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Science

1º ESO

The atmosphere The atmosphere is the layer that protects us and gives us life. Find out about its composition, layers and phenomenons, and how to protect it for its conservation.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL


Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere Sumario

1

The components of the atmosphere: .............................................

2

1.1

The layers of the atmosphere ..................................................................................

3

1.2

The formation of the atmosphere ...........................................................................

8

2

Atmospheric phenomena

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9

2.1

Atmospheric pressure ...............................................................................................

10

2.2

Storms .........................................................................................................................

11

2.3

Winds: .........................................................................................................................

12

2.4

The greenhouse effect ...............................................................................................

14

3

Air pollution ......................................................................................................

16

3.1

Causes of air pollution ..............................................................................................

17

3.2

The effects of air pollution .......................................................................................

17

4

Meteorology

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18

Annexes .................................................................................................................

21

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

1


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

1 The components of the atmosphere:

1

The components of the atmosphere: QUEST 1. COMPOSITION AND LAYERS

You have to include in your notebook:A.1) DEFINITION OF ATMOSPHERE 10 XP.A.2) GRAPH AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GASES 20 XP.B) CONCEPT MAP OF 4 MAIN CONCEPTS: ATMOSPHERE, POLLUTION, METEOROLOGICAL PHENOMENA AND METEOROLOGY 20 XP.

The atmosphere is the layer that surrounds the Earth and protects is from outer space.It is essential for our survival and the survival of the living organisms that live on our planet.Learning about its components will help us to evaluate its importance for life as well as the need to protect it.

The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds and protects our planet from solar radiation. It is mainly made up of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour.

The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth and protects it from external bodies and harmful rays from the Sun.As a result, it is considered to be the protective layer of the Earth.Without it, life on our planet would be impossible. The main gases that form the atmosphere are: •

Nitrogen: this is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and it is necessary for the growth of living beings.Part of atmospheric nitrogen forms soluble compounds that enter the nitrogen cycle.However, the amount of nitrogen in the atmosphere does not vary because it returns to the atmosphere from the decomposed organic matter or waste generated by different living beings.

Oxygen: this is an abundant gas in the air and living beings need it to breathe.Plants release it into the atmosphere through photosynthesis, thus helping it return to the air.Therefore, the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere also remains constant.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

2


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

1 The components of the atmosphere:

Carbon dioxide: this is a gas that plants use for photosynthesis.All living beings expel it when they breathe, releasing it into the atmosphere, which closes the cycle of carbon dioxide.Therefore, the amount carbon dioxide in the atmosphere does not vary.

Water vapour: this is a gas that is formed during the water cycle.Liquid water from the hydrosphere (sea, oceans, rivers and lakes) evaporates and forms water vapour in the atmosphere.Transpiration from living beings, such as plants and trees, also returns water vapour to the atmosphere.When the atmospheric conditions are suitable, this water vapour is condensed and precipitates in the form of rain or snow, thereby returning the water to the rivers, seas, oceans and lakes.It is a continuous cycle.

The atmosphere can be changed due to pollution.Pollution can be very damaging to the atmosphere, such as the hole in the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect and acid rain.

Remember Photosynthesis is the process that enables plant to live and grow. They produce the nutrients that they need from water, mineral salts and carbon dioxide.

The atmosphere is formed by a group of gases, the most important of which are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour. Enlarged image at the end of the document

1.1 The layers of the atmosphere The atmosphere is divided into different parts or layers, which are separated by transition zones called pauses.Each of the layers has its own characteristics and properties that clearly distinguish it from the rest [see].The atmosphere is usually considered to consist of five layers, from the Earth's surface to space: •

The troposphere: where there is life and weather phenomena.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

3


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

1 The components of the atmosphere:

The stratosphere: where we find the ozone layer.

The mesosphere: this is the coldest layer of the atmosphere.

The thermosphere: where the temperature is several hundreds of degrees higher.

The exosphere: it can reach up to 10,000 km in height.

On the Ministry of Education’s Proyecto Biosfera website there are three activities for revising the different layers of the atmosphere [see].

