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DESIGN STUDIO AIR JOURNAL XUCHANG ZHAO 591345


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ARCHITECUTRE DESIGN STUDIO AIR

PART A

CONTENT

ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE

Personal Experience Architecture As Discourse Gardens By the Bay Eiffel Tower

03 - 08

COMPUTATIONAL

Computatinal Architecture Facit Homes

PARAMETRIC MODELING

Parametric Modeling Knowledge Centre Of the Masdar Institute Tower in Vetrovy

09 - 11 12 - 15

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION

Gridshell and Geodesic

CONCLUSION/ LEARNING OUTCOME

PART B DESIGN FOCUS

CASE STUDIES 1 & 2 DEVELOPMENT PROTOTYPE PROPOSAL

SMART GEOMETRY MOMA/PS1 REEF 2007

16 17 - 18 22 - 23 24 - 29 30 - 37


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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES LEARNING OBJECTIVES &OUTCOME

PART C GATEWAY PROJECT SITE GATEWAY PROJECT PRECEDENTS

BREAKWATER BEACON HALO

GATEWAY PROJECT FORM GATEWAY PROJECT FABRICATION & CONSTRUCTIOIN GATEWAY PROJECT MODEL LEARNING OBJECTIVES &OUTCOME

41 42 43 - 46 47 48 - 53 54

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The good architect requires the sculptor’s and the painter’s modes of vision in addition to his own spatial imagination. thus architecture is the most comprehensive of all the visu al arts and has a right to claim superiority over the overs. - Nikolaus Pevsner 1

1 - Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline Of European Architecture (Harmondsworth, 1942), P.9


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PART A

CASE FOR INNOVATION


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ABOUT ME: I am a third year international student from Singapore pursuing bachelor of environment, majoring in architecture. I have done Diploma in Architecture back in Singapore Polytechnic and it is my first semester in university of Melbourne. I decided to do architecture at year 10 and since then I have gone through three years of diploma studies and did my military service for another two years. I love sports and soccer is one of my favorites.


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PREVIOUS WORKS During the three years of my diploma studies in architecture, I have done projects like private housing for the first year, an apartment development for second year and an Islamic Culture Central for the third year. Figure 1 and 2 are the rendering images done using V-ray, sketchup for my final year project.

Fig.1 Exterior view of Culture Central

The site of the project was located at the tourist attraction area, China Town of Singapore. The aim of the project brief was to educate the visitors or even the local residents of Singapore about Islamic culture and understand it better. Therefore my approach to the project was to adopt an open concept at the ground floor to welcome the public into the building.

Fig.2 Interior Render

ARCHITECUTRE AS DISCOURSE


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ARCHITECTURE AS DISCOURSE Architecture, being a tool for discourse between environment and buildings, has exists for the past 20 centuries and everyone lives in, around and with it. It is like a language used by the architect to communicate with the surroundings. This discourse between the building and the surrounding environment varies in scales. The smaller ones are the interaction between the building and direct surrounding. (E.g. the villa and the backyard in it) In a larger scale, architecture influences how a community works and in an even larger scale, architectural planning in a sociality might affect how people behave and thinking.

Berlin Holocaust Memorial, an example of interaction between surrending and people.


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GARDENS BY THE BAY SINGAPORE Gardens by the Bay is a project done by Grant Associates and Wilkinson Eyre Architects. Their entry won the competition and was appointed in 2006 by the National Parks Board of Singapore to masterplan Bay South garden.

The very reason I choose this project as my precedent studies for my argument ‘Architecture as Discourse’ because of the intention of the master plan, “to capture people’s relationship with nature and use innovative technology to create rich lifestyle, educational and recreational experiences for both local residents of singapore and visitors from around the world.” 2- Andrew Grant, Director of Grant Associates. In this case, the project demostrated architecture as a tool or platform for discourse between people and the nature by not only providing a space for interaction but also respond to the challenging tropical climate and working on a reclaimed land of Singapore.

Photograph by Craig Sheppard 2- Gardens by the Bay, Grant Associates and Wilkinson Eyre Architects Singapore, viewed 8/03/2013 http://www. dezeen.com/2012/06/19/gardens-by-the-bay-by-grant-associates-and-wilkinson-eyre-architects/


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EIFFEL TOWER PARIS, FRANCE Eiffel tower was built back in 1889 for the International Exhibition, Paris, and centenary celebration of the French Revolution. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company design and built the tower. With its long history, the tower stands tall and firmly till now and can be viewed elegantly from any part of the city area of Paris. As the work began in Champ de Mars, a petition was sent by a group of artists and architects saying the erection of the tower would destroy all the monuments by overshadowing them. And this is the reason why I choose this amazing structure as my precedent studies for ‘Architecture as Discourse’ because what the petition said was not true. The steel structure is so well proportioned in term of scale that no matter where you are standing at in the city of Paris, when you look at it, it always stands tall and elegantly. It stands out significantly but not suppressing the surrounding by acting as a landmark or signage to the passer by. Describing architecture as sign, the discourse between people and architecture exist once more.


