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Bard High School Early College Queens Global History, Fall 2013 Professor McIntosh

Main concept: City States Case Study:

Mesopotamia


ans

General trajectory

Catal Hoyuk 

Mesopotamian city-states

 Akkadian Empire

c. 4000 bce, city-states emerge in Mesopotamia


Some Key Terms and Questions for this Section on City-States and Early Empires

City

State

Civilization

Empire

Major Questions and Topics •Types of sameness created in a civilization? Or, how civilization unified? •Types of difference created by civilization? Or, how civilization divided? •Why hierarchies? •How were hierarchies created? How were they justified?


c. 2500 BCE Aegean Sea Minoan/Mycenaean (Ancient Greece)

c. 3500 BCE Tigris/Euphrates Sumer/Akkadia (Mesopotamia and Babylonia)

c. 2200 BCE Yellow River Shang and Xia dynasties (ancient China)

c. 3500 BCE Nile River Valley (Ancient Egypt)

Around 4000 bce, city-states begin to replace settled societies in different regions around the globe

c. 3000 BCE Indus River Valley Harappan/Vedic (ancient India)


C. 3200 BCE Norte Chico (Peru/Incan civilization)

Around 4000 bce, city-states begin to replace settled societies in different regions around the globe

‌But why these specific places


Why these specific places?

• Water – Basic human needs for survival

d n

• Food Source – Animals need water too.

a

u b

n a

e c

! ! !

Water attracts animals. Animals become food. •

d e

z i Climate – WarmLand dry – consistent a c o L

• Fertile Land – Once humans mastered agriculture, well-watered land produced food.


Here is a simplistic but handy diagram of how the combination of settlement, agriculture, and politics led to “civilizations” developing (in Mesopotamia, for our case study) •

Food production + population growth expansion of civilization.

job specialization

supports growth and


So happens when these city-state civilizations emerge? One answer: Sameness Political •

laws, security, and citizenship – e.g. Code of Ur-Nammu (Ur); Code of Hammurabi (Babylon)

“Civil Religion,” or patriotism

Religion plays important role in politics

Social/Cultural •

Similar customs and norms

Beliefs

Material life: food, drink, shelter, clothing

Writing


So happens when these city-state civilizations emerge? Another answer: Difference

Social Classes

Occupational Classes

Kings; Priests; Landholders

 For example

Wealthy Merchants Field Workers and Trades People Slaves - Captives from War

Advantages to difference: arts and sciences can develop, specialization and technological innovation, possibly increased material comfort and possibly increased leisure time


Some aspects of city-states: public architecture and public space

For example, compare an artist’s rendering of the city-state of Uruk to

An artist’s rendering of the “settled society” of Catalhuyuk


One particularly important type of public architecture in Mesopotamian city-states:

The ziggurat


Some aspects of city-states: law codes and people to enforce them Code of Ur-Nammu (Sumerian Empire) •c. 2100 bce •the oldest surviving written law code

Code of Hammurabi (Babylonian Empire) •c. 1750 bce


Some aspects of city-states: record keeping and governmental “bureaucracy”

Here’s an example of a record of a transaction, from Uruk

Administrative tablet with cylinder seal impression of a male figure, hunting dogs, and boars, 3100–2900 B.C.; Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III script) Mesopotamia Clay H. 2 in. (5.3 cm)


Some aspects of city-states: Private property Why would people want to keep records? One important reason was to keep tabs on private property, so that disputes over property could be settled.

Here’s an example of stamp seal from Uruk. Often stamps were used to mark one’s private property.

Stamp seal amulet of a seated woman, 3300–2900 B.C.; Late Uruk/Jemdet Nasr period Iran or Mesopotamia Rhodochrosite 0.85 x 1.02 in. (2.3 x. 3 cm)


Some aspects of city-states: Monarchs, and ideas of what makes a good leader The king

The Royal Standard of Ur: side depicting the king leading a victorious army in war


Some aspects of city-states: Monarchs, and ideas of what makes a good leader The king

The Royal Standard of Ur: side depicting the king leading a stable, peaceful society


From isolated city-states to (temporarily) “united” empires: Akkadian, Sumerian, Babylonian 2334 BCE – 1750 BCE

• •

Sargon of Akkad – 2300 BCE - controls city states of Kish, Lagash, Ur, Uruk, Umma, Agade & Babylon. -Declines after 200 years – internal fighting and outside threats “Sumerian Renaissance” – 2120 bce – 2000 BCE Babylonian Empire – 2000 BC – 1750 BC


Other Mesopotamian Empires, just FYI…for now

Kassites c. 1550 – 1150 bce

Hittites c. 1700 – 1100 bce (Not including city of Babylonia during Kassite rule) Assyrians c. 930 – 600 bce


Global mesopotamia