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JANUARY 2008 • $5.00

BOB SINICROPE

“SHARING THE GIFT OF MUSIC” GUEST EDITORIAL Where's the Beat? - Part I FOCUS SESSION Solo Transcriptions


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Bob Sinicrope

“I think sometimes you’re better off learning things outside of the classroom.”

contents

JANUARY 2008

LESSONS LEARNED: BRIAN KANE 16

Respected educator, author, and frequent contributor to JAZZed, Brian Kane offers a personal tribute to the late Herb Pomeroy.

FOCUS SESSION: SOLO TRANSCRIPTION 22

Matt Pivec, instructor of Saxophone and coordinator of Jazz Studies at California State University, Stanislaus, discusses the many benefits of incorporating solo transcription into an overall jazz education curriculum.

BOB SINICROPE 28

Having guided Milton Academy’s (Milton, Mass.) acclaimed jazz program for over three decades, Bob Sinicrope – inaugural recipient of Berklee College and IAJE’s John LaPorta Jazz Educator of the Year award in 2007 – speaks with authority on all topics pertaining to founding, and sustaining, an ambitious music curriculum.

GUEST CLINICIAN: ANTONIO J. GARCÍA 38

Part I of performer, educator, and author Antonio J. García’s article examining how to best identify and understand the ground-beat in a number of jazz styles.

PRESERVATION: BRASS & WOODWIND 46

Jeff Peterson, highly regarded repair technician and author, shares some basic tips designed to enhance brass and woodwind performance and extend the instruments’ lifespan.

2 JAZZed January 2008


January 2008

Volume 3, Number 1 GROUP PUBLISHER Sidney L. Davis sdavis@symphonypublishing.com PUBLISHER Richard E. Kessel rkessel@symphonypublishing.com Editorial Staff EDITOR Christian Wissmuller cwissmuller@symphonypublishing.com

46

ASSOCIATE EDITOR Eliahu Sussman esussman@symphonypublishing.com Art Staff PRODUCTION MANAGER Laurie Guptill lguptill@symphonypublishing.com PRODUCTION Mike Rueckwald mrueckwald@symphonypublishing.com GRAPHIC DESIGNER Andrew P. Ross aross@symphonypublishing.com GRAPHIC DESIGNER Laurie Chesna lchesna@symphonypublishing.com Advertising Staff ADVERTISING SALES Thomas J. Kelly tkelly@symphonypublishing.com ADVERTISING SALES Iris Fox ifox@symphonypublishing.com

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56

departments PUBLISHER’S LETTER 4 NOTEWORTHY 6 DANA LEONG: WHAT’S ON YOUR PLAYLIST? 14 CROSSWORD PUZZLE 49 GEARCHECK 50 HOT WAX 52 CLASSIFIEDS 54 AD INDEX 55 BACKBEAT: ABDULLAH IBRAHIM 56 Cover photograph: Tony Scarpetta, Scarpetta Photography, Somerville, Mass.

CLASSIFIED SALES Maureen Johan mjohan@symphonypublishing.com Business Staff CIRCULATION MANAGER Melanie A. Prescott mprescott@symphonypublishing.com ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT Popi Galileos pgalileos@symphonypublishing.com WEBMASTER Sanford Kearns skearns@symphonypublishing.com Symphony Publishing, LLC CHAIRMAN Xen Zapis PRESIDENT Lee Zapis lzapis@symphonypublishing.com CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Rich Bongorno rbongorno@symphonypublishing.com Corporate Headquarters 26202 Detroit Road, Suite 300 Westlake, Ohio 44145 (440) 871-1300 www.symphonypublishing.com Publishing, Sales, & Editorial Office 21 Highland Circle, Suite 1 Needham, MA 02494 (781) 453-9310 FAX (781) 453-9389 1-800-964-5150 www.jazzedmagazine.com

Member 2008

RPMDA

JAZZed™ is published six times annually by Symphony Publishing, LLC, 21 Highland Circle, Suite 1, Needham, MA 02494, (781) 453-9310. Publisher of Choral Director, School Band and Orchestra, Music Parents America, and Musical Merchandise Review. Subscription rates $30 one year; $60 two years. Rates outside U.S. available upon request. Single issues $5. Resource Guide $15. Standard postage paid at Boston, MA and additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Please send address changes to JAZZed, 21 Highland Circle, Suite 1, Needham, MA 02494. The publishers of this magazine do not accept responsibility for statements made by their advertisers in business competition. No portion of this issue may be reproduced without the written permission of the publisher. © 2007 by Symphony Publishing, LLC. Printed in the U.S.A.

JAZZed January 2008 3


publisher’s letter

RICK KESSEL

Music & Math Meet

W

hen it comes to career paths, you might not expect advanced forms of mathematics, which incorposomeone with bachelor’s and master’s degrees in rate a great deal of creative reasoning. Mr. Reid’s Math to emerge as one of the top jazz educators in background shares some interesting similarities the country. Equally improbable is to have built an to Mr. Sinicrope’s, as they both have significant extraordinary jazz program within an elite priexperience in both mathematics and jazz. Reid vate-school setting, which is not exactly typical of made the choice of music over math and comwhere jazz has been known to flourish. Our cover mented in a lecture which he gave some years profile this month on Bob Sinicrope takes a look at ago that, “when you are doing mathematics, the this unique individual and his remarkable profespeople, places and events in the world are distracsional journey. tions from your work. When you are It is well documented that the rereally doing music, you can be just as “It is well doclationship between math and music is deeply involved in the mathematical umented that very strong, whether it be twelve-tone beauty of the music and the theory, compositions or twelve-bar blues. yet you can be at the party.” the relationMr. Sinicrope’s extensive training in There is a wealth of resources ship between the mathematics may actually have available on the Internet relating to math and provided him with a valuable set of teaching math through music, as well music is very tools necessary to teach intervals, as some confirmed scientific research rhythm, tuning, improvisation, and that has shown students who start strong.” compositional structure. According playing stringed (and possibly other) to Harvey Reid, a noted songwriter, instruments at a young age genermulti-instrumentalist and mathematics expert, ally do better in math than those that haven’t had “The important thing to realize is that numbers such musical training. Perhaps there is a reverse and math are not cold and lifeless, and that music, correlation as well? We don’t know the answer to which is a tangible incarnation of numbers, reflects this question quite yet, but you can certainly learn in its beauty and emotion some of the beauty and how Mr. Sinicrope built a successful jazz program emotion in the world of mathematics.” Reid is not at Massachusetts’ Milton Academy in this issue’s referring to simple “arithmetic,” but rather highly intriguing interview…

rkessel@symphonypublishing.com

4 JAZZed January 2008


s i r r a eH

i d Ed

Jazz Saxophonist

NEW WEBSITE www.eddieharris.com NEW BIO, NEW MUSIC, NEW VOCALS with LYRICS, NEW MERCHANDISE... more EDDIE – like we can ever get enough. JAZZed October/November 2006 5


noteworthy VH1 Save the Music Foundation Marks 10 Years

T

he VH1 Save The Music Foundation 10th Anniversary Gala Presented By LG Electronics MobileComm U.S.A., Inc. (LG Mobile Phones) celebrated ten years of successfully restoring music education programs in public schools across the country on September 20, 2007. The event, hosted by Maria Menounos, featured performances by John Mayer, Jon Bon Jovi, Roger Waters of Pink Floyd, Miri Ben-Ari and a 61-piece student orchestra made up of VH1 Save The Music students from across the United States. During the celebration,

NAMM’s Joe Lamond.

6 JAZZed January 2008

Bill Clinton accepts the Waterford Award.

The Foundation paid tribute to Former President Bill Clinton, Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton, Mariah Carey, John Sykes, founder of the VH1 Save The Music Foundation and NAMM (The International Music Products Association) for their unyielding support and dedication to The Foundation’s mission. Conan O’Brien kicked-off the event by humoring guests with an opening speech on the importance of music education during which the late-night star showcased his own musical talents, or lack thereof. Later in the program, Tim Gunn of Project Runway emceed a live auction, which featured one-of-a-kind items and experiences from VH1 Save The Music partners and raised over $200,000. Items in the gala auction included Gibson guitars signed by John Mayer, Tom Petty, Metallica, Neil Young, Paul McCartney and Keith Richards. The gala also featured a surprise duet of Bon Jovi’s “Wanted Dead or Alive” by Jon Bon Jovi and John Mayer, as well as a finale featuring Pink Floyd’s Roger Waters, the VH1 Save The Music Foundation’s 61-piece student orchestra and the PG and Love choir. Speeches given by the night’s honorees truly drove home the importance of music education and what it has done for people like former President Bill Clinton. Celebrity guests and supporters that attended the gala included Russell Simmons, LA Reid, Vanessa Carlton, James Blunt, Mya, Denise Rich, Katie Lee Joel, Quincy Jones, Jane Rosenthal, Chairman and CEO of US Recorded Music for Warner Music Lyor Cohen, Mayor Michael Bloomberg, NYC Schools Chancellor Joel Klein, Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer, Speaker Christine Quinn, The Late Show’s Paul Shaffer, and Mary Alice Stephenson, co-host of VH1’s America’s Most Smartest Model. For more information on the VH1 Save The Music Foundation, please visit www.vh1.com/partners/save_the_music/.


Jazz Performance Education at This Country’s Premiere Conservatory

Juilliard Jazz

Photo: Peter Schaaf

Accepting applications for Bachelor of Music, Master of Music, and Artist Diploma Programs in Jazz Studies � Perform and Tour � Participate in Master Classes � Study with extraordinary faculty and top performing guest artists

A curriculum tailored to the practical performance needs of its young artists at all levels

� Bachelor of Music high school diploma or equivalent required � Master of Music bachelor of music degree required � Artist Diploma college degree or extensive experience required for this post-graduate, tuition-free program All applicants must meet Juilliard’s jazz audition requirements. Auditions take place in February/March Send Applications and Pre-Screen Recording to: Juilliard Admissions 60 Lincoln Center Plaza (212) 799-5000 www.juilliard.edu

Joseph W. Polisi, President

Building an extraordinary future


noteworthy Student

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Kevin Harris

THE DIRTY DOZEN BRASS BAND

(L-R) Benny Green, James Moody, Terence Blanchard, Derrick Hodge, and Kendrick Scott.

MJF 50th-Anniversary Band Tour

T

he Monterey Jazz Festival has announced the nationwide, 10-week, 54-date tour of the Monterey Jazz Festival 50th-Anniversary Band. Heralded as a meeting of three generations of jazz masters, the MJF 50th-Anniversary Band showcases the leaders of the past, present and future with Terence Blanchard on trumpet, James Moody on saxophone, musical director Benny Green on piano, Derrick Hodge on bass, andKendrick Scott on drums. Vocalist Nnenna Freelon will also be a featured member of the group as they embark on the 22-state tour starting in January, 2008. Each member of the 50th Anniversary Band has a special relationship with the Monterey Jazz Festival, and has a commitment to the Festival and the cultivation of jazz audiences worldwide. Saxophonist James Moody made his first appearance at MJF in the

early 1960s with Dizzy Gillespie; Benny Green participated in MJF’s educational programs as a teenager in the 1970s; Terence Blanchard was MJF’s Artist-InResidence in 2007; Nnenna Freelon has been performing at MJF since the mid 1990s; Kendrick Scott was a threetime member of the Berklee-Monterey Quartet from 1999-2002, and Derrick Hodge has been a member of Terence Blanchard’s bands that have performed at Monterey. The Monterey Jazz Festival 50thAnniversary Band will appear at major performing arts organizations in many regions of the county including California, the Southwest, Texas, Florida, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, the Washington D.C. area, Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, the New England states, Indiana, and Michigan. For a complete list of shows, please visit www.montereyjazzfestival.org.