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COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECUTRE


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With computer aided software, design process are much more efficient. Drawings and models can be done within hours instead of days. It allows architects to have a preview of what their ideas turned out to be within a much shorter time. Therefore, more ideas can be generated within a given period of time compared to the olden days. As technology progresses, free flow forms that were captured only through imagination or hand drawing is now doable in the aid of computer software as well. This increases the range of shapes and forms that can be done dramatically. Architects now have the opportunities to experiment their design idea to a new direction. Another way computers have influenced architecture in term of efficiency, is the invention of new building information modeling. Plans, sections, elevations and 3D modeling are done separately in the ongoing design and construction industries. Plans are produced first and from there, sections, elevations and 3D modeling will take reference from plans. However, with the new software developed, Building Information Modeling can be much easier. With plans drawn in new BIM software, drawings like sections, elevation and 3D modeling will be automatically generated. It saves a lot of time compared to do drawings separately. Digitalization has improved the standard of work and efficiency, but we should not take all these for granted. We have to be familiar with the basic as well in case the machinery fails us one day.


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FACIT HOMES

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Architecture firm nowadays usually uses computer aided design software to generate construction drawings. However, designers from Design Company Facit Homes move a step further by use parametric and digital production methods to create energy efficient and sustainable houses. “Facit has developed proprietary system that link building information modeling to small-scale digital manufacturing tools. At detailed design – the equivalent of RIBA work stage E – the team produces a 3-D computer model that harnesses information for every aspect of the building, from the angle of the wall and the quantities of materials, to the position of every plug 3 socket.” With such detail and accuracy of building information, houses are able to be constructed with minimum errors and increase efficiency significantly. Once again, showcase of computational architecture.

3 - Bruce Bell & Sarah Simpkin, Article 12, Architectural Design,volume 83, issue 2. P.89

COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECUTRE


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PARAMETRIC MODELING Programming, or some other people call it script writing, for parametric modeling software has been widely used by practicing architecture firms over the last decade. The reason for increasing popularity in script writing for parametric software and skill for creating parametric modeling is because it allows users to customize the software to a specific project and enable the designers to be more efficiently on the design process. In the past, only onez or two people are equipment with the skill of creating parametric modeling. However, as the usage increase in demand, parametric modeling and even script writing has been included to form part of the academic subject in some design institutions. Parametric modeling and scripting are considered as on in many practicing architecture firms. A small group of 10 or so who are experts in

different field of software works closely with each other but largely separated from the design team and Herzog & de Meuron, an architecture firm base in Switzerland, does just that. Kai Strehlke, head of the Digital Technology Group at Herzog & de Meuron explains: “Very often, a team approaches the Digital Technology Group for a small script that they usually want the same day. The group is very fast in programming the initial computational design tool for them. If our support for the design process is helpful, we continue to work closely with the design team to develop that tool in a more sophisticated manner.� 4 This group acts as internal consultancies within the firm by customizing tools for modeling for the specific project. Providing both scripting andmodeling as a whole.

FACADE OF NEW HALL, MESSE BASEL BY HERZOG & DE MEURON

4 - Brady Peters & Kai Strehlke, Article 06, Architectural Design,volume 83, issue 2. P.59


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KNOWLEDGE CENTRE OF THE MASDAR INSTITUTE

PARAMETRIC MODELING


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Parametric modeling involves not only in early design stage. Its accuracy control of the project in terms of fabrication and construction had them involved in the later part of the project as well. Project such as Knowledge Centre of the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Masdar City, Abu Dhabi (2010), by Specialist Modeling Group (SMG) at Foster + Partners show this benefits clearly. The group uses parametric modeling software to generate the ideal form for roof’s geometry and a result of a transforming surface is formed. The finalized form is not only deduced for the aesthetic purposes, but also for the construction of the roof. The group uses identical curves that were repeated for the roof’s structure, and this allows fabrication to be done by using one mould. Although the size of each beam may differ, the mould is adjustable and responds to the change. In this project, parametric modeling demonstrated the control in both design processes and details in fabrication for construction.

