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Sloane Ansell, Jessica Berdan, Leslie Edwards, Takayuki Shigematsu, Samuel Tanner

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Hea th A guide to healthy living

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Table of Contents About The Authors.....................................................................................................2 Dedication Page .........................................................................................................4 Acknowledgement Page.............................................................................................5 Nutrition in the Grocery Store ...................................................................................6 Put It on Your Plate ....................................................................................................8 Recipes .......................................................................................................................9 Fresh Fruit Sundae Snack .....................................................................................10 Cheesy Chicken Casserole ....................................................................................11 Vegetarian/Vegan Pancakes .................................................................................12 Pepperoni Pizza.....................................................................................................13 Baked Mac & Cheese ...........................................................................................14 Body Systems ...........................................................................................................16 Human Make-Up ..................................................................................................17 Tissue Types .........................................................................................................18 Systems in the Human Body.................................................................................19 Muscular System...................................................................................................23 Digestive System ..................................................................................................24 Circulatory System ...............................................................................................25 Integumentary System ..........................................................................................26 Activities ..................................................................................................................27 Health Word Search ..............................................................................................28 Health & Nutrition Crossword Puzzle ..................................................................29 Health & Nutrition Crossword Puzzle Answer Key .............................................30 Work Outs ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. References ................................................................................................................32

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About The Authors My name is Sloane Ansell, and I am a senior at New Tech High @ Coppell. I have always been interested in the body and how exactly it works. I find it fascinating that our body is complex but also so simple. I hope this book makes people more aware of what’s going on inside them. My name is Jessica Berdan. I am from Coppell, Texas. I have lived here since I was about two years old and will be graduating this spring. Being an athlete, I have always been curious about how the body works and how nutrition affects it. This is what inspired me into helping write this book. People believe that dieting is the only way to lose weight, but they are wrong. Eating well and working out is the best way to lose weight and stay healthy. People shouldn't count calories, avoid foods with sugar, or eat things that are missing nutrients that the body needs in order to work. As an author, I have challenged myself to only grocery shop the outskirts of the store and I challenge you to do the same. All a person needs to do is eat good portions of healthy foods, stay away from excessive snacking, and exercise on a regular basis. Greetings, I’m Leslie Edwards. I attend New Tech High @ Coppell, and am a senior. A little bit about me is that I hope to major in Film Production and Cinematography next year in college. I have a love for the human body and it’s many inner workings, and also enjoy drawing it. When a few high school students in Anatomy class received their first project of the year, they accepted their task at hand. This book (their project) was intended to help all its readers live their lives to the fullest. Why you may ask? Not just for the grade, but because their facilitator believed that they could help improve the quality of life among young adults. Hello, my name is Takayuki Shigematsu, and I’m currently a senior at New Tech High School at Coppell, and I’m 17 as of now, but I turn 18 in two months. I’ve been boxing for the majority of my life, so balancing and managing my weight is an extreme topic in my life. I’ve been boxing under the lightweight class, so I can never exceed 135 pounds. Following this topic, managing my food intake and exercise has been a huge part of my life, and I’d love to share my knowledge with everyone else. I’m here to help and inform of a new world of reading, which will uncover new ways to keep you healthy. This is the main purpose of this book, to give you ideas on how to follow a healthy regimen, so that you can keep yourself in shape, and keep yourself healthy at all times. Staying healthy can be a huge task for anyone. The temptations of amazing tasting foods can be so great, that it’s almost irresistible. This will help you keep on the track of following a diet that 2


you’ve always wanted. This book will help you figure out, what foods are healthy for you, and what aren’t. If you can follow these simple steps, with a little self-discipline, you can achieve what you've always sought after. Hey, I'm Sam Tanner. Being healthy is a very important aspect of my life. I've played baseball since I was 4 years old so staying in shape and fit is very important to me. I’d like to share my knowledge with you so that you can stay in shape and healthy. This book will teach you how to grocery shop your way to health. While reading you will learn what makes the systems in the human body work so effectively and how you can maintain them. Take what you learn from this book and apply it to your everyday life, and it won’t let you down!

