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Complete your collection of Golden Guides and Golden Field Guides! GOLDEN GUIDES BIRDS

BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS

DINOSAURS FOSSILS INSECT PESTS POND LIFE

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SEASHELLS OF THE WORL · D A GUIDE TO THE BETTER-KNOWN SPECIES by

R. TUCKER ABBOTT, Ph.D. Under the editorship of HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph.D., Sc.D.

Illustrated by GEORGE AND MARITA SANDSTROM

Imperial Harp 3" Indian Ocean Harpa costata L.

� GOLDEN PRESS

NEW YORK

'Western Publishing Company, Inc. Racine, Wisconsin


FOREWORD Shells occupy a unique place in the natural world. No other animals are as widely collected, traded, or bought and sold because of the i r beauty, attractiveness and rar­ ity. Each year an increasing number of people want to identify, classify and understand the beautiful shells they see or collect. This guide is necessarily a brief sampling of the many thousands of marine shells. Because it is a guide for collecting we have emphasized attractive and better­ known spec ies, occasionally slighting some common spe­ c ies and familiar genera. We hope that the pastime of shell collecting will lead to increasing interest in the fascinating animals which make the shells. The author, editor and art i sts wish to express thei r appreciation to the Academy of Natural Sciences of P h i l­ adelphia for the use of its extensive research collections in the preparation of this book. We also owe a debt to the artists, George and Morita Sandstrom, for their excellent work on the illustrations. R. T.A. H.S.Z.

Carrier Shell ( Xenophora) is the original shell collec­ tor. It gathers small empty shells and attaches them to itself. This is the common Japa nese Carrier S h e l l .

© Copyright 1985. 1962 b y Western Publishing Company. Inc. All rights reserved. including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means. including the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device. printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright pro rietor. Produced in the U.S.A. by Western Publishing Company, Inc . ew York, N. Y Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: N -

& g�g69 ��':no � � 4� �i ����


THE CLAS S E S OF MOL LUSKS All seashells have soft bodies. The th in, fleshy mantle usually secretes a limy shell, either as a single cone or a pai r of valves, or rarely in 8 par t s . About half the mollusks are marine; the others land or fresh-water.

Marine

Fresh-water

Land

SNAILS, ar gastropods, have a single shell, usually coiled. They have a distinct head with tentacles and a rasping tongue (the radula). Most of the 40,000 species have shells. (pp . 22-128) B IVA LV E S , or pelecypods, are mollusks with two valves joined by a hinge, a horny ligament, and one or two muscles. Most of the 10,000 species ore marine; others are fresh-water. pp. 129-155

C E P H A LO P O D S include squid, octopus and the Nautilus. Very ac­ tive animals with large eyes, pow­ erful jaws and with 8-90 tentacles . � About 600 species. T U S K S H E LLS (about 300 marine species) live in curved, toothlike shells open at both ends. C H ITO N S are primitive, marine mollusks with 8-plated shells imbedded in tough tissue. There are about 600 shallow-water species. MONOPLAC O P H O RA, until re­ cently known only from fossils. A � rare deep-sea, primitive group. The soft parts are segmented. 1"

pp . 156-157


Order TECTIBRAN

Tritons page 68

True Conchs page 42

Abalones page 24

4

G U I D E TO U N I VALV ES


Vases page90

MAJ OR GROUPS OF MARINE SNAILS

From the primitive slit shells and the i r limpet allies to the highly evolved bubble shells and cones, the marine snails show great diversity in shape and sculpture. Of the thou­ sand or more families of gastropods, 34 are pictured in this family key (with page numbers). They include the vast majority of the better-known sea snails t hat are apt to be found in amateur collections. G U I D E TO U N I VA LV E S

5


Piddocks (not in text}

Bittersweets (not in text}

MAJOR GROUPS 0 MARINE BIVALVES

are less numerous than marine gastropods but are of greater economic value . Clams, oysters, mussels and scallops are eaten . One group produces nearly all natural and cultured pearls . The families shown on the tree are most commonly seen in collections . B I VA LV E S

6

G U I D E TO B I VALV E S


OTHER GROUPS OF S EASHELLS C E P H A L O P O D S inc lude the oc­ topus, which has no shel l, and the squids, with a thin internal shell . The Nauti lus of the Indo- Pacific has a smooth, chambered shel l . The Argonaut's paper-thin she l l is an eggcase . Pages 156-157.

C h a m bered N a u t i l u s 6" Nautilus pampilius Linne Southwest Pacific

are a group of flattened mollusks, some worm ­ like, most covered w i t h eight shingle-li ke, overlapping plates held in place by a muscular ring cal led the girdle. They live on rocks near shore and feed on algae . C H I TO N S

West In d i a n Ch iton 2-3" ._.___ Chiton tuberculata Linne West Indies H a i ry Mopa l i a

2"

Mopalia cilia to Sowerby

Alaska to California

or scaphopods, are tooth-shaped shel l s found i n shallow and deep water. These odd mol lusks are without gills (the mantle assumes th i s function), head, eyes or true tentac les . Some spec ies were once h ighly valued by American Indians. T U S K S H E L LS,

El ephant's Tus k

Dentalium elephantinum Linne

3"

Philippines

OT H E R C L AS S E S

7


YOUR S H E L L COL L E CTION A well-arranged , orderly col lection of she lls has many surpr i s i ng rewa rds: a sense of scientific acco m p l i shment, pride i n b u i l d i ng a n educational and bea utiful assortment, a sti m u l u s to i nvestigate a n intrigu i ng group of a n i m a l s . Record loca l i t y data a n d best possible identification; fol足 l ow a natura l biologica l sequence, and your co llection will serve as a useful guide and a constant source of sati sfac足 tion . Beg i n ea rly to use a simple cabinet, m u l t i ple-si zed paper trays, plastic boxes or match boxes , good labels, and a cata log with num bers correspond i ng to those written i n India i nk on the labe l s and specimens. Sma ll she l l s , with numbered s l i ps, may be put into glass vials, and the vials plugged with cotto n . A wooden cabinet (4 ft. high, 3 ft. deep and 2'12 ft. wide) with wooden drawers on simple runners protects your shells from dust and careless hands.

Boxes made of cardboard of uni足 form height and of multiple sizes permit an orderly arrangement and best use of space. labels should bear the genus and species name. Most important are the locality data and other perti足 nent information.

8

COLLECT I N G


COLLECTING MARINE SHELLS B EA C H C O M B I N G

Few m o l l usks l ive o n the bea c h , but after storms fresh spec imens may be cast upon the shore . Some a ppear o n l y at certa i n seaso n s . Avoid damaged and water-worn shells . NIG H T C O L L E CT I N G

Mo l l usks avoid bright sun l ight. A t low t i d e t u r n over rocks; d ig i n sand . Shore collecting at n ight i n q u iet bays is very profitable . Two people wor k i ng together are most effective . DIVING

Goi ng down where many she l l s l ive brings r i c h rewa rds i n perfect spec imens. Watch f o r tra i l s i n t h e sand . P u t she l l s i n a fine mesh bag. Fo l l ow safety rules. DREDGING

A s i m p l e wire-mesh dredge , 24" wide, 3 6 " long a n d 8 " high, c a n b e p u l l ed b y rope at depths down t o 100 feet. Wash sand away and pick out she l l s . EXC H A N G I N G

Trade with c o l lectors i n foreign lands. Send perfect speci­ mens with loca l i t y data . Wrap secure l y. A good way to i ncrease your col lection and to make friends. Be as gener­ ous as poss i b l e . B U YI N G S H E L LS

Ma ny re l i a b l e dealers se l l spec i men shel l s . Compare prices from severa l mail l i sti ngs and then use good judgment. Insist on l oca l i t y data . Avoid acid-treated she l l s . C O LL E CT I N G

9


PREPARING S HELLS F OR S TUDY

When collecting, observe the l ive a n i m a l s and note their habits . So little is known a bout many species that every accurate observation i s of va l u e . N ote color and other deta i l s , relative abunda nce , type of botto m , food , egg­ laying or mati ng habits, methods of concealment, water temperature, associated pla nts and a n i m a l s . Record your facts i n a fie l d noteboo k . When cata l oging, enter the notebook page on the collection labe l . The soft parts and she l l s of m oll usks may be permanently preserved i n 70% a l cohol . If not to be used for anatomica l study, clams a n d snails may b e boiled i n water for five m i nutes and the "meat" removed with a bent p i n or ice pick . Save the opercu l u m , or tra pdoor, to each sna i l . It is u nwise to use acid on shel l s . Clean exterior with fine wire brush or buffi ng wheel .

CONSERVATION

Be considerate of nature and other collectors when looking for l ive shell s . D i sturb the habitat as little as poss i b l e , and turn back rocks as you found them . Otherwise, the eggs, young and food of sna i l s will be k i l l ed by d irect sunl ight. Pollution and u psetting the eco logy of the ocean shores a re the ma in reasons for the reduction of l ive she l l s , but collectors can help by taking o n ly a few of each ki n d . Leave you ng or poor specimens, si nce they w i l l grow to lay more eggs and produce additional generations . In some states shel lfishery laws proh ibit the col lecting of va rious kinds at spec i a l seasons or under certa i n s i zes. F i nd out a bout the perti nent laws and regu lations i n your a rea, and follow the m . 10

ST U DY I N G


MORE INF ORMATION

Basic i nformation about malacology, or conchol ogy, the study of m o l l u sks, is found in thousands of technical a r t i ­ cles. O f greater u s e to collectors are t h e books l i sted below, some of which l i st the addresses of local she l l c l u bs and nationa l she l l orga n i zations. Visit the fa mous she l l co l l ections i n natura l h i story museums of large cities. Cu­ rators of these co l l ections can give professiona l advice . GENERAL BOOKS

Abbott, R. Tucker, KINGDOM OF THE SEASHELL. New York: Bononzo Books, 1 982 . Introduction to biology, collecting, uses, ond evolution of seashells. Johnstone, Kathleen Y. SEA TREASURE-A GUIDE TO SHELL COLLECTING. Bos­ ton: Houghton Mifflin Co. , 1 956 . For beginners. Wagner, R. J. l., and R. Tucker Abbott. STANDARD CATALOG OF SHELLS. Melbourne, Flo. : American Molocologists, Inc. , 1 978 . Lists thousands of species with current values. Has blank personal catalog, world size records. For intermediate collectors. Yonge, C. M. , and T. E . Thompson. LIVING MARINE MOLLUSKS. London: William Collins Sons, 1 976. Readable biology textbook. NORTH AMERICA

Abbott, R. Tucker. AMERICAN SEASHELLS. 2nd ed. New York: Von Nostrand/ Reinhold, 1974 . Describes and illustrates 1, 500 of the 7, 500 species listed from both coasts. For advanced collectors. Abbott, R. Tucker. SEASHELLS OF NORTH AMERICA. New York: Golden Press, 1 969. A colorful guide to field identification of 900 species. Includes biology. For intermediate collectors. Abbott, R. Tucker. COLLECTIBLE SHELLS OF SOUTHEASTERN U. S. AND BAHAMAS. Melbourne, Flo. : American Molocologists, Inc. , 1984 . Waterproof, tear-resistant guide to 300 species. For beginning collectors. Keen, Myra. SEA SHELLS OF TROPICAL WEST AMERICA. 2nd ed. Stanford, Calif. : Stanford Univ. Press, 197 1 . About 3,300 species illustrated. Lorge bibliography. For advanced collectors. FOREIGN

Abbott, R. Tucker, and S. Peter Donee. COMPENDIUM OF SEASHELLS. New York: E . P. Dutton, 1983 . 4,200 species illustrated. For advanced collectors. Linder, Gert. FIELD GUIDE TO SEASHELLS OF THE WORLD. New York: Von Nostrand/Reinhold, 1 978. About 1, 000 species. For intermediate collectors.

B I B LIOGRAPHY

1 1


TH E WORLD OF MARINE S H E L L S Although the seas , which cover 72 percent o f the earth's surface , are interconnected , parts of the oceans are iso­ lated by land masses . Ocean currents, water temperatu res and differences in salinity also act as barriers and create smal ler sub-areas within fa unistic provinces . Present fau­ nistic boundaries were largely determined d u ring the Pli­ ocene, 10 million years ago . These are not clearly defined ; some species invade the waters of neighboring provinces . Temperature is an important iso lating factor. Within a province there may be specia l habitats suitable only to certain species-coral reefs, m uddy or sandy bottoms, mangrove swamps or rocky shores . Some groups flou rish in certain provinces, as the limpets in South Africa and the cowries in the I n d o - Pacific . Some mollusks are associated only with certain other animals, such as the wentletraps with sea anemones, and rapa snails with soft cora l s . COLD-WATE R FAU N A Few species; usually dull in color

12

DISTRIBUTION


DIS TRIBUTION OF MOLLUSKS WITH DEPTH T H E PELAGIC WO RLD Adults of about 1 00 species of mollusks live near the surface of the ocean. Some float, some are attached to sargassum weed, others hover in mid-water.

T H E LITTO RAL WO RLD A million miles of the world's inter­ tidal shoreline support a rich fauna of periwinkles, limpets, burrowing clams, mussels and other species living between high- and low-tide level.

T H E S HALLOW-WAT E R WO RLD Most of the marine mollusks live on the continental shelves and in coral reefs from the low-tide line to depths of about 400 feet. The rel­ atively quiet waters and growth of algae permit a rich fauna to exist.

THE ABYSSAL WO RLD Small, mainly colorless shells live in the lightless depths of the ocean where temperatures are near freezing. Abyssal species are somewhat similar in all parts of the world. Squids have phosphores­ cent lights of blue, red and white. Deep-sea mollusks living near the equator are found in much shal­ lower waters in the polar seas where the water is cold. Some food comes from pelagic plants and an­ imals which die and sink to the bottom. Both clams and snails have been found 3 miles down.

DIST R I B U TIO N

13


CALIFORNIAN PROVINCE

Stretching from Washington to parts of Ba ja Ca lifornia is a cool -water fauna of about 2, l 00 species. To the north is the cold -water Aleutian Province, some of whose species find their way as fa r south as northern Ca lifornia . In southern Ca l­ ifornia, elements of the Pana mic Prov­ ince, a much warmer a rea, begin to appear. The Ca lifornia n Province is rich in abalones, murex rock she l l s, limpets and chitons . Among some of the char­ acteristic species are the Kel p-weed Scallop and the Purple Dwarf Olive . Purple Dwarf O l ive

0/ivello biplicoto Sower by

Kel p-weed S c a l l o p

Leptopecten latiouratus

C h itons Over 50 species

Conrad

Haliotis Aba l o nes Several large species Cooper's N utmeg

Cancellaria coaperi

14

CALIF ORNIAN PROVINCE

onrad


CAROLINIAN PROVINCE

From the shores of the Carolinas, to the northern half of Florida and westward into Texas, the temperate-water Caro­ l i n i an Province is c h aracteri zed by Quahog Clams (Mercenaria) and by such species as the Shark-eye Moon Snail and the Marsh Periwinkle. The southern tip of Florida belongs to the tropical Caribbean Province. To the north, from Maine to labrador, is the colder Boreal Province with a di fferent and less rich shell fauna. The New England Neptune lives to the north . Sha rk-eye Moon S n a i l Polinices duplicatus Say

Qua hog C l a m M ercenaria mercenaria l.