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

4


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

1 The components of the atmosphere:

The atmosphere is divided into five layers, and the name of each layer has the suffix -sphere. The areas that separate the adjacent layers have the suffix

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

5


The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Science 1º ESO

1 The components of the atmosphere:

-pause. For example, one layer is the troposphere and the zone that separates it from the next layer, the stratosphere, is called the tropopause. Enlarged image at the end of the document

Study

The atmosphere Atmosphere This is the layer of gas that surrounds the Earth. It is maintained by gravity. Its thickness varies and can reach 10,000 km. The most abundant gases in the atmosphere are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour. The atmosphere is essential for life on Earth. It not only supplies the gasses needed for life to develop properly, but also protects it from impacts by celestial bodies, which would otherwise crash into the Earth's crust. The atmosphere is composed of different layers: - Troposphere. - Stratosphere. - Mesosphere. - Thermosphere. - Exosphere. Troposphere Layer in contact with the surface of the Earth. It is between 8 and 16 km in height. This is where all life on Earth develops and where the vast majority of meteorological phenomena occur. Its temperature gets progressively lower by approximately 6.5 ºC/km, until it reaches about -55 ºC at its highest point. Stratosphere Layer that envelops the troposphere. It reaches up to 50 km in height. There is no water vapour in this layer. Also, it has a very homogeneous temperature of approximately 0 ºC.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

6


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

1 The components of the atmosphere:

The ozone layer is located in the stratosphere, which is composed of oxygen and ozone. Its purpose it to protect the surface of the Earth from ultraviolet radiation, which is harmful to the organisms that live on the planet. Mesosphere Layer that surrounds the stratosphere. It reaches up to 80 km in height. Here, the temperature dramatically drops to approximately 90 ºC. Shooting stars are produced in the mesosphere. Thermosphere Layer that surrounds the mesosphere. It reaches up to 500 km in height. This is also known as the ionosphere. In this layer, molecular separation occurs, which causes the temperature to increase enormously. It can reach temperatures of up to 1,500 ºC. In the thermosphere or ionosphere, the vast majority of meteoroids disintegrate as a result of the very high temperature. Exosphere The outer layer of the atmosphere, where there is hardly any air. It reaches up to 10,000 km in height and is considered to be the end of the atmosphere. 

Practise You will find more activities on aulaPlaneta.com

Video learning

Watch the video about the jump from the atmosphere and find 3 resources to answer the following questions in your notebook.1. What is the name of the man who is jumping?2. What is the maximum height?3. What is the maximum speed during the falling? What barrier has he reached?4. What layers of the atmosphere has he gone through?

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

7


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

1 The components of the atmosphere:

QUEST 1. COMPOSITION AND LAYERS C) DIAGRAM OF THE LAYERS 20 XP.D) EXERCISES 10 XP.

1.2 The formation of the atmosphere The atmosphere is a layer that we cannot see or feel, unless the wind blows, it rains, snows or there is lightning.We cannot observe it because its main components are colourless gases, but its existence has been proven over time.The history of the study of the atmosphere is long and complex, and many philosophers devised theories on its existence, some in favour and some against. The Earth was formed about 4,650 million years ago, but then it did not look like it does now.At the start, it was formed by a sphere of molten rock surrounded by a thick cloud of gases and dust.Over time, the planet cooled down and a solid surface was formed, resulting in the continents and the seabed.During the process, gases were released such as methane, ammonia, water vapour and carbon dioxide, which accumulated on the Earth's surface and resulted in the atmosphere. The condensation of the water vapour created the oceans and the photosynthesis carried out by the primitive algae that populated the Earth generated large quantities of oxygen that enriched the atmosphere. Due to the action of the Sun's ultraviolet rays, some oxygen molecules broke apart and rejoined to form the ozone layer, which is found in the stratosphere and acts as a filter for the most harmful ultraviolet rays.Therefore, with a land surface rich in oxygen and protected from the dangerous rays, the first animals developed.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

8


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

2 Atmospheric phenomena

The distance between the Earth and the Sun allows large quantities of liquid water to be formed on the Earth's surface. This distance has been essential for the development of life on the planet.

QUEST 1. COMPOSITION AND LAYERS F) Write two ideas from each paragraph in your notebook (10 XP)

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2

Atmospheric phenomena The air of the atmosphere undergoes changes that result in atmospheric or weather phenomena.They are nearly all produced in the troposphere and there are four types: •

Winds: such as breezes, storms and hurricanes.

Aqueous: these are the precipitations (rain, snow and hail), fog and mist.

Optical: such as the rainbow, which occurs when the sun's rays are reflected in water droplets in the Earth's atmosphere.

Electrical: such as polar auroras or Aurora borealis, and electrical storms, which carry thunder and lightning.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

9


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

2 Atmospheric phenomena

In general, phenomena are due to the changes in atmospheric pressure, to the winds, to the clouds which cause precipitation and storms, and also to the natural greenhouse effect which manages to moderate the temperature of Earth.

Polar auroras are called northern lights if they occur in the Northern Hemisphere and southern lights if they occur in the Southern Hemisphere. They are light phenomena of diverse colours and forms that appear in the sky.