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noteworthy

Oberlin Launches Record Label, Enhances Litoff Building Fund The Oberlin Conservatory of Music has launched its own new, commercial label, Oberlin Music, which features select recordings made by the talented students and faculty members at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music. The label debuts with two releases available on traditional

CD as well as on digital music channels worldwide, including Apple’s iTunes. Beauty Surrounds Us features original compositions and performances by musicians who not only teach, but who also maintain active performing careers. Compositions by professor of African American

Music Wendell Logan, chair of Oberlin’s Jazz Studies Program, open and close the album, forming bookends to works and performances by his faculty colleagues: saxophonist Gary Bartz, trumpeters Marcus Belgrave and Kenny Davis, bassist Peter Dominguez, trombonist Robin Eubanks, guitarist Bob Ferrazza, drummer Billy Hart, and pianist Dan Wall. The compositions include Logan’s “Shoefly” and “Remembrances,” Gary Bartz’s “GM3,” Eubanks’s “Back in the Day,” Belgrave’s “All My Love,” Ferrazza’s “Beauty Surrounds Us” and Wall’s “Carol’s Carol.” The second Oberlin Music album is The Oberlin Orchestra in China, recorded live at Beijing’s Poly Theater during the Conservatory’s recent tour of China. The performances, under the baton of BridgetMichaele Reischl, music director of the Oberlin Orchestras, include Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue, featuring pianist Thomas Rosenkranz, a 1999 Oberlin graduate; Bizet’s Carmen Suite; Dvorák’s Slavonic Dances; familiar movie themes by John Williams

Online Poll Will ou be attending this years IAJE Conference in Toronto?

50%

44%

6%

Yes

No

Not sure yet

Visit www.jazzedmagazine.com and let your voice be heard in the current online poll – results to be published in the next issue of JAZZed.

10 JAZZed January 2008


BAND EDITION 5 JUNE 17-23, 2008 Presented by Jazz Aspen Snowmass

THE JAS ACADEMY SUMMER SESSIONS is the nation’s only all scholarship jazz residency program, uniting the nest young jazz artists with the world’s jazz legends.

CHRISTIAN MCBRIDE – ARTISTIC DIRECTOR LOREN SCHOENBERG – PROGRAM DIRECTOR Bands only need apply. Categories: soul jazz, latin jazz, groove, world fusion, new orleans, mainstream with vocalist ADMISSION DEADLINE: MARCH 14, 2008 CALL FOR INFO: 970-920-4996 OR VISIT: WWW.JAZZASPEN.ORG


noteworthy (violinist John Freivogel ’06 is the soloist for the theme from Schindler’s List); and other beloved works by Johann Strauss (senior and junior) and John Philip Sousa. Three popular Chinese folks songs are a delightful addition to the recording, which was engineered by the Conservatory’s Director of Conservatory Audio Services Paul Eachus. CDs of Beauty Surrounds Us and The Oberlin Orchestra in China are available for purchase from the Oberlin Conservatory of Music for $15 each, plus shipping and handling, and may be ordered by calling Conservatory Audio at (440) 775-8272, or by e-mailing Mary Sutorius at mary.sutorious@oberlin.edu. In other Oberlin news, president Marvin Krislov announced recently that three separate gifts in the amount of $4 million each have been pledged to the College: $8 million toward construction of the Phyllis Litoff Building, the new home for jazz studies, and $4 million for environmental stewardship. The two gifts pledged to Oberlin in support of the Phyllis Litoff Building help

to advance the Conservatory’s commitment to environmental sustainability; the Litoff Building is intended to be the first music facility in the world to attain a gold LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating. The LEED Green Building Rating SystemTM is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high-performance green buildings. The Phyllis Litoff Building, which will be designed by the architectural firm of Westlake Reed Leskosky, will house the Oberlin Conservatory of Music’s jazz studies department and its academic programs in music history and music theory. In addition to the gold LEED rating to which the building aspires, it will include a world-class recording studio and the largest privately held jazz recording collection in the U.S. Oberlin plans to have the Litoff Building open for the 2009-10 school year. For more information, please visit www.oberlin.edu.

New!e and

ton DV Bari Alto DV NY

“People sometimes say it takes a long time to become a jazz fan, but for me it took about five seconds.” —Pat Metheny

Letters Greetings Mr. Wissmuller, You will most likely take some heat for the Mick Taylor article [JAZZed, Oct/Nov 2007], but I, for one, applaud you. I’m 45 years old, a professional guitar player, and for the last 14 years I’ve been teaching a jazz ensemble about five hours a week. Most of the kids I teach have never really heard any jazz. For that matter, neither have their parents, who are generally my age or younger. They didn’t grow up in the jazz era. I was lucky — my father was a jazz musician and retired high school stage band director. My point being is that I have been very successful using “funkier” rock, blues, soul and hip-hop to get my students into jazz. The Stones are one of the groups kids can relate to because their parents all have those records in their collections. (The Mick Taylor era is my personal favorite.) I’ll even go so far as to say that the Stones, themselves obviously influenced by American blues and jazz, have informed practically everything that has come after them in pop and jazz to some extent. Along with the Beatles and James Brown, their influence on modern jazz or modern music in general cannot be denied.

Thanks for listening, Ken Lasaine Director of Jazz Studies Milken Community High School Los Angeles, Calif.

Visit us at IAJE # 1100 12 JAZZed January 2008

Say What?


BOYER www.temple.edu/boyer

Temple University’s Boyer College of Music and Dance offers a diverse curriculum, wide array of degree programs and exemplary faculty, preparing students for careers as educators, performers, composers and arrangers. • Annual jazz band performances at Lincoln Center and Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts • 2007-08 Artists-in-residence, Village Vanguard Orchestra

AUDITIONS

• 2007-08 guest artists include Slide Hampton, Frank Wess, Clark Terry, Jimmy Heath and Joe Wilder

Jazz Studies at Temple University

FALL 2008 Sunday, January 27, 2008 Saturday, February 9, 2008 Sunday, February 24, 2008 Saturday, March 1, 2008 REGIONAL AUDITIONS Interlochen, MI January 14, 2008 For more information, please contact: 215-204-6810 music@temple.edu

Terell Stafford, Jazz Studies Program Director Piano

Bruce Barth Tom Lawton

Bass

Mike Boone Madison Rast

Guitar

Craig Ebner Ed Flanagan Greg Kettinger

Drums Voice

Steve Fidyk Dan Monagha Carla Cook Joanna Pascale Julie Snyder

Saxophone Dick Oatts Ben Schachter Trumpet

Mike Natale Terell Stafford John Swana

Trombone

Luis Bonilla

®

Presser Hall 2001 N. 13th Street Philadelphia, PA 19122

Programs Bachelor of Music: Jazz Performance (Instrumental, Keyboard or Vocal) Bachelor of Music: Jazz Arranging and Composition Bachelor of Music: Music Education with Jazz Studies Component Bachelor of Music: Music Therapy with Jazz Studies Component


What’s on Your Playlist? Dana Leong is an accomplished young performer, composer, and producer who has been gaining recognition for his distinctive fusion of jazz, hip-hop, classical, rock, and sonic soundscapes. At the age of 27, Leong has already collaborated with the likes of Paquito D’Rivera, Ray Charles, Diddy, Norah Jones, Dafnis Prieto, Talib Kweli, Wynton Marsalis, and Christian McBride, among many other notables. Late 2007 saw the release of Anthems of Life, the follow-up to the Dana Leong Quintet’s acclaimed first album, Leaving New York (Tateo Sound). The Dana Leong Band was recently selected to represent American music as part of Jazz at Lincoln Center’s “Rhythm Roads” program. 1 Ocean’s Eleven Soundtrack “I chose this album really only for the last tune where the Philadelphia Orchestra plays Debussy’s ‘Clar de Lune.’ The way this track closes out an epic movie is breathtaking.”

2 Köln Concert – Keith Jarrett “As someone who relies greatly on improvisation as a mode of expression, this very special solo improvised concert goes down not only as a creative landmark in music, but also as an emotional bookmark which has always been the musical ending to many natural chapters of my life.”

3 Tokyo 96 – Keith Jarrett Trio “In my opinion, this recording represents the pinnacle of Jarrett’s Standard Trio. I’ve followed many of their records, always live, always incredibly executed, but this one in particular hits home for sure with its fluidity and strong sense of presentation and arrangement.”

4 College Dropout – Kanye West “Being a beat-maker/producer and lover of big bouncing production, as well as metaphoric MCing, I feel that this one raises the bar in hip hop/pop.”

5 Fallen – Evanescence “This album takes the cake for dramatic contrasts within songwriting. I love the way they can take a tiny, dark melody with just piano and voice and blow it up into a blockbuster symphonic tragedy. I unfortunately had not known the name of this band until Amy Lee’s [vocalist for Evanescence] manager called me to play on ‘Saturday Night Live’ with them. ”

6 The Black Album – Jay Z “What more can I say? An all-star production album, headed by the protégé of the ‘Best Rapper in history (Notorious B.I.G.) ’? Bringing back the hard rock sounds a la Rick Rubin, with the unmistakable voice of raps CEO? This one still gets play in my deck.”

7 Legend of Bigfoot – The Last Emperor “An unreleased obscure bootleg that is nothing less than an incredible piece of rhyme history. Without consultation, many people whom I have played this for have compared Emperor’s up-tempo rhyme deliveries and constant metaphorical weight to that of John Coltrane’s ‘sheets of sound’ approach. Try to find a copy for yourself.”

8 Traveling Without Moving – Jamiroquai “Time to dance!”

9 We and the Sea: After – Tamba 4 “This album marked many landmarks for me: first as a recharge for my love for acoustic jazzy music; second, it marked the time to actually buy an album (after I heard it on Web radio). The way this trio paints pictures about Mother Nature and the ocean without being too literal will carry your imagination away.”

10 Definitive Collection – Stevie Wonder “I’ve been a follower of Stevie for years. Who could possibly be a more important songwriter of our time? He creates groovy, soulful, melodious and memorable works of art, time and time again. This particular compilation captures many of those jewels.”

The Dana Leong Band’s recently completed album, Anthems of Life (Tateo Sound), is slated for release in late 2007. www.danaleong.com

14 JAZZed January 2008


Jazz

at Oberlin

New from Oberlin Music The Oberlin Conservatory of Music

Beauty Surrounds Us Works by members of the Oberlin Conservatory Jazz Faculty

OBERLIN

The Oberlin Conservatory of Music

A tradition of excellence

The Oberlin Conservatory of Music at Oberlin College offers a premier undergraduate jazz studies program that prepares students for careers as professional jazz musicians and for advanced study in jazz. Majors in jazz performance (saxophone, trumpet, trombone, piano, guitar, THE JAZZ STUDIES percussion, and double FACULTY bass) and jazz composition; Wendell Logan courses in music theory, chair, jazz studies program; music history, and liberal professor of African American arts courses in the College music of Arts and Sciences; jazz aural skills, jazz keyboard, Gary Bartz jazz theory, basic arranging visiting professor and composing techniques, of jazz saxophone improvisation, the history Marcus Belgrave of jazz, and Technology in visiting professor Music and the Related Arts of jazz trumpet (TIMARA).

Peter Dominguez professor of jazz studies and double bass Robin Eubanks associate professor of jazz trombone Robert Ferrazza associate professor of jazz guitar Billy Hart assistant professor of jazz percussion Dan Wall visiting assistant professor of jazz piano

Featuring these award-winning musicians: Gary Bartz, saxophone Marcus Belgrave and Kenny Davis, trumpet Peter Dominguez, bass Robin Eubanks, trombone Bob Ferrazza, guitar Billy Hart, drums Dan Wall, piano Wendell Logan, composer

The Oberlin Conservatory of Music at Oberlin College

“Jazz is very much alive and well at the Oberlin Conservatory of Music. That’s a beautiful thing.”

Office of Admissions 39 West College Street Oberlin, Ohio 44074 440-775-8413

—Bobby Jackson

www.oberlin.edu Michael Manderen Director of Admissions David H. Stull Dean of the Conservatory

oberlin.edu/con/recordings

$15 Call 440-775-8272 or write Mary.Sutorius@oberlin.edu to order. Available on iTunes and other major digital music services.


lessons learned

BRIAN KANE

My Lessons From Herb Pomeroy

L

BY BRIAN KANE

ike thousands of other musicians, I was deeply saddened when I heard of the passing of Herb Pomeroy in August 2007. Herb was perhaps the most influential jazz educator of the last fifty years – inspiring and mentoring generations of the top musicians from the Berklee College of Music. The lessons that I learned from Herb have helped make me the teacher and person that I am today. I would like to take the opportunity to share these lessons and sage advice with other educators, and to reminisce about some of the good times along the way.