New E n g l a n d N e p t u n e Neptunea decemcostata S o y N e w Eng land and north Oyster D r i l l Eupleura coudoto Say

C A R O L I N I A N P R OV I N C E

15


INDO-PACIF IC PROVINCE

The largest a n d richest shell region in the wor l d extends from the shores of East Africa eastward through the East I ndies to Polynesi a . Notable for its abunda nce of co lorfu l shel l s , it supports many stra nge and unique m oll usks, such as the Giant Clams (Tridacna), the Scorpion Conchs (Lam­ bis), a n d the Hea rt Cockles (Corculum) . Most of the Indo­ Pacific i s characteri zed by tropica l waters and coral reefs. The province i s further divided into more or less isolated sub- regio n s .

L i n eoted Conch Strombus fosciatus Born

16

THE RED SEA i s an isolated, warm-water pocket of the Indian Ocean noted for its many peculiar subspecies and such un ique species as the lineated Conch (Strombus fasciatus Born), and Red-spotted Cowrie (Cypraea erythraeenis Sowerby) .

IN D O - PACIFIC P R OVIN C E


HAWAII

Vo lvo

...

o•

�·.

Tridocna ""­

o�r,

Corculum

AUSTRALIA i s, along its tropical northern half, a land of rare and colorful volutes and strange Spiny Vase Shells (Tudicula). The seas ore shallow with strong tides. The seas of southern Australia are much colder and hove many d i fferent shel ls, such as the g iant phosione l l o s . THE HAWAIIA N C HA IN of vol can ic i s­ lands in the cental Pacific locks many com­ mon Indo- Pacific species. It has same un ique cowries and cone she l l s. The Tiger Cowrie, common e lsewhere, is rare here and very Iorge. THE PHILIPPI N E S, consisting of thou­ sands of islands, are very rich in mollusks. Several u n ique k i nds ore found i n these waters, including the I m perial Volute and the Zambo Murex . Some normally uncom­ mon species are abundant on the reefs of P h i l i ppine i s lands.

Bed na il 's Vol ute Volutoconus bednalli Brazier

Tessellate Cowrie Cypraea fessellato

Swa i n son

I m perial Vol u te

Aulica imperialis

Lightfoot

I N D O - PAC I F I C P R OV I N C E

17

"


PANAMIC PROVINCE

From the Gulf of Ca lifornia to northern Ecuador, the tropical Panamic P rovince supports a rich, colorful fauna of over 2, 000 marine shel ls. Connected wit h the Caribbean in former geologic times, the fauna resembles that of the West I ndies . Tid a l ranges are extreme in this a rea . The gen us Strombina and such species as the Tent Olive are native .

SOUTH AMERICA

Gri n n ln t Tu n .Malea ringer;ďż˝ Swainiolt

18

PA N AMIC P R OVI N C E


CARIBBEAN PROVINCE

Centered in the West Indies, this tropical province extends north to southern Florida and Bermuda. Many Caribbean elements spread out to the south as far as Brazil. Among the characteristic species are the Pink Conch, the Wide­ mouthed Purpura and the Sunrise Tellin. The fauna is rich in Cassis, Murex and Te/lina. The larger West Indian islands have over 1,200 species of shelled marine mollusks. Iso­ lated coral islands, poor in food, have only about 350 kinds of mollusks.

C A RI B B E A N P R OVI N C E

19


MEDITERRANEAN PROVINCE

The most isolated of the world's major sea s , the Mediter­ ranean is relatively shallow and less dense than the Atlan ­ tic . Its fauna o f 1, 400 species o f mollusks spreads a round Portugal to southern France and along the northwest coast of Africa . Also known as the Lusitania n Province, it con­ tains such unique shells as the Pelican's Foot, Jacob's Scal­ lop, and the Murex Dye S � ells .

NORTH AFRICA

A

Lurid Cowrie

Cypraea lurida

Linne

Spiny He l met

Go/eodeo echinophora

Purple Dye Murex

Murex brandaris

Linne

20

l.

Jacob's Scallop

Pecten jacobaeus

Linne


JAPANESE PROVINCE

Lyi ng between the cold­ water A l euti a n Provi nce and the tropica l I ndo­ Pacific, the centra l is­ lands of J a pa n conta i n a rich a n d d i stinct temper­ ate marine faun a .

SOUTH AF RICAN PROVINCE

Cool, rough seas pound the rocky shore l i n e of South Af­ rica . Its isol ated fauna of a bout 900 species is rich i n giant lim pets, turbans and Thais rocky she l l s , p l u s stra nge, coo l ­ water cowries and cone she l l s . Patella L i m pets 21 species Rosy Cone

Conus tinionus Hwoss

Cape Cowrie

Cypraeo copensis Gray

21


GASTROPODS hea r t

tentacle

probosci s foot cross section of probosc i s rodulor ri bbon egg capsule

mouth eggs

rodu l o r teeth

free-sw i m m i ng veliger

GAS T R O P O D S, or un iva lves , s i ngle-she l l ed mollusks, in­ clude sna i l s , conchs , periwinkles and whelks . About ha lf of the 40, 000 species are marine; the remai nder are terres­ tria l and fresh-water. The fleshy, cape-l ike mantle pro­ d uces a hard shell , while the foot may produce a horny opercu l u m . Feed i ng i s a ided by a special set of teeth known as the radu l a . The sexes are separate i n many marine species . Eggs a re la id i nto the water or i n capsu l e s . A free­ swi m m i ng larva , or "vel iger, " emerges wh ich grows into a she l l ed a d u l t . Most gastropods l ive 5 to 6 yea rs; some may survive 20 or 30. U n ivalves may be ca rn ivorous, herbivo­ rous or even parasitic. 22

U N I VA LV E S


S L I T S H E LLS (Pieurotoma r i idae) a re pri mit ive sna i l s char­ acteri zed by two gill plumes. The slit i n the she l l i s a natura l ope n i ng for the passage of water and waste mater i a l s . The fa m i l y, fou n d i n very early fossil deposits, was once consid­ ered to be exti nct. Today 18 living deep-water species a re know n . The operc u l u m o f the slit shells i s t h i n , corneo u s , a n d brown a n d h a s many who r l s .

This relatively small operculum i s attached to the foot .

Emperor's S l i t S h e l l

3-S"

Pleurotomaria hirasei P i l sbry

Honshu I s . , J apan This i s the commonest slit shel l known . It l ives at a depth of 300 feet.

Ada n son's S l i t S h e l l S-6" P. adansonianus C rosse & Fi scher W. Indies; deep water; rare

Beyrich's S l i t S h e l l 4" P. beyrichi H i lgendorf! E . Asia; deep water; rare

SLIT S H E LLS

23


she l l s (Ha l i otidae) resem ble a va lve of a l a rge clam , except for the spiral whorl . The ani m a l has a l a rge, flat and muscu lar foot by which it holds fast to rocks . Sea water is d rawn in under the edges of the she l l ; it passes ' over the g i l l s , and leaves through the natural holes. The foot is ed i b l e and h ighly esteemed . The i ridescent she l l is used in costume jewe l ry. Over a hundred species are known . They are vegetarians .

ABALO N E

Red Aba lone 1 0- 1 2" Haliotis rufescens Swa i nson

C a l ifor n i a ; a n racks below l aw tide ""''ICN"'>F�!J-"':¡'1'. Cammon

24

ABALO N E S


P i n k Aba lone

5-7"

Haliotis corrugate G r a y

5" Haliotis cracherodi leach C a l iforn i a to Mex ico Abundant B l a c k Abalone

Cal iforn ia; common

Beaut i ful Aba l o n e 1 - 1 '/2' H. pulcherrima Gmelin Central Pacific; uncommon

Mi d a s Aba l o n e

Don key's E a r Aba l o n e Haliotis asinina Linne S . W. Pacific; abundant

3 -4"

4"

Haliotis midae Linne

South Africa; uncommon ..

A B A LO N E S

25


(Fi ssure l l idae) are na med for a s m a l l hole at the top of the cap-sha ped shell, which serves for excretion . Severa l hundred species are a l l vegetarians living i n sha l l ow, warm water. The s i ngle eggs are coated with a gelatinous sheath . The largest comes from California .

K E Y H O LE L I M P E T S

Ma x i m u m Keyhole L i m pet Fissurella maxima Sowerby Chile ( i ntertidal); common

G i a n t Keyhole Li mpet

4-5"

Megathura crenulata Sowerby

Cal ifornia ( i ntertidal); common

Ba rbados Keyhole Lim pet

Fissurella barbadensis Gmelin

Florida and W. Ind ies Abundant on shore rocks

Roman S h i e l d L i m pet (Scutus) from Austra lia has no hole but i s related to the keyhole l i m pets. The shell i s 2 inches long. Common on intertidal rocks.

26

K E Y H O L E L I M P ETS

3"

1"


(Acmaeidae) live on the rocky shores of all temperate seas . They have a remarkably strong foot . A few species attach to seaweeds . All 400 species are vegetarian . T R U E LIMPETS

Sweet L i m pet 1 " A. saccharine L i nne Indo-Pacific; common

U nsta ble l i m pet

A. instabilis Gould

1"

Cal ifornia; on seaweed

At l a n t i c Plate l i m pet 1 " Acmaea testudinalis Muller New E ngland rocks; common

S p i ked l i m pet

3"

Patella longicosta lamarck

South Africa

T R U E L I M P E TS

27

1


(Trochidae) are coni cal. They have a pe' arly i nteri or and a thin , horny operculum with many whorls . Over a thousand species are found mai nly in temperate and tropical waters. Largest and most useful is the Com­ merical Trochus, from which shirt buttons are made. Some larger spec ies are eaten. A Trochus takes six years to reach adult si ze-5 inches. Most top shells are vegetarians.

TO P S H E LLS

Knobbed Top 4" Trochus dentotus Forskal East Africa; common

G i a n t Button Top

1" Umbonium gigonteum Lesson

Japan; muddy boys; a bundant

lined Top

2"

Trochus lineatus Lamarck

Australia; common in shallow water

28

TO P S H E L LS

Strawberry Top 1 " C/oncu/us puniceus P hilippi I ndian Ocean; common


I N DO-PAC I F I C TO P S H E LLS vary greatly in form and color. The button tops (Umbonium) , mud-dwellers from Japan and Southeast Asia, are unusually flattened . young

Pyra m i d Top

5"

Tectus pyramis Born

Macu l a ted Top 2" Troc hus maculatus Linne A very com mon spec ies found under rocks near shore .

Born's Ora n g e Top %" Chlorostoma parado•um Born

Commerc i a l Trochus Troc h u s niloticus Linne

5"

operc u l u m

TO P S H E L LS

29


total several dozen species , rarest bei ng the iridescent Gaza. The West Indian Top is used in c howder. Queen Tegula is a collector's item i n California. N orris' Top Shell is relatively common i n shal ­ l ow water. Its opercu l um bears tiny bristles .

AME R I C A N TO P S H E LLS

S u perb Gaza

2"

Gaza superba D o l l

G u l f of Mexico; deep water

Norris' Top Shell

2"

Norrisia norrisi Sowerby

California; near shore

West I n d i a n Top 3" Cittarium pica Linne W. Indies; seashore

30

TO P S H E LLS


CALL I O S TOMA TO P S H E LLS are the q ueens of the fam ily. All are lightweight shells with deli cate beading and bright colors. Most are cold-water inhabitants found among deep­ water beds of algae. Many are considered collector's items. Eggs are i n gelatinous ribbons. C u n n i ng h a m's Top . This i s one of a dozen large, stunning species found i n New Zealand. Maurea cunninghami G. and P. , 3"

Mon i l e Top

1" Calliasfama manile Reeve

N . W. Australia; common near shore on sponge

H a l i a rchus Top

2"

Ca//iasfama h aliarchus Melv i l l

J apan ; d e e p water

Chocolate-Lined Top

1" Calliasfoma javanicum lamarck

S . Fla. and Caribbean

CALLI O STOMAS

31


(Turb i n idae) , about 500 spec ies, pos­ sess a hard, limy operculum . The largest member of the family is the Green Turban . Its white operculum may weigh up to one pou nd . Buttons are made from the shel l s .

T U R BA N S H E L LS

Green Tu rban 8 " Turb o marmorotus L. E. Indies-Australia

Ches t n u t Tu rba n 1 11.'' Turb o castanea Gmelin Florido-W. Indies

outer side

Ta pestry Turban is a herbivorous spec ies of South Pacific coral reefs. The shell has a vari­ able and colorful pattern . Its operculum i s the famous blue-green "cot's eye . " Turbo petho­ lotus Linne, 3"

32

T U R BA N S H E L LS


P H EASANT AND STA R S H E LLS are turbans. There are about 40 species. The Pheasant Shells have several "foot feelers." Below is the largest, the Pheasant Shell, Phasi­ anella australis Gmelin (3 in.) ftom southern Australia. P heasant Shell foot filaments

operculum of Pheasant Shell i s white and shelly

Long-spined Star 2" Astraea phoebia Reding F l orida-Cari bbean ...

Rotary Star

2"

Astraea rotularia

lamarck Austral i a

Tri u m p h a n t Star

3-4"

Guildfordia triumphans P h i l .

East Asia; especi a l l y common i n Japan i n deep water

PH EASANT A N D

STA R S H E LLS

33


COMMON INDO-PACIFIC TURBANS Of the several dozen turbans from the tropical Western Pacific, these are the commonest . N ote the characteristic shape of the o perc u l um in each species .

outer side operculum

i nner side Ho rned Tu rban 3 " Turbo cornutus Lig htfoot Southern Japan; common near shore

Go l d - mouthed Tu rba n Turbo chrysostomus L i n n e C o m m o n on coral reefs

Dwarf Tu rba n 1 1/2' Silver-mouthed Tu rban T. bruneus Red ing Turbo argyrostomus L i nne

34

TU RBANS

3"

3"

Setose Tu rba n 3" T. setosus Gme l i n


Syd ney Tu rban 3'12" Turbo tor­ South Austra l i a ; c o m m o n i n s h a l l o w water; note the pecu l iar, white operc u l u m . quatus Gmel i n .

South Afri can Tu rban 3" Turbo sarmaticus Linne. South Africa . This shell i s pearly white and red when polished.

Two forms of the Delph i n u l a Sna i l

Channel led Tu rban from the West Indies is rarest in the Americas. Turbo canaliculatus Herm . , 3"

Delph i n u l a S n q i l from the I ndo­ Pacific reefs is very variable and has a brown , horny operc u l u m . Angaria delphinus L i n n e , 2"

....

T U R BA N S A N D D E LP H I N U LAS

35


N E R ITE S N A I LS (Neritidae) are of a family with varied habitats: shallow water, rocky shores, springs, rivers, swamps and even in trees. The Emerald Nerite lives on eelgrass near coral reefs. The shelly operculum bears a small projecting arm for muscular attachment. Nerites are vegetarians living in large colonies. Several hundred spe­ cies are known.