Another benefit of using parametric modeling will be efficiency in term of changes in design and cost. In traditional way of architecture practice, changes to design are maximized at the schematic design phase and cost of design changes is low. As the project progresses, the ability to do design changes drops and cost of design changes is high. Therefore, changes cannot be made in terms of design at the end phase of the project even if the form turns out unsatisfying. However, by using parametric modeling software, design process can be totally different. Things like construction, patterning, consulting and fabrication are all concurrently carried out. This allows designers to made changes even at last minute before construction begins and still not affect much on the cost of the project


ARCHITECUTRE DESIGN STUDIO AIR

Tower in Vetrovy

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Despite all the advantage of parametric modeling, there are down sides to it as well. A few of the shortcomings are knowing what is the structure of the script prior to the start of designing, major changes can be devastating, reuse and sharing are very unlikely to happened and seeing changes in parametric modeling are difficult. Of course, these problems are faced in almost every single project and I have chosen one done by a parametric software user, Peter Buš, to further explain the down sides of the technic. “Tower in Vetrovy” is mainly a watchtower done by Peter. Pri or to the design, structure of how the tower will look like and joint up has to be determined. This actually limits the changes in design and therefore a limitation in creativity for the designers. As scripting parametric model components are for individual projects, it is unlike the user will reuse the same script again. It purely means the building or project will look similar if the same script has been used. The most important disadvantage of the technic, which apply on this project as well, is locating the desire changes in the script and making changes on the script. With over hundreds of scripting in this project, it is hard to make a change in the design if the outcome is unsatisfying. Users may take long hours trying to find out which script is responsible for the component that desire changes and making changes to it may be as tedious. Parametric modeling software is a very subjective computational tool for architecture. People may love the benefits they bring and some may dislike the downside of the scripting as well. Overall, it really depends on the user and what type of project the designer is working on.

PARAMETRIC MODELING


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ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATION There are unlimited ways of scripting in grasshopper, plugin for CAD software Rhinoceros. Looking at some of the technics being shown during tutorial, I am really interested in Gridshell freeform structure. It includes components like lofting, shifting set of points and creating geodesic surfaces. Each of them has potential design developments, especially geodesic surfaces. Through research, geodesic component can be used to construct dome structure with identical triangulated surfaces. This method supports my argument in benefits of parametric modeling, as there is great control over fabrication when it comes to identical panels or surfaces being duplicated. Further more, different patterns can be applied on to the shell like structure to achieve maximum compatibility between the building and surrounding.

ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIOIN


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CONCLUSION With the advantages computer brought to architecture, design now can be in forms we have never imagined before. Parametric modeling software brings it another step further by breaking away from the traditional way of architecture practice. This not only increases the efficiency but also the control of the project. Gateway design challenge is a great opportunity do display what parametric architecture can do as it brings a different visual experience to the passengers who are passing by. Parametric modeling can be used to form innovative freeform structure and with its ability to control construction and fabrication details, the overall process may even be shortening, benefiting everyone.

CONCLUSION


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LEARNING OUTCOME

Before embarking on architecture design studio air, what computational architecture to me was just digitalizing all the drawings and models. And parametric architecture to me was just a way of architecture expressions and focusing on the form and faรงade of the building. However, after three weeks of reading and exploring parametric modeling software, I understanding much better what computational architecture is in term of its current practice in the field and how scripting is being done in the software. I also had a better understanding towards parametric modeling in term of the benefits and the disadvantage it brings. With all the new knowledge, I actually can use them on my past project by using parametric modeling software to generating patterns on the exterior faรงade and have better control in details of the identical repeated panels. Another fun potion of parametric modeling is that you create what you want to do and make it yours, however the process is a tedious one.

LEARNING OUTCOMES


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PART B

DESIGN APPROACH


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GOLDEN RATIO Geometry and proportion are inseparable from architecture. Ancient Roman architect, Marcus Vitruvius, had identified their relationships as early as in the 1st Century and wrote, “For without symmetry and proportion no temple can have a regular plan, 5” in De Architectura.

Fig.3 Parthenon with Divine Ratio on it.

Vitruvius was deeply interested in proportions that were created by the human body. His interest leaded him to discover some of the universal facts. For example, our face is one tenth of total body height and our foot is one sixth of the total body height and more. This body ratio observation made him, 1 to PHI (1.618), was later also called “divine ratio or divine proportion” and it was used to build the world around us. Understanding the relationship between the divine proportion (golden ratio) and human, ancient architects started creating building objects with divine proportion geometries and it was not only applied in how human interact with it, but also in the appearance of the geometry. Parthenon in Greece is a very good example of it. (Fig. 03) Understanding the relationship between geometry and proportion in architecture is important. It not only makes the building object look good but also creates successful spatial design within it.