After retiring from the Massachusetts State Police, my father took a job as a campus police officer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. On a part of his regular rounds, he would walk through an auditorium where the M.I.T jazz band rehearsed and take a few minutes to listen to them practice. On these regular rounds he met and shared regular conversations with the band’s director, Herb Pomeroy. I still feel embarrassed when I think of how my father would have proudly told Herb about his son “the saxophone player,” but luckily for me, these two men of the same generation somehow struck up a casual friendship that benefited me in ways that are hard to measure. I met Herb Pomeroy when I was fifteen years old and had the privilege of learning from him for the last twenty 16 JAZZed January 2008

Herb Pomeroy

years. Throughout that time, he never stopped asking my how my father was doing every time we met. There are so many facets to Herb that should be remembered: his always tasteful playing, amazing writing, and inspired teaching of composition. But my experiences with Herb and the lessons that I took most to heart were his approaches to working with big bands and student musicians. When I attended the Berklee College of Music, I was honored when Herb invited me to play in his various student ensembles. The five semesters that I spent playing in Herb’s bands were the most intense learning experiences that I had during my time at Berklee. Frankly, I was terrified of disappointing him and I never played or listened harder in my life! Once out of college and teaching, I was lucky


lessons learned enough to watch Herb work with many of my students in high school settings and see his teaching style transform ensembles and help students excel. Many educators consider Herb to be their mentor. But, for those of you who were never fortunate enough to work with him directly, I would be honored to share my thoughts on the lessons I learned from Herb that help make me the educator I am today. For high school teachers, there are some excellent lessons to be gleaned from attending a rehearsal with Herb.

being frowned at by Herb if the intonation wasn’t perfect. That was me. Of course there are times when bands play loud. But as we were always reminded, a forte is only as loud as a piano is soft. Exaggerating soft and mid range dynamics gives a band more

room for dynamic growth and the ability to shape lines and phrases within a composition. Student big bands at the high school level should learn this lesson well. Dynamic shape and phrasing is far better executed by exaggerating soft volume

Golden Keys

First Prize: Akai EWI 4000s Second Prize: Selmer Paris Spirit of Mark VI Tenor Saxophone

Listen Before joining Herb’s bands at Berklee, my big band experience had consisted of playing in Buddy Rich style and professional swing bands. At the end of my first rehearsal with Herb, I knew I was in for a completely different experience. I was shocked at how quietly the band played! The band rehearsed in a small room with very limited sound treatments. The tendency for all bands in these rooms was to overplay. This was never allowed when Herb was in the room. He always taught the importance of listening in difficult acoustic situations. Herb’s job was to listen to and carefully evaluate student compositions. In order to do this, he needed to hear every part and every harmony. The band’s job was to play in perfect balance, sight read the charts as close to perfection as possible, and follow all dynamics to the extreme while adding appropriate style. When everyone in a band is listening intently, big bands become almost like living, breathing organisms. Hearing the balance within a sax section, the hum of vibrato, and the interaction of how lines move between winds and brass is almost a meditative experience. Though I had been playing in extremely good big bands for years, I had never heard anything like this. Imagine, a second tenor player, clearly hearing the 4th trumpet part within the balance of the trumpet section, trying to listen to match intonation, and

For registration and additional information, and to contribute to the IAJE Michael Brecker Scholarship Fund with the online purchase of his 2007 release Pilgrimage, visit us online at Akai EWI 4000s donated by the Michael Brecker Estate and is an actual instrument on which Michael performed. Selmer Paris Spirit of Mark VI Tenor Saxophone (Reference 54, Model 74) donated by

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JAZZed January 2008 17


lessons learned levels instead of loud. It creates a more dynamic sound for a band and better musicianship by encouraging students to listen to others and understand how their part works within a composition. Too often, high school bands try to use volume alone to convey excitement and intensity. In many cases, the volume can simply mask underlying intonation, balance, and execution problems that exist within in a band. By rehearsing at a quieter volume, directors may notice many problems that they may not hear at loud volumes. I recommend not having a high school jazz band play forte until they are close to mastering a composition. It’s easy to get kids to play loud, but it can take months of hard work on balance and intonation to get kids to play loud well and musically.

musician might be there for a few rehearsals and then they’d be gone. But it was never personal; it was always about the music and was always honest. Often the players would be back again after a semester or two and

“AT THE END OF MY FIRST REHEARSAL WITH HERB, I KNEW I WAS IN FOR A COMPLETELY DIFFERENT EXPERIENCE.”

Respect No one I’ve ever met needed to be told to show respect to Herb Pomeroy. For crying out loud, the man played with Charlie Parker before many of us were even born! What always surprised me, and what was one of the greatest lessons I learned from Herb, was the enormous amount of respect and kindness he showed to the musicians he directed and worked with. There were two facets to this respect. One was a general respect and appreciation for fellow musicians and students and the other was a common respect for the integrity of the music being played. From a personal perspective, Herb always had a smile, a remark, a question or advice. His calm demeanor was infectious in rehearsal settings. His groups were relaxed, humorous, and intensely focused. From a musical perspective, anything less than excellent execution and musicianship was unacceptable. When I played in Herb’s bands, sometimes individual players just wouldn’t work out. A

their level of musicianship would be immensely improved. There is no greater motivation for practice than to know that you’re being evaluated on your merits and musicianship alone. To this day, I can’t think of any sentence that would make me work harder to improve than “….Ya know – I really like you. But your playing just isn’t up to the level of this band.”

Know Your Band Directors need to know the strengths, weaknesses and experience levels of each section in their band. When choosing music for a group or creating arrangements, make your decisions based on the band you have, not the band you wish you have. It’s important to challenge students and encourage them to excel, but it’s also important to do this in a gradual way that builds skills, musicianship, and confidence. I often see high school groups that choose extremely difficult music, even though the level of musicianship and experience in their band isn’t extremely high. The process these bands go through to play the music often requires months of grueling rehearsals. In the end, the bands end up playing the pieces fairly well, but one needs to ask if the students might have been better served by a different approach. Is it better for students to have the experience of playing ten or twenty different pieces per year to


lessons learned gradually develop their musicianship and skills or is it better to spend time trying to master three extremely difficult pieces for performance? Every band director has the right to answer this question differently, but in my time with Herb, I learned that one of the best ways to respect students is to offer them consistent and gradual opportunities to succeed and improve on their own.

band. I can say, from personal experience, that it is much better to have an incomplete band than allow a disruptive and negative influence into the group. All of your good students will appreciate and respect you for the decision.

Be the Expert During the very first rehearsal I ever had with Herb, the band was playing a chart with lush sustained backgrounds during a solo. Midway through the section, Herb, with his eyes closed and his head tilted for listening, abruptly

Respect the Person, Teach the Musician Every student in a band should be given the respect and encouragement due any person. But students need to earn the respect of a band director for their individual musicianship through hard work and perseverance. Students should understand this critical difference. It’s possible to like and respect someone on a personal level, but they still may not work hard enough to be a positive contributor to a band. Criticism to groups should never be personal in nature and, in my experience, anger is never a constructive force in rehearsal settings. Directors should set high, but attainable, expectations for musicianship, behavior, and work ethic in groups. I’ve often seen band directors get angry, lecture, or even storm out when their expectations are not met or when individual disruptive students distract rehearsals. I’d suggest a different but simple approach: remove the problem player from the band. Set the tone for excellence early in the year by limiting distractions during rehearsals and base all decisions regarding students on an expectation for musicianship and professional behavior. Appreciate, respect and love the kids you work with, but demand professionalism and respect from them at all times. I’ve often encountered bands where directors were hesitant to remove musicians because they felt they needed them to fill a section or complete a JAZZed January 2008 19


lessons learned stopped the band, pointed to the third trumpet player and said something like, “My God, you’re holding out the flat 13th of the chord and you’re playing it sharp. How can you possibly play that note and be sharp…” I was shocked. When I was playing my part at that time, I could rarely tell which degree of the chord I was playing, yet Herb was able to distinguish each individual player, in lush orchestration, and hear precise intonation, without even looking at the score! His level of expertise instilled complete confidence in the band and helped all of us aspire to improve even more. Furthermore, nothing he said was ever questioned, he was simply the smartest guy in the room. For many of us, this level of expertise is completely unattainable. But for high school band directors there are still important lessons to learn from Herb. Directors should know their music and scores before they begin to teach the music to students. They should identify difficult areas within a composition where intonation, phrasing, style inflections, dynamics and rhythmic feel might be a problem for students. Directors should both study their scores and listen to recordings of the music so that they have a complete picture of what they want a composition to accomplish. In short, they should aspire to be complete experts on the music that they aim to teach. There is an old saying among music education majors- just staying one chapter ahead of the students can make the teacher look brilliant, but the reality is much different. Directors need to bring professional expertise, confidence, and vision to their groups. Students will intuitively understand and respect directors who take the time to develop expertise and to communicate it to the group. Any band director can attain this level of expertise. If a director simply studies scores, listens to music, and asks questions, expertise and vision for a group will inevitably follow. 20 JAZZed January 2008

Like thousands of his former students, I feel immensely blessed to have been so strongly influenced in my teaching by Herb Pomeroy. His many innovations, skills, and teaching techniques could fill many books, which, now, unfortunately will never be written by him. This one tiny facet of his overall teaching, his ability to work with groups of students and bring out their best, has been an enormous influence on my own teaching and I feel honored to be able to share a few of the lessons that I learned from Herb. I hope other educators will find them as important and influential as I have. In the course of writing this, there is now one thing of which I’m sure – wherever great musicians and beautiful souls go after death, there is now one smokin’ band rehearsing new music every week, and there is one of the greatest educators, musicians, and personalities of all time fronting the band. Brian Kane has been a music educator for fifteen years and is presently an active teacher, clinician and author. Brian’s books on jazz include Creative Jazz Sight Reading, the Jazz Style and Technique series, and the new series Constructing Melodic Jazz Improvisation, available for all instruments, which demonstrates an innovative new pedagogy for understanding and playing the language of jazz. Brian can be reached and his books can be seen at www.jazzpath.com.


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focus session

S O LO T R A N S C R I P T I O N

Maximizing the Benefits of Solo Transcription BY MATT PIVEC

W

hile there are many pedagogical approaches to jazz improvisation, the most effective method of learning to play jazz remains learning tunes, phrases, and solos by ear from significant recordings. It is through this process that we gain an intimate knowledge not only of musical vocabulary, but also countless other essential musical elements such as phrasing, articulation, tone, and interaction. The typical sequence used for maximizing the benefits of transcription resembles the following: Q

Q

Q

Q

Q Q

Select a meaningful transcription. • It must be both stimulating to the student and appropriate to his/her skill level. Learn a complete unit (to provide a broader music context) of the solo by ear. • If he/she is learning a blues, I suggest at least two choruses. If he/she is learning a standard, I suggest at least one full chorus. • He/she should be able to play the solo from memory along with the recording. Write down the solo along with the chord changes. • This process will facilitate analysis. Select a phrase from the solo. • Since the vast majority of jazz tunes contain ii-V-I progressions, I recommend selecting a phrase from a ii-V-I progression. Of course, this process can work for any type of melodic material. Practice the phrase in all 12 keys. Apply the phrase to the same tune as well as others.