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Dedication Page Dedicated to D’Feeters `94 for always being there for me through the good and bad times. I love y’all.

Dedicated to Mitch Elliott, my baseball coach.

Dedicated to Mrs. Wootton, my Anatomy teacher, for always inspiring me.

Dedicated to all the kids that want and need to know more about their bodies. I hope that this book can make you more aware of how your body works and how you can live a healthier lifestyle.

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Acknowledgement Page Words could not describe how thankful we are to have such an amazing teacher to help and support us throughout this book making process. We are grateful for the information and time that our teacher has put into creating this project and teaching us the content, as well as, our parents for always putting up with us staying up late to perfect this project. They have been there since day one and have helped us through our highs and lows. For putting up with our outrageous conversations and distractions in class, we would like to thank our fellow classmates for reviewing and commenting on our book, so that we could strive to make it better. This book wouldn’t have been possible without each group member pulling their own weight and striving to produce something to the best of their ability, so that we could spread the word of nutrition and health.

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Nutrition in the Grocery Store Eating healthy is hard when we’re given optimal options. Now, we have fast food restaurants that are extremely convenient while on the road or in a hurry. We are constantly tempted with foods that aren’t healthy, even though healthy alternatives are readily available. Even at home, cupboards and drawers are filled with tempting junk foods bought because they were “2 for $10” or “Buy One, Get One Free”, and that just seemed too good of a deal to pass up. Nutrition starts in the grocery store. Grocery stores are notorious for their store mazing, which inevitable have you shopping within isles saturated with “deals” or “great buys”. Markets mostly set up their stores with the produce, bakery, meats, and other essentials on the outskirts of the store, and processed and packed foods generally inward. Try to shop as much as you can on the outskirts, especially in the produce section. Within the isles, the most expensive and least nutritional items are placed at eye level. Grocery stores often even target children. They place foods that are marketed for children at their eye level, so that the kids can easily reach and grab for them. Before heading to the grocery store, try making a list of needed items. This will help you to stay on track with what Picture 1 displays the produce section of a grocery store. you actually need to purchase from the store, rather than what you just want to purchase, or aimless picked up while wondering through the aisles unsure. While making a grocery list, think of meals that you might be making during the week, so that you will have all the necessary ingredients to keep you from having to head back to the grocery store. Not only are you being environmentally friendly conserving gas, but also practical. Before heading to the store, make sure you check the newspaper for ads with coupons on items you might have on your list to help save money. If a list isn’t made, try to not head to the grocery store on an empty stomach. Usually shoppers on an empty stomach, splurge more on unnecessary foods and snacks. This is a type of impulse shopping which results in making purchases that may

Picture 2 is an example of a nutrition fact label on packaged foods.

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not be as healthy or needed. While at the store, keep in mind the food plate. Make sure to address each food group. Some major things to be stacking in your cart are fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, lean meat, fish, poultry, beans, and nuts. If you get bored of eating the same foods time and time again, try spicing things up. Each visit to the grocery store you make, try grabbing a different type of fruit or vegetables. Be sure that it’s in season though! When choosing packaged foods, try to avoid foods that contain more than five ingredients you can’t pronounce. It may be difficult, but these foods usually contain artificial ingredients that you’re unaware of. Healthy and all-natural foods should have fewer ingredients and are considered a healthier choice. After checking out the label, make sure you take a glance at the nutrition facts. Compare the serving size to the amount you truly eat. This will help you calculate the nutrients within the food. A single medium package can often have up to three or more servings in it, and you might not even know. Remember that the nutrients on the package are per serving and the percentage is based off of recommended 2,000 calorie-a-day diet.

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Put It on Your Plate The United States Department of Agriculture has revised the food pyramid and is now adopting the food plate. The food plate has changed the views on how one should look at their plate and what belongs sitting on it. The five major food groups are fruits, vegetables, protein, grains, and dairy. Grains are divided into two groups: refined and whole. Make at least half of the grains on your plate whole grain. Try to keep things exciting with what you eat by mixing up and changing your fruits and vegetables that you put on your plate. Dairy can be found on your plate or in a glass. Make sure you are getting the calcium your body needs to help keep your bones strong. Keep your protein lean. Build up your protein with various kinds of foods from meat, poultry, seafood, beans and peas, eggs, processed soy products, nuts, and seeds. Picture 2 displays the new diagram of what you should eat.