Pol ita N e rite 1 " Nerita polita Linne

inner side

outer side

Indo-Pacific; common

living Nerite

B l eed i n g Tooth

Nerita peloronta l .

egg capsules on rocks

2"

S . Florida-Caribbean

36

NERITES

Ornate Nerite 2" Nerita ornata Sby. Panama ( Pacific)

Emerald Nerite

Smaragdia viridis

l.

F lorida-Caribbean

1/3'


P E R I W I N K L E S (Littori n idae) are found on rocky shores of most parts of the world. Their small s i ze and drab colors protect them from predators. The microscopic eggs laid i n the water resemble min iature "flying saucers." Eggs of some species hatch i n side oviduct. side view of a n i m a l

Common E u ropea n Periwi n k l e . Once l i m i ted to E urope a n d Con­ ado, this rock-dwe l l er has spread south to Delaware i n the last 200 years. Shell s hove been found i n pre h i storic I n d i a n sites. Littorina /ittoreo Linne, 1 "

Pagoda Peri w i n k l e 2" Tectorius pogodus Linne I ndo-Pacific; common on rocks wel l a bove h i g h-tide l i ne

A u g e r Tu rrite l l o 4" Turrite//o terebra L i n ne I ndo-Pacific; common

(Turr i tell idae) , about 50 spec ies, a re tropical relatives of the periwinkles . The shel l s , found i n shallow, muddy bottoms , are l o n g and pointed. T h e cor­ neous opercu l um has few whorls.

T U R R I T E L L A S N A I LS

PERIWIN KLES

37


(Architecton i cidae) resemble a wi nding stair­ case. All 40 species are tropical. A few deep-sea species are collector's items. Operculum like horny p i ll. S U N D I ALS

Common Atla n t i c S u n d i a l

Architectonica nobilis Reding

2"

Caro l i nas to West Indies; common i n sand

Va riegated S u n d i a l %" Heliacus variegatus Gmelin I ndo- Pacific Florida Wo rm Shell

4"

Vermiculoria knorri Deshoyes

Caroli nas to Mexico

WO RMS H E LLS (Turritel lidae) resemble marine worms, but are true snails. The early whorls resemble turritella shells , but later ones detach and grow haphazardly. 38

S U N D I A LS A N D WO RM S H E L LS


CE RITHS

Sowe rby's Cerith

4"

Pseudovertagus phylarchus l reda l e

P h i l i ppines; uncommon

S u l cate Cerith

2"

Terebra/ia sulcata Born

Indo-Pacific; swamps

R a d u l a Cerith

2"

Tympanotonus radula

W. African swamps

;

l. "'-

(Cerith i idae) , about 300 species, are abundant i n the i n tertidal zone of tropic shores . Some live i n man­ grove swamps , others at sea . The eggs are i n jelly masses. CERITHS

CERITHS

39


{ E pitoni idae) , a curious family mai nly al­ abaster-white, are capable of excreting a purple dye. Most are found with sea anemones and Fungia corals . Rice-paste counterfeits of the Precious Wentletrap were once sold. About 200 known species, some rare.

W E N T L E T RAPS

Common We ntletrop ďż˝ Epitonium clothrus Linne E u rope; common

Noble We nt letrop

Sthenorytis pemobilis

2"

F i scher & Bernardi Florida-Cari bbean; rare

Prec i o u s We ntl etrop

Epitonium seafare Linne

Eastern Asia; uncommon

40

W E N TLETRAPS

2"

Mag n ificent We ntl etrop Amaea magnifica Sowerby Japan; rare

4"


(Crepidulid ae) possess a pe­ culiar plate located inside the mai n shell . These limpetli ke snails live in shallow water. The males are much smaller, but may change their sex and grow to a larger si ze. The slipper shells may grow on top of each other or on rock s . C U P A N D S L I P P E R S H E LLS

Com m o n A t l a n t i c S l i pper She l l

Crepidula fornicofo Linne

2"

Canada to Texas; E u rope; very common This, l i ke ather s l i pper shells, has no opercu l u m .

Imbri cate C u p-and-Sa ucer

Crucibulum scutellatum Woad

West Mexico

2"

Rayed Peru v i a n Hat 2" Trochita trochiformis Born Peru and C h i l e


THE TRUE CONCHS

Eighty world species of Strombidae live i n warm waters. Note the "notch" on the l ower outer l i p . The foot is narrow and muscular with a sharp, sickle-shaped opercu l um .

• Colorful eyes on spec i a l sta lks ore c h a r a c t e r i s t i c for each spec i e s . Above ore four examples.

Pink Conch 8 - 1 2" Strombus gigas Linne. Southern Florida-West Indies. This Iorge C a r i bbean conch shell has long been a favorite or­ nament. Conch chowder a nd steak come from this species, and its shell i s used as a trumpet. The young "rollers" do not hove the fla r i n g , thick l i p o f the 12- i n . adul t s . Sem i ­ prec ious p i n k pear l s hove been found i n side the she l l s . The animal feeds on delicate algae. Also called the Queen Conch.

Florida F i g h t i n g Conch

Strombus alotus G m e l i n

2-3"

F lorida; c o m m o n n e a r shore

42

CONCHS

West In d i a n F i g h t i n g Conch 2-3" Strombus pugilis L i n ne Caribbean ; common near shore


Goliath Conch

15" Strombus goliath Schroter

Bra z i l ; ra re

Rooster Conch

Strombus gallus

5"

Linne Caribbean

I

I

/ Milk Conch

4-7"

S. costatus Gmelin

Cari bbean

Two of these Atlantic conchs are collector's items. Rarest i s the Goliath Conch from B ra z i l , largest Strom bus in the world. The Rooster Conch of the C a r i bbean reg ion is fa i r l y rare. Adu lts vary i n size; the male i s smaller. I n the Milk Conch, the s i ze and number of knobs is variable, and some shells may be orange, yel l ow, or whitish . 1 V2' dwarfs of the Hawk-Wing occur i n Lake Wor t h , F l orida .

Hawk-Wi n g Conch 2-4" S . roninus Gmelin Cari bbean

43


COMMON INDO-PACIF IC CONCHS (1-3")

B u b b l e Conch

Stromb u s bullo Reding

Hu mped Conch l.

S. gibberulus

D i a n a Conch

S. aurisdianae

Dog Conch

l.

S . conarium

Mutable Conch S. mutabilis Swa i nson

l.

Li t t l e Bea r Conch l.

Strombus urceus

white mouth

S i l ver Conch

S. lentiginosus Linne

B l ood-Mouth Conch

S. luhuanus Linne

44

CONCHS


UNUSUAL CONCHS B u l l Conch is a rare spec ies from the coral reefs in the Centra l Pa­ cific. Shell heavy with twa un ique spines o n outer lip. 4". Strambus taurus Reeve . Found at depths af 20 Ia 50 feel .

Lac i n iated Conch is an uncom­ mon and attractive W. Pacific shell noted for the beautiful purple in­ terior of its mouth. 4". Strombus sinuatus L ightfoot

L i t t l e Frog Conch

4"

Strombus latus G m e l i n

West African and C a p e Verde I s .

Peru via n C o n c h

Strombus peruvianus Swa i n son

Pacific side of Central America

CONCHS

45


S P I D E R C O N C H S (Strombidae) are closely related to the true conchs. The ten known species of spider conchs are l imited to the tropical waters of the I ndo-Pacific region. A fossi l species is found in Hawaii. A l l are vegetarians and lay spaghetti -li ke egg masses.

6"

C h i ragra S p i d e r .... Conch 7" Lambis chiragra L . S . W . Pacific; common

..

Violet Spider Conch L. vialacea Swa i nsan Mauritius; rare

46

SPIDER CONCHS

3-4"


Scorp ion Co nch L . scorpius Linne Uncommon

<IIIII

Co m m o n Spider Conch Lambis lambis Linne Indo-Pacific; abundant

Orange Spider Conch

3-4" L. crocota link

U ncommon

4"

Gi a n t Spider Co nch 1 2" Lombis truncate lightfoot Indian Ocean; common

ďż˝ M i l l i ped Spider Co nch L. millepede Linne

S . W. Pacifi c ; common

47


CARRIER AND TIBIA S HELLS

CAR R I E R SHELLS i n c l ude the J apa nese Carrier Shell ( 1) Xenophora pa//idula Reeve , 4", which attaches dead shells to i tself. (2) The Sunburst Carrier, Ste//aria so/oris Linne, 3", from the West­ ern Pacific, develops its own limy projections. The animals are very active. Both species are i n the fam i l y Xenophoridae.

3.

48

TIBIA SHELLS, long and slender, are from the P h i l i ppines. (3) Spindle Tibia, Tibia fusus l., reaches 12 i n . (4) Dwarf T i bia, Varicospira can­ cel/ala l., is 1 i n . A l l are collector's items, and belong to the fa m i l y Strombida e .

CA R R I E R A N D T I BIA S H E LLS


MOON S NAILS (Naticidae)

tentacle shell

Shell of moon snoil is en­ veloped by large gray fool.

MO O N S N A I L S a r e f o u n d o n sandy flats i n nearly a l l parts of the world. They spend most of their time digging through the sand i n search o f c l a m s a n d smaller snai l s . They d r i l l a n e a t h o l e through the shell of their prey and rasp out the

mea t . Their foot i s large and cov­ ers much of the shell when i t i s extended . Egg-masses are laid i n collar-shaped cases made with fine sand. These are often found at low tide. The young hatch out i n 2 or 3 weeks.

Operc u l u m , or trapdoor, which sea l s the mouth of Polinices and Lunotio moon snails i s thin and horny. Some are brown ; others a re red .

Northern Moo n S n a i l

Lunatio heros Say

Canada to Virginia

4"

At l a n t i c S h a rk Eye P. duplicatus Say Mas s . to Texas

2"


Operculum of moon snails i n the genus Natica i s hard and shel l - l i ke. Most mem­ bers of this genus (over 100 species) live i n sandy tropical b o y s ; s o m e l ive i n the Arc­ tic. A. Attachment side. B . Outer side.

Ch i n a Moon 1 " Natica onca Reding Indo-Pacific; a moderately common species found in sand below low tide

Macul ated Moon N. tigrina Reding Indo-Pacific

Zebra Moon N. undulata Reding I ndo- Pacific

1"

Stellate Moo n 2-3" N. stellata Chenu Japan

1"

Co lorful At l a n t i c Moon N. canrena Linne florida -Cari bbean 1-2"

50

Butte rfl y Moon 1 '/2' N. alapapilionis Reding Indo- Pacifi c ; a l so found i n sand but uncommon

N ATICA S N A I L S


Tiger Cowrie with its fleshy mantle pa rtly covering its shell

When disturbed, its mantle con­ tracts, revea l i n g the g l ossy she l l .

COW R I E S , with glossy, c h i na- l i ke shel l s , attracted primi­ tive peoples who used them as ornaments, money and as religious symbols . Today, cowries rank high with shell collectors . Most of the 190 or so species are relatively common in tropical seas . A few are very rare . The hard shell and attractive colors are produced by the enveloping fleshy mantle . Cowries are active at night, feedi ng on hydro ids and similar small mari ne creatures .

C OW R I E S

51


AMERICAN COWRIES American tropica l waters hove less than a dozen species of cowries. Four common Atlantic species are found i n F l orida, and the uncom­ mon Mouse Cowri e i s l i m i ted to the l ower Caribbean.

Atl a n t i c Gray Cowrie 1 "

Cypraea cinerea

Gme l i n F lorida-Cari bbean

Atl a n t i c Ye llow Cowrie 1 " C . spurca aciculari's Gmelin F l orida-Caribbean

C hestnut Cowrie

Measled Cowrie 3" Cypraea zebra Linne F lorida-Caribbean

Pa n a m a Cowrie

Cypraea spadicea

Swa i nson Southern C a l iforn ia

2"

Cypraea cervinetta Kiener

Gulf of Panama

52

C OW R I E S

2"

Mouse Cowrie 2" Cypraea mus Linne Venezuela

At l a n t i c Deer Cowrie Cypraea cervus L i nne F lorida-Cuba-Yucatan

4"


AF RICAN COWRIES South African waters are the home of seven cowries; six of them are relatively common. Fulton's Cow­ rie is one of the world's ra rest, found i n the stomachs of the Mussel Cracker fish which feeds on i t .

Brown-Toothed Cowrie 1 1/2' Cypraea angustata Gmelin

Cape C o w r i e

1" Cypraea capensis Gray

Rat Cowrie 3" Cypraea stercoraria Linne

Toothless Cowrie

1" Cypraea edentula Gray

Fu lton's Cowrie 2" Cypraea fultoni Sower by

West Afr ica

C OW R I E S

53


PANAMA ( PACIFIC) COWRIES

L i t t l e Ara b i a n Cowrie 3/4"

C ypraea arabicula

Black-spotted Cowrie 1 - 1 '/," C. nigropunctata Gray Galapagos I s .

Robe rts' C o w r i e

C . robertsi H ida lgo

1"

Lamarck

MEDITERRANEAN COWRIES

Pea r Cowrie

Agate Cowrie C . achatidea

Sower by

Lurid Cowrie

1 '/2'

C . /urida L i n ne

Zoned Cowrie 1 112" C . zonaria Gmel i n West Africa

54

C OW R I E S

1"

C . pyrum Gmelin

1"

Spurca Cowrie 3/4' C . spurca spurca Linne


AUS TRALIAN COWRIES

Fri e n d 's Cowrie 3" Cypraea friendii Gray

Thersite Cowrie 3" C. thersites Gasko i n

Armen i a n Cowrie

4"

Cypraea armeniaco Verco

Western Austra l i a ; deep water; rare

U m b i l icate Cowrie 4 " C . hesitata l redo le Deep water; New South Wa les

Dec i p i e n s Cowrie 2" Cypraea decipiens E. A. Smith

..

Albino form of the U m b i l icate Cowrie 4" C. hesitata form alba Cox

C OW R I E S

55


COMMON INDO-PACIF IC COWRIES (2"

Pacific Deer Cowrie C. vitellus L i n ne

or

less)

C o l o ba Cowrie C . coloba Melvill I ndian Ocean

2"

1"

Tahi t i a n Go ld-ringer C . obvelata lamarck Society Islands

Chi nese Cowrie 1 1/2' C . chinensis Gmel i n

Caurica Cowrie

C . caurica Linne

Go ld-ringer 1/2- 1 " C . annulus Linne Very common

lyn x Cowrie C. lynx Linne

1 - 2"

Camel Cowrie 2" C. camelopardalis Perry Red Sea ; uncommon

56

C OW R I E S

1 V2 "


COMMON INDO-PACIF IC COWRIES (2-4")

Tiger Cowrie

3"

Panther Cowrie ( Red Sea) C. pantherina Lig htfoot

3"

Cypraea tigris Linne

Ara b i a n Cowrie C. arabica Linne

2"

Histrio Cowrie 2 '/," C . histrio G m e l i n

E g l a n t i n e Cowrie C . eglantine Duclos

Eyed Cowrie

4"

2"

Cypraea argus Linne

U ncommon

Ret i c u l ated C o w r i e 3 " C . maculifera Schi lder

Mo l e Cowrie

3"

Cypraea talpa Linne

C OW R I E S

57


COMMON IND O-PACIF IC COWRIES

Ve ntricu late Cowrie C. ventriculus Lamarck Isa b e l l e Cowrie

C. isabella Linne

Carn e l i a n Cowrie

C. carneola L i nne

2"

To rtoise Cowrie 4" C . festudinaria Linne Oce l l ate Cowrie C. ocellata Linne Indian Ocean only

Schi l d e r's Cowrie

C. schilderorum

lredale

58

C OW R I E S

1" Grooved-toothed

1 '/," Hu mp-back Cowrie 3" C . mouritiana Linne Commonest on t h i s page

1"


COMMON INDO-PACIF IC COWRIES (1-2")

S n a ke-head Cowrie

C. caputserpentis l .

Ver y common

Thrush Cowrie C . furdus lamarck Indian Ocean

E roded Cowrie

Cypraea eros a

Linne

la ma rck's Cowrie

C. lamarcki Gray

D ragon-head Cowrie

C . caputdracanis Me lvill

E a ster Island; uncommon

Boivi n's Cowrie

C. boivini K i ener

Onyx Cowrie

C. onyx Linne

M i l i o ri s Cowrie C . miliaris Gmelin

Wo n d e r i n g Cowrie Cypraea erranes l.