22 JAZZed January 2008

If the student completes the aforementioned process, he or she will have a rudimentary understanding of the phrase and its applications. However, as I noticed in my own teaching, students who went through this process were frequently unable to creatively apply the learned material. This indicated to me that they were falling short in the application steps and had moved to other melodic concepts without having a true mastery of one. By listening to bebop and hard bop masters such as Charlie Parker, Grant Green, Sonny Rollins, Sonny Stitt, and Bud Powell, we hear that many players use a limited number phrases, but can create an endless number of variations. To the author, it is the ability to create variations that demonstrate true mastery of the vocabulary. The pedagogical lesson is that additional steps can be taken to ensure that the student has truly mastered the phrase. Once the student has mastered the phrase, appropriate flexibility and creativity in the application can follow. As previously mentioned, a recording for transcription should be both stimulating to the student and appropriate to

“TRANSCRIPTION IS AN INFINITELY REWARDING PROCESS, YET IT IS CHALLENGING AND TIME–CONSUMING.”


focus session

his/her ability level. For maximum benefit, the solo should contain useful vocabulary that is clearly executed. For beginning improvisers, I have found the guitar solos of Grant Green to be particularly useful because of the clarity of his ideas. One particular excerpt from his solo on “Alone Together” from Green Street will be referenced throughout the article. All Possible Situations? Assuming that the student has learned a phrase in all 12 keys and is able to apply the phrase (in its original state) to the repertoire, the logical next step is application to all possible situations. If practicing a phrase from a iiV-I progression, this means accounting for the parallel key, different harmonic rhythms, and different meters. Parallel Major or Minor If using a phrase from a ii-V-I progression, we have the advantage of knowing

  



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focus session

that the quality of the tonic and predominant chords need not change our approach to the dominant chord. Therefore, simple changes to the approach and/or resolution of a phrase can allow it to be useful in the parallel major or minor key. Consider the phrase that Grant Green plays leading into the second A section of “Alone Together” (Example 1) In the case of this phrase, changing the third scale degree in the resolution allows the phrase to be useful in a major progression (Example 2). Different Harmonic Rhythms Depending on its original context, the student will also need to practice the phrase in half–time or double–time. If using our Grant Green example, he/ she will need to practice the phrase in half–time for use in a progression of slower harmonic rhythm. After the stu-

24 JAZZed January 2008

dent practices the phrase in half–time, have him/her change the context to a four–bar progression (Example 3). Assuming that the student has already practiced the phrase in all twelve keys,

“IT IS IMPORTANT FOR THE STUDENT TO KNOW THAT THE PROCESS DOES NOT END WITH THE ABILITY TO PLAY THE PHRASE IN ALL POSSIBLE SITUATIONS.”

the first four measures of bridge of “Alone Together” presents a good opportunity to practice this phrase in a slower harmonic rhythm (Example 4). Different Meters Your student should account for different meters as well. An effective way to ease the student into a different meter is to simply begin playing ii-VI progressions at the piano in another meter. Ask the student to create a variation of the phrase that accommodates the new meter. If using the phrase in a triple meter, he or she might come up with something resembling Example 5. Or, if considering the phrase application from the slower harmonic rhythm in 4/4 time, the player might create something such as Example 6. The same process could be used to practice the application to progressions in odd


focus session meters. The phrase might be applied to a 7/4 meter as in Example 7. Flexibility Not many people enjoy hearing a soloist who sounds as if he or she is merely regurgitating phrases. Therefore it is important for the student to know that the process does not end with the ability to play the phrase in all possible situations. Once he or she has learned to apply the phrase in all possible situations, it is time to get creative. Creativity will undoubtedly occur naturally. However, a few structural guidelines can help the student to focus his or her efforts. Displacement One of the many concepts we learn from Charlie Parker is that similar vocabulary can take on new meaning if placed in a different spot relative to the harmonic rhythm. While playing the progression at the piano, have the student play the phrase in a slightly different place relative to the harmonic progression (Examples 8 and 9).He or she may notice that an eighth note here or there makes a big difference to the overall sound of the phrase. A good exercise, especially on a tune with multiple ii-V-I’s in the same key such as “Alone Together” or “Autumn Leaves,” is to have the student play the same phrase in a slightly different place relative to the harmony for each subsequent progression. Fragmentation Fragmentation might be a useful tool in creating flexibility (avoiding redundancy). Have the student select a smaller (but essential to the harmonic function) portion of the phrase. Without too much additional practice, he or she should be able to play the smaller fragment in all 12 keys. The student might notice that essentially identical material is given variety because of the different starting and ending notes. As

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focus session shown by Examples 10 and 11, two or more levels of fragmentation could be used for a single phrase.

and approaches to chord tones, it is a logical step to add material to the middle of the phrase (Example 15).

Addition Another easy, yet quite effective, way of creating flexibility is to add new material to the beginning or ending of a phrase. A good introduction to this concept is Grant Green’s phrase on the progression to f-minor in the second A section. Upon listening to this excerpt, the student should notice that this phrase is merely a transposed version of the original, moved up one beat in the measure, but with a slight addition (Example 12). Using Green’s phase as an example, ask the student to create his or her own extension to the phrase. It may be helpful to use a guideline such as: the extension must retain the double–time feel of the original phase. The student’s creation might resemble Example 13. A simple addition to the beginning of the phrase could also be used (Example 14). If the student is familiar with some basic phrase construction concepts such as enclosures

Rhythmic Variation In the case that the student has yet to approach the phrase with any rhythmic creativity, rhythmic variation might be another good lesson topic. I recommend playing a series of ii-V-I progressions at the piano (or just practicing a tune) and encouraging the student to vary the rhythms of the phrase. He or she will notice that subtle rhythmic changes to the phrase make the same material sound fresh. The student will also notice that as long as the melodic resolution takes place relatively close to the harmonic resolution (as it does in Green’s model phrase), the material will sound good. Example 16 is an example of rhythmic variation. In the case of double–time phrases over short ii-VI’s, I also recommend practicing this technique using the half–time version of the phrase. It will allow for more variations.

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Combinations A logical next step would be to consciously use the above techniques in combination. Revisiting Green’s phrase to f-minor in the second A section (Example 12), we are given a perfect example of two variation techniques (displacement and addition) used in combination to create something new. Conclusion Transcription is an infinitely rewarding process, yet it is challenging and time-consuming. Considering the amount of effort that a developing improviser puts into completing even a chorus of transcription, why not make the most out of the material learned? Remember, the end goal is not for the student to know (or even be able to convincingly execute) a bunch of licks. The goal is for the student to be able to use vocabulary in a creative and personal manner. To accomplish this goal, I recommend adding the following steps to the previously mentioned sequence: Q

Q

Account for uses in all possible situations by practicing the phrase: • in the parallel key • with different harmonic rhythms • in different meters Help the student gain flexibility with the phrase by using: • displacement • fragmentation • addition • rhythmic variation • combinations of the above

Matt Pivec is the instructor of Saxophone and coordinator of Jazz Studies at California State University, Stanislaus. As a jazz performer, he has worked with Bob Brookmeyer, Maria Schneider, Dave Rivello, and Jim McNeely.


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g n i r a

h S

Bob Sinicrope

c i s u M

f o t f i G e th

B

By Christian Wissmuller 28 JAZZed January 2008

Bob Sinicrope has been at the helm of Milton Academy’s (Milton, Massachusetts) acclaimed jazz program since its inception in 1974. His students have won numerous national and regional awards as best high school jazz combo and twice performed for former President Bill Clinton at the White House. Milton’s jazz alumni feature such respected professional musicians as Aaron Goldberg and Steve Lehman. In addition to his accomplishments as a teacher at Milton, Sinicrope has been a faculty member of Jamey Aebersold’s Jazz Workshops for over 25 years and is an in-demand bass player who fronts his own well regarded ensemble, The World Leaders. In 2007 Bob became the inaugural recipient of Berklee College and IAJE’s John LaPorta Jazz Educator of the Year award.


â&#x20AC;&#x153;

â&#x20AC;?

I just feel so fortunate to be able to create opportunities for our students to share the gift of their music.

Photo by Tony Scarpetta


BS: Luck? [laughs]

Recently, JAZZed sat down with Bob Sinicrope to talk about his impressive achievements at Milton Academy, the jazz program’s remarkable South Africa jaunts, and his thoughts on crafting and maintaining a forceful and successful music curriculum.

JAZZed: Math teachers everywhere are getting very upset.

JAZZed: First off, thanks very much for taking the time to speak with me, Bob.

JAZZed: What’s your educational background, then – music, math, both?

Bob Sinicrope: Of course! JAZZed: Let’s dive right in. You’ve been at Milton Academy for a while, yes?

BS: No, no – I loved teaching math.

BS: I have a master’s degree in Math Education and a bachelor’s in Math from Worcester Tech. I don’t have any music degrees. I have officially one semester of music school under my belt, but I’ve always played music and always been involved in it.

BS: You could say so. This is my 35th year at Milton. JAZZed: So how did all of this at Milton Academy come about? JAZZed: Definitely not on the rookie team, then. Am I also correct in my understanding that you launched Milton’s jazz program? BS: I did start the jazz program, but my for first year here, I was the full-time math teacher and for a little over 20 years I taught both math and jazz.

BS: Well, the girls’ school had a graduation requirement where the girls had to take a course in arts, but the boys’ school didn’t. There was a move to make the schools co-ed over a period of years and so one of the things they needed to do was start having arts courses for the boys and they simply didn’t have enough courses. I stepped forward and said, “Gee, I’d love to teach a course about jazz.”

JAZZed: How did you transition from math to jazz? JAZZed: And with no background, that still flew? BS: I think if they weren’t so desperate they might’ve asked for credentials [laughs] and we never would’ve gotten anywhere! But just because I didn’t go to school for music, that doesn’t mean I had no background – I had been playing professionally since I was 13. JAZZed: Ah – a lifer. And your primary instrument (I already know, but let’s just pretend for the sake of the readers)? BS: I’m primarily a string bass player. I was a Guitar major during my one semester at Berklee. JAZZed: Tell me about that semester at Berklee.

Photo by Bill Gallery courtesy of Berklee Collge of Music

30 JAZZed January 2008

Photo by JD Sloan


BS: I went into the Peace Corps in Jamaica after college and was asked to write some music for Jamaica’s National Dance Theatre Company. That was successful and I got excited about it. I finished the year and went to Berklee as a Composition/Guitar major and thought I had a good gig playing six nights a week, but it ultimately didn’t work out, I stumbled, didn’t have enough money to go back to school, yadda yadda yadda…

trombone, too. I’ve always been musical. I think sometimes you’re better off learning things outside of the classroom. JAZZed: No question. Though, as you know better than most, education has its benefits as well. Who were some of you own music teachers? BS: I took lessons from Charlie Banacos, I took some trombone lessons with John Coffee, and I got hooked

up with Jamey Aebersold and have been teaching with him since the early ‘80s. Teaching on the staff next to Rufus Reid, Dan Haerle, and Jerry Coker has taught me so much. JAZZed: Talk briefly about the evolution of Milton’s jazz program? BS: One of the students in the first year was Bill Zildjian. He is of the Zildjian family, but his father broke away from the family, the company and founded Sabian. Sabian stands for “Sally, Billy, and Andy”

JAZZed: The struggling musician: a familiar tale. BS: So I applied for jobs teaching at prep schools because I didn’t have an education JAZZed: So this long career in music education was mostly unplanned? BS: Not entirely. I remember when I was confused and searching around I went to my alma matter for career counseling and said, “Look, I want to teach jazz and math in a college setting, but I don’t want to go to school for another ten years in order to do it.” They suggested looking at prep schools. JAZZed: This was Worcester Tech? BS: Yes. My career counselor’s advice was: “I just wrote a letter of recommendation for someone applying to a teaching job at Milton Academy. That’s a perfect place for you.” JAZZed: Let it never be said that school counselor’s don’t know what they’re talking about. BS: When he said, “prep school” I said, “What’s a prep school?” I had no idea what I was getting into, but obviously it’s been a great fit. JAZZed: You mentioned that, though without a formal music degree, you were nonetheless an active musician. Can you tell me about that? BS: I was very active. I worked my way through college playing in a polka band. I also played jazz, played in a brass choir – I played JAZZed January 2008 31


JAZZed: Milton has also been chosen as Down Beat’s Best High School Combo. BS: Yes – in ’92 and again later in the decade. JAZZed: How many jazz ensembles do you currently teach?