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Recipes

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Fresh Fruit Sundae Snack Cooking Time: 15 Minutes Servings: 5

Ingredients:  cups of cut up strawberries  3 cups of cut up fruits such as apples, bananas, cherries, seedless red grapes, kiwifruit, and/or peaches  5 large waffle cones  2 tablespoons of finely shredded jicama (optional)

Preparation: 1. In a blender container, place the strawberries; cover and puree until smooth. 2. In a mixing bowl gently combine the cut up fruits; spoon into the waffle cones. Drizzle with pureed berries. Top with jicama, if desired. Makes 5 delicious servings!

NUTRITION FACTS:

 Calories 160, Total Fat 1 g, Saturated Fat 0 g, Cholesterol 0 mg, Sodium 27 mg, Carbohydrate 38 g, Fiber 3 g, Protein 3 g. Daily Values: Vitamin A 93%, Vitamin C 157%, Calcium 5%, Iron 23%.

Percent Daily Values are based on recommended 2,000-calorie diet

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Cheesy Chicken Casserole Cooking Time: 35 min Servings: 4

Ingredients:

 Vegetable cooking spray  4 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves (about 1 pound), cut into 1-inch pieces  1 cup of sliced fresh mushrooms (about 3 ounces)  1 can of Campbell's Condensed Cream of Celery Soup (about ounces, regular or 98% Fat Free)  1 can of peas (about 15 ounces), drained  2 cups of cooked instant white rice  1 can of Campbell's Condensed Cream of Mushroom Soup ( ounces, regular or 98% Fat Free)  2 cups of shredded mozzarella cheese (about 8 ounces)

Preparation: 1. Heat the oven to 350 degrees F. 2. Spray a 10-inch skillet with the cooking spray and heat over medium-high heat for 1 minute. Add the chicken and cook for 15 minutes or until well browned and cooked through, stirring often. 3. Spray a 3-quart shallow baking dish with the cooking spray. Place the chicken into the baking dish. Top with the mushrooms. Spoon the celery soup over the mushrooms. Top with the peas and rice. Spoon the mushroom soup over the rice. Sprinkle with the cheese. 4. Bake for 20 minutes or until the mixture is hot and bubbling.

TIPS: Substitute Campbell's® Condensed Cream of Broccoli Soup for the Cream of Celery Soup.

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Vegetarian/Vegan Pancakes Cooking Time: 15 minutes

Ingredients:    

2 cups unbleached flour 2 tsp. baking powder 2 cups vanilla soy milk Egg substitute equal to two eggs  1 tbsp. vegetable oil  1 tbsp. cinnamon

Preparation: 1. In a large mixing bowl, combine flour and baking powder. In a small bowl, whisk soymilk, egg substitute, vegetable oil and cinnamon. Add liquid ingredients to the dry ingredients and stir until just moistened. 2. Using a nonstick pan, spoon about 1/8 cup of batter per pancake into the skillet. Cook over medium heat for about one minute or until top bubbles, flip and cook another minute. 3. Serve hot with vegan butter and maple syrup. Bona petit!

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Pepperoni Pizza Total Time: 35 minutes Servings: 6

Ingredients:

 1 pound prepared whole-wheat pizza dough, (see Shopping Tip), thawed if frozen  1 cup canned unseasoned pumpkin puree  1/2 cup no-salt-added tomato sauce  1/2 teaspoon garlic powder  1 cup shredded part-skim mozzarella cheese  1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese  2 ounces sliced turkey pepperoni (1/2 cup)

Preparation: 1. Place oven rack in the lowest position; preheat to 450°F. Coat a large baking sheet with cooking spray. 2. Roll out dough on a lightly floured surface to the size of the baking sheet. Transfer to the baking sheet. Bake until puffed and lightly crisped on the bottom, 8 to 10 minutes. 3. Whisk pumpkin puree, tomato sauce and garlic powder in a small bowl until combined. 4. Spread sauce evenly over the baked crust. Top with mozzarella, Parmesan and pepperoni. Bake until the crust is crispy on the edges and the cheeses have melted, about 12 minutes.

