the children in our class which begin with J or M, etc. Be ready to draw something that is only drawn with circles Be ready to tell a good health habit… Have a colour word on the board. Have children draw something that colour. Flash fingers — children tell how many fingers. Say numbers, days of the week, months — and have children tell what comes next. What number comes between these two numbers: 31-33, 45-47, etc. What number comes before/after 46, 52, 13, etc.? Have a word written on the board. Children make a list of words that rhyme. Have a word written on the board. Children list words with the same long or short vowel sound. Put spelling words in alphabetical order. Count to 100 by 2s, 5s, 10s, etc — either oral or written. Use T squares to drill maths fundamentals. Think of animals that live on a farm, in the jungle, in water, etc. Give names of fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. Hangman using the names of the children in the class or colours or numbers. Simon Says List things you can touch, things you can smell, big things, small things, etc. List the colours you are wearing. Clapping games Finger plays

END OF LEARNING TIME “I Spy” — who can find something in the room that starts with M, P, etc.? Who can find something in the room that has the sound of short a, long a, etc? Number rows or tables. Teacher signals number of table with fingers, children leave accordingly. Those children who have all crayons put away may leave now, etc. Those with freckles may leave, buckled shoes, new front teeth, etc. Count in order or by 2s, 5s, etc. Say the days of week , the months of the year. What day is it, what month is it, what is the date, what is the year, how many months in a year, how many days in a week, etc? Reward activity: “W e have had a good day! Who helped it be a good day for all of us? Betty, you brought flowers to brighten the room. You may leave. John, you remembered to rinse your hands. Good for you. You may leave. Ellen showed us that she could be quiet coming into the room today. You may leave, Ellen. Bob remembered his library book all by himself. Dawn walked all the way to the playground — she remembered our safety rules. Lori brought things to share with us. Tom surprised us with a perfect spelling paper — he must have practiced, etc. etc.” So students can be grouped together for good deeds to speed things up. Teacher can finish, “You’re all learning to be thoughtful. I’m very proud of all of you and you should be very proud of yourselves.” Use flashcards. A first correct answer earns dismissal. To review the four basic shapes, each child names an object in the room either in the shape of a triangle, circle, square, etc. Say a word that begins or ends with certain consonants, blends, etc. Dismiss by colour of eyes, colour of clothing, type of colour of shoes, month of birthday, season by birthday, beginning letter of first name, beginning letter of last name. Name an object that begins with B, C, etc. Pretend you are this object as you leave. What will we remember for tomorrow?

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Sample Processing Sheets Primary Use statements that deal with the assigned social skills. Statements are read aloud to the class. Each student completes the Processing Sheet by putting an X over the happy face for YES or and X over the sad face for NO. When each group has reached consensus, the teacher writes in the goal setting answer. 1. I shared in my group today.

2. I encouraged others in my group.

3. I used names.

4. Others shared with me.

5. I felt encouraged by people in my group.

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DEBRIEFING QUESTIONS How did you feel when you shared? What thoughts crossed your mind? Did the group listen as you shared? How did you know? Did you have fun? How did you feel about sharing something special? How would you display your (bumper sticker)? Do you identify with your (famous name) in any way? Why was it difficult or easy? What are your feelings toward the group now? What feelings did you have (as your portrait was being drawn)? Was it hard to think of something (good) to share? Did people share more freely as the activity progressed? Did you feel free to offer any suggestions without judging them yourself? Was it difficult not to judge or comment? How did this group feel about itself after the activity/ How did you feel as your turn came closer? How did you feel when someone said the same thing? How did the group feel if a member was temporarily stumped?