C OW R I E S

59


UNCOMMON INDO-PACIF IC COWRIES

The cowries on these two pages occur i n various parts of the I ndo-Pacifi c . Most are uncommo n . Most sought after are the Map, Cox's and Stolid Cowries . Dawn Cowrie

3/4'

Porous Cowrie c. paroria Linne South Pacific

Cyproea diluculum Reeve

East Africa

Ta pering Cowrie 1 " Cypraea teres Linne

Cox's Cowrie C. coxeni Cox

Cyli ndrical Cowrie C. cylindrica Born

1"

Wa lker's Cowrie

C. walkeri Sowerby

S i e ve Cowrie

C. cribroria L i nne

1"

Z i g -Zag Cowrie

C. ziczoc L.

U ncommon

60

C OW R I E S

3/4'

3/4'


Map Cowrie

4"

Cypraea mappa l .

A popu lar collector's i tem

Honey Cowrie

1"

Sto l i d Cowrie

C . he/vola Linne

1"

C . stolida Linne

Moderately common

Ase l l u s Cowrie C. asellus Linne

Punctate Cowrie 113"

C. punctata l .

Jester Cowrie 1 - 1 '12" C. scurro Gmel i n .... U ncommon; two views

ďż˝ N ucleus Cowrie C. nucleus Linne

%"

C h i ck-Pea Cowrie

C. cicerculo Linne ....

Money Cowrie

1"

C . m o neta Linne

Very common

Kitten Cowrie

C . felina Gmelin

C OW R I E S

61

'/,"


SOME RARE COWRIE S Seldom seen in amateur collec­ tions, but greatly sought after, are several rare cowries, some worth severa l hundreds of dollars.

The Golden Cowrie i s not ex­ ceed i ngly rare, but i s a choice col­ lector's item from Melanesi a . Cypraea aurantium Gmel i n , 4"

Leucodon Cowrie

3"

Cypraea leucodon Broderip

P h i l i ppines; very rare

Broderi p's Cowri e

3"

Cypraea broderipii Sowerby

Indian Ocea n ; very rare


THE HELMET SHELLS

The large, massive helmet shells (Cassidae) are found in tropical waters around the world . They live in shallow ¡ water on sandy bottoms and feed ma i n l y on sea urch i n s . The larger ones are used i n making shell cameo s .

Tesse llate He l m e t 6-9" Cassis fessellata Gmelin West Africa .... / U ncommon

â&#x20AC;˘ K i n g He l met

7"

Cassis tuberosa L i n ne

Cari bbean

Ho rned He l met

Cassis co rn uta

Linne Indo-Pacific

63


BON N ET S HELLS

Scotch Bon net 3" ďż˝ Pha lium gronu/otum Born S . E . U . S . -Coribbean

Smooth Scotch Bonnet

3"

Phalium granulatum form cicatricosum Gmelin

F l o rida-Caribbean

Striped Bonnet 3" Phalium strigatum Gmelin

Gray Bonnet

I ndo-Pacific

Phalium glaucum Linne

I ndo-Pacific; uncommon

C ha n n e l led Bon net 2" P. cana/icu/atum Brugui ere Indo-Pacifi c

64

BO N N E T S H E LLS

Areola Bonnet 2" Phalium areola l. Indo-Pacific

J a p a n ese Bonnet 3" P. bisulcatum Schubert and Wagner Japan


Vi bex Bonnet of the I n d o - P a c i fi c is v e r y variable in shape, some s p e c i m e n s a r e q u i te s m o o t h ( r i g h t fig . ) , others with knobs on the s h o u l d e r ( l ef t fi g . ) . Casmaria

erinaceus

Linne, 1-2"

l re d a l e's Bonnet

Pha lium labiatum P e rry

South Africa

Adult Red Helmets have no operculum . The animal is or­ ange-red. Cameos are made from the large Bull Mouth Helmet of the I ndian Ocean which lives i n shallow water. Bull Mouth He l met

6"

Cypraecassis rufa L . ; Indian Oc e an

â&#x20AC;˘

Contracted Cowrie -helmet 3" C. coarctata Sowerby; Panama

3"


HELMET S HELLS

â&#x20AC;˘ Prickly He l m e t

Tusca n He l met G. rugosa L i nne Med i terranean

3"

Goleodeo echinophoro l . Med iterranean

At l a n t i c Woodlouse Morum oniscus Linne Caribbean ; common

1"

Roya l Bonnet 2" Sconsio striata lamarck Cari bbean ; deep water

66

3"

Ca ncellate Moru m 1 1/2' Marum cancellotum Sowerby Southeast Asia

E x q u i s ite Moru m Morum exquisitum Adorns & Reeve P h i l i pp i nes; rare

1 1/2'


THE F ROG SHELLS

The tropical frog shells (Bursidae) are represented by sev­ eral genera and about 60 species , ranging i n s i ze from V2" to 10". large ones were once used for oil lamps .

Gra n u lated Frog S h e l l 2" B ursa granularis Reding Cari bbean and Indo-Pacific A common snail found on reefs under rocks

W i nged Frog S h e l l B iplex perca Perry Southeast Asia

Gi a n t Frog Shell 5-1 0" B ursa bubo l. ; I ndo- Pacific Moderately common near coral reefs ....

3"


THE TRITON TRUMPETS

There are less than a dozen spec ies of these large triton trumpets. Most occur i n tropical waters near coral reefs. By cutting off the end of the spire or making a round hole in the side, natives use the large spec ies as trumpets . All members of the family Cymati idae have horny opercula. The Caribbean and the Indo-Pacific triton trum­ pets are very closely related. The former has th i n, raised teeth on the i n ner lip; the latter has wider, flattened teeth, as shown below. Pacific Tri ton

8- 1 5"

Atlantic Triton

8-1 1 "

Choronio voriegoto Lamarck

Pust u l ed Triton

5"

....

Choronio pustuloto L a m . South Africa

68


THE HAIRY TRITONS

Most of the hundred species of hairy tritons (family Cyma­ tiidae) are characteri zed by a periostracum of "hai rs" coveri ng the outside of the shel l . The fam i l y is mai n l y tropical . Hairy tritons are carnivoro u s . They lay n umerous horny egg capsules on rocks . Common Ha i r y Triton

Cymotium pileare Linne

3-4"

Cari bbean and Indo-Pacifi c Common on c o r a l reefs

Loto r i u m Triton

5"

Cymotium lotorium Linne

Indo-Pacific; moderately common on reefs

Ang u l a r Triton

6"

Cymotium femorale

Linne ďż˝ F l a . -Caribbean Common o n grass flats

H A I R Y T R I TO N S

69


THE T UN AND F IG SH ELLS

These are large, thin-shelled, rounded shells (family Ton­ nidae), mostly tropical. The animal is usually larger than the shell itself. Adults do not have an flperculum but may have a thin, flaky periostracum. The snout contains acid.

â&#x20AC;˘ G i a n t Tu n

5-7"

Tonna galea Linne

Worldwide; tropical

At l a n t i c Fig S h e l l 4" Ficus communis Rii d ing S . E. U n i ted States No operc u l u m

70

T U N S AND F I G S

Gri n n i n g Tu n

4-7"

Malea ringens Swa i n son

Panama ( Pacific side) T


THE MURE X SHE LLS

This is a major marine fam i l y (Muricidae) which contai ns a large number of genera and a vast array of species . They are worldwide in distri bution , but are found mai n l y i n tropical waters . long spi nes and fri l l s c haracter i ze thi s attractive gro u p . The typical Murex gen us shown on t h i s page contai ns about 2 0 species . T h e opercu l um i s horny. Troschel's M u rex

5 - 7"

Murex troscheli Lischke

Southeast Asia and Japan

T Ve n u s Comb M u rex

Murex pecten L i g htfoot

I ndo-Pacific

4-6"

T

M U R E X S H E LLS

71


(below) are large, showy s pecies living colonially on sandy mud flats on the Pacific side of Central Ameri ca. Many other smaller, attractive species are known in this area. All murex snai l s feed on other mol l usks, espec ial l y bivalves. Eggs are laid i n c l u sters of capsu l es.

M U R E X S N A I LS

R a d i x M u rex

4"

Murex radix Gmel i n

Ca bbage M u rex

5"

Murex brassica Lamarck

72

M U R EX S H E LLS

P i n k-mouthed Mu rex

4"

Murex erythrostomus Swa i n son

Reg a l M u rex

4"

Murex regius Wood


Earliest use of murex snails as a source of dye goes back to the days of the Phoen icians. Later, Greeks and Romans made use of the valuable co loring material. The murex snai l s secrete a yellowish fl u id which, when boi led and treated, makes a permanent purple dye. Wool and cotton dyed with this so-called Royal Tyrian P urple brought very h igh pri ces. During Roman times only Senators and Emper­ ors were allowed to wear purple cloth. After the fall of the Roman Empire the dye was u sed by the Christian Church and gave rise to the offical colors of Cardi nals. Many new towns were settled in the western Mediterranean by Phoe­ nicians seeki ng fresh beds of the dye-produc i ng murex shel l s. Dye M u rex 3 " Murex brandaris B o i l i ng purple dye

Linne Med iterranean

M U R E X S H E LLS

73


of shal low water i n c l ude the common species i l l ustrated bel ow. The E ndive and Adustus are from coral reefs; Sni pe's B i l l Murex is from deeper water and occurs in pairs .

I N D O - PAC I F I C M U R E X S H E LLS

S n i pe's B i l l

4"

Murex haustellum Linne

Adustus M u rex 2" Murex brunneus Link

Ram ose M u rex

74

M U R E X S H E L LS

8- 1 2"


SOME RARE M UREX SHELLS

C l a v u s M u re x , r a r e , m a y sometimes have a purple mouth. I t i s more often found i n Japan, the P h i l i ppi nes and East Africa . Murex elongafus lightfoot, 2 - 3 V2' The Z a m bo M u rex (right) is found on rocks in the central P h i l i p p i nes at depths of 1 0 ft. M. zamboi Burch & Burch, 2" The Scorp ion M u rex ( l ower left) may be black, brown or wh i t i s h . As i t grows, old spines a re d issolved by mantle. Mu­ rex scorpio Linne, 1 - 2"

T

Rose-bra n c h Murex ( l ower right) is popular collector's item from southeast Asi a . Murex palmarosae lamarc k , 3-4"

M U R E X S H E LLS

75


EAST E R N AM E R I CA N M U R E X S H E LLS i nclude the com­ mon species illustrated below. All live in shallow water, usually on muddy bottoms . All feed on small clams. The Giant Eastern Murex also lives i n the Gulf of Mexico . The Apple Murex and lace Murex are abundant on the west coast of Florida, and are commercially collected.

G i a n t E a stern Mu rex

5"

Murex fulvescens Sowerby

Carolinas to Texas

76


LAT I AX I S S H E LLS (Corallioph ilidae) are abundant and varied in the waters around Japan, which are famous for these species. All are noted for their alabaster white shells and delicate sculpturing. Mawe's Latiaxis, discovered in the early 19th century, was once a great rarity. N ow it is more common, and P ilsbry's Latiaxis is considered the top species for collectors . Less attractive species occur in the Cari bbean and Eastern Pacific. Eugenio's Loti o x i s

2"

Latiaxis eugeniae Ber n .

Japan; deep water

Armored Lotioxis

Latiaxis armatus Sby.

Japan; deep water.

1 " J a pan Lotio xis

2"

La tiaxis japonicus D u n ker

Japan; deep water

Mawe's Lat i a x i s 2 1/2" Latiaxis mawae G. & P. Japan; deep water Pilsbry's Lot i o x i s 1 1/2" Latiaxis pilsbryi H i rase Japan; deep water

,, }

/'

LATIAXIS

77


R O C K S H E LL S of many species (family Thaididae) live i n large colonies along rocky shores , where they feed on mussels, oysters and barnacles. Many secrete a purple dye, used by Central American Indians to color cotton. The Barnacle Rock Shell resembles an abalone but has no holes; it i s fished commerc ially for food.

W. I n d i a n Pu rpura Purpura potu/a Linne Florida-Caribbean

3"

G i rd l ed Rock Shell Thais cinguloto Linne Cope of Good Hope

78

Eye of J udas 3" Purpura plonospira lamarck Galapagos Islands; Central America

1 '/, ''

E . I n d i a n Purpura 3" Purpura persico Linne East Indies

Barnacle Rock S h e l l 4" Concholepas concholepas Bruguiere Peru and C h i l e

P U R P U RA R O C K S H E LLS


D R U P E S N A I LS are smal l , colorfu l thaids found only on the coral-rock shores of the I ndo- Pacific area . The Fri l led Dogwinkle, common along the northwest shores of N orth America, has relatives in other cool -water areas such as New E ngland and northern E urope . All members of t h i s family lay urn- l i ke egg capsules .