JAZZ FACULTY Harold Danko department chair, piano Jeffrey Campbell double bass Bill Dobbins composition/arranging Clay Jenkins trumpet Mark Kellogg trombone David Rivello ensembles Bob Sneider guitar Dariusz Terefenko theory Rich Thompson drum set Walt Weiskopf saxophone Learn more about Eastman’s jazz degrees including the DMA in jazz studies, plus profiles of our award-winning faculty, summer jazz offerings for high school students, and more. Visit www.esm.rochester.edu/departments/jazz APPLICATION DEADLINE DECEMBER 1

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– S.A.B.I.A.N. Harry Truman’s grandson was also in the very first jazz course. Just little curiosities that are cool. The course has been successful over the years. I got a call from Israel recently from a kid who had been in the third year of the program, just to tell me how much he got out of it and that he’s still playing music. JAZZed: That’s got to feel good. BS: Certainly. When you go to a school like Milton, you give kids opportunities. They’re talented, they’re smart and you just offer them the possibilities. That’s the thing that I do best: create opportunities for kids. Gradually the demand for more advanced jazz classes grew and as time progressed, my math responsibilities diminished while the music classes increased. We have nine combos in the school now, having started from one. The program has expanded and, I think, been quite a success. JAZZed: Recently you were selected as the first recipient of Berklee’s John LaPorta Award. BS: I had John as a teacher, so that was really very meaningful to me.

32 JAZZed January 2008

BS: There’s the middle school group – 6th, 7th, and 8th. Then there are three 9th grade groups. They all meet once a week, during the school day. I have two first-year full credit courses which meet five periods a week – three days: two doubles and a single. Those are full credit courses only open to 10th, 11th, or 12th graders. Then we have three Advanced groups. JAZZed: What distinguishes the Advanced groups? BS: The first-year course is more about foundation and we learn foundation by playing tunes, but the purpose of that course is not to go out and play concerts. The Advanced courses focus on performing. This past October we did an Art Blakey tribute. A couple years ago we did a set of Thelonious Monk at the IAJE concert and T.S. Monk came and played with us. That kind of connection really strengthens the program. JAZZed: What do you think has made the program such a success? BS: It’s the opportunities. Aaron Goldberg is a graduate of the program and he’s been very generous and kind about acknowledging the influence the program had on him. We have other students who have gone on to be quite successful: we’ve got a guy who’s playing with Anthony Braxton, another guy who’s making his living playing Hammond B-3 in Manhattan, a couple of guys working on


Broadway, and two of our students are in this band called Clap Your Hands Say Yeah. JAZZed: Matriculating working, career musicians – that’s a sure sign of a successful school music program. BS: Yes, but again I would give credit to the school and the opportunities for these kids to play and realize that they love playing music. It’s a school that really empowers kids. I remember when I went to public high school in Connecticut – and it was a pretty good school – and we’d ask people, “Can we put on a talent show?” and they’d say, “No, you can’t do that.” Whereas a school like Milton Academy says, “Sure!” and the kids have the confidence and the poise to go out and pursue things. God bless ‘em.

[Lincoln, Mass.] in August of ’91 and it turned out we had a program back then where we were one of about 25 or 30 prep schools who took about 14 students who’d graduated from high school in South Africa and said, “If you want to come here, we’ll give you a free year.” There were also about 40 or 50 universities that said, “We’ll give you a free four years after that.” So I took a chance and bought all these kids tickets to see Abdullah be-

fore I even met them because they arrived the day before his concert. After the show I went backstage with these 14 black South African students to meet Abdullah and of course he was blown away. He came out and couldn’t have been more inviting and warm. On the way back to the airport this parent said, “Would you consider coming to Milton Academy?” and Abdullah agreed.

JAZZed: It sounds like a special place. Another special thing about your program has been the South Africa trips. BS: We completed our sixth tour of South Africa last year. It was my eighth. JAZZed: How did you get connected with Abdullah Ibrahim? BS: I heard Abdullah’s music on Eric Jackson’s radio show and got really inspired and bought some recordings. When I found out he was playing at Sweet Basil’s in 1990, I made a pilgrimage down there. I met him and tried to get him to come to school and play for the kids. It didn’t work out, but this is another reason why our school is so successful: our school is so connected. One of our parents grew up with Abdullah – he’s now the head of the architecture department of MIT. He once snuck Abdullah into his basement and recorded them when they both lived in Cape Town. JAZZed: Wow! BS: A connection, like I say. So I contacted him by phone and said, “Look, can you approach him?” Abdullah was coming to the DeCordova Museum JAZZed January 2008 33


JAZZed: Pretty amazing. What was that first visit from Abdullah like? BS: The second week of school, Abdullah arrived in the morning, in the middle of a concert that we were playing. We had a brand new headmaster, Ed Freedy, who is African American, so that impressed Abdullah. We had the same group which, later that year, was to win the Down Beat award and we were playing Abdullah’s music and I was told later that he was in tears. As soon as the concert was over, he ran up to the stage and said, “You have to come to South Africa with me.” Know-

ing Abdullah as I now do, that’s so out of character for him. He announced it from the stage later that night. JAZZed: This is quite a story. BS: It’s been amazing. Abdullah called a week later and said, “How ‘bout it?” So we went, but the idea to tour with him and open for him completely fell apart. JAZZed: That’s a shame. Why? BS: His agent really didn’t want Abdullah playing with a bunch of kids.

Abdullah felt so badly about it… we went anyway. JAZZed: When, exactly, was this first South Africa trip? BS: February of ‘92. JAZZed: Tell me about the details of that first journey? BS: We took 10 performers and one of our colleagues, Janet Levine, who was a Johannesburg City councilman for 10 years. She and her son and my daughter also went. Aaron Goldberg was also part of that group. He had graduated by that point, but he heard about it and said “Can I come?” and I said, “Sure.” JAZZed: If not with Abdullah, where did you end up playing? BS: Our very first concert was a command performance for the mayor of Johannesburg. It turns out that it’s a position that’s ceremoniously rotated amongst the different parties. Janet Levine had had seniority in that party and, if she’d stayed in Johannesburg, she would’ve been the mayor. JAZZed: Lots of random connections, repeatedly. Small world. BS: It sure is. We played at a boys’ school, we toured a game reserve, and we played for Darius Brubeck’s school. We’ve played there all six tours and we’ve hosted his group at Milton Academy. We played at a technical college in Port Elizabeth, University of Cape Town, and the Market Theatre in Johannesburg – a bunch of places. JAZZed: Has that been the pattern on each subsequent trip? BS: Well, we went that first time and that was great and all… but we didn’t really think about it that much, you know? Abdullah continued to come back to Boston and Milton Academy. In ’94 he played at Milton Academy again and actually asked me to help him start a school, asked me to help him publish his music,

34 JAZZed January 2008


and asked me to apply for a $90,000 composer in residence grant program, which would’ve had him spend about 10 days a month in Boston over a three-year period. JAZZed: And did you?

Bob Sinicrope at a Glance Web site: www.bobsinicrope.com; www.milton.edu Milton Jazz Students: ~ 90

Total enrollment, Milton Academy middle and high schools: ~ 675 BS: We did apply and we made it Milton Academy Jazz performances of note: White House (twice), IAJE conferfrom 67 down to 20 – we made the first ences (six times), Viennes Jazz Festival, and Montreux Jazz Festival. cut. I felt a little uncomfortable about him writing for students because they graduate every year and you’ve got to start all over, so I thought we needed a professional band and I brought the Either/Orchestra in. But Abdullah said, “I can’t work with other musicians. Would Duke Ellington share secrets with Count Basie?” and so forth. He got a little protective and I said, “I just don’t feel right about going forward.” They awarded six of these grants and I know we would’ve gotten one.

JAZZed: What do you feel makes these trips such a positive experience? BS: I want to sort of make clear: if it doesn’t continue – it’s outrageously expensive – it’s not a part of the program, really. It’s something we offer the kids. Over the years we’ve developed these amazing relationships with township groups. JAZZed: Oh? BS: There’s a group called the Amy Biehl Foundation [www. amybiehl.org]. Amy Biehl was a Fulbright scholar who, after graduating Stanford, because of her love of Nelson Mandela, went to Cape Town for nine months studying gender issues, to contribute to what everybody knew would be a new constitution, but everybody else was focusing on race. Two days before she was supposed to return home, she was murdered in a very unfortunate racially motivated attack. JAZZed: Awful. BS: Her parents responded by testifying at the Truth and Reconciliation hearings for amnesty for the four young men who were serving 18year jail sentences for her daughter’s death. In fact there’s an Academy Award-nominated documentary, Long Night’s Journey Into Day, which documents this. We donated our funds in 2001 to the Amy Biehl Foundation because the parents contacted me. They had me come over to consult with their program in 2002 and then in ’03, ’05, and ’07 they created a jazz festival in our honor. Two of their most valued employees are two of the young men who had served jail time for their daughter’s death. The mom has been here a couple of times, they’ve sent their music teacher here for a week or two for training, and we’ve had some students who’ve gone over on their own and volunteered, so we have this just mind-bogglingly wonderful relationship with this township group.

Photos by Milton Academy Jazz

JAZZed January 2008 35


JAZZed: So this South Africa trips go well beyond the scope of jazz.

BS: Oh, so far beyond. We have another township school in Johannesburg who we’ve hosted here and we’ve been there five times. By any measure, our students have amazing opportunities and are privileged. Not all the students come from wealthy families, though. [Massachusetts governor] Deval Patrick, who was It’s really satisfying for me to see a a student of mine, did not come from middle schooler who says, ‘Wow, this privilege, for exHorace Silver guy is really something ample. But having the chance to learn – how do I find out more about him?’ at a place like Milton Academy is remaybe a small part of creating that ally a blessing and a privilege. Then introduction. they go and see these kids from the We’re now connected with the township who have nothing, who’ve Boston Higashi School [www.bosbeen oppressed – legally – and they’re tonhigashi.org] in Randolph – a so happy. Once they start playing muschool for autistic kids – and one of sic together, everything melts. It’s so their students has been a part of our glorious. That’s the reason we keep jazz program for three years. We regoing back to South Africa because of cently brought 9th and 6th, 7th, and the social interaction experiences. 8th graders to play there. To see our kids and their kids enjoy each other, JAZZed: How do you cover the cost for despite the obvious differences… going to South Africa? using the music as a way to connect is a blessing. I just feel so fortunate BS: There are a lot of parents who to be able to create opportunities for can pay for the trip and that’s mostly our students to share the gift of their how we fund it. We are committed to, in music. a discreet manner, supporting anybody That’s the good part of the job. who’s on scholarship by letting the famThe bad part is, you know, having ily know that we will raise the money. If to hear the kids tune up [laughs]. somebody’s on a 70 percent scholarship, And everybody runs to the drum we will commit to raising 70 percent of set – except the drummer. It’s very the cost of the trip for them. stressful when you teach five periods a day, sometimes. To have to JAZZed: How do you go about that? deal with the chaos that is just part of a music group and all the schlepBS: It changes every year. One year, ping of equipment and the logistics we played $8,000 worth of gigs. – that’s challenging. But those are small, minor issues compared to the JAZZed: That would do it. joy of sharing music. I mean, how cool is it to have a classroom where BS: There’s also donations. Somekids want to be there? They have to times parents will voluntarily pay for go out of their way to sign up to be an extra trip. There’s not a formula, we in the class, so they walk in the door just find a way to make it work. and they want to do what I’m offering and what I can help them with. JAZZed: What do you find to be the most rewarding aspects of your job? The most frustrating?

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36 JAZZed January 2008

BS: We’re really proud of the Aaron Goldbergs and the Steve Lehmans and the people who are going out and making a very satisfying career out of playing creative music, but that’s not why the program exists. It’s really satisfying for me to see a middle schooler who says, “Wow, this Horace Silver guy is really something – how do I find out more about him?” I feel so fortunate to be a witness and


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ANTONIO J. GARCÍA

Where’s the Beat?