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Cooperative Learning Sample LESSON OUTLINE Objectives: Cognitive — States the learning or activity to be completed. Affective — States the behaviour being worked on in the lesson. Rules: Active listening No put downs Everyone participates Rule refinements Positive Interdependence Requesting on product Random selection of the product evaluated Keep a group progress chart Individual tasks accepted only when all members complete their tasks A single grade for the group product Bonus points when all members achieve up to criteria Awards/praise when criteria is reached Limit the resources Jigsaw lesson where each member has part of the information Each member writes a specific portion of the lesson Assign tasks within the group where one job is dependent upon the completion of the previous job Group role/tasks are planned and assigned Activity/assignments are stated Procedures necessary to successfully complete the assignment Time limits for the lesson and or its parts Materials necessary for completing the assignment Evaluation of the affective objective: Directions on how to give the score Review the criteria for the score Time to think how self and others did on following the objective Give the appropriate score Validate the score with specific examples Think of improvements to be made next time Debriefing on feelings and concerns Sharing and evaluation of the products or leanings products from the cognitive objective

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NAME ___________________________________

PERSONAL COAT OF ARMS

UPPER GRADES Procedures: In each of the numbered sections draw a picture (design or symbol) or write a word to represent following: 1. What you are striving to become 2. What your parents want you to become 3. THE ONE THING YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH by the time you are age 65. 4. Your greatest assets 5. THE GREATEST OBSTACLE TO YOUR ACCOMPLISHING YOUR GOALS 6. Write four words to describe what you want people to say about you when you are gone..


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Your Shoes — Community Circle Discussion

Objective 1. Each person has a chance to share an idea. Everyone has a chance to see and hear. Objective 2. Everyone is to use all three parts of active listening. Look at the person speaking Listen and think about what the person is saying Have your hands in your lap so you know where they are Procedures 1. The teacher announces the topic of today’s community circle. “Tell where you would like to have your shoes take you.” Model the proper form for sharing the answer by taking your turn first. 2. The person on the right of the teacher shares. 3. Continue around the circle until all have shared. 4. If a listener can not hear the speaker, they can signal for the speaker to speak louder by raising one hand 5. Any student has the right to pass until everyone else has had a turn 6. Students evaluate how well they did on active listening by showing 5 fingers for a perfect job showing 3 fingers for some students showed active listening and some students didn’t show active listening showing 1 finger which means most students need to improve their active listening 7. Validate their vote by asking some students why they gave the score they did 8. Debrief on how it felt to share in community circle

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ROUNDTABLE In Roundtable students answer questions. These may be relatively simple or more complex. Each group member participates. Team identity is formed as teams improve on these tasks and as everyone contributes. Students share ideas and see themselves as part of a learning and productive group. Two types of roundtable are Sequential and Simultaneous.

SEQUENTIAL ROUNTABLE 1. Members sit in circle with common workspace 2. Present problem with many solutions. Such as: - Write as many words, as you can, from the word TEAMWORK - Write as many pairs, as you can, of number pairs that add up to 21 - Write as many foods, colours, animals, etc. as you can 4. Teams race with each member taking a turn and then passing to the left and right 5. After a minute, or so, quick assessment is taken so that insight is gained on how to get better and faster 6. Do the activity again, check results for improvement 7. Debrief Sequential Roundtable is best suited for activities with many, short quick answers and facts. It lends itself to review!!!


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SIMULTANEOUS ROUNDTABLE

Procedure is basically the same as “sequential� roundtable.

- There is a problem to solve that has many solutions - All contribute - Pass to the next member, right or left - There are team solutions The difference is that all individuals actively participate at the same time. For example, four sheets of paper are passed around at the same time where each member is simultaneously working on something.

Simultaneous Roundtable activity requires more thought, time, longer answers and creativity. It keeps all student actively involved.

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Literature Co-op Objective 1. Groups develop a pictorial sequence of events for the story Objective 2. Everyone participates in the talking and drawing. Procedures: 1. Read the story to the class 2. Discuss that things happening one after another make a story interesting. It is called the story sequence 3. Read the story again and listen for the content sequence 4. In your cooperative groups discuss the things the content 5. The groups work together to draw 6 to 8 pictures to illustrate the story. 6. Reread the story and as the story is read, members of the different groups can contribute pictures to make a class story sequence map 7. The story can be read again to proof read the story sequence map 8. Remove the class story sequence map 9. The students go back to their cooperative groups and try to make a complete story sequence for their group. 10. Evaluate how the group did in having everyone participates in the discussion nd drawing by filling in the evaluation sheet 11. Discuss how it felt to work together as a group to make the sequence 12. Share the story sequence maps * This lesson may need to be done over a period of several days.