TIPS:

 Make Ahead Tip: Use leftover tomato sauce and pumpkin to make a second batch of pizza sauce. Refrigerate for up to 5 days or freeze for 3 months.  Shopping tip: Look for balls of whole-wheat pizza dough at your supermarket, fresh or frozen and without any hydrogenated oils.

NUTRITITION FACTS:    

Per serving: 280 calories; 6 g fat ( 3 g sat , 2 g mono ); 30 mg cholesterol; 35 g carbohydrates; 16 g protein;3 g fiber; 602 mg sodium; 153 mg potassium. Nutrition Bonus: Vitamin A (120% daily value), Calcium (25% dv). Carbohydrate Servings: 2 Exchanges: 2 starch, 1 vegetable, medium-fat meat 13


Baked Mac & Cheese Total Time: 55 minutes Servings: 4

Ingredients:            

3 tablespoons plain dry breadcrumbs, (see Tip) 1 teaspoon extra-virgin olive oil 1/4 teaspoon paprika 1 16-ounce or 10-ounce package frozen spinach, thawed cups of low-fat milk, divided 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour 2 cups shredded extra-sharp Cheddar cheese 1 cup low-fat cottage cheese 1/8 teaspoon ground nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon salt Freshly ground pepper, to taste 8 ounces (2 cups) whole-wheat elbow macaroni, or penne

Preparation: 1. Put a large pot of water on to boil. Preheat oven to 450°F. Coat an 8-inchsquare (2-quart) baking dish with cooking spray. 2. Mix breadcrumbs, oil and paprika in a small bowl. Place spinach in a fine-mesh strainer and press out excess moisture. 3. Heat cups milk in a large heavy saucepan over medium-high heat until steaming. Whisk remaining 1/4 cup milk and flour in a small bowl until smooth; add to the hot milk and cook, whisking constantly, until the sauce simmers and thickens, 2 to 3 minutes. Remove from heat and stir in Cheddar until melted. Stir in cottage cheese, nutmeg, salt and pepper. 4. Cook pasta for 4 minutes, or until not quite tender. (It will continue to cook during baking.) Drain and add to the cheese sauce; mix well. Spread half the pasta mixture in the prepared baking dish. Spoon the spinach on top. Top with the remaining pasta; sprinkle with the breadcrumb mixture. 5. Bake the casserole until bubbly and golden, 25 to 30 minutes.

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TIPS:

 Make Ahead Tip: Prepare through Step 4. Cover and refrigerate for up to 2 days or freeze for up to 3 months. Thaw in the refrigerator, if necessary, then bake for 35 to 45 minutes.  Tip: To make fresh breadcrumbs, trim crusts from whole-wheat bread. Tear bread into pieces and process in a food processor until coarse crumbs form. One slice of bread makes about 1/2 cup fresh crumbs. For dry breadcrumbs, spread the fresh crumbs on a baking sheet and bake at 250°F until crispy, about 15 minutes. One slice of fresh bread makes about 1/3 cup dry crumbs. Or use prepared coarse dry breadcrumbs. We like Ian's brand labeled “Panko breadcrumbs.” Find them in the natural foods section of large supermarkets.

NUTRITITION FACTS:    

Per serving: 576 calories; 22 g fat ( 11 g sat , 2 g mono ); 69 mg cholesterol; 63 g carbohydrates; 37 grams of protein; 9 g fiber; 917 mg sodium; 403 mg potassium. Nutrition Bonus: Vitamin A (290% daily value), Calcium (70% dv), Folate (37% dv), Iron (15% dv). Carbohydrate Servings: 3 1/2 Exchanges: 3 starch, 1 vegetable, 3 1/2 medium-fat meat