2.1 Atmospheric pressure Many of the atmospheric phenomena, such as winds and storms, are due to atmospheric pressure, which is the force that the air applies on the Earth's surface.In other words, the pressure that the air applies on the Earth and the living beings that live there due to its weight. Atmospheric pressure is also often defined as is the weight of air that goes from the earth’s surface to the end of the atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure can vary depending on height and temperature: •

Height: the lower it is, the higher the atmospheric pressure, and vice versa.For example, let us imagine a column of air that goes from the earth’s surface to the end of the atmosphere.If we are at sea level, under the entire column of air, we feel all of its pressure; however, if we are at the top of a mountain at an altitude of 2,000 m, we only feel the pressure of the part of the column that is above us.

Temperature: hot air is less dense than cold air; therefore, it applies less pressure.However, as cold air is denser, it weighs more and applies more pressure.

Remember Density is the quantity of mass found in a certain volume, and it can vary with temperature. Generally, when the temperature of an element increases, its density decreases.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

10


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

2 Atmospheric phenomena

Atmospheric pressure is measured in pascals (Pa), a unit that owes its name to Blaise Pascal, the scientist who proved that the atmosphere exists.As the pascal is a very small unit of measurement, the hectopascal (hPa) is nearly always used for measuring, and it is equal to one hundred pascals.Another unit that is used is the atmosphere (atm), which is equal to 1,013 hectopascals.The atmospheric pressure measured at sea level is exactly 1 atmosphere.Another unit that meteorologists use frequently is the millibar (mb), which is equal to 1 hectopascal.The instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure is called the barometer. The atmospheric pressure varies throughout the atmosphere, as there are anticyclones and depressions: •

Anticyclones: these are areas of high pressure caused by masses of cold air and they indicate stable weather.

Depressions: these are areas of low pressure caused by masses of hot air and they indicate unstable weather.

Practise You will find more activities on aulaPlaneta.com

2.2 Storms A storm is an atmospheric phenomenon that is usually associated with strong winds, thunder, lightning and abundant precipitation. Clouds play an important role in storms, as precipitation comes from the clouds.They are accumulations of droplets of water or ice crystals that have formed due to the concentration of water vapour present in the troposphere. There are different types of clouds: •

Cirrus: clouds formed by ice crystals.

Nimbus: clouds capable of forming precipitation.

Stratus: clouds that are stratified in several layers.

Cumulus: clouds that develop vertically.

When the droplets of water or ice crystals that form the clouds agglutinate and reach a certain size they fall on the Earth's surface in the form of precipitation, which may be rain, snow or hail. The precipitation may be accompanied by electrical phenomena such as the following: •

Lightning (strike): electrical discharges that impact on the surface.

Lightning (flash): electrical discharges that do not impact on the surface.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

11


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

2 Atmospheric phenomena

Thunder: sound that is created by lightning.

The four basic types of clouds are the cirrus, nimbus, stratus and cumulus. The rest are combinations of these. Enlarged image at the end of the document

2.3 Winds: The wind is a mass of moving atmospheric air.It is formed due to the differences in pressure between the various zones of the atmosphere.These differences create air currents that go from the high pressure zones or anticyclones, to the low pressure zones or depressions.Depending on their intensity, winds can be classified as breezes, storms or hurricanes. To define what a wind is like, two parameters are used:

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

12


The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Science 1º ESO

2 Atmospheric phenomena

The force or speed: which is expressed in km/h and is measured with an instrument called an anemometer.

The direction: which indicates us the place of origin of the wind and its destination.

Study

Atmospheric phenomena: clouds and winds The characteristics and typology of atmospheric phenomena Clouds Clouds are visible masses, formed of accumulations of drops of water or microscopic ice crystals, which are suspended in the atmosphere after surface waters evaporate. Clouds are visible because they disperse light. If they are not very dense, they have a white appearance. Conversely, if they are extremely dense, because they contain a large accumulation of drops of water, they appear dark grey or black, as light cannot pass through them. Depending on the weather conditions, clouds can precipitate, which means they release their accumulation of water, thus continuing the cycle. There are different types of clouds, classified according to their characteristics: - Cumulus: clouds that develop vertically and have highly-defined edges, with an appearance similar to cotton. As they grow in a vertical direction, they form between 500 and 6000 m. - Stratus: these clouds are stratified, which means they are made up of horizontal layers. They are found below 2400 m. They do not generally precipitate and, when they are very low, they change into fog. - Nimbus: these clouds do produce precipitations. They are dark coloured and, therefore, very dense. They have an irregular base and can produce electrical phenomena at times. - Cirrus: these clouds are formed by ice crystals that look like thin bands or filaments. They are enormous and cover a good part of the sky. In the sky, all of these types tend to combine, leading to the clouds that we see in the sky. Winds Winds are flows of air masses that, due to pressure differences, travel from high pressure areas to the areas with the lowest pressure. In general, they are local,