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ICE CREAM SUNDAES * Colour your ice cream cone the colour of your favourite flavoured ice cream Objective 1. Create a delicious ice cream dessert that uses all the scoops of ice cream from your group Objective 2. Be polite and use no put downs Procedure: Everyone cuts their scoop of ice cream off their ice cream cone Brainstorm what toppings to put on the ice cream Brainstorm what kind of dish to use Decide what to name your ice cream dessert Decide how much it will cost Decide what you will say when it is time to tell the class about your dessert Fill out the evaluation on no put downs Share the dessert Tasks: Person 1. Makes a dish for the ice cream. Writes down the name of the ice cream Person 2. Glues on the scoops of ice cream. Writes cost Person 3.Tells the class about the group’s ice cream dessert

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Language Arts- Rhyming Words

Structure

Round Table — Sequential

Cognitive Objective:

Students create rhyming families

Behavioural Objective:

Work quickly and quietly

Procedure: 1. Students meet in groups of 3 or 4 2. Each group has a sheet with a rhyming word at the top 3. When the teacher says to begin, the first person writes a word that is in the same rhyming family, then passes it to the second person. That person adds another word to the rhyming family 4. The group members continue to add a word and pass to the next group member until the teacher says it is time to stop 5. Suggestions may be whispered to group members who can’t think of a word 6. The group counts the number of rhyming words in their list 7. Evaluate by having each group share how many words they had on their list and how well they think they did on working quickly and quietly 8. Debrief by discussing how it felt to crate the rhyming word family together Materials: Lined paper Pencils Variations:  Create a rhyming family poem where each group member adds a short line ending with a member of that rhyming family  Create list of words with the same letter blends  Create lists of words with the same vowel sound  Create lists of common and proper nouns.


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Language Arts- Descriptive Words Round Table — Simultaneous Cognitive Objective: Students use their senses to think of as many words as they can to describe an object. Behavioural Objective:

Work quickly and pass materials when their neighbour is ready

Procedure: 1. Students meet in groups of 3 or 4. Each group is given the object they will be describing 2. Each group is given a set of papers each labelled with a different sense. These are passed out so each group member has a paper with one of the senses on it 3. When the teacher says it is time to begin, each group member uses the sense labelled on their paper, thinks of a word to describe the group’s object, writes it on the paper, and passes it to the person on their left 4. The group members then use the sense labelled on the new paper, think of a descriptive word, write the word, and pass the paper 5. The students continue thinking, writing, and passing until the teacher says it is time to stop 6. The group reads the descriptive words on each of the sense papers so as to clarify any words and see if they agree 7. Two groups meet together to share their lists 8. Evaluate how well the groups did on working quickly and passing materials when their neighbours were ready 9. Debrief on how it felt to think of words to describe the object. Was it easy to write and pass? What did your group do to help make is easier to write and pass? 10. Each group can describe the same object or each group can describe a different object. Materials: A Set of papers each labelled with a different sense for each group. Objects to be described. One per group. Pencils

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NO ROSES FOR HARRY — PATTERNING Objective 1. Speak well to each other Objective 2. Complete a jumper pattern using three different designs Procedure: 1. Read No Roses for Harry 2. Brainstorm types of sweaters Harry would like 3. Cooperative groups decide on three sweater designs for Harry 4. Each person make several of one of the designs chosen by their group 5. Cut out the sweaters 6. Group decide how to arrange the sweaters into a pattern 7. Check the pattern 8. Glue the pattern 9. Practice saying the pattern 10. Evaluate how the group did on using Happy Talk 11. The total class shares the evaluation scores and validates the scores 12. Debrief the class on how they felt working together 13. Groups share their patterns with the class Other activities 1. Design individual sweaters for Harry 2. Make a graph of the types of sweaters 3. Look at real sweaters. Brainstorm words to describe the sweaters using all the senses. 4. Write a thank you letter to Grandma for the new sweater 5. Write a new ending for the story telling what Harry does with the new sweater 6. The children call Grandmother on the phone and tell her how Harry acts when he gets his new sweater


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FURTHER ACTIVITIES Circle Visions Individually, within each circle put the names and visions or wishes you have for each relationship. Pair with another and share whatever you wish; learn about each other's values and visions. Pairs pair and within the group of four, introduce your partner by sharing a commonality or difference you have with each other. In total class, share some visions for the workshop and put on poster to be viewed and referred to throughout the workshop. Personal Family Friends School Community/State Country Internationally