Part I

BY ANTONIO J. GARCÍA

“W

hat’s the most important beat in the measure?” It’s a simple question, very basic. In any given measure of the style of music in which you are performing, where’s the ground-beat? (Or is there more than one?) If the music is not rubato, there should be a unified answer throughout your ensemble, whether jazz, classical, pop, rock, or funk; acoustic or electronic; instrumental or vocal; wind or orchestral; large or small. Where does this music’s “groove” fall? Western European music has certainly made its roots of 4/4 time clear: beat one, along with a supportive beat three, was king for centuries. African-based music has its own clearly defined ground-beats for so many variations of grooves. Latin music, influenced greatly by African music, has a specific ground-beat at the conceptual heart of any of its styles. And rock and funk—the preferred genres of so many students in school jazz ensembles—are nothing if not built on a solid ground-beat. So why the mystery? When I assist ensembles at festivals and at their own schools across the U.S. and beyond, I frequently ask in the post-performance workshop, “What’s the most important beat in a bar of this music?” Very few orchestras, choirs, jazz ensembles, or chamber groups can answer. Yet once they think about it, all agree that unifying their concept of performance around the ground-beat is an essential element—and possibly the most essential element—for quickly elevating their performance to their next level of excellence. Impressively, this shift of emphasis rarely calls for any greater technique, only awareness. Unfortunately, the concept of groundbeat is often relegated only to the percussion or rhythm section of instrumental ensembles (though too few can

“ROCK AND FUNK—THE PREFERRED GENRES OF SO MANY STUDENTS IN SCHOOL JAZZ ENSEMBLES—ARE NOTHING IF NOT BUILT ON A SOLID GROUND-BEAT.”

38 JAZZed January 2008


guest clinician

answer the question). The horn players and voices seem much more rarely involved in incorporating the groove into their lines. Yet that very incorporation of the ground-beat across the entire ensemble is fundamental to the musical success of any performance. In fact, if an ensemble arbitrarily had chosen a random part of the measure as its ground-beat shared among all its musicians, the unity of its performance would markedly improve. The style might not be historically or culturally accurate, but the unified interpretation would be undeniably strong. So what would be some accurate interpretations of the ground-beat across various jazz styles? The visual examples I have provided as partial answer to that question include the drum part— usually just the ride cymbal and hi-hat portion (for funk, the hihat and bass drum). This leaner summary, minus the more ornamental role of the snare and toms, allows for a distilled view that will hopefully offer clarity to the illustrations.

sures in a typical drummer’s time-keeping pattern (Example 1). So if the ensemble has a line such as in Example 2 and plays it without accenting that ground-beat, the result is rather dull. When the musicians accent the notes that fall on or nearest beats two and four—overriding that concept only if a line leaps significantly—the result in Example 3 is the excitement that only

comes when everyone is acknowledging the ground-beat together. (Note that the “secco” marking, such as on beat four of Example 3, indicates that the note is both short and accented.) It is critical that your rhythm section players are not the only participants in this concept. Every ensemble member’s phrases should be affected by the ground-beat.

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Swing In medium swing 4/4, the ground-beat falls on beats two and four, matching the hi-hat clo-

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40 JAZZed January 2008


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A slow 4/4 swing ballad also reflects the same two-and-four backbeat, though with less strong of an accent. So a “Lil’ Darlin’”-like line such as in Example 4 would have a slight emphasis in performance as shown in Example 5. (Note that the last note of the phrase is accented because all final notes of phrases receive a slight accent.) In an up-tempo swing or bebop 4/4, jazz musicians make the eighth notes a bit straighter than the swing style of a slower tempo. And the ground-beat shifts from beats two and four to beats one and three (even though the hi-hat pattern remains intact). But as in sprinting, where runners breathe less frequently per step than if jogging, performers often feel the groundbeat only on beat three, thus relaxing the environment while maintaining the pace (Example 6). Thus a phrase written such as in Example 7 will be interpreted more richly when feeling the ground-beat on the second half of each measure as in Example 8. With this, the musicians can then project a feeling of forward motion in the line without promoting panic. (Note that while the last note of Example 8 is accented as the end of a phrase, it would not be accented if the line were continu-

ing into the next measure of music.) There are reasons for this backbeat interpretation at faster swing tempos, rooted in the Latin styles ahead; and I have found its application to be tremendously helpful for ensembles of all ages.

However, do note that disagreements over the ground-beat of up-tempo swing have raged for decades and will likely continue as long as the music exists. The ground-beat of a 3/4 jazz waltz varies greatly, influenced primarily by

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guest clinician RESOURCES Internet

CDs

To hear audio of each of the examples illustrated within this article, please visit www.garciamusic.com/articles and click on “Where’s the Beat?” A sound file is provided for each example within the online presentation. An incredible amount of resources for performance and pedagogy in swing, bebop, Latin, and more styles are available via Jamey Aebersold’s Web site at www.jazzbooks.com. Write Jamey Aebersold Jazz Inc., P.O. Box 1244, New Albany, IN 47151-1244; call (800) 456-1388; or e-mail help@jazzbooks.com. An increasing site for resources regarding Brazilian and Afro-Cuban jazz is Chuck Sher’s Web site at www.shermusic. com. Write Sher Music at P.O. Box 445, Petaluma, CA 94953; call (800) 444-7437; or e-mail info@shermusic.com. Many of its products are also available at the referenced sites above and below this one. The Web site at www.descarga.com is to Latin music what Jamey Aebersold’s www.jazzbooks.com and Double-Time catalogs together are to jazz music: a one-stop shop for CDs, videos, texts, and other resources. Descarga means “jam session”; and the site is neatly jammed with Latin folk and pop music as well as jazz. You’ll learn more about the music just from the home page than you probably ever learned about it in school. The online glossary is great. And check out “The Descarga Journal Archives” link from the home page as a tremendous resource of literature on the subject! The search engines on this site are terrific. Particularly impressive is the “Category Search,” which easily allows you to focus on genres and regions of the music. You can also call DESCARGA at (718) 693-2966; write 328 Flatbush Avenue, Suite 180, Brooklyn, NY 11238; or e-mail info@descarga.com. There are many terrific books, videos, CDs, and Web sites about Brazilian and Afro-Cuban musics. But one of the best free pedagogical resources is Latin Rhythms: Mystery Unraveled by Victor Lopez, based on his superb workshop at The Midwest Clinic in 2005. The downloadable PDF, including extensive print-music examples and a glossary of terms, can be found online at www.midwestclinic.org/clinicianmaterials/2005/victor_lopez.pdf. While visiting there, consider browsing through the large menu of resources available to you from past years of Midwest clinicians!

Swing Count Basie Orchestra — The Complete Atomic Basie (Blue Note: 1958, reissued 1994) Frank Sinatra — Sinatra at the Sands (Warner Brothers: 1966, reissued 1998) Lester Young with the Oscar Peterson Trio (Polygram Records/Verve:1952, reissued 1997).

its melody and tempo and may not be reflected in the drummer’s hi-hat pattern so as to promote freshness in the overall feel. Jazz waltzes are among the most malleable of grooves, and variations can occur every eight measures or so that can be very attractive to the ear. However, a medium tempo swing jazz waltz frequently implies a groundbeat comprised of accents on beats 42 JAZZed January 2008

Bebop Charlie Parker — Confirmation: Best Of The Verve Years (Verve:1995) Sonny Rollins — A Night at the Village Vanguard, Vol. 2 (Blue Note:1957, reissued 1987, 1999) Thelonious Monk — The Unique Thelonious Monk (Fantasy:1956, reissued 1991). Brazilian Various Artists — Bossa Nova Brazil (Verve:1992) Various Artists — Samba Brazil (Verve:1992)

Books Because the quest for the ground-beat is usually rooted in the rhythm section (and especially in the drum part), the brief list below focuses in that direction. Swing and More Essential Styles for the Drummer and Bassist–Book 1, Book 2 by Steve Houghton and Tom Warrington. Book and CD (Alfred Music). Rhythm Section Workshop by Fred Hamilton, Lou Fischer, Shelly Berg, and Steve Houghton. Book and CD, with optional DVD for teachers (Alfred Music). Brazilian Brazilian Rhythms for Drumset by Duduka Da Fonseca and Bob Weiner. Book and CD (Manhattan Music). Inside The Brazilian Rhythm Section by Nelson Faria and Cliff Korman. Book and CD (Sher Music).

one and the upbeat of two (shown in Example 9). For example, a line such as in Example 10 played with this ground-beat emphasis (except for strong leaps) would sound unified as in Example 11. Some jazz waltzes instead suggest a ground-beat rooted on the downbeats of one and three. For example, the same line accenting the notes that fall on or nearest beats one and three would

sound just as unified as in Example 12. (Melodies in this style would include the Duke Ellington/Peggy Lee tune “I’m Gonna’ Go Fishin’”.) An ensemble usually must give priority to one of these two interpretations. Either would sound more in the jazz tradition than a reading of Example 10 with no ground-beat plan at all!

Brazilian


Perhaps no style frequently sounds more uncomfortable on the student bandstand than the 4/4 samba. Ask your ensemble members to raise their hands if they have an opinion as to what the most important beat of the bar is. I’d be surprised if more than twenty percent have an opinion—and half of them will differ from the other! Partnering this confusion with the more aggressive samba tempo often leads to a very unmusical fighting between chairs as to where the accents fall in a performance. The samba (in even eighths rather than swing eighths) originates in Brazil, where the dancers advance their feet down the street on the second half of the bar, accompanied by the open tone of the surdo drum. Thus the 4/4 samba is really felt in 2/2, a half-note feel, with the accent on the second half of the bar (Example 13). While this is beat three in 4/4 time, I have heard some Brazilians refer to it as “Big Two,” reflecting that it is the second beat of the bigger, cut-time feel. It gives the samba the same danceable backbeat as if its melody were over a medium swing feel of half that tempo. (There are parallels between this feel and fast swing or bebop, in which the secondhalf-of-the-bar backbeat provides similar forward motion in a relaxed feel over a bright tempo. Also note that the cymbal pattern provided here is but one of many options, chosen here for its parallel to a later example.) Many inexperienced rhythm sections in a typical non-Brazilian jazz band emphasize the downbeat of the

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JAZZed January 2008 43


guest clinician The following audio information will be posted on the www.garciamusic.com.Web page for user-playback. The user will simply click on the screen of the music notation to hear the audio file while seeing the notation. The format of most drum-pattern examples is as follows: • count-off (stick-clicks) • drum pattern two times as written, with ground-beat influence • ground-beat only, two times (finger-snaps) • drum pattern two times again • drum pattern adding other (non-notated) drum-set parts, two times • adding a ground-beat (finger-snap) overlay to those drum-set parts

The format of most melody examples is a pairing of the unaccented and accented samples, as follows: • count-off (stick-clicks) • melody without ground-beat accents • ground-beat only (finger-snaps) • melody with ground-beat accents • ground-beat only (finger-snaps) • melody with ground-beat accents, adding other (nonnotated) drum-set parts • pause • melody with ground-beat accents and drum-set parts, adding a ground-beat (finger-snap) overlay

#

Ex(s)

Time

1

1

0:46

2

2-3

0:31

3

4-5

0:59

4

6

0:36

5

7-8

0:15

6

9

0:28

7

10-11

0:19

8

10/12

0:19

9

13

0:28

10

14-15

0:18

11

16

0:44

12

17-18

0:29

13

19

0:44

14

17/20

0:29

15

21-22

0:31

16

23-24

0:21

17

23/25

0:21

18

23/26

0:20

19

27

0:15

drum pattern 2x as written; adding other drum-set parts 2x

20

28

0:15

21

29

0:15

22

30

0:12

23

31

0:12

24

32/35

0:37

drum pattern 2x, ground-beat 2x, drum pattern with ground-beat 2x (performed 4 bars even eighths, then 4 bars swing eighths)

25

33/34/36

1:05

33 is paired with 34 (performed even eighths, then swing eighths). 36 has the same sound as 34 though written differently.