Prickly Drupe Drupo ricinus

1"

Finger Drupe

Purple Drupe

Linne

Drupo morum

1"

D. grossulorio

1"

Roding

Roding

Fri l l e d Dog w i n k l e 1 - 5" Nucello lomelloso Grnelin N. W. U n i ted States; variable i n shape and color

T Pacific Horse Chestnut T hais hippocostoneo L. Indo-Pacific

2"

Sert u m Rock S h e l l

Nosso serta

Bruguiere Indo-Pacific

D R U P E S A N D D O GW I N K L E S

79

2"


I LS of the family Magilidae are u sually c l osely assoc iated with soft and hard corals or sea fans. Most species do not have radular teeth. The Magilus Snail of the tropical Pacific l i ves i n brain coral. As the ­ coral grows , the snai l also lengthens its she l l and fills up its early whorls with solid, shel ly material. The Papery Rapa lives in soft, yel l ow corals of the P h i l i ppi nes, ma i ntai ning contact with the ocean's water through a small hole in its host. The Caribbean Coral Snai l lives i n the base of sea

sna i l s in base

Caribbean Cora l S n a i l

1"

Coralliaphila caribaea Abbott

West Indies

Mag i I u s Sn a i l

1 - 3"

Papery Rapa

Magilus antiquus Montfort

R a p a rapa L i n n e

Indo-Pacific

I ndo-Pacific; l i v e s i n s o f t caro l

early whorls

80

3"

R A PA A N D C O RA L S N A I LS


AN IMAL WITH S H E L L R EMOV E D

Common Northern Bucc i n u m 3" Buccinum undatum Linne N. Atlantic; common offshore

W H E LKS of the family Buccin idae form a large grou p of many genera and over 400 spec ies. All have corneous opercula and a radula with three rows of strong teeth . Eggs are laid i n large c l umps o f egg capsu l es. Whelks feed upon marine worms and clams. It is one of the few famil ies to have representatives i n both arctic and tropical waters . Arctic species of the genus Buccinum are generally drab­ colored. The tropical genera are colorfu l and l i ve i n shal­ l ow water. New E n g l a n d Neptune

4"

Neptunea decemcostota Soy

Canada to Mass . ; common offshore

Neptune egg capsules

W H E LKS

81


COLD-WATER WHELKS

The buccinids are ravenous carnivores , and the larger species do great damage to clam beds. In Japan, they are commercially fished for food and are used as bait. Species like the J apelion are common in fossil beds and indicate cold-water conditions in former geological times. A few species of buccinids may lack an operculum. The cold­ water buccinids are few in species but numerous as individ­ uals, but in the tropics are colorful and varied. H i rose's W h e l k 4" J ape/ion hirasei P i l sbry N o r thern Japan; a cold·water species D i lated Whelk 6-7" .... Penion dilatatus Q. & G . N ew Zea land; a cold -water species

82

W H E L KS


TROPICAL WHELKS

S p i ra l Babylon

3"

Babylonia spirata Linne

Signum Whelk

2" Siphonalia signum Reeve A common species in Japan; o pest of oysters

Z e l a n d i c Babylon 3" B . zelandica Bruguiere Indian Ocean ; uncommon N ote the purple ridge at the base of the shell

S . E . Asia

Fa lse Triton

3"

Colubraria moculoso Gmelin

Indian Ocean ; a n uncommon species found around coral reefs

Phos W h e l k

2"

Phos senticosus Linne

Indo-Pacific; commonly d redged

C h a n neled Babylon 2" B. canaliculata Schumacher Indian Ocean

W H E L KS

83


(Melo ngenidae) are car n i vores, feedi ng on clams and snails. The Australian Trumpet is the world's largest gastropod-over two feet long . The young hatch from the egg capsule with a long, slender spire which is usually broken off by the ti me the an imals mature.

T H E M E LO N G E N A S

American C rown Conch 2-4" Melongena corona Gmelin S . E . U n i ted Stoles; common Austra l ian Tru m pet or Baler Syrinx aruanus Linne N. Austra l i a

2 ft.

Cari bbean C rown Conch 4-5" Melongena melongena Linne West Indies; found i n sha l l ow water; feeds on clams

young shell of Austra l i a n Trumpet

l I

\

84

BAL E R S A N D M E LO N G E N AS


( Fasciolariidae) are typical of S. E. United States. Three spec ies i n Florida i nclude the 20- i nch Horse Conch. Tuli ps lay thei r eggs i n large clu m ps of parchment-like capsules. Adu l ts feed on clams. T U L I P S H E LLS

Banded Tu l i p

3"

Fasciolaria hunteria Perry

Carolinas to Texas; feeds on clams Common i n shal low water

Florida H o rse Conch

20"

Pleuroploca gigantea K i ener

Carolinas to Mexico; common offshore

True Tu l i p

Fasciolaria tulipa Linne

Carolinas to West Indies; common

operculum of Tu l i p

T U L I P S H E L LS

85


C l oster S p i n d l e

7"

Fusinus closter P h i l i ppi

lower Caribbean ; uncommon

D i staff S p i n d l e

Fusinus co I u s Linne

4"

Indo-Pacific

N icobar S p i n d l e

4"

F. nicobaricus Reding

Indo-Pacific

S P I N D L E S H E LLS (fam ily Fasciolariidae) of some 50 spe­ cies are well known to collectors because of their long, graceful shape. These snails live on sandy bottoms and travel in pairs. The largest Atlantic species, the Closter Spindle, is a collector's item. 86

S P I N D L E S H E LLS


F U LG U R W H E LKS (Melongenidae) of eastern American waters have been abundant since Miocene ti mes, some 30 m illion years ago . Today there are six com mon species . long chains of egg capsules are often washed ashore . The lightning Whelk is normally "left-handed . " a string af egg cases

7"

Busycan carica Gmelin

Mass. ta Georg i a

C h a n n e led Whelk 6" B . canaliculatum Linne Mass. ta Florida

Lightning Whelk 4- 1 6" â&#x20AC;˘ Busycan contrarium Conrad Carolinas to Texas

87


OLIVE S H E LLS (family Olividae) with their agate-like sheen and attractive shape have l ong been favorites . The family i s characteri zed by great variation i n color and markings . The genus Oliva has no opercu l um . The mantle and foot of the an imal partly cover the outer shel l . Over 300 species of o l ive shel l s l ive on sandy bottoms where they feed on smaller mo l l usks. The best time to col lect olives is at night, at l ow tide. P h i l i ppine col lectors u se bait on a tiny hook and l i ne .

E a r O l ive

0/ivancillaria vesica

Gme l i n Eastern South America Common i n sand

Te nt O l i ve

3-5"

Oliva porphyria L i nne

W. Central America U ncommon offshore

Ta nkerv i l l e's O l i ve

3"

Ancillo tankervillei Swo i nson

Venezuela; uncommon i n sand

88

OLIVES


Orange-mouthed O l i ve 3" Oliva sericea Riid i n g . Indo-Pacifi c . N ote calor variation on backs. T h i s i s a very common sand-dwe l l i n g spec ies .

Purple-mouthed O l i ve Oliva c aerulea Riid i n g Indo-Pac ific; common

2-3"

G i b bose O l i ve 2" Oliva gibbosa Riid i n g I n d i a n Oceo n ; abundant

Lette red O l i v e 2 1/," Oliva sayana Ravenel S. E. U n i ted States; common i n sand

OLIVES

89


VASE SHELLS

About two dozen species (fom ily Vasidae) , all tropical , have heavy shells with 4 to 5 spi ral ridges on the inner lip. Most are common and found near shore, but some, like the Lat i rus-shaped Vase , are deep-water species. Common Atlantic Vase Vasum muricatum Born Florida and West Indies

4"

La ti rus-sha ped Vase

2"

V. lotiriforme Reh . & Abb.

Gulf of Mexico; rare

Ceram Vase

4-5"

V. ceramicum Linne

Indo-Pacific A common reef species

ďż˝

3"

G l o be Vase 1 " V. g lobulus l a m . Lesser Antil les

90

VA S E S H E LLS


CH ANK SH ELLS

The very massive chank shells (Turbinellidae) are found in only a few areas. In India and Sri lanka they are collected by the thousands and cut into ornamental rings and ban­ gles. Rare "left-handed" specimens are mounted in gold and placed on H i ndu altars. Chanks are characterized by a nipple-like apex and folds on the inner lip. West I n d i a n C h a n k 1 0" Turbinella angulata lightfoot Bahamas, C uba and Mexico A common sha llow-water species in the Bahamas. Outer s k i n flakes off.

Indian Chank

6"

Turbinella pyrum Linne

Bay of Beng a l , India

C H A N K S H E LLS

91


MITER SHELLS

The renowned Mitridae family of warm, shallow seas in­ cludes nearly 600 spec ies, from 0.3 to 6 in. long . The inner lip usually has 3 to 5 strong, curved teeth. Miters use their long retractable snout to feed on worms and clams . They burrow in sand but keep their si phon extended. Eggs, in small horny capsules, a re attached to stones . The Indo­ Pacific region has about 400 species of miters . Some of the larger and more common ones are illustrated on these two pages . Miters are usually found under rocks . Episcopal Miter

Mitra mitro L i nne

3-5"

A common Indo-Pacifi c , carol -reef species

C a rd i n a l Miter

2-3"

M . cardino/is Gmelin

Indo-Pacific

"' snout

radulor teeth

tip of snout

92

MITERS


Adusta Miter

Mitra eremitarum Reding

P i n -poi nted Miter

2"

Pont i fica l Miter

M. puncticulata lamarck

Mitra stictica l i n k

2"

Papal Miter 3 - 4 " M . papa/is L i n ne One of the handsomest of the common m i ters from the Indo-Pacific area ďż˝

COMMON INDO-PACIF IC MITERS

I m perial Miter

2"

M. imperio/is Red i n g

T

Melon - l i ke Miter 1 " M. cucumerina Lamarck Under rocks; sha l l ow water

MITERS

93


Pl icate Miter

2"

Rugose Miter

V. rugosum

L i nne Indo-Pacific; common

L i n ne Indo-Pacific; common

Belcher's Miter

3"

Mitra belcheri H i nds

West Panama; uncommon

Ba rbados Miter 2" M . barbadensis Gmelin Cari bbean ; common

94

2"

Vex ilium plicarium

Little Fox Miter

V. vulpeculum

2"

L i nne Indo-Pacific; common

Zaca Miter

3"

M . z a c a Strong & Hanna

West Panama; uncommon

Nodulose Miter

2"

M. nodulosa Gmeli n

Caribbean ; common


COMMON INDO-PACIF IC MITERS letter Miter

Mitro litterata

2"

Pa p i l i o Miter

M . popilio l i n k

Isabel Miter 3" M . isabella Swainson

3/4'' lamarck

Auger- l i k e Miter 4"

M. terebralis

lamarck ....

Poor Miter

1"

M . paupercula

linne

B l ood-sucker Miter

M . sanguisuga

2"

linne

MITERS

95


S i n o Miter 1 1/2' Pterygia sinensis Reeve East Asia

Casta Miter

N ucea Miter

2"

I ndo-Pacific

1" Pterygia conus Gme l .

Southwest Pacific

Indo-Pacific

O l i ve-shaped Miter

1/,-%" Swoinsonia olivaeformis Swo i nson

I ndo-Pacific

Common l m bricaria

lmbricaria conica Sch u m .

South Pacific

3/4"

Fenestrate Miter %" Pterygia fenestrate Lam. Indo-Pac ific

Some of the smal ler species of miter shells (above) show great diversity in shape, especial ly Indo- Pacific genera such as Swainsonia, lmbricaria and Pterygia_ Some of these strange miters resemble cones, ol ives and Strombus conchs . These genera contain only a few dozen species, which are all sand-dwel l ers. 96

MITERS

2"

Pterygia dactylus L .

Indo-Pacific

Swainsonia casta Gmelin

Cone Miter

Dact y l u s Miter

2"

Pterygia nucea Gmel i n


VOLUTES

Volute shells (Volutidae) are large, colorful gastropods. Popular with collectors, some command high prices. Of about 200 kinds, most live in shallow, tropical seas, but some come from deep waters and a few from polar waters . Volutes are carnivorous, rapid crawlers . Females lay eggs in leathery capsules. The operculum is absent in most, but not in the true Vo/uta. Volute shells have strong folds, fairly constant in number, on the columella .

Music Vol ute Hebrew Vol ute

5"

2-3"

Voluto musico L i n ne C ari bbean

Voluta ebraea Linne Brazil

• ••

columella folds .. .

.. VO LU T E S

97


'â&#x20AC;˘

Bot Vo lute

'

3"

Aulico vespertilio Linne

Indo-Pacific; common

Aulico Vo l ute

/

Aulica aulica ltf t .

P h i l ippines; rare

4" ďż˝

<IIIII Noble Vol u te

5"

Aulica nobilis lightfoot

S . E . Asia; uncommon

Imperial Vol ute

1 0"

Aulica imperialis lightfoot

P h i l i ppines; uncommon

..

98

VO LU T E S


FLO R I DA VOLUTES belong to the subfamily Sco phellinoe, ond all l ive in fa i r l y dee p water exce p t for the J unonio, which i s occasionally washed ashore i n west F lorida . The animals ore spotted l i ke their shells and they a l l lock o n operc u l u m . S o m e ore v e r y rare .

Kiener's Volute

4-7"

Scaphella kieneri Clench

Dee p water; rare ....

â&#x20AC;˘

Dohrn's Vo l u te

3"

Scaphella dohrni Sowerby

Dee p water; rare

J u n o n i a Vo l u te

4-5"

Scaphella ;unonio lamarck

S . E. U n i ted Stoles ....

VOLU T E S

99


J APANESE VOLUTES

â&#x20AC;˘ S h i n-bone Vo l u te

2%"

Teromochio tibiaeformis Kuroda Japan; rare

Asia n Flame Vo lute 4" .... Fulgoraria rupesfris Gmelin Chino and Formoso Common offshore

<IIIII N ota ble Japa nese Vo l u te 5" Fulgoraria concinna Broderi p Japan; uncommon

Deli cate Volute 3" Fulgoraria delicafa Fulton Japan; uncommon

1 00


VOLUTE S Lightn i n g Vo lute Ericusa fulgetrum Sby. South Austra lia U ncommon

Vex i l l ate Vo lute

3"

Harpulina arausiaca lightfoot

Ceylon; uncommon

Ara b Vo lute

4"

Alcithoe orobico Gme l i n

New Zea land Common

Ponson by's Vo lute

2"

Alcithoe ponsonbyi E. A . Smith

South Africa; rare

1 01


MELON OR BALER SHELLS

These moderately common volutes have a huge foot .

.. Mammal Volute 1 0" Livonia mammilla Sowerby outh Austra l i a ; offshore

Eth iopian Volute 6- 1 4" Melo aethiopicus Linne Indo-Pacifi c ; offshore i n sand ....

1 02

VO LU T E S

.. I n d i a n Vol u te 8" Melo melo Lightfoot Southeast Asia Offshore


WES T AF RICAN VOLUTES

E l e p h a n t's S n o u t Volute 1 0- 1 4" Cymbium glans Gmelin Abundant offshore

O l l a Vo lute 8" Cymbium olio linne Common offshore

Neptune's Volute 6" � Cymbium pepo lightfoot Common offshore

VO LU T E S

1 03


AUS TRALIAN VOLUTES Tu rner's Vo l u te 2" A moria furneri Gray N orthern Austra l i a T

Damon's Vo l ute 4" A moria damoni Gray Western Australia Uncommon

E l l i ot's Vo lute 3 " A moria elliofi Sowerby South Austra l i a Common in s a n d Bed n a l l's Vol u te

4"

Volutoconus bednalli Brazier

Northern Austra l i a ; rare

Gross' Vo l ute

4 '/â&#x20AC;˘" ....

Volutoconus grossi lredale

Queensland; rare

I 1 04


Some volutes not only have a very broad foot, but also extend the fleshy, shell-mak i ng mantle over the outer shell, such as seen i n the top view of a crawling Angula r Volute from Brazil (left) .

Ang u l a r Vol ute

4-5"

Zidono dufresnei Donovan

Bra z i l ; a n i m a l left, shell right Common offshore

Abyssa l Vol u te

3"

Volutocorbis abyssicola Ads. & Rve .

South Africa; deep water; rare

T

Del esse rt's Vo l ute

2" ....

Lyria delessertiana Petit

Madagascar; uncommon

Miter-shaped Vo l ute 2" Lyria mitraeformis lamarck South Austra l i a Common

VO LU T E S

1 05


N U TMEGS (Cancellariidae) are oddly sculptured with strong spi ral teeth on the inner lip. The largest number of species are in the western American tropics.