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Body Systems

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Human Make-Up The cell is the most basic function of life. Robert Hooke discovered it in 1665. A cell can be prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Prokaryotic cells are found in bacteria are simpler than eukaryotic which lack a nucleus. Eukaryotic cells are found in plants, animals, fungi, slime molds, protozoa, and algae. They are typically far larger that prokaryotic cells and have a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells can be broken down into two types of cells, animal and plant. Animal cells have a circular structure without a cell wall and are found in animals. A plant cell has a rigid structure, cell wall, and can be found in plants. Organelles in cells have certain jobs and are responsible for cell function. In a plant cell there is a cell wall that gives the plant its rigid structure. Both types of cells have a nucleus that contains the nucleolus, which is the brain of the cell. This is also where the DNA is and where signals are sent out to the rest of the cell. The golgi body or complex packages proteins and prepares them to be sent out of the cell. Lysosomes are responsible for removing waste from the cell and ribosomes on the endoplasmic reticulum are responsible for producing proteins. Vacuoles, which exist in both types of cells, are larger in plant cells, and store food and waste to be used or later disposed. The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell and are what breakdown sugars to use for energy. The cytoplasm keeps all the organelles in place and protected. Without these organelles our cells would be unable to function properly and our body would fall apart, literally.

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Tissue Types Cells make up tissues in the human body. The human body has four types of tissue.

Connective Tissue

This tissue is responsible for giving shape to organs and holding them in place.

Epithelial Tissue

This tissue covers the surfaces of organs and helps protect from injury, fluid loss, and microorganisms.

Nervous Tissue

This tissue is used to transmit communications through the brain, spinal cord, and the rest of the nerves.

Muscle Tissue

This tissue functions to create movement in the internal organs. There are three types of muscle tissue, smooth, skeletal, and cardiac.

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Systems in the Human Body Tissues make up the organs in different systems of the human body. There are a total of 15 systems in the human body, including the circulatory system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system, integumentary system, lymphatic system, muscular system, nervous system, reproductive system, respiratory system, skeletal system, urinary system, and the sensory system.

The Circulatory System and Cardiovascular System deliver nutrients throughout the body and deliver blood to where it needs to be taken.

The Digestive System is responsible for the breaking down of foods so that the body can use it to build and nourish cells, which will provide energy.

The Endocrine System is responsible for producing hormones, which are responsible for metabolism, growth, sexual development, and many other things.

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The Excretory System and Urinary System go hand in hand working together to rid waste from the body by removing harmful substances from cells and dispelling them.

The Muscular System works with the Skeletal System to provide mobility and protection for the body.

The Lymphatic System defends the body from outside harmful substances while and produces white blood cells.

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The Integumentary System protects the body from damage by acting a barrier between the world and our internal organs.

The Immune System protects and defends our body from outside infections and diseases by detecting harmful pathogens we may come in contact with.

The Nervous System is made up of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, which are responsible for the body’s coordination and communication with other systems.

The Reproductive System is the system of the body responsible for reproduction. The system is different in men and women.

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The Respiratory System is responsible for the gas exchange that takes in the body which supply’s blood with oxygen.

The Skeletal System is responsible for giving the body shape and protecting internal organs.

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Muscular System The muscular system is an extremely vital system to the body since it helps with everyday activities. Some of the more important muscles are pectoral muscles. The pectoral muscle is a muscle that starts on the upper chest near the “breastbone�. The abductor muscles starts at the central line of the body or near the axis of a limb. Muscles carry out a type of movement called "abductor." The adductor longus is a long triangular muscle that runs from the pubic bone to the femur. Its function is to move the thigh and help with flexing and rotation. The bicep brachii are located in the upper arm. Its nickname, "biceps," actually means "two heads." It is attached to the scapula; otherwise know as the shoulder blade. The brachialis is a large muscle beneath the biceps brachii. It connects the shaft of the humerus (upper arm bone) to the ulna (longest) forearm bone) and is the strongest flexor of the elbow. You use your muscles every time you Picture 1 shows the different muscles within the muscular system. make the slightest movement, step, or even smile. It is one of the most important systems in the human body. Working out is vital to its maintenance and a healthy lifestyle. Without it you, would be unable to live your life as comfortably or mobile as you do now.