5 - Marcus Vitruvius, ‘Ten Books on Architecture’,ed. by Morris H. Morgan (Kessinger Publishing, 2005), pp. 72 - 74(p. 72).


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DESIGN FOCUS Geometry remains to be the key element of architecture design through out the generations. However the approach to geometry has changed from vectors to something else. With the advancement of computational technology, geometries created in recent years are much more complex in terms of freeform shapes and difficult to construct. However, designers research further into fabrication methods as well as materials used to construct the geometry of the building object and how it can respond. Geodesics, minimal surfaces, ruled surfaces and paraboloids are few of the examples of expressions towards current architectural geometry and have been experimented in varies area. Some of expressions allows pre-fabrication of the building elements and assemble on site and some allows last minutes changes in form to optimize design as the details have been already worked out using computational work.

analysis environments. The workshop will experiment with building parametric models that integrate materials and geometric parameters through the use of Grasshopper, Kangaroo, and Karamba.6

How does this change in approach towards geometry due to rapid use of computer relate to Wyndham City Gateway Project? The idea is to propose linkage of geometry’s different approach from ancient to now with Wyndham City’s growth in term of popularity in public art and Workshop by Smart Geometry sculpture. The city has become on Gridshell Digital Tectonics well know for his dedication in 2012 is a good example of towards art and to display this the current approach towards development with an installation, geometry. The workshop this piece of art has to tell a story intensively explored how material of its own in the transformation properties can be embedded from proportioning geometry to within parametric design and free forming shapes. 6 - smart geometry, ‘sg2012 workshop’, in smartgeometry.org <http://smartgeometry.org/index.php?option=com_content& view=article&id=134%3Agridshell-digital-tectonics&catid=44&Itemid=131> [accessed on 5 May 2013]


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CASE STUDY 1.0 BASIC GEOMETRY Cruve Divide Arc Divde Length Flip Interpolate

Cruve Divide Tree Explode Divde Length Shift Loft

Cruve Divide Reverse List Arc Loft


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CASE STUDY 1.0 TOWER GRID Cruve Divide Tree Explode Arc

Cruve Divide Tree Explode Arc Shift Geodesic

Cruve Divide Tree Explode Arc Shift Geodesic Shift in opposite direction Geodesic

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CASE STUDY 1.0 GRID SHELL Cruve Divide Tree Explode Arc Shift Geodesic Shift in opposite direction Geodesic

Cruve Multiple Curves List Items Evaluate Curve Plane Circle

Cruve Multiple Curves List Items Evaluate Curve Plane Circle Slider on radius


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CASE STUDY 1.0 GRID SHELL 2 Cruve Loft Divde Domain Isotrim Offisde Explode List Items Point on curve Polyline Loft

Cruve Loft Divde Domain Isotrim Offisde Explode List Items Point on curve Polyline Loft

Cruve Loft Divde Domain Isotrim Offisde Explode List Items Point on curve Polyline Loft

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CASE STUDY 2.0

MoMA/PS1 Reef IwamotoScott Reef is a project done by designers from IwamotoScott. It was one of the few finalists for the Young Architects Program competition held in New York back in 2007. The design intend of this project was to “use the underwater landscape of reef to create an atmosphere of light, shadow, shade and movement.7 ” The competition entry had successfully translated its intention by having the “anemone clouds” which was made up translucent fabrics hung from wooden frame. Its difference in depth created different degree of shades and with the lightness of the fabric, it was able to move with the wind to simulate the movement just like the coral reef in the ocean. Parametric modeling software such as CATIA (Computer Aided Three-dimensional Interactive Application) was being used in this project. It was used to unfold the individual fabric 2 dimensionally and at the same time update the design 3 dimensionally. It also helped in evaluating the qualities of the fabrics in relation to the changes of the design.

7 - Lisa Iwamoto and Craig Scott, ‘PS1 MOMA Young Architects Program 2007’, in iwamotoscott.com, < http://www.iwamotoscott.com> [accessed on 15 May 2013]


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Re-Engineering Cruve Loft Divde Domain Isotrim

Brep

Surface Box Morph

Curve Loft

Surface Box Morph

The very first step the group tired to do ws the frame that was used to hang the fabrics.

To create a geometry that resembles the fabric.