Cancel late Nutmeg

Concellorio concefloto

1"

Linne West Africa Moderately common

Oblique N utmeg

C . obliquafo

lamarck Indo- Pacific Commonly dredged

1"

Ye l low-mouthed Nutmeg 1 " C. chrysosfoma

Sower by West Central America Uncommon offshore; mouth sometimes orange, but fades when shell i s dead

Speng l e r's N utmeg

2"

C . spengleriana Deshayes

East Asia; common

Common N utmeg C . reficulata L i n n e S . E. U n i ted States

1 06

N U TM E G S

2"

Hel met-shaped N utmeg

C . cassidiformis Sowerby

Panama to Ecuador

1 1/2'


MAR G I N S H E LLS (Marginellidae) are small and colorful, especially those from the shores of West Africa . Bubble Margin is the largest from the Americas.

Common At l a n t i c Marg i n S h e l l '/â&#x20AC;˘" Prunum apicinum Menke U . S . to Caribbean Common i n bays

Bubble Marg i n S h e l l

Prunum bullatum Born

Bra z i l ; uncommon

Orange Marg i n Shell 1 " Prunum corneum Storer Florida-Caribbean Uncommon offshore

2-3"

Rose Marg i n Shell 1 "

Marginella rosea lam .

South Africa U ncommon offshore

Belted Marg i n S h e l l 1 " Prunum cingulatum D i l lwyn West Africa

Bean Marg i n Shell

Marginella foba Linne

1"

West Africa

MARG I N S H E LLS

1 07


CONE SHELLS

Cone shells (Conidae) total about 400 species from most warm, tropical waters. The majority of the species are Indo-Pacific. Some 50 species are found in the Americas. Cones are heavy, with broad spires and tapering whorls, although some are as small as a grain of rice. Cones are carnivorous, feeding on worms and small fish. A few from the Indian and Pacific oceans can i nflict serious and per­ haps fatal stings. The largest of the Textile Cones and the Indo- Pacific Geography Cones are venomous. Poison from the venom sac in the head and a tiny "harpoon" in the radula sac are ejected from the proboscis and stabbed into the victim. American cones have a m ild sting. Cones prefer shallow water in coral reefs and under rocks. Their eggs, in flat, leaflike capsules, are attached to rocks. Living Textile Cone

DETAILS OF POISON APPARAT U S

1 08

CONES


GLORY-OF -TH E-SEAS

G l o ry-of-the-Seas 4 - 5 " Conus gloriamaris Chemnitz Southwest Pacific

Once considered a great rarity, the Glory-of-the-Seas was a much sought-after cone and thought to be the most valuable shel l in the wor ld. In recent years scu ba divers in the southwest Pacific and bottom-net fishermen in the Phil足 ippines have discovered hundreds of new specimens. Per足 fect ones still sel l for several h undred dollars. Other rare species of cones and cowries bring several thousands of dollars. The Glory-of-the-Seas has almost straight, grace足 ful outlines of the whorls and a very fine network of color足 ation. Do not confuse this with the common Textile Cones shown on page 113. Their sides are much more rounded and their spires less elevated. The Glory-of-the-Seas has not been known to be fatal, but is probably capable of inflicting a serious sting. CONES

1 09


COMMON INDO-PACIF IC CONES

dark phose

light phose

E b u rneus Cone 2" Conus eburneus Hwoss Two color forms Tessellate Cone

1 -2"

Conus tessulatus Born

Spots vary i n size

1 10

CONES

F i g Cone

3"

Conus figulinus Linne

Right: with periostrocum Left: c leaned shell

Marble Cone

4"

Conus marmoreus Linne

Rarely a l b i nistic


leopard Cone 5 -9" Conus leop a rdus Ri:iding Note white lower end

Pacific lettered Cone 3-5" Conus litteratus L. N ote brown ish end

The common Indo-Pacific cones on these two pages live in sand , usually near coral reefs . By day they hide in the sand; at night they emerge and feed-mainly on marine worms . Living shell has a "skin" or periostracum . Betu l i n u s Cone Conus betulinus L . Southwest Pacific 4-6"

Hebrew Cone


3"

Conus nussotello L i nne

Indo- Pacific reefs

Distant Cone

4"

V i rg i n Cone

Conus distons Hwass

Indo- Pacific reefs

Magus Cone

Indo-Pacific boys

3"

Conus magus Linne

I ndo-Pacific A variable species

1 12

CONES

4"

Conus virgo L i n ne

S o l d i er Cone

3"

Conus miles Li nne

Indo- Pacific


TEXTILE CONES

This group of cone shells, found mainly in the Indo-Pacific region, is marked with small tent-like triangles. All are closely related to the common Textile Cone (right). large ones are venomous. See Glory-of-the-Seas, page 109. Net ted Cone

2"

Conus retifer Me n ke

Indo- Pacific; uncommon

Tex t i l e Cone

3-4"

Conus textile Linne

Indo-Pacific; common

Aulicus Cone

4-6"

Conus aulicus Linne

Indo- Pacific ; uncommon

T

Queen Victoria Cone Conus victoriae Reeve

N. W. Austra lia

3"

Abbas Cone

3"

Conus abbas Hwass

Indo- Pacific U ncommon

CONES

1 13


The cones on this page are unusual and the pride of collectors . The Geography Cone is venomous, the General is the most common, and the Pertusa is hardest to find. Pertusa Cone

Pontifical Cone

1 1/2'

Conus dorreensis

Conus pertusus Hwass

I ndo-Pacific

Lithograph Cone

2" Conus litoglyphus Hwass Indo- Pacific

Geography Cone 5" Conus geographus Linne

Boug h Cone 4" Conus thalassiarchus Sowerby

Indo- Pacific

_.-P h i l i pp i nes; uncommon

General Cone

3"

Conus generalis L .

I ndo-Pacific Variable colors

T

1 14

CON ES

Peron and Lesueur Austra l i a

1"


Some of these cones are so rare that few collectors have them. Their rarity may indicate that their true habitat, where they may be more common, hasn't been discovered. Rhododen d ro n Cone 2 '1â&#x20AC;˘" Conus adamsani Broder i p Central Pacifi c ; v e r y rare /

.. .. 'â&#x20AC;˘ .,

U ncommon

N o b i l i t y Cone 1 - 2" Conus nobilis Linne Southwest Pacific; rare in most areas , but less so in the Sulu Sea , P h i l i ppi nes

Zoned Cone

3" Conus zonatus Hwass

Andaman I s lands

CONES

1 15


Cancellate Cone

1 '/â&#x20AC;˘"

Conus cancellatus Hwass

Common offshore

Deep Sea Cone

3"

Tera mach i's Cone 3 " Conus teramachi K u roda Rare; deep water

Conus smirna

Bartsch & Rehder

J APANESE CONES Austra l Cone

Siebo ld's Cone 3 " Conus sieboldi Reeve

3"

Conus australis H olten

U ncommon offshore

Common offshore

Fu lmen Cone

2"

Conus fulmen Reeve

Shal low water; common

1 16

CONES


Genua nus Cone

2"

Conus genuanus Linne

Rare

Trader Cone

1 1/2'

Conus mercator Linne

U ncommon

Prometheus Cone

8- 1 2"

Conus p ulcher lightfoot

Largest living cone Moderately common

Butterfl y Cone 3 " Actua lly the young o f the Prometheus Cone

CONES 1 1 7


F LORIDA-CARIBBEAN CONES Crown Cone

3"

Conus regius Gmel i n

Common on reefs S. F l a . -W. Indies

Alphabet Cone 3" Conus spurius Gmelin Common i n sand F l a . -Gulf of Mexico

Jeweled Cone

•;,"

Conus hieroglyphus Duclos

Caribbea n ; rare

Florida Cone

2"

Conus floridanus Gabb

Common i n sand N. Car. -Fiorida; variable

Glory-of-the-Atlantic Conus granulatus Linne Florida-W. Indies; rare

Sozon's Cone

4" �

C. delessertii Rec l u z

Southeast U . S . U ncommon offshore

1 18

CONES

2"


I n terru pted Cone

Conus ximenes Gray

2"

Lucid Cone

Mexico to Ecuador U ncommon

PACIF IC PANAMA CONES Pri nce Cone

2"

Conus lucidus Wood

Mexico to Peru Common

2 1/2'

conus princeps li nne

Mexico to Ecuador U ncommon

ladder Cone 2" Conus gra da tu s Wood High-spired sea/oris form West Central America; uncommon Pea r-shaped Cone

Conus patricius H i nds N icaragua Ia Ecuador

3"

Common

CONES

1 19


AUGER SHELLS (Terebridae) are long and brightly colored. The radu la and poison gland are s i m i lar to those of cone shel ls. No venomous sting has been recorded. Most are tropical sand-dwel lers. The largest of some 300 species is the Indo-Pacific Marl in­ spike, 6-8 inches long. Strigote Auger

1 1/2'

Terebra strigillata L i nne

Indo-Pacific; uncommon

D u p l i cate Auger 3" Terebra duplicata lamarck Austra l i a ; common in sand i n shal low water

Morl i n s p i ke

6-8"

Terebra maculata Linne

Indo-Pacific; abundant

Tiger Auger

2"

Terebra felina D i l lwyn

Indo-Pacific; common

1 20

AUGERS


COMMON INDO-PACIFIC AUGERS S u b u l ate Auger 6" Terebro subuloto Linne Indo-Pacific; sandy areas

Muscaria Auger

6"

Terebro oreolata L i n k

I ndo-Pacific; n e a r reefs

D i m id i a te Auger 6" Terebro dimidioto Linne I ndo-Pacific; muddy sand

AUGERS

121


Triseriote Auger 5" Terebro triserioto Gray I ndo-Pacifi c ; col lector's item

Eyed Auger

6"

Terebro guftoto Reding

I ndo-Pacific; uncommon

1 22

AUGERS

Cren u l ate Auger 6" Terebro crenufoto Linne Indo- Pacific; common Left: typical form Right: fimbriate form


INDO-PACIF IC AUGERS

4.

3.

1 . Cerith i n a Auger 1" Terebra cerithina lamarck

Common

3 . Affi n i s Auger 1 " Terebro affinis Gray Abundant; l ives in sand, under rocks

2 . C h l orate Auger 2" Terebro chlorate lamarck Common

4 . Babylon Auger 1 " Terebro bobylonio lamarck Abundant; l ives i n sand, under rocks

These small augers l ive i n sand at depths of 3 to 60 feet. They toke shelter under small coral rocks. Col lectors "fan" the water briskly to stir away the sand and reveal the brightly colored augers. Some people use wire­ mesh sieves.

� � Nebu l ose Auger 3 " Terebro nebulosa Sowerby Uncommon; in sand

La nce Auger

2"

Terebro lonceofo Linne

Uncommon; i n sand

AUGERS

1 23


F LORIDA-CARIBBEAN AUGERS

1 . G ray Auger

3/â&#x20AC;˘"

Terebra cinerea Gme l i n

West I n d i e s ; common

2 . Atl a n t i c Auger 2" Terebra dislocata Say S . E . U n i ted States; common 3 . Florida Auger 3 " Terebra Roridona Doll

Off F l orida; uncommon

4 . Flame Auger 4-6" Terebra taurinus lightfoot A rare West Indian species 5.

S h i n y Auger

2"

Terebra hastata Gmelin

Florida-West I ndies; common

1 24

AUGERS


CENTRAL AMERICAN AUGERS

2. 3.

1 . Va riegate Auger 2" Terebra voriegoto Gray Panama; moderately common 2 . Robust Auger 4" Terebra robusta H i nds Mexico to Ecuador; uncommon

3. Zebra Auger 4" Terebro strigoto Sowerby Mexico to Panama; uncommon

In sandy areas between Baja California and E cuador about 40 species of Terebra are found . A few are outstanding in color and size; most are small; some very common . These three burrow in muddy sand . AUGERS

1 25


(Turridae) are a highly evolved group of marine gastropods. The radu l a r teeth have been reduced to a single row in most forms. Most have a "turrid" notch or indentation on the upper pa rt of the outer lip. Severa l hundred species of va riable shapes are found both in very deep and in shallow water. Turrid shel l s var y i n length from

T U R R I D S H E LLS

H u m ped Tu rrid

2"

Crassispira gibbasa Born

West Indies; rare

Fusiform Tu rrid

3"

Spergo fusiforme Kur. & Hobe

Japan; rare

Babylon Tu rrid

3"

Turris babylonia L i n n e

Indo-Pacific; common

1 26

TU R R I DS

E a r Tu rrid

1"

Clavus conoliculoris Red i ng

Indo-Pacific; common


1/1 6

to 5 " . The Miraculous Thatcheria, below, is the world's largest turrid shell . A few cold-water species are sini strally coiled, or "left-handed . " Japan alone has over 400 spe­ cies of turrids.

J APANESE TURRIDS

face view

Miracu lous Thatcheria 4-5" T hatcheria m irabilis Sowerby Japan; deep water Moderately common

left-handed Tu rrid

Anti planes contraria Yokoyama

Bering Sea ; uncommon

Do ll's Aforia

3"

Afo ri a circinata Doll

Japan; common offshore

TURRIDS

1 27


head tentacle

foot

living Paper B u b b l e

P a p e r B u b b l e 2"; Hydatina physis l. Indo-Pacific

B U B B L E S H E LLS (order Tecti branchia) have external, plume-like gills and both sexes present i n the same i ndivid­ ual . Some have internal shells, but those of the bubble shell family (Bullidae) are external, large, and spacious. Bubble shells, mostly tropical, are carnivorous. They lay eggs in long, gelatinous strands.

Atl a n t i c B u l l a 1 1/2' Bulla striata Bruguiere West I ndies; abundant Ampl ustre Bubble

White-banded B u b b l e 1 " Hydotino a/bocincta H oeven Japan; uncommon

1 1/2'

Aplustrum amplustre Linne

Indo-Pacific; uncommon

1 28

B U B B L E S H E LLS

Pacific Bubble

2"

B ulla ampulla Linne

Indo-Pacifi c ; abundant


TH E B I VALV E S The pelecypods, or lamellibranchs, the second largest class of mollusks, contain about l 0,000 species of bi­ valves, including the clams, mussels, oysters and scallops. About one third live in fresh water; the others are marine . They lack a head and radular teeth. Feeding is aided by the gills, and most species live on m icroscopic plant life. The mantle is modified at the posterior end into two tubular si phons which draw and expel water from the mantle cav­ ity. The two shells (valves) are kept closed by strong ad­ ductor muscles, and kept slightly open by the action of an elastic, horny pad or ridge-the ligament. Most bi­ valves shed their eggs directly into the water, but a few brood the young in gill pouches. The sexes may be com­ bined in one individual or may be separate. Oysters, clams and scallops are a major source of food. From oysters come valuable pearls. The Teredo Shipworm, a bivalve, is destructive to wharf pilings. d igestive gland

anterior end

shell

mantle edge

THE B I VA LV E S

1 29


ARK S HELLS (Arc idae) have a long series of sma l l , s i m i l a r teeth on t h e h i nge . They have no siphons and most are anchored by a byssus of hai r l ike threads . Of 200 species (24 American) most are tropica l ; many are gathered com­ mercially for food .