44 JAZZed January 2008

Notations


guest clinician measure instead of the halfway point. This creates a very weighted samba feel, as opposed to the lighter, forward motion achieved by accenting the middle of the bar (and particularly within an authentic partido alto guitar part). Correcting that groundbeat will generate a striking character-change in the music. The next step is to convey that feel throughout the ensemble. In a line such as Example 14, each musician should communicate that groundbeat as in Example 15. This is done even in pop music using samba feel. (Think of Lionel Richie’s long-ago hit, “All Night Long.”) Again note that while the last note of Example 15 is accented as the end of a phrase, it would not be accented if the line were continuing into the next measure of music. The bossa nova, also in 4/4, was the “new beat” derived by slowing down the culturally revered samba to roughly half-tempo. The Brazilian interpretation of the ground-beat is the same as in samba: no matter what the bossa’s tempo, the music is really felt in 2/2, a half-note feel, with the accent on the second half of the bar (Example 16). Thus a bossa has the same danceable backbeat as a samba but at the slower tempo. The typical non-Brazilian jazz band interpretation emphasizing the downbeat of the measure creates a much heavier 4/4 feel than the intended 2/2, backbeat feel. Conveying the backbeat throughout the ensemble makes a line such as Example 17 sound as in Example 18. Note that you have the additional option of treating a bossa nova in a Horace Silver, “Blue Note label” style (from which you can hear the influence on such pop groups as Steely Dan and “Rikki, Don’t Lose That Number”). This more North American interpretation of the feel in a 4/4 manner (as in Example 19) has its own history and is valid when intended. A rendition such as in Example 20 is successful with much

lighter accents than as performed by a typical younger jazz ensemble. There are many more Brazilian grooves than samba and bossa, but these two comprise the vast majority of such styles being

performed by younger ensembles. In Part II of this article, we will explore the ground-beats emphasized within Afro-Cuban and funk grooves.

Antonio J. García is an associate professor of Music and director of Jazz Studies at Virginia Commonwealth University. His new book with play-along CD, Cutting the Changes: Jazz Improvisation via Key Centers (published by Kjos Music) offers musicians of all ages standard-tune improv opportunities using only their major scales. García is associate jazz editor of the International Trombone Association Journal, past editor of the IAJE Jazz Education Journal, co-editor and contributing author of Teaching Jazz: A Course of Study, IAJE-IL past-president, and past IAJE International co-chair for Curriculum and for Vocal/Instrumental Integration. A trombonist, pianist, and avid scat-singer, he has performed with such artists as Ella Fitzgerald, Dave Brubeck, George Shearing, Mel Tormé, Louie Bellson, and Phil Collins. Visit his Web site at www.garciamusic.com.

JAZZed January 2008 45


preservation

BRASS & WOODWIND

Brass & Woodwind Maintenance: The Basics

M

BY JEFF PETERSON

usical performance is challenging enough without having to battle an instrument that is in less than optimal condition. Part of being a wind instrument player is caring for the instrument. Most pro players see the value in an instrument that plays well, and likewise, students should begin to develop good habits early on. Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s take a look at a few simple things that a player can do to make a difference.

Keep it Clean

Most brass instrument problems are a result of either dirt or damage. Have your brass players brush their teeth or at least rinse their mouth before playing. This will severely reduce the foreign matter (pizza, cocoa-puffs, et cetera) that

46 JAZZed January 2008

can make valves sluggish, rot the brass, and, if left unchecked, actually reduce the instrumentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bore size. Yes, I have seen some ugly ones! Even a young student can learn to take their trumpet or trombone apart and clean it out with a snake brush. This should be done

monthly and brass instruments should be professionally cleaned annually (more often under severe conditions). A quick brush through the mouth pipe after each use will do wonders. With respect to saxophones, once again, good oral hygiene will eliminate many problems right off the bat. Food debris tends to accumulate in the neck causing pitch and response issues, not to mention creating an unsavory stench. The palm keys and low EĆ&#x152; pads are also major culprits in retaining unwanted particles. Regular use of a neck swab and body swab will help remove crud before it sticks, along with moisture. This promotes pad longevity and can reduce pad sticking. There are several types of saxophone swabs available, each with their own set of advantages and disadvantages. The traditional pull-through swab (a piece of fabric with a string and weight attached) can be most effective in removing moisture. Generally, the larger cotton cloth type (for example, Ultimate Swab, Sax Diaper, et cetera) do a great job of cleaning the bottom bow and lower stack, but are prone to getting caught on the secondary octave vent tube that protrudes into the bore near the top of the main body tube. Care must be used to completely unfurl the cloth before pulling through to reduce


preservation

risk of jamming. If the swab is not so equipped, a second string can be tied or sewn on to the tail of the cloth so the swab can be backed out of the tube if it starts to get caught. The silk pull-through swabs (Hodge, et cetera)

wick the moisture effectively and the fabric is thinner, reducing risk of getting stuck. I find them to be more effective on the upper stack and palm key areas. The â&#x20AC;&#x153;shove itâ&#x20AC;? style swab (a long fuzzy stick with an end plug attached) is convenient and easy to use, but I recommend not leaving them inside the instrument. Once the sax has been swabbed, all the moisture that is going to be removed has been removed and the sax should be free to â&#x20AC;&#x153;air outâ&#x20AC;? without a fuzzy, moist swab generating humidity inside the horn. Many of these

â&#x20AC;&#x153;shove itâ&#x20AC;? style swabs tend to shed fibers that can stick to pad seats and other detrimental places. Storing the swab outside of the sax will reduce this risk. In my new instrument care video available at HowAudio.com, I demonstrate proper swab use, among other things. The same oral hygiene and swabbing principles that we discussed for saxes apply to flutes and clarinets. Always swab after use, and donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t leave â&#x20AC;&#x153;pad saversâ&#x20AC;? inside the instrument. Proper handling can increase longevity and eliminate trips to the repair shop. Use care when assembling these instruments. Always use a gentle twisting motion when putting the tenons together. Never use a rocking motion. This will round off the ends on both clarinet and flute tenons and cause premature cork failure on clarinets.

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preservation Careful handling of the trumpet can significantly reduce the frequency and expense of trips to the repair shop. Music books should not be stored in the case, as they can put excessive pressure on the instrument causing it to bend slightly and make the valves hang up. As the advancing player accumulates a few mouthpieces, they tend to float around loose in the case and ding up the valves, causing them to stick. Have your player store them in suitable pouches to keep them secure. Pencils, pens, and other small objects can be placed in a Ziploc storage bag so they don’t find their way into the interior of the instrument. One little Bic pen cap can lock up a valve or wreak havoc on intonation! Have the students invest in instrument stands. Even if they are not doubling instruments, the horns will be safer during breaks. A trombone lying across a chair is an accident waiting to happen. With all their complex key work, saxophones and other woodwinds are prone to mechanical failure. Proper storage and handling can reduce these types of problems. Be sure that the instrument fits in the case securely without moving. If the instrument is flopping around in the case, the mechanisms are being jarred out of adjustment and a moderate impact may bend a saxophone tube, particularly on tenors and baris. Some vintage saxes may need additional foam to hold them securely in modern aftermarket cases. Consult your repair professional for assistance in case modifications. Saxophones should always have an end plug when in the case, both to eliminate the aforementioned looseness, and to prevent bending the rather vulnerable pin at the top of the octave mechanism. As with trumpets, never store books in the woodwind’s case. This

can cause unwanted pressure on the key mechanisms, which will squash out any precision with which your technician previously set up the keys. Make sure that the neck and accessory compartments are secure. Pouches and Ziploc bags can help keep small items under control. Use particular care that sax and clarinet mouthpieces are well protected. I often see woodwind mouthpieces roaming free in the accessory compartment, gathering an assortment of scratches, nicks, and even chips to the critical tip and side rails. This damage contributes to squeaks and poor response and makes it near impossible to find a reed that works well. Jeff Peterson is the author of the ‘how-to’ DVD, Woodwind/Brasswind: Maintenance & Quick Fixes, available from www.howaudio.com (send education discount inquiries to education@howaudio.com). Peterson is also the owner/operator of Horn Improvement (www.hornimprovement.com), a multi-technician repair shop and retail store in southern California serving a clientele of top studio, jazz, and classical musicians, as well meeting the needs of local students, schools, and colleges.


crossword 1

2

3

10

Crossword by Myles Mellor

4

5

11

14

7

12

15

16

17

19

8

23 28

24

18 21

25

29

26

27

30

31

32 34

37

39

54

55

46 51

56

61

64

42

45

50

53 60

41 44

49

59

36

40

43 48

33

35

38

9

13

20

22

47

6

57

52 58

62 65

63 66

69

Across 1. Dizzy’s drummer, ___ Roach 3. Flowery song played by Benny Goodman (2 words) 8. The one on the mic 10. Armstrong’s stomping ground state (abbr.) 11. College degree, for the arts 12. Sadder sounding key 14. Miles Davis’, Birth of the ___ 16. Odd instrument 18. A or A sharp or G or B 19. Make excited (2 wds.) 20. Paul Bley’s Open, __ Love 21. Ella song also done by Marilyn “__ Through With Love” 22. Existence in Latin 23. Dorothy’s aunt 25. Vibe of the song 28. Ray Charles’ sax man, David 30. Louis Armstrong’s, “___ in A While” 31. Oscar Peterson album and song, “Fly Me to the ___” 32. Diana Krall lyric, “How Long ___ This Been Going On” 34. Teacher’s assistant (abbr.) 35. Electric guitars

67

68

70

36. Fleur __ lis 38. Jazz style preceding “cool” 41. Duke’s signature tune, “Take the ___ ___” (2 words) 43. Carried gear 46. Up-to-date 47. New York’s “Swing Alley,” with 52nd 50. Billie Holiday sang it, “All or Nothing __ All” 52. Can be a type of chorus? 53. That is, for short 54. E-mail subject line intro 56. A player’s skills 59. Leo Smith album, Mass ___ the World 60. With 4 down, Coltrane’s spiritual album (2 words) 62. The Scene Changes pianist first name 64. Code of life 66. Dave Holland’s sharp album, ___’s Edge 69. Fretless bass player of Weather Report, last name 70. Arkestra leader first name

Down 1. Guitar great, Baker 2. Remedy plants

3. Last name of 70 across 4. 60 across album ending 5. In music it’s the centering note 6. Buddhist sacred sound 7. Harlem’s famous Playground 8. Repeating musical idea 9. ____ brulee 11. Horace Silver’s record label (2 words) 13. Saxman Shorter’s record of 1965 Speak ___ Evil 15. Dismay exclamations 17. Holiday egg drink 24. Regattabar locale (abbr.) 26. Turkey cooking technique 27. Orange County (abbr.) 29. Make possible 31. Coltrane great, ___ Favorite Things 32. Main melody or theme 33. Bass brand played by 69 across 36. Perfume maker and designer 37. Jazz, mixed with rock or folk 38. Musical line 39. Song ending 40. Film rating for kiddies 42. Musician’s soundmakers 44. Gladys Knight’s last train destination (abbr.) 45. And so on... 48. Perfect score 49. Portrait in Jazz player, Bill 51. Improv term where players take turns, with trading 55. Another name for Brandford Marsalis’ album Eternal, perhaps? 57. Huntington Beach (abbr.) 58. Handheld device 61. Back muscle, for short 63. Keith Jarrett piece Facing ___ 64. Leonardo’s middle name 65. Caldwell’s “What You Won’t __ For Love” 67. Quick naps 68. Nurse, abbr.

For the solution to this issue's crossword, visit:

www.jazzedmagazine.com JAZZed January 2008 49


Gearcheck New Finish to Pearl Congas

Designed by one of the most technically proficient conga players around, Pearl’s Richie Flores Signature Oak Congas feature the exclusive “vertical” fade Lunar Eclipse finish transitions from Silver to Midnight Blue dusted in stellar sparks as you turn the drums. Fade your congas from left to right, right to left, all Silver Sparkle or all Midnight Blue Sparkle…the color possibilities are immense. Thai Oak shells with Contour Crown Rims, Natural Buffalo skins, brilliant chrome-plated hardware, and Pearl’s exclusive Self-Aligning Washer System (S.A.W.S.) for effortless tuning round out these instruments’ features. www.pearldrums.com

Marantz PMD620 Hand-Held Digital Recorder The PMD620 Hand-Held Digital Compact Recorder is Marantz Professional’s newest and smallest handheld portable recorder. The PMD620 offers direct-to-mp3 recording in three quality levels, as well as fully uncompressed, CD-quality 44.1/48 kHz .wav format in 16 or 24-bit resolution, allowing the user to configure the PMD620 for a wide variety of applications, from extended-length voice recordings to high-quality music applications. Sound quality is enhanced by the inclusion of two condenser microphones on the PMD620, as well as line and external mic inputs, and an external mic output.