Morph the geometry onto the sruface created. However, the overall resemblance does not match.

Created another geometry that resembles the fabric.

Morph the newly created geometry into the surface box.

Further Thinking With the morphing technic used in this re-engineering process, there are limitless of possibilities of forms can be created. In area of morphing technic, I will like to look into how can this technic be applied onto geodesic forms and see what is the result of this combination.


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Development

From the case study 2.0, our group went on further developing the morphing technic and testing it with different input, outs and associations. The following matrixes showed a flow of development from morphing to piping and then control of points.

Divide( 7, 13) Surface Divide (6,10) Surface Box (10,10)

Add Mirror to Morph Box Divide( 6, 12) Surface Divide (8,10) Surface Box (19,10)

Add Mirror to Morph Boxt Divide Surface Divide (10,10)

Remove Mirror Add Explode Add Circle CRN Add Expression Function to Loft Formula (z+y) when z=10, y=2 Divide (5,9) Surface Divide (0, 0) Surface Box (13)

Divide (6, 4) Surface Divide (10,10) Surface Box (10)

Divide( 16, 12) Surface Divide (0,10) Surface Box (10)

Divide( 16, 60) Surface Divide (0,0) Surface Box (30)

Remove Morph Box Add Face boundary to Surface Box Divide( 16, 60) Surface Divide (0,0) Surface Box (30)

Delete Morph Box Add Face boundary to Surface Box Divide( 10, 10) Surface Divide (10, 10) Surface Box (55)

Divide( 9, 13) Surface Divide (10, 10) Surface Box (10)


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Remove Face Boundary Add Explode & Expression function to Loft Add Circle CRN Divide & Surface Box 10, 10 Surface Divide 10 Explode Surface Divide Expression Formula (z-y) Divide Surface Divide (0,0) Surface Box (13) Unflatten & Unexpression the Surface Divide Delete Morph & Brep Add Explode Add Circle CRN Add Expression (z+y) Divide (1, 1) Surface Divide (8, 8) Surface Box (14)

Delete Explode, Circle CRN & Expression function Add Face Boundary to Surface Box Divide (3, 4) Surface Divide (5, 10) Surface Box (20) Add Face Boundary to Surface Box Divide (12, 1) Surface Divide (12,12) Surface Box (55)

Divide surface Cull pattern Panel(true) Voronoi Slider (31.750)

Panel(false, true)

Surface box Face boundary Slider(60) Geometry Bounding box Box morph

Geometry

Slider(100)

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Slider (3) Surface divide

Slider(9) (15)

Surface box Geometry Bounding box Dispatch Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false) Panel(false,true,true,false)

Pipe Curve*2 Surface box Morph (1)-bake

Morph(2)-bake

Dispatch-bake

Face boundary-bake

Morph(1)-flatten

Pipe Slider(3) Morph geometry

New Domain divide (grid 1) Surfacebox (with loft) Morph (with new geometry) Explode component(explode) List 4 Items Points on Curves (0, 1,1,0) Polylines, Loft BBox, Morph on to pipe surface


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Pipe radius 15

New Domain divde of pipe surface (U:13, V:24) Iostrim, Area Evaluate (X: area > Y:300) Dispatch(A), Morph (A) Height of Surface Box of pipe (-71.840)

Pipe radius 20

Height of Surface Box of pipe (-100) Domain divide of pipe surface (U: 5, V5) Height of Surface Box for pipe (-71.840) Height of Surface Box for Brep (-500)

Points on Curves (1, 1,1,0)

Height of Surface Box of Brep (-4.002) Points on Curves (0, 0,,1,0.93)

Height of Surface Box of pipe (51.787)

Domain divide of pipe surface (U: 10, V5) at Surfacebox Height of Surface Box of pipe (-23.203) Height of Surface Box of Brep (207.263) Points on Curves (0, 0, 0.48, 0.86)

Pipe radius (30) Domain divide of pipe surface (U: 2, V8) at Surfacebox

New Domain divide (grid 1) Surfacebox (with loft) Morph, Brep Explode component(explode) List 4 Items Points on Curves (0, 1,1,0) Polylines, Loft BBox, New Morph(B) Dispatch (B) Y(78) of Evaluate


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Domain divide of pipe surface (U:20, V1) at Surfacebox Height of Surface Box of pipe (61.278) Morph A’s Points on Curves (0047, 0.04,0,0.63)

Y(100) of Evaluate Morph A’s Points on Curves (1,1,1,1) Morph B’s Points on Curves (0.5, 0.5,0.5,0.5)