West I n d i a n Tu rkey W i n g

Area zebra Swa inson

3"

Carolina to W. Indies and Bermuda

PEN S H E LLS ( P i n n idae), large and fragile, l ive buried i n soft sand anchored by a silky byssus . Ancients made a "golden fleece" from the byssal th reads of Giant Med i terra nean Pen, Pinna nobilis Linne, 1 4" (front) . The black shell (back) i s the American Stiff Pen She l l , Atrina rigida lightfoot, 7 "

1 30

A R K A N D P E N S H E LLS


W I N G OYST E R S (Pteriidae), edible but unpalata ble, sel­ dom produce precious pearls. Tropical species, with pearly interiors and long, winglike projections of the hinge, have fragile shells. Wing oysters attach themselves to the ocean bottom and to wharf pilings . G i a n t W i n g Oyster 7" Pteria penguin Roding Indo- Pacific; moderately common

PEARL OYSTE RS, s i x tropical species, l ive on rocky ocean botto m s . Layers of calcium carbonate around a foreign body i n the mantle make pea r l s . Most productive are the Black-lipped, above (Pinctada margaritifera Linne, S. E . Asia, 6") and Japanese, right (P. mar­ tensii Dunker, 3").

W I N G AND P E A R L OYS T E R S

131


H AMMER OYSTERS (lsognomonidae)

side view

ďż˝ Flat Tree Oyster

3"

ls ogn o m o n olatus Gmelin

F lorida and W. Indies; common Lives i n lower mangrove branches

Common H a m m e r Oyster

Malleus malleus Linne

4-6"

Indo-Pacific; common

ďż˝ White H a m m e r Oyster Malleus albus Lamarck

4-7"

Indo-Pacifi c . Shallow water; anchors to bottom; common

1 3 2 H AMM E R OYST E R S


MUSSELS (Mytilidae) are the most abundant of all mol­ lusks. They occur in dense colonies on rocky shores and wharf pilings. Mussels protect and feed many kinds of snails, worms, and crabs. FIL E CLAMS (limidae) swim away from predators by flappi ng their shells and tentacles . Some file clams build nests for protection.

At lantic R i b bed Mussel 3-4" Geukensio dem issa D i l lwyn lives i n marsh peat Canada to Texas

Blue Edible Mussel

M ytilus edulis Linne

2-3"

lives on rocky coasts Europe and N . E . America

Rough File C l a m

Lima scabra Born

2-4"

Florida ond W. Indies living c l o m ot left

M U S S E LS A N D LIMA

1 33


SCALLO P S (Pectinidae) are a worldwide group of several hundred speci-es, including several large nor thern kinds fished commercially for the l a rge single muscle, which is excellent eating. By snapping their shells together, scallops propel themselves rapidly i n a zigzag di rection. Most kinds have a series of brightly colored eyes along the edge of the mantle. These are sensitive to minor changes in l igbt intensity, as might be caused by a passing fish. What appear to be the top and bottom valves of the scallop are actually left and right valves. The left (lower) valve is usually more convex.

edge view of mantle, showing eyes

1 34

SCALLOPS


JAPANESE SCALLOPS. These two deep-water species

show an unusual range of pastel color variations. Top Row, Swift's Scallop 3-5" Chlamys swifti Bernardi Bottom Rowo Noble Scallop 3-5" Chlamys nobilis Reeve

SCALLOPS

135


EASTERN AMERICAN SCALLOPS are found from Labra­

dor to the West Indies. The Calico Scallop, used in shell jewelry, is abundant offshore in south Florida. Lion's Paw, a strong heavy shell, is a collector's favorite. Atlantic Deep Sea and Atlantic Bay Scallops, both common on the East Coast, are popular seafood. Lion's Paw 3-5" Lyropecten nodosus Florida-W. Indies

Linne

Calico Scallop 1-2" Argopecten gibbus Linne S.E. U.S.-Caribbean

Atlantic Deep Sea Scallop 8" Placopecten magellanicus Gmelin Atlantic Bay Scallop 4" Argopecten irradians lamarck Eastern United States; abundant

Labrador-Carolinas Commonly dredged for food purposes


I N D O - PAC I F I C S C ALLOPS do not compare with other famous shells of this region. Most unusual is large Asian Moon Scallop with bottom valve white, top valve colored.

Leopard Scallop 3 " Annachlamys leopardus Reeve Northern Austra l i a ; uncommon

Mantle Sca l l o p

3" Gloripa llium p a llium Linne

Indo-Pacific; common

Asian Moon Sca l l o p

Amusium pleuronectes

S . E . Asia Deep water; common

Folded Sca l l o p

l.

4-5" ....

2"

Decatopecten plica Linne

S . E . Asia

S CALLOPS

1 37


a re not related to true oysters. The h uge H innites of western American waters is i n the scallop fa m ily a nd may weigh up to 20 l bs. The thorny oysters of the fa m ily Spondylidae have a typical ball-and-socket

T H O R N Y OY ST E R S

G i a n t Rock Sca l l o p 4-8" Hinnites gigantea Gray Alaska Ia Mexico

young farm

Atlantic Thorny Oyster 6" Spandylus americanus Hermann F l orida and Cari bbea n ; twa calor forms shown below

1 38

T H O R N Y OYST E R S


hinge joint and develop long spines. They occur in deep water, usually in the tropics, and have a r ich, varied color pattern. These fairly common bivalves are sometimes called chrysanthemum shells . Regal Thorny Oyster S-8" Spondylus regius Linne S . E . Asia; uncommon

Common

1 39


Giant Clam

2-4 ft.

Tridacna gigas Linne

I ndo-Pacifi c

Tridacna squamosa Lamarck

Indo-Pacific

(Tridacnidae) is the largest shelled mollusk, exceeded only by the 55-ft. Giant Sq uid of the North Atlantic. It is not a man-eating clam . The Giant Clam of Indo-Pacific coral reefs feeds on colonies of marine algae which grow in its fleshy mantle. A non-precious pearl the s i ze of a golf ball may be produced . G I A N T C LAM

1 40

G I A N T C LAMS


J EW E L B O X E S {Chamidae), about 20 species of them, live attached to rocks and wrecks. These tropical shells are variable in form and brilliantly colored. Lazarus Jewel Box Chama lazarus L i n ne Indo- Pacific

4"

Leafy Jewel Box 3" Chama maceraphylla Gmelin F lorida and Caribbean

{Carditidae), also from tropical waters, are long and radially ribbed. They are common clams of shal­ low, muddy bays. About 30 species have been recorded. CA R D I TAS

Rosy Card ita 2" Cardita crassicosta Lamarck Austra l i a ; uncommon

Broad-ri bbed C a rd ita 1 - 1 '/2' Cardita floridana Conrad Florida; abundant


{ lucinidae) are worldwide tropical clams with strong, thin shells and long anterior muscle scars. The two siphons are very short; the hinge may be well toothed or toothless. Most of the 200 species are eaten by fishes but a few are used as food by man. The Elegant Fimbria is a delicately formed and tinted relative. LU C I N E S

Th i c k Lucine

2"

Phacoides pecfinata Gmelin

F l a . to Caribbean ; common

Butterc u p Lucine

Anodontia alba link

2"

S . E . U . S . -Cori bbeon ; abundant

Pennsylva n i a Lucine 2" Lucina pensylvanico Linne S . E . U . S . -Cari bbea n ; common


Pacific T i g e r Lucine

Codakia tigerina L i nne

Indo-Pacifi c ; abundant

5"

Punctate Lucine

3"

Codakia punctata Linne

Indo-Pacific; common

LU C I N E S

1 43


inhalant si phon foot

E u ropean Cockle 2" Cerastoderma edule Linne Western E urope; edible

enlarged

C O C K L E S (Cardiidae) are a large group of colorful spe­ cies which demonstrate an evol utionary explosion, the result of which is an array of bi zarre shapes showing all degrees of sculpturing . Some species are copious and ribbed; others are compressed. Cockles are active ani ­ mals . They can jump several inches b y means o f a long, powerful foot. A current of water entering through the inhalant siphon brings food and a supply of oxygen. Cock­ les are a food for fishes as well as for man .

Cardium costatum Linne West Africa; common

1 44

COCKLES


Pri ckly Cockle

2"

Trachycardium egmontianum Shutt.

S . E . U . S . ; common in sand Sometimes pure white (albinistic)

Lyrate Cockle

2"

D iscors lyrata Sowerby

S . E . Asia; uncommon

Heart Cockle 3" Corculum cardissa Linne Indo-Pacific; common

Oblong Cockle

2"

Laevicordium oblongum

Gmelin E urope; uncommon

H a lf-heart Cockle

1 '/â&#x20AC;˘"

Hemicardium hemicardium Linne

Indo-Pacific; uncommon

â&#x20AC;˘

COCKLES

1 45


D ETAILS OF H I N G E \ \exha lant siphon inhalant s i phon foot

E u ropean Ven u s

3"

Venus verrucosus Linne

E u rope

Roya l Comb Ven u s

Pilar diane Linne

2"

Tex . to Carib . ; uncommon

H a rd Shell or Q u a hog

3"

Mercenoria mercenaria Linne

Eastern U . S . ; edible

(Veneridae) are probably the most suc­ cessful of all the clams . Over 400 abundant species occur the world over. All have hinges which bear interlocking lateral and cardinal teeth . The well-developed foot is compressed and hatchet-shaped. American Indians once manufactured their wampum from the Quahog, the chief com mercial clam of east coastal U.S. Young Q uahogs are known as cherrystones and littlenecks. The Philippines have over one hundred varieties of venus clams .

V E N U S C LAMS

1 46

V E N U S C LAMS


C a l i co C l a m

2"

Pismo C l a m

5" Tivela stultorum Mawe

Macrocallista maculata Linne

Carolinas to Caribbean I ntroduced to Bermuda Abundant

King Venus

Calif. to Mexico Abundant

1 1/2' ...

Chione paphia Linne

West Indies; uncommon

S u n ray Venus 5" Macrocallista nimbosa Lightfoot S . E . Un i ted States; common

V E N U S C LAMS

1 47


INDO-PACIF IC VENUS CL AM S

Wedd i n g C a k e Ven u s 2 '1." Callanaitis disiecta Perry Austra lia; uncommon

Golden Venus

3"

Paphia euglypta Philippi

East Asia; uncommon

la m e l l ate Venus

2"

Antigana lame/loris Schumacher

Indo-Pacific; common

Squa mose Ven u s

S . E . A s i a ; common

exterior

ďż˝ lettered Ven u s

Tapes literata Linne

3"

Indo-Pacific; common

1 48

V E N U S C LAMS

1"

Anomalodiscus squomosus L .


(Te l linidae) are a large, mainly tropical family of sand-dwelling clams with elongate fragile shel l s and two long, separate siphons . Over 200 species; most are shiny and delicately tinted. The Sunri se Tel lin is used in she l l ­ jewel ry manufacture. TELLI N S

Candy Stick Ye l l i n 1 " Tel/ina sim i/is Sowerby F l a . -Caribbean ; abundant

foot

Hatchet Ye l l i n

1"

Tel/ina donacina Linne

Med iterranean

.... S u n rise Ye l l i n

3"

Tel/ina radiate Linne

Fla. and West Indies Abundant in sand

V i rgate Ye l l i n 2 '/2' Tel/ina virgata Li nne Indo-Pacific; common .... Rostrate Ye l l i n 3'' Tel/ina rostrata L i n ne S. E . Asi a ; rare

T E LL I N S

1 49


Large Stri g i l l a

Burnett's Te l l idora 1 '/,'' Tellidora burnetti Broderip West Mexico; uncommon

At lantic Grooved Macoma Psammotreta intastriata Say F lorida-Caribbean

1"

Strigilla carnaria Linne

S . E . U . S . -Cari bbean

3"

Bru g u i e re's Macoma

2"

Macoma bruguierei Hanley

P h i l i ppines; uncommon

Close relatives of the true tellins (Tel/ina) are the strigillas of shallow, sandy bottoms. The shells are finely sculptured. The macomas are twisted toward the back and the hinge lacks the lateral teeth. 1 50

T E LLI N S A N D MACOMAS


S U R F C LAMS (Mactridae) i n c l ude many large edi ble clams with a spoon-shaped depression on the h i nge. The Atlantic Surf Clam , common on sandy beaches, is the source of commercial clam chowder. The duck clams, Raeta, of warm waters, have th i n , fragile she l l s.

Oblong S u rf C l a m 5 " Lutroria o bl o ng a Gmelin Western E urope 'Y

Hians S u rf C l a m

3"

Moctro hians Philippi

S . E . Asia; common

C h a n neled D u c k Clam 3" Raeta p licatella Lamarck Carolinas to Carib. ; common

S U R F C LAMS

151


SA N G U I N C LAMS (Psammobiidae), of tropical, sha l low, m uddy waters, are closely related to the tel lin shells. The th in, nearly transparent shells are drab in color with purple and browns predominating. About 100 species are known, many edible.

Violet S a ng u i n 2" Soletellina violacea lomorck East Indies; common N u t t a l l's Mahogany Clam 3" <1111 Sanguinolaria nuttal/i Conrad Cal ifornia to Mexico; common

Mediterranean Solecurtus Solecurtus strigilatus Linne Mediterranean ; uncommon

Opercul ate Sang u i n 2" Sanguinolaria cruenta lightfoot Caribbean-Brazil Note that one va lve i s flatter t h a n the other. Calor often rose.

1 52

S A N G U I N C LAMS

3"


"-'

The Gaudy Asa phis, Asaphis deflorata Linne, shown above, is a colorful 3 - i n . sanguin clam from the Caribbea n . It is common i n the intertidal zone i n grave l . Colors may be rose, wh ite or purple.

W E D G E C L AMS (Donacidae) are small, wedge-shaped clams found in the sand of nearly every temperate and tropical beach. Most of the 50 species are edible. The Atlantic Coquina is also known as the Butterfly Shell. Atlantic Coq u i n a

1/2" Donax variabilis Say S . E . U . S . ; makes good soup

G i a n t South African Wedg e

3"

Oonax serra Gmelin South Africa; common

Cal iforn i a n Wedge

1"

Donax californicus Conrad California to Panama

1 53


(Solenidae) a re the true razor shells which dig a foot or more i nto sandy beaches with the i r curved, powerful foot. T h e A t l a n t i c Jackkn ife is t h e l a rgest and most com mon on the eastern Atlantic coast . It and Pacific species a re harvested commercially. About 40 spe­ c ies a re know n . In the genus So/en the hi nge teeth a re at the very end of the shell; in Ensis they a re a bit forwa rd . JACKKN I F E C LAMS

G i a n t Japa nese Solen Solen grandi s D unker Eastern Asia

Goul d's Solen

5"

5"

Solen gouldi Conrad

Eastern Asia

Atlantic Jackkn ife C l a m Ensis directus Conrad

T

6-7"

Labrador-Carolinas

Rose-spotted Solen

2"

Solen roseomaculatus P i l sbry

Japan

1 54

P h i l i ppi's Razor

2"

Ensiculus philippianus Dunker S . E . Asia; uncommon

T

J A C K K N I F E C LAMS


(Teredinidae) are highly spec iali zed mol­ l usks. The adu l t i s a destructive wood borer, honeycombing wooden s h i ps and p i l ings with burrows cut by the smal l sharp-edged she l l s. The mantle secretes lime to l i ne the tube, and two paddle-shaped pal lets regulate the si phon openings. The Watering Pot (Ciavagellidae) buries its shelly tube in the m ud or sand. lower end i s perforated. S H I PWO RMS

.... Watering Pot

5"

Penicillus penis Linne

Indo-Pacific; uncommon

Common S h i pworm 1/2-2 ft. Teredo navalis Linne ďż˝ Coastal N . A . , E u rope, Afr i ca

shell valve

,

\12- 1 "

WAT E R I N G POT A N D S H I PWO RMS

1 55


Class Cephalopoda, the most highly developed mollusks, also include the octopus and squid. Cephalopoda have heads with eight or more tentacles and highly developed eyes. The sexes are sepa­ rate. All are carnivorous and most lack shells. The female Paper Nautilus secretes a shell with a specialized arm to

A R G O N A UTS A N D N A U T I LU S ,

"shell" of fema l e tenta c le mouth

/

r .

