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“Mosque-Cathedral” at Cordoba: From Christian, to Muslim, to Christian again


Interior of the Mosque at Cordoba, 19th century painting by Edwin Weeks


Medina


Medina


Quranic text, from North Africa, c. 1250 Pendant, found in Egypt, dating to the 11th century.


Illustration of Koumbi Saleh, in Ancient Ghana


Major Cities in Africa, c. 1100 ce •Koumbi Saleh •Djenné •Timbuktu


Examples of West “African” art during the 8th and 9th centuries (“Africa” is in quotation marks because none of these people thought of themselves as “Africans”) Key Point: the various occupants of this land had their own artistic conventions, religious beliefs, and social customs before coming into contact with North African and Middle Eastern Muslims


Great Mosque at Djenne A good example of syncretism occurring between Arab Muslim and SubSaharan African Muslim cultures


Depiction of Great Mosque and Marketplace at Djenne A good example of the connection between the spread of commerce and the spread of Islam in West Africa


Timbuktu as Site of Higher Learning and Quranic Study “Gold came from the south, salt from the north, and wisdom from Timbuktu” -anonymous Sudanese proverb Sankore Madrasah

The Sankoré Madrasah and Djinguereber Mosque were two of the three main centers of higher learning in Timbuktu. While all of these buildings had different dates Djinguereber Mosque

of origin, it was under Mansa Musa’s rule in the 14th century that they reached their peak of influence in the Muslim world, forming what some now refer to as “Timbuktu University.”


One Consequence of Islam becoming “Islams” in Africa: Discontent among modern-day extremists

Excerpt of article from July 10, 2012, on extremist attacks on the Djinguereber Mosque, Timbuktu


Timbuktu Manuscripts


More trade routes: these from the Almoravid (Muslim) Empire, c. 11th century


14th Century Map of West Africa


Oulata / Walata - the city mentioned by Ibn Battuta


“Trans-Saharan” Trade Routes

Gold

Salt


13th Century Slave Market, Yemen


History of Slave Trade in Africa [hint to interpreting this image: it went on for a long time, and involved many different peoples and civilizations]


Map of West Africa, John Sudbury, 17th Century Note the effort the cartographer makes to show all the different groups of people and the many natural boundaries that divided them


THE BIRTH OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE: •Some polities south of the Sahara had traditions of enslaving debtors or war captives •Some leaders of the “tribes” or polities that practiced slavery began to cooperate with Arabs who wanted to purchase “black” slaves [remember that Arab Muslims named subSaharan Africa “Bilal al-Sudan,” or “Land of the Blacks].

Who is watching over the slaves? Another person from Africa. The point here, especially when we keep in mind the previous slide, is that “Africa” was not a united continent. Therefore “Africans” did not enslave other “Africans,” but members of one “tribe” or polity might enslave members of another “tribe” or polity. The differences between these groups were as significant as, for example, the difference between peoples of different nations in Europe.

Slaves in Eastern Africa, c. 19th century


THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade Two Questions: 1. Why did Arabs want slaves?

One (debated) answer: the “Muslim Agricultural Revolution,” c. 900 – 1300. This assumes, though, that increased agricultural activity was the only cause of the slave trade. Many believe this answer to be too simplistic. As we saw in the slide of the history of the slave trade in Africa, societies around the Mediterranean and the Middle East already had a long history of exploting Africans for labor, so this TRADITION might also help explain the birth of the Arab slave trade. Other possibilities include RELIGIOUS purposes, increased SURPLUSES, and HIERARCHICAL values and desire for domestic servants


THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade 2. How did they get slaves?

Through force Through trade

Depiction of Arab slave raid in interior Africa


DEPICTIONS OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE AND ITS AFTERMATH: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade

Slave market, Zanzibar, c. 1800ss


DEPICTIONS OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade


DEPICTIONS OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE AND ITS AFTERMATH: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade


DEPICTIONS OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE AND ITS AFTERMATH: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade


DEPICTIONS OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE AND ITS AFTERMATH: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade

Eunuchs of Prince Zuanghai, 706 CE, China

Rembrandt, Baptism of the Eunuch, 1626 CE


DEPICTIONS OF THE ARAB SLAVE TRADE AND ITS AFTERMATH: Forerunner of the North Atlantic (European) slave trade Eunuch, Tunisia, 1930s CE Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan, 1870 CE


African ppt