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Four Corners Label the corners of the room. Ask people to move to area that most fits them. Dove Lion Deer Fox A. Which is most suitable for what you are like when with new friends? Discuss with someone in your corner. B. Which is most suitable for you when you are teaching? C. Which is most suitable for you when you are alone? D. Which is most suitable for you when you are playing sports? Outline Activity: Using an outline---in the past, we have used T-shirts, shamrocks, code of arms---use one fitting the occasion or time of year, have people write A. Their greatest accomplishment with interactive teaching and CL to date. B. Something they would now do differently with CL C. List three things they would do this year to improve their teaching and student learning.

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Who's That? Students write on an index card or large post-it, one thing about themselves that they think no one else knows. Cards are collected by facilitator and hung on a bulletin board. Throughout the workshop, people read the cards and write their guesses on each card who they think that person is. At the end of day, or middle of the workshop, the real person identifies him/herself.

The Handshake Problem 1.

Figure out how many handshakes it would take for everyone in this room to shake hands with every individual in this room.

2.

Use any of the following problem-solving strategies Act it out Guess and check Draw a picture Make an organized list Make a table Look for a pattern Use logical reasoning Work backwards Choose the operations

3. Represent your answer and explain to the class.


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Writing Activity: "The Child" by Donald Hall 1. Read the following poem and individually write how you picture and think about the child. A. How would you describe the boy in the poem? B. As a child, how were you like or different from the child in the poem? C. If you were to have a conversation with the child how would it go? D. How did this poem help you see yourself as a child more clearly?

2. After individually thinking and writing, discuss in your group each person's understanding of the poem.

3. Create a poem about someone using Hall's style of someone each of your group members know-it could be someone from your school/district, famous

Academic Concepts: Connect to universalities and differences Reveal or clarify personal experience, To understand and convey information, To consider another's point of view.

Values/Attitudes: Respect Self and Others

Social/Group Skills: Get many ideas before deciding Paraphrase other's ideas

Roles: Facilitator Timekeeper

Writer Reporter

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The Child by Donald Hall

He lives among a dog, a tricycle and a friend. Nobody owns him.

He walks by himself, beside the black pool, in the cave where icicles of rock

rain hard water and the walls are rough with the light of stone.

He hears low talking words. The hand of a wind touches him.

He walks until he is tired or somebody calls him. He leaves right away.

When he plays with his friend he stops suddenly to hear the black water.

T O G E T H E R


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

The Ice Box The year is 2030 AD and a catastrophe has just struck the earth. An immense comet almost the size of the moon came very close to colliding with our planet. As the comet passed, its immense gravity pulled the earth into a wider orbit around the sun. As a result, the earth cooled down and the polar regions of the earth expanded. The expansion of the polar regions caused the level of the oceans to drop over 600 feet.

1. Using a blank map of a continent (you may want to give each group a different continent), draw the new boundaries of the continent. Draw in the major rivers as they would now flow.

2. Where would new cities be? and why?

Academic Concepts: Geographical and science relationships Geographical and population relationships

Social/Group Skills: Give reasons for your answers Check for accuracy

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LEARNING BUDDIES CONTRACT

I, __________________________________, am a

"learning buddy" with

____________________________________.

We have agreed to work together to assist each other's learning and implementation of cooperative learning and effective teaching and learning approaches related to better aligning our curriculum, instruction, and assessment practices in order to increase student learning. In order to do this, we have agreed to:

____share resources and materials regularly

____plan lessons/units together

____co-teach

____observe in each other's classrooms

____coach and conference together

____engage in regular reflective practice, such

as journaling, case studies, support

group, study group, dialogue group, action research, sharing teacher and student portfolios and/or electronic network.

Signed


L e a r n i n g

T o g e t h e r

Thank you for your interest in Learning Together.

For further resources that may assist you please visit the ‘products’ section of our website to find few downloads, entire curriculum units, and other manuals, including ‘Active Learning’ which contains heaps of lessons and activities.

www.julieboyd.com.au

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LEARNING TOGETHER: A Manual for Effective Learning and Teaching  

LEARNING TOGETHER: A Manual for Effective Learning and Teaching  

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