Common Paper N a u t i l u s Argonauta argo Linne Worldwide, warm seas

a male Argonaut

Brown Paper N a u t i l u s

Argonauta hians lightfoot

Worldwide, warm seas

1 56

ARGONAUTS

3"

6- 1 2" .,

Nodose Paper N a u t i l u s

Argonauta nodosa lightfoot

Worldwide, warm seas

5"


protect her eggs. The smaller male makes no shell . The Chambered, or Pearly, Nautilus lives in tropical deep water, swimming i n search of crabs and shellfish . Sur­ rounding the mouth are 60-90 small tentacles . The sealed-¡ off, gas-filled chambers serve as a balancing apparatus. I t is most abundant i n the central Phili ppi nes . cross section

C h a m bered N a u t i l u s 4-8" Nautilus pampilius Linne W. Pacific ocean bottoms

I lost body chamber End views of the Chambered N a u t i l u s . The fe­ male below i s narrower than the male seen a bove .

C H AM B E R E D N A U T I LU S

1 57


I NDEX Because this book deals with 200 genera i nvolving over 1, 100 scientific and popular species names, t h i s index has been condensed to aid the reader in locat i ng the fami l ies and genera i n wh ich the i l l ustrated species occur. 1 4 , 24-25 13 Afor i o , 1 27 A l c i thoe, 1 0 1 ii) "' A m o r i o , 1 04 "' w � A m u s i u m , 1 37

S'

� ;::: z

Abalones,

Bubble She l l s ,

Abyssal m o l l u s k s ,

Bucci n u m ,

Anato my, Gastropod ,

22

Bivalve,

w

co u 0 z <

Anc i l l a ,

1 29

88 35

1 28

81

B u l l Mouth H e l m e t ,

1 28 Bursa, 67 Busycon , 87 Bulla,

65

1 42 1 53

Buttercup L u c i n e ,

Butterfl y S he l l , Calico Clam,

1 47 1 36

Anga r i a ,

C a l i c o Sca l l o p ,

Annachlamys,

C a l iforn i a n Prov i n c e ,

1 37 1 42 Anomo l od i s c u s , 1 48 Antigone, 1 48 Anti p l a n e s , 1 27 A p l u s tr u m , 1 2 8 w Aporrha i s , 20 < Area zebra, 1 30 u "' "' Architecton i c a , 38 � z A r g o n a u t s , 1 56 ii Argopecte n , 1 36 :::> "' Ark She l l s , 1 30 < ..., w Asoph i s , 1 53 � Astroea , 33 Atr i n o , 1 30 Auger She l l s , 1 20- 1 25 A u l i c o , 98 Anodo n t i a ,

2 1 , 83 She l l s , 1 02

B a by l o n i a , Baler

Barnacle Rock She l l ,

78

67 1 29- 1 55 B l ee d i n g Too t h , 36 Bonnets, 64-65 Books on shells, 1 1 Biplex,

Bivalves,

1 58

IN DEX

14

1 48 31 C a n ce l l a r i a , 1 4 , 1 06 C o p She l l s , 4 1 Corditas, 1 4 1 C a r d i u m costa t u m , 1 44 Collonoitis,

C o l l i osto m o ,

C a r i bbean Prov i n c e ,

19

2, 48

Carrier She l l s , Cosmorio, Cassis,

63

65

Cot's eye , 32 Cera stod e r m o , Ceriths, Choma,

1 44 39 1 2, 1 4 1

C h a m bered N a u t i l u s ,

1 57

C h o n k She l l s ,

68 1 47 C h i tons, 3, 7 C h l a mys, 1 35 Charon i o ,

91

C h i one,

C h l orosto m a ,

29

C h rysanthem u m s ,

1 3 8- 1 39

30 1 2 , 1 5 , 1 40, 1 46- 1 48 , 1 5 1 , 1 52 , 1 53 , 1 54 Clanculus, 28 Citto r i u m ,

Clams,

Classes of m o l l u s k s , C l ovagel l idae,

1 55

3

1 26 1 44- 1 45 Cada k i a , 1 43 Col lecting she l l s , 9 Colubrorio, 83 Conchalepos, 78 Conchs, 1 6, 1 9, 42-45, 46-47, 84, 85 Cone Shells, 2 1 , 1 08- 1 9 Coqu i n a , 1 53 Coral Sna i l s , 80 Coro l l i o p h i l o , 80 Corcu l u m , 1 45 Cowrie-helmet, 65 Cowries, 1 2 , 1 7, 20, 2 1 , 5 1 -62 Crossispiro, 1 26 Crepidulo, 4 1 Crown Conch, 84 Cruc i b u l u m , 4 1 C l avus,

Cockles,

Cup-and-Sa ucer

41 69 Cym b i u m , 1 02- 1 03 Cyproeo, 5 1 -62 Cyproecossis, 65 She l l s ,

Cymot i u m ,

Decatopecten ,

1 37 35

De l p h i n u l a S na i l , D i sc o r s ,

1 45


D i stribution of s he l l s

1 4- 2 1

geogra p h i ca l , with depth,

13

12

w i t h temperature, Dogwi n k l e ,

79

Drupa,

1 4 , 79

Dye Murex,

79 151

H e l met She l l s ,

65, 66

Ensis,

1 54

1 03

96

I m pe r i a l Harp,

40 Ericusa, 1 0 1 Eupleura, 1 5

E p i t on i u m ,

16

Fam i l ies of bivalves,

4-5 Fasc i o l a r i a , 85 Ficus, 70 Fig She l l s , 70 F i l e C l a m , 1 33 F i m b r i a , 1 43 F r o g She l l s , 67 of sna i l s ,

6

Japalion,

99

Junonia,

Keyhole l i mpets,

87 1 00

Fulgoraria,

lambis,

Gal eodea ,

22

Goza,

30

1 53

1 33 Giant C l a m s , 1 40 Giant S q u i d , 1 40 G l o r i pa l l i u m , 1 3 7 Golden Cowrie, 62 G u i lford i a , 33 Gyrineum, 67 H a i r y Tr i t o n s , Haliotis,

Hammer Oyster,

latiaxis,

46-47 77

1 45

87 1 33 2 1 , 26-27 l i on's Paw, 1 36 l i t toral m o l l u s k s , 1 3 l i t tori n a , 1 5 , 37 livo n i a , 1 02 l u c i n e s , 1 42- 1 43 l u n a t i c , 49 lutra r i a , 1 5 1 lyr i c , 1 05 lyropecten , 1 36 l i m pets,

Macoma ,

1 50

Macroco l l i sto,

1 32

21

27

lima,

Geuken s i a ,

69 24-25

1 54

l i g h t n i n g Whe l k ,

66

Gastropod a natomy, Gaudy Asa p h i s ,

2 1 ' 1 27

141

laevicard i u m ,

86

Me l o n g e n a ,

M i r a c u l o u s Thatche r i a ,

Mactra, Mog i l u s ,

151 80

92-96 92-96 Monoplacophora, 3 Moon S n a i l s , 1 5 , 49-50 Maru m , 66 Murex S he l l s , 1 8 , 20, 7 1 -76 M u s i c Vo l u t e , 97 Musse l s , 1 33 Myt i l u s , 1 33 Miter She l l s ,

J a panese P r o v i n c e , J ewel Boxes,

20 1 02 84

Province, Melon She l l s ,

1

82

Marg i n e l l a ,

Med i terranean

1 32

Fulgar Whe l k s ,

Fusinus,

20, 63,

J a c k k n ife C l a m s ,

1 07 1 07 M a r l i n s p i k e , 1 20 Maurea, 3 1 Marg i n S he l l s ,

Indo-Pacific Province, lsognomon,

1 8 , 70 1 32

Malleus,

1 40

1 45

1 45 1 46 H o r s e C o n c h , 85 H yd a t i n a , 1 28 l m br i c o r i a ,

Ma l e c ,

"Man-eat i n g " C l a m ,

H e m i c a rd i u m ,

73

1 54

1 46

H i nge of c l a m ,

E l ephant's S n o u t , Ensiculus,

38

Heliacus,

Dwa rf O l ive, P u r p l e ,

14

1, 1 2 H a r pu l i n a , 1 0 1 Hat She l l s , 4 1

Harpa,

Heart C o c k l e ,

Drupe Sna i l s , Duck C l a m ,

Hard Shell Clam,

1 47

Mitridae,

79 50 N a u t i l u s , 1 57 N e p t u n e , 1 5, 8 1 Neptunea, 1 5 , 8 1 N e r i t e s , 36 N ucel l a , 79 N utmegs, 1 4 , 1 06 Nasso,

Natica,

88 1 4, 1 8 ,

O l ivonc i l l a r i a , O l ive S he l l s ,

88-89 14

O l i ve l l a ,

15 1 3 1 , 1 32, 1 38 - 1 39

Oyster D r i l l , Oysters,

18 1 56

P a n a m i c Prov i n c e , Paper N a u t i l u s , Paphia,

1 48

P a r t r idge Tun ,

IN DEX

70

1 59


21 1 3 1 , 1 40 Pecten, 20 Pectinidae, 1 34- 1 37 Pelagic mollusks, 1 3 Pelican's Foot, 20 Pen Shells, 1 30 Pen i c i l l us, 1 55 Pen i o n , 82 ,. Periwinkles, 1 5 , 37 Phacoides, 1 42 Pha l i u m , 64 Phasiane l l a , 33 Pheasant She l l , 33 P h o s , 83 Pi nctada, 1 3 1 Pinna, 1 30 � Pismo C l a m , 1 47 M :::l Pilar, 1 46 0 P lacopecten, 1 36 :f Pleuroploca, 85 � Pieurotomaria, 23 � Polir.ices, 49

Sconsi a ,

Pea r l s ,

Scorpion Conch, Scotch Bonnet, Scutus,

26

Shark Eye,

47 64

49

26 1 55 Si phon a l i a , 83 Sl i pper She l l s , 4 1 Slit Shells, 2 I , 2 3 Smaragd ia, 3 6 Solecurtus, 1 52 Solen, 1 54 Solete l l i n a , 1 52 Shield limpet, Shipworms,

South African

Province, Spergo,

1 26

21

Purpura,

1 9, 78

46-47 86 Spondylus, 1 38- 1 39 Star She l l s , 33 Stellaria, 48 Strig i l l a , 1 50 Strombina, 1 8 Strombus, 42-45 Sund i a l s , 38 Sunrise. Tel l i n , 1 49 Surf Clams, 1 5 1 Swa insonia, 96 Syrinx, 84

Quahog ,

1 46

Tapes,

Precious Wentletrap,

40

c:>

z Prunum,

....

66

Pate l l a ,

1 07

� Psammotreta , � Pter i a , 1 3 1 � Pteryg ia, 96

Queen Teg u l a , Raeta ,

1 50

30

Tectus,

1 54 39

Rock She l l s (Thais), Royal Comb Venus,

78

1 46

1 52 1 52 Sca l lops, 1 4, 20, 1 34- 1 38 Scaphe l l a , 99 Sang u i n C lams,

Sanguinolaria,

1 60

1 28 29 Teg u l a , 30 Tel l idora, 1 50 Tel l i n s , 1 9, 1 49- 1 50 Teramachia, 1 00 Terebra, 1 20- 1 25 Terebralia, 39 Tered o , 1 55 Thais, 78-79 Thatcheria, 2 1 , 1 27 Thorny Oysters, 1 38 Tibia, 48 Tivela, 1 47 Tectibranch i a ,

Razor Clams, Rhi noclavi s,

Spindle She l l s ,

1 48 Tectarius, 37

151

Rapa , BO

Spider Conchs,

I N DEX

lonna,

70

28-3 1 1 45 Tree Oyster, 1 32 Tridacna, 1 40 Tritons, 68, 69 False, 83 Trochita, 4 1 Trochus, 28-29 Tu l i p She l l s , 85 Tun She l l s , 1 8, 70 Turbans, 32, 34-35 Turbinel l a , 91 Turbo, 32, 34-35 Turkey Wing, 1 30 Turrid Shells, 1 26- 1 27 Turris, 1 26 Turrite l l a , 37 Tusk She l l s , 3, 7 Tympanotomus, 39 Tyrian Purple Dye, 73 Top She l l s ,

Trachycard i u m ,

Umbon i u m ,

28

Varicospira,

48 90

Vase She l l s ,

90

Vasidae,

Venomous Cones,

1 08

Venus Comb Murex,

71

38 94 Vol utes, 1 7, 97- 1 05 Vol utoconus, 1 04 Vol utocorbis, 1 05 Verm icularia, Vexi l l u m ,

1 55 1 53 Wentletraps, 40 Whelks, 1 2 , 1 8 , 8 1 -83, 87 Wing Oysters, 1 3 1 Wood Borers, 1 55 Wood louse Morum, 66 Wormshells, 38 Watering Pot,

Wedge C l a m s ,

Xenophora, Zidona,

2 , 48

1 05 0 P Q R


\!) \

�EASHELLS OF THE WORLD

/

A GOLDEN GUIDE®

, R. TUCKER ABBOTT, Ph . D. , author of several ou tstand­

\ing books on shells, has been on the staff of the Smithson�

n Institution and other museums specializing in mol­ lusks . He taught malacology at the University of Delaware, and is now president of American Ma lacologists, Inc . , a p ublishing a nd consulting firm . He has produced guides to shellfish and medically important mollusks for the United Nations a nd Harvard University, respectively.

HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph . D. , Sc. D. , an originator a nd former editor of the Golden Guides Series, was also a n author for many years . Author of some ninety books a nd editor of about as many, he is now Adjunct Professor a t the Uni­ versity of Miami and Educational Consultan t to the Amer· ican Friends Service Committee and other organizations . He works on educational, population and environmental problem s . GEORGE F . SANDSTROM, a well-known artist in the field of natural history, has contributed to many encyclo­ pedias, educational books, and magazines, and has illus­ trated a number of popular Golden Books . MARITA SANDSTROM has won top awards for scien­ tific illustratio n . She has an active interest in science a nd technology, and has illustrated in the field of clinica l pho­ tomicrography of the cornea . GOLDEN PRESS • NEW YORK


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