2 more List item at Morph A &B each. Morph A’s Points on Curves (0.09,0.10,1,1,0,1) Morph B’s Points on Curves (0,1,0,1,0,1) Height of Surface Box of pipe (6.252) Domain divide of pipe surface (U:20, V:4) at Surfacebox Morph A’s Points on Curves (0.29,0.80,0.25,0.78,0,1) Morph B’s Points on Curves (0.57,0.30,0,21,1, 0,1)

Domain divide of pipe surface (U:20, V:3) at Surfacebox Morph A’s Points on Curves (0.42, 0, 0.62, 1, 1, 1) Y(184) of Evaluate

New Domain2 Divide Domain2 Surface Box Morph with new geometry Brep Component 6 List Iteam Polylines loft C

Y(300) of Evaluate Morph B’s Points on Curves (0.62, 0, 1, 0.27, 0.93, 0) Domain divide of pipe surface (U:6, V:1) at Surfacebox

6 List Items of loft C (1, 0, 0.15, 0.07, 0, 0) Off Preview of Morph A&B

2 more list items at loft C. Domain divide of loft C (U:15, V:15)

Domain divide of loft C (U:10, V:10) 8 Items of Loft C (all at 0.5)


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PROTOTYPES After the 50 different iterations, our team felt a strong sense of movement displayed by the dynamic patterns created. It sparked an interest in us to create something static but visually moving. With the idea in mind, then we realize that all the dynamic forms created by the morphing technic were way too complex and difficult in fabrication. Therefore, we back to simple geometries that can be fabricated at the same time bring out the intention of our group.

Fig. 1

The exploration of prototypes started with simple geometry like squares, circles and then to other shapes and elements. With two main ideas of having the geometries in a linear line (Fig.1&2) or on a surface (Fig. 6), installation on site will be much easier. Bracket and rib system have been considered as the main installation methods for the two main ideas.

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 6

Fig. 7

Fig. 4

Fig. 5

Through physical modeling process, complexity had been reduced in grasshopper definition in order to create the feasible prototypes. Algorithmic components are being removed and replaced with more vector lines and points to create basic geometries.


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PROPOSAL Precedents like Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Umberto Boccocini (Fig.8) that involves the play of dynamism and Helix Bridge by West 8 Urban Architects (Fig.9) that uses the twisting effect were studied while trying to finetune our design approach. And through these precedents, we came out with the proposal of using technics like twisting, tilting geometries’ angle and various in sizes of the geometries as our generator to further develop and explore. The exploration became interesting when our team used lighting effects together with fabrics(Fig. 12) or monofilament lines and the idea of suction(Fig. 11) as it showed our team’s design intention. The approach towards the project in this direction is particularly relevant to the Wyndham City’s competition as we aim to map Wyndham as the forefront of architectural innovation by creating a discourse on the international stage. Fig. 8 Unique Forms of Continuity in Space by Umberto Boccocini

Fig. 9 Re-projection: Hoosac, 2010 mono filament & spotlight

Fig. 10 Helix Bridge by West 8 Urban Architects


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Fig. 11. Using prototypes on the idea of suctions

Fig. 12 Lighting effect with fabric

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES Our team’s algorithmic sketches went back to simpler geometry at this point of time as they display a stronger sense of movement and reduced the complexity in fabrication. In this part of algorithm exploration, I looked at how simple geometries are being constructed by using commands like “Move”, “Rotate”, “Shift List”, “Lines” and “Rectangle”. A very basic idea of how grasshopper actually works was explored in this area and it really helped to understand grasshopper better in a way.


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LEARNING OBJECTIVE &OUTCOMES During the mid-semester presentation, feedbacks such as continuing to work on the idea of “black hole” and “gravity” were given. Portraying Black Hole in a form of movement from a less dense to extremely concentrated and suddenly releases the energy was one of the suggestions. Therefore, our team decided to combine both technics of suction and movement together to enforce the idea of “Black Hole”. This idea is closely related to the Wyndham City’s competition as it portrays the city’s energy towards street arts, getting stronger as the visitors getting closer to Wyndham. The computation architecture journey has been a long but a rewarding one for me. At the beginning of the subject, I had no clue of what parametric modeling is all about and it took me really long to understand the theory behind and how it really works by looking at the online tutorial repeatedly. Now I am able to create simple definition in grasshopper to achieve my design intend. The possibilities generated by grasshopper in our design process (50 Matrixes) also showed the potential of the design spaces behind each technics. Case studies in this part of the subject were important to me as it acted as a guideline for modifying the definition and later on knew how parametric modeling helped in fabrications. Understanding the “big picture” of parametric modeling is really important in this subject. Only when you know what advantages and how parametric modeling benefits you, then you will learn to appreciate.