50 JAZZed January 2008

The new PMD620 also utilizes the SD flash memory card for data storage, a first for the PMD Series of recorders. SD (secure digital) is a highly stable and the most widely available flash media format, so users will have ready access to very cost-effective data storage. Additionally, the PMD620 accepts memory cards of high capacity (up to 2-TB or 2048 gigabytes). Incorporating user feedback from across the PMD Series spectrum, the new PMD620 sports several new layout enhancements intended for a simpler and more confident experience. The PMD620 offers one-touch record engagement using a button with


Gearcheck its own tactile feel and red highlight illumination. The unit’s transport controls will be familiar to users of personal portable music devices, and incorporates a thumboperated scroll wheel and a vivid organic LED (OLED) display screen, one of the first in the industry, which uses very little power to illuminate, thus extending the unit’s battery life. (The PMD620 is powered by two AA batteries.) The display’s black background means that all alpha-numerics and function icons are always crisp and easy to read. The screen is also configurable thanks to two font sizes, allowing more information on the screen with the smaller font and highly readable key information with the larger one. The PMD620 also offers editing capabilities. Included in the firmware is “Copy Segment” editing, which uses non-destructive cut-and-paste-style editing to create a new sound file, which can be up/downloaded via the built-in USB port. Another menu feature, “Skip Back,” allows transcribers the ability to review recorded audio from 1 to 60 previous seconds. And the PMD620’s USB 2.0 port allows drag-anddrop transfer of files to a PC. “Level” and “Peak” LEDs let you know the status of your input signal, and you can toggle between four displays screens that provide elapsed time, time remaining and other key data. www.d-mpro.com

Sher Music’s The Real Easy Book - Vol.3

Sher Music has released The Real Easy Book - Vol. 3: A Short History Of Jazz, which features 5-10 tunes from each historical era of jazz: Trad Jazz, The Swing Era, Classic Bebop, West Coast Jazz, The Blue Note Era, Contemporary Jazz, “Groove” Jazz, Brazilian Jazz and Afro-Cuban Jazz. The wide variety of styles included means that every jazz combo will be able to find exactly the material that fits their needs. Difficulty ranges from very simple blues, like Charlie Parker’s “Now’s The Time” to deep, but still playable, contemporary tunes, like Mike Stern’s “These Times.” Also featured are some beginning trad jazz arrangements of “Bill Bailey” and “Alexander’s Ragtime Band,” including separate clarinet and trombone obligato parts to get that authentic Dixieland feeling. In addition to the tunes and educational material, there are also fun and informative introductory texts for each section. These short histories of each era of jazz introduce both the flavor of the era, and a discussion of the musical innovations that each one brought to the evolution of jazz. At over 200 pages, The Real Easy Book - Vol.3 comes in C, Bƌ, Eƌ and bass clef versions, and retails for $25. www.shermusic.com

Wristies Hand and Wrist Warmers

Wristies, an award-winning line of fingerless gloves crafted from Polartec® fleece, offer a solution to keep hands, wrists, and arms warm and more flexible while practicing and performing on brass, woodwind, string, and percussion instruments. Using Wristies as practice gloves, hands start off warm so musicians experience less strain, stress, and more agility and accuracy. Wristies are said to “help musicians avoid injury and perform at their peak.” Wristies retail between $10-17 and come in adult and children sizes. They are also available in Heated and Short styles and in a variety of colors. Each pair carries a tag telling the story of their invention while young K-K Gregory was building a snow fort with her brother. www.wristies.com

ANNUAL WILLIAMSTOWN JAZZ FESTIVAL, APRIL 9-16, 2008 featuring: Gabriela Montero, Robert Glasper,The Joe Lovano Quartet, Gospel, Dance, and Film events; after hours jam sesssions at local venues; in-school programs; and the 17th annual Williams College Intercollegiate Jazz Festival Sponsors include the Williams College Office of the President, Williamstown Chamber of Commerce; and the Mass Cultural Council

‘62 Center for Performing Arts,Williams College;The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute,Williamstown; and Mass MoCA, North Adams Call 413-597-2736 for further details and ticket information

www.williamstownjazz.com

JAZZed January 2008 51


HotWax

New & Notable Music Releases All dates are subject to change

November 26

December 3

Anders Bergcrantz – About Time

Louis Armstrong – Birth of Jazz

(Stunt)

Anthony Braxton – Performance

December 10 Chris Barber – Can’t Stop Now

(Fuel 2000)

(MVD Audio)

Quartet (Hatology)

(Decca)

Nat King Cole – In the Beginning

Anthony Braxton – Victoriaville

Bob Degan – Chartreuse (Tokuma

Bill Evans – Empathy (Verve)

Sonny Burke – Special Edition 1951

Japan Comm.)

Pierre Dorge – Jazz is Like a Ba-

Barry Harris – Breakin’ it Up (Argo)

nana (Steeplechase)

2007 (Victo)

(Hindsight)

Eric Marienthal – Just Around the Corner (Concord)

Hal McIntyre – Free and Easy (Hind-

sight)

Sabertooth – Live at the Green Mill

(Delmark)

The Sound of Feeling – Up Into Silence (Sunbeam)

Kurt Edelhagen – Evergreens (CPO) Bill Gerhardt – Stained Glass

Quincy Jones – The Great Wide World of Quincy Jones (Mercury)

(Steeplechase)

Lee Konitz – Tranquility (Verve)

Andrew Rathbun – Affairs of State

Shelly Manne – 2-3-4 (Impulse!)

Spike Robinson – I Wish I Knew

(Impulse!)

(Steeplechase) (Nagel-Heyer)

Hazel Scott – 1946-1947 (Classics

France)

Sun Ra – Intergalactic Research; Dance of the Living Image (Transparency)

Shirley Scott – Latin Shadows Lester Young – The Kansas City Sessions (Commodore)

summer 08

December 17 Carla Bley – The Lost Chords Find Paolo Fresu (ECM)

Toninho Horta – Toninho Horta (EMI) 2008 Faculty Todd Coolman Bill Cunliffe Curtis Fuller John LaBarbera Pat LaBarbera Hal Miller Jim Pugh June 28 – July 12, 2008 Ed Shaughnessy Office of the Dean of Special Programs Bobby Shew 518.580.5595 www.skidmore.edu/summer

52 JAZZed January 2008

Jack Reilly – Innocence – Green Spring Suite (Unichrom); Live at Dean Clough (Borderline)

Pharoah Sanders – Finest (Dope-

ness Galore)

Various Artists – Pure Jazz [EMI] (EMI)


HotWax

January 7

Niels Tausk – Blown Away (Jazz ‘N

Howard Alden – Pow-Wow (Arbors)

Pulz)

Nils Wogram – Affinity (Intuition)

Paul Carlton – Lo Que Somos Lo

Que Sea (Deep Tone)

Zoom – Love Junket (Challenge)

Linda Dachtyls – For Hep Cats (Summit)

Monsieur Dubois – Soul Integration

(Challenge)

Jazzamor – Beautiful Day (Blue

Flame)

Wynton Marsalis – Standards (Sony Legacy)

Medeski, Martin & Wood – Let’s Go Everywhere (MRI)

Hendrik Meurkens – Sambatropolis (Zoho)

Surfcake – Mind Made Up (Jazz ‘N

December 24

Pulz)

January 15 John Chin – Blackout Conception (Fresh Sound) Cuong Vu – Vu-Tet (ArtistShare)

Air – Mer du Japon (Virgin) Art Blakey – At the Café Bohemia, Vol. 1 & 2 (Blue Note) Kenny Dorham – Una Mas (Blue

Note)

Grant Green – Idle Moments (Blue

Note)

If you have information on an upcoming album or music DVD release which you’d like to have included in the next issue of JAZZed, please e-mail editor Christian Wissmuller at: cwissmuller@symphonypublishing.com

Jackie McLean – Demon’s Dance

(Blue Note)

Hank Mobley – No Room for Squares (Blue Note)

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Duke Pearson – Profile (Blue Note) Ike Quebec – It Might as Well Be Spring (Blue Note)

Horace Silver – The Stylings of Silver (Blue Note)

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Classifieds Books

Education

JAZZ SAXOPHONE ETUDES & DUETS BOOK & CD PLAY-ALONG SETS BY GREG FISHMAN Endorsed by Michael Brecker, Dave Liebman, Jerry Coker, James Moody, Mark Colby & Bob Sheppard. Visit: WWW.GREGFISHMANJAZZSTUDIOS.COM for free sample etudes and duets.

Instruction

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Advertise in the Classifieds! Call Maureen 1-800-964-5150 ext. 34 mjohan@symphonypublishing.com

54 JAZZed January 2008


Classifieds Merchandise

Publications

CARIS MUSIC SERVICES source for Germany’s Advance Music publications Celebrating 20 years of USA distribution

Write for a free catalog or visit the Caris Music Services homepage Also distributing other fine publications including Universal Edition, Schott, Mr. Goodchord plus select European imports and self published artist works

2206 BRISLIN ROAD STROUDSBURG, PA 18360 USA phone: (877)267-9797 or (570)476-6345/ fax: (570)476-5368 e mail: caris@ptd.net webpage: http://www.carismusicservices.com

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If you are interested in submitting an article to JAZZed, please Christian Wissmuller at 1 (800) 964 5150 ext. 16.

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www.jjbabbitt.com www.bigbandmanjazz.com www.capital.edu www.claudelakey.com www.dansr.com www.esm.rochester.edu/departments/jazz www.eddieharris.com www.educationalprograms.com www.ftc.edu www.headsup.com www.jazzamp.com www.summerjazzworkshops.com www.jazzaspen.org www.jazzatlincolncenter.org www.jazzbows.com www.JodyJazz.com www.juilliard.edu www.jupitermusic.com www.ronkaplan.com www.legatoguitars.com www.mandoweb.com usa.mapexdrums.com www.marylandsummerjazz.com www.northcentralcollege.edu www.NedSteinberger.com www.oberlin.edu www.pearldrum.com www.pjlamusc.com www.shermusic.com www.skidmore.edu/summer www.southernmusic.com www.temple.edu www.jazz.newschool.edu www.uky.edu music.louisville.edu www.unl.edu/music www.unlv.edu www.uwgb.edu www.vtjazz.org www.VicFirth.com www.willimstownjazz.com

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JAZZed January 2008 55


Backbeat

This Heart Beats On Abdullah Ibrahim

JAZZed salutes Abdullah Ibrahim, the pianist and composer highly regarded for his contributions to jazz and world music, and founder of the M7, an academy for the holistic study of music in his native South Africa. Born Adolphe Johannes Brand in 1934 and quickly dubbed “Dollar,” the Cape Town native began studying the piano at an early age under the watchful influence of his mother and grandmother, both church pianists. Captivated by jazz from the start, Brand fast became a central figure in South Africa’s surprisingly vibrant music scene. Under the menacing political pressure of apartheid, Brand left his homeland in 1962 with singer Sathima Bea Benjamin, who would later become his wife. They settled in Switzerland, where Brand formed the Dollar Brand Trio, with Johnny Gertsee and Makaya Ntshoko. An encounter with Duke Ellington in a Zurich nightclub soon after his European arrival led to a recording session with the Duke, catapulting the Brand Trio through the American and European jazz scenes. Brand eventually came to New York, where he recorded and toured with the likes of the Duke Ellington Orchestra, Elvin Jones, and Gato Barbieri. After converting to Islam in 1968, Brand became known as Abdullah Ibrahim, but continued playing his unique style of Monk- and Ellington-inspired jazz fused with the rhythms and melodies of native African music and the gospel he absorbed in his youth. Now splitting time between Cape Town and New York City, Ibrahim still plays frequently, though his true passion is developing musical, cultural, and spiritual awareness in his native land.

56 JAZZed January 2008


A NEW ONLINE COMMUNITY BRINGING TOGETHER JAZZ EDUCATORS, PERFORMERS, STUDENTS, AND FANS!

JazzPlayer.com is now live â&#x20AC;&#x201C; visit www.JazzPlayer.com to sign up and create your individualized profile and start connecting with fellow jazz aficionados and scholars. Brought to you by the publishers of


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JazzEd Jan 2008  

JazzEd January 2008

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