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Digestive System The digestive system is the part of your body that is responsible for digesting the food you consume and absorbing the proper nutrients to allow it to function properly. There are steps your body takes in order to complete digestion, which without would not be able to carry on simple daily functions. First digestion begins with the teeth where they are used to grind food so that it is able to travel down your esophagus. Humans when fully grown have four types of teeth, the incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. There are sixteen teeth on top and sixteen teeth on bottom. Chemicals in the saliva then begin mixing with the food and chemically breaking it down. The tongue then shapes the food into manageable proportions that can be swallowed. Once the food is swallowed it enters the esophagus that travels from the back of our throat, the pharynx, to our stomach. Once the food travels down, it will then enter the Picture 1 displays the organs of the digestive system. stomach where acids and other enzymes will continue to break down even further. After the stomach, the partially digested food passes through the liver and gall bladder where more chemicals will help break it down and separate fats that will used or stored for later. The pancreas then secretes chemicals to breakdown the carbohydrates and proteins. Next, the food enters the small intestine where most of its nutrition is absorbed and broken down into small enough pieces for our cells to use. More chemicals are introduced as the food moves to the large intestine. The large intestine is then responsible for absorbing remaining water and nutrients, and the food is then passed to the excretory system where it will be taken out of the body.

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Circulatory System The circulatory systems primary function is to transport blood, oxygen, and nutrients throughout the body. It is composed of three main components, the heart, blood, and lymphatic system. Without the three it would be unable to function. The heart is one of the most important organs to the circulatory system as it pumps blood through its four chambers. Size doesn’t matter seeing that this organ is about the size of just a clenched fist, though it supply’s to the entire body. Blood, that red stuff we all have in us, is the main medium of transportation throughout the body. Part of it is actually called plasma which is a liquid mostly comprised of water. There are red blood cells, and white bloods cells that both serve different functions. Red blood cells contain an immune stimulating polysaccharide referred to as antigens. White blood cells are generally larger than red blood cells and are essential to the immune system.

Picture 1 is a diagram of the heart.

The lymphatic system consist of a fluid called lymph that is derived from plasma and seeps from capillaries and mixed with other cells. It enters lymphatic vessels, which return it to the circulatory system. Lymph nodes filter foreign particles in the body, and are located in various areas such as the neck and arm. White blood cells primary sites are lymph nodes. Without any of these the body would be unable to survive!

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Integumentary System The integumentary system is the largest organ in your body. It comprises 12-15% of your entire body weight. This system mainly refers to the skin on your body. There are two distinct different layers to your skin, the dermis and epidermis. The nervous system plays a vital role with the integumentary system. There are many components to the integumentary system including hairs and nails. The nail root is the part of the nail under the skin. The nail body is the pink part of your nails that is visible to eye. The free edge part of the nail is the white part of your fingers, which may extend past your nails. Another component of the integumentary system is glands. The sebaceous gland is actually an oil gland, and the sudoriferous glands are sweat glands. Ceruminous glands are located in the ear. The integumentary system has many responsibilities and on of them is managing homeostasis in your body, which it can do by making you sweat.

Picture 1 is a diagram of the levels of the skin.

The skin acts as a physical barrier to protect vital organs, and when your skin is physically damaged, the integumentary system along the immune system work to heal it. There are many forms of injuries that can be dealt to your integumentary system such as a rash, blister, sunburn, skin cancer, mosquito bites, and much more. Your body is extremely prone to injuries and illnesses, which can affect your body’s stress level on a daily basis. Stress can affect your integumentary system so try keeping yourself out of danger, and protect your body from injuries to help maintain a healthy balance in your body.

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Activities

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Health Word Search

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Health & Nutrition Crossword Puzzle

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Health & Nutrition Crossword Puzzle Answer Key

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Work Outs Work Out 1: The Build Up      

5 push-ups 10 sit ups 10 push-ups 15 sit ups 15 push-ups 20 sit ups and so on till you get to 30 push-ups.

Work Out 2: Relay Race  Have at least 4 people  100 yard race

    

Set Up: Hurdle at 20 yard line 10 push-ups at 35 yard line Hurdle at 50 yard line 20 sit-ups at 65 yard line Hurdle at 80 Yard line

On Your Mark, Get Set, Go!

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References

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Grocery Shop Your Way to Health  

Teen Health