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PART C

PROJECT PROPOSAL


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GATEWAY PROJECT SITE The design proposals mentioined previously used techniques like twisting, tilting geometriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; angle and various in sizes of the geometries but designs done using these techniques were unable to relate back to the project site as there was no actual form that fits the elongated site. The site, being located near the edge of the Wyndham urban growth boundary and right next to the highway, is divided into 3 portions by roads that head towards Geelong, Melbourne City and Wyndham City. Further portraying Wyndham as a developing city and at the same time provide an entry statement with arrival experience, the installation needed a stronger and abstract concept to generate the form.

SITE-B

SITE-A

SITE-C

Site location of Gateway Project Installation


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GATEWAY PROJECT PRECEDENTS The idea of “black hole” mentioned during the mid semester presentation served as a starting point and precedents like Breakwater Beacon by KAUST and contemporary artwork “Halo” by Anish Kapoor were looked at.

Interior view of Breakwater Beacon

KAUST’s Breakwater Beacon tower is formed with irregular honeycombs in a cone shape. Its irregularity slowly changes from the base to a more regular honeycomb shape as the tower narrows and reaches its apex. The tapering of the tower at its summit creates a focal point when viewed from the interior and it almost seems like a force pulling or sucking everything to the point. Contemporary art piece “Halo” by Anish Kapoor is another cone like project, but much smaller in term of scale compared to KAUST’s Breakwater Beacon tower. Made of stainless steel, “Halo” is 10 feet in diameter and its radial pattern emphasized the central point of the circle. The techniques here also created a visual effect of pulling or sucking and at the same time the reflective surfaces create an effect of warped reality.

Contemporary art piece, Halo, by Anish Kapoor


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GATEWAY PROJECT FORM FINDING The techniques used in the precedents can be translated to the gateway project as the installation being a representation of the developing Wyndham city is attracting or pulling everyoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention by creating a focal point along the highway. To further enhance the arrival experience, the surrounding landscape should slowly diminish as users drive towards the focal point and then being pushed out at the other end. With these techniques as the spine to generate the overall form, explorations were done using both digital and physical model.


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GATEWAY PROJECT FORM FINDING


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GATEWAY PROJECT FINAL FORM Through various form explorations, our group agreed on using a tunnel like structure which tapers towards the end to create the focal point along the highway and using strip surfaces in a radial pattern to form the arch of the tunnel. Lastly having diminishing openings with reflective surfaces on the strip surfaces further enhance the arrival experience. The techniques adopted by our group can be extended to produce a physical structure by 3 main steps. First, draw two curves that various in size to indicate the start and end respectively. Then scale both curves and draw lines in between them to have the profile of the strip surfaces. Lastly, loft the profile to create individual strip surfaces and morph the desired geometries onto the surfaces to create the opening. To emphasize on the warped reality of being pull into the focal point, the number of openings increases from left to right but getting smaller as approaching to the end.

CURVES

CURVES

SCALE LINES LOFT MORPH

1. INDICATING STARTING & ENDING POINT

2. CREATING PROFILE OF THE STRIP SURFACES

3. CREATING STRIP SURFACE WITH OPENING MORPHED

Exterior view of overall form


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GATEWAY PROJECT FINAL FORM

Interior view of final form


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GATEWAY PROJECT FABRICATION & CONSTRUCTION FABRICATION

As morphing techniques is used to create the form, the whole installation can be assembled using individual metal sheet with perforation opening on it. Panels together with the triangle perforation openings can be cut and painted in factory according to the sizes derived from Grasshopper and once the triangle is cut out, it will be back onto the surface to create the flap.

TRANSPORTATION

Panels will be stacked onto truck and delivered to site.

SITE WORK

Soil from road side will be excavated and replace with strip footing so that the structure can be bolted to screwed into it for additional support.

ASSEMBLY ASSEMBLY SEQUENCES

Joint of individual panel have been looked into and two methods were take into consideration; welding or blot and nuts. Welding being a stronger joint is then used for the joinery between individual panels.

1. Bolt the edge panels into the ground and the slab 2. Connect each individual panel to the one adjoining in the same row to create an arch. 3. : Using a crane, connect the arch to the panel on the ones to the two sides. 4. Repeat the process for the following arch and connect it to the one in front till the installation comes to an end.

Bolt and Nut

Welding


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GATEWAY PROJECT


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GATEWAY PROJECT

The light sources representing a vehicle going through the installation.


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LEARNING OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES After the final project presentation, the concept supported by strong precedents was given the green light but the concept was some how disconnected or lost when translated to the form. Exaggerate the dynamic play to emphasize the concept further and extend the experience for the users were the few key comments given. To respond to the feedback, our team elongated the form of the installation and allowed the perforations to flap inwards to have more sense of warped reality. These improvements made the installation a better proposal for Wyndham Gateway Project as the unusual experience will defiantly strike a discourse about Wyndham City being a developing city. Throughout the 12 weeks in Studio Air, every week was a challenge to me as producing design development weekly was no simple task. However, the intense pace made me explored beyond school materials during form finding and was rewarded with much more design possibilities. The weekly development was not the only challenge faced. Dealing with new software like Rhino and Grasshopper, I was intimidated at first as parametric modeling is so different from conventional architecture. However after working with it nights after nights, I got a big picture of what visual programming is all about in Grasshopper and was amazed with amount of benefits it brought. The steep learning curves of software did not stop just then. The requirement of digital journal forced me to embark onto a journey to figure out what is Indesign. After 12 weeks, this journey was a fruitful one. It not only aided me in my presentation to get my idea across to the reader, it also improved my skill in design layout. Being the first time encountering with parametric architecture, I am glad to have the project as a group work. Discussion between group members helped significantly in understanding parametric and getting work done. A method that was adopted by my team which I find very useful was to have precedents or academic writings to support our design concept and make them convincing. This had guided us through our design development and helped in making a strong statement for the proposal. I will defiantly not stop parametric design after the studio ends as it was a great kick-start for understanding parametric design and fabrication. I wish to go beyond and explore the full potential of the advantages parametric design can bring to architecture.


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REFERENCES 1. PAGE 3 -

Nikolaus Pevsner, An Outline Of European Architecture (Harmondsworth, 1942), P.9

2. PAGE 7 -

Gardens by the Bay, Grant Associates and Wilkinson Eyre Architects Singapore, viewed 8/03/2013. http://www.dezeen.com/2012/06/19/gardens-by- the-bay-by-grant-associates-and-wilkinson-eyre-architects/

3. PAGE 11- Bruce Bell & Sarah Simpkin, Article 12, Architectural Design, volume 83, issue 2. P.89 4. PAGE 12-

Brady Peters & Kai Strehlke, Article 06, Architectural Design, volume 83, issue 2. P.59

5. PAGE 22-

Marcus Vitruvius, ‘Ten Books on Architecture’,ed. by Morris H. Morgan (Kessinger Publishing, 2005), pp. 72 - 74(p. 72).

6. PAGE 23-

Smart Geometry, ‘Sg2012 workshop’, in smartgeometry.org <http://smartgeometry.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=134%3A gridshell-digital-tectonics&catid=44&Itemid=131> [accessed on 5 May 2013]

7. PAGE 28

Lisa Iwamoto and Craig Scott, ‘PS1 MOMA Young Architects Program 2007’, in iwamotoscott.com, < http://www.iwamotoscott.com> [accessed on 15 May 2013]

8. PAGE 36

Umberto Boccocini, Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 1913, The Metropolitan Museum Of Art < http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/1990.38.3 > [accessed on 20 May 2013]

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Tobias Putrih, Re-projection: Hoosac, 2010, MASSACHUSETTS MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART <http://www.massmoca.org/pdf/mw_brochure.pdf> [accessed on 20 May 2013]

10 PAGE 36- West 8 Urban Architects, Helix Bridge – Vlaardingen, 2009, <http://landscapeisjad.blogspot.com.au/2010/05/worlds-first-helix-bridge-vlaardingse.html> [accessed on 20 May 2013] 11 PAGE 42- UAP Studio, KAUST Breakwater Beacon, 2009, Urban Art Projects, <http://www.uap.com.au/art/civic/kaust-beacon/ > [accessed on 28 May 2013] 12 PAGE 42- Anish Kapoor, Halo, 2006, Art Radar Asia, <http://artradarjournal.com/2010/06/09/peabody- essex-museum-loaned-3-giants-of-contemporary-and-modern-indian-art-anish-kapoor-francis- newton-souza-paritosh-sen/> [accessed 28 May 2013]

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR  

this is a progressive design journal for architecture design studio air sem 1, 2013.

ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR  

this is a progressive design journal for architecture design studio air sem 1, 2013.

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