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

13


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

2 Atmospheric phenomena

although they follow a current that tends to be global. Winds are measured with an anemometer, which calculates both the wind speed and its direction. According to these two parameters, we can classify the different winds: According to speed: - Breeze: gentle wind that blows from 1 to 5 km/h. Sea breezes move from the sea towards the land, in the morning. Valley and mountain breezes move from the  land  towards the sea and take place around sundown. - Wind: winds that range from 5 to 60 km/h. They are divided into mild, moderate and strong. - Gale: winds that blow at  more than 60 km/h. They may be accompanied by sand, snow or rain. - Storm or tempest: winds that blow at 80 km/h or more. They tend to be accompanied by precipitations and electrical phenomena. - Hurricane or cyclone: storm systems that cause great damage. According to direction: - Tramontane (N): cold turbulent wind from the north with gusts of over 100 km/h. - Gregale (NE): cold dry wind that blows from the northeast. - Levante (E): strong hot wind that blows from the east. - Sirocco (SE): hot and somewhat humid wind that blows from the southeast. - Ostro (S): wind that blows from the south. - Libeccio (SW): wind that blows from the southwest. Tends to be accompanied by sand and fine suspended dust proceeding from the Sahara Desert. - Ponente (W): cold wind that blows from the west. - Mistral (NW): cold wind that blows from the northwest.

Practise You will find more activities on aulaPlaneta.com

2.4 The greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon by which some gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapour and carbon dioxide, retain the heat of Sun that reaches Earth and

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

14


The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Science 1º ESO

2 Atmospheric phenomena

preventing it from escaping.This phenomenon allows life on Earth to thrive because it keeps the planet at the right temperature for the development of life as we know it. Nevertheless, in the last few decades the greenhouse effect has become an environmental problem, as the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from means of transport and industries have been increasing.This has caused an accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere and as a result, the temperature of the planet has increased, creating global warming and climate change.

Study

The greenhouse effect Greenhouse effect Natural phenomena in which some of the gases that compose the atmosphere retain part of the heat produced by the Sun. This physical phenomena allows the Earth to be habitable because it allows the planet to have an average temperature of about 11 ºC. If the greenhouse effect did not exist, the differences in temperature between day and night could reach 200 ºC, which would make life on the surface of the Earth impossible. Furthermore, it is responsible for keeping water in a liquid state, which ensures that life is maintained. However, in recent decades, the greenhouse effect has become an environmental problem. The large amount of CO2 emitted by industry and traffic into the atmosphere has increased the impact of this phenomena on the Earth. This is causing the temperature of the surface of the Earth to be higher than normal. If this trend continues, the main consequence in the distant future will be that the entire planet gets warmer, which would lead to climate change.

Global warming Phenomena involving an increase in the average global temperature of the planet, which may be caused by the greenhouse effect. A temperature increase could alter the characteristics of climate zones and affect the conservation of the frozen parts of the Earth. Excess temperatures could cause part of the polar ice caps to melt, which would raise sea level. However, this is a slow process that will not have immediate consequences. Global warming could lead to climate change in the distant future. 

Climate change Alteration in the characteristics of the different climate zones of the planet. This change is caused in part by global warming. For this reason, they are often used synonymously.

Pollutant gases

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

15


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

3 Air pollution

Any gas that causes alterations in the composition of the atmosphere and aggravates the greenhouse effect. 

Primary pollutants Gases that are harmful to health and that are directly emitted into the atmosphere by cars, aeroplanes and industry, among other sources.

Secondary pollutants Pollutant gases that result from chemical reactions that occur when several primary pollutants mix in the atmosphere. 

Reflected energy (RE) The energy reflected off the surface of the earth and the clouds. The atmosphere retains more than 40% of the infrared radiation emitted by the surface of the Earth.

Absorbed energy (AE) The energy absorbed by the surface of the Earth, which provokes an increase in temperature.

Infrared radiation (IR) The type of radiation that transports energy as heat. It has a long wavelength, more than 760 nanometres. It represents 50% of the energy that comes from the Sun.

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3

Air pollution The atmosphere is affected by the pollution caused by pollutant gases, aerosols and other chemical products.These alter its composition and cause an imbalance in the air that is harmful for the living beings on Earth. There are two types of pollutant gases: •

Primary pollutants: these are emitted directly from the pollution sources, e.g.gases released into the atmosphere from cars, motorbikes, aircraft and factories.

Secondary pollutants: these are the result of the chemical reaction that takes place when the gases of the primary pollutants are mixed together.For example, the ozone, which is formed from oxygen.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

16


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

3 Air pollution

Practise You will find more activities on aulaPlaneta.com

3.1 Causes of air pollution Air pollution is sometimes due to natural causes.For example, when volcanoes erupt, they emit a lot of pollutant gases into the atmosphere.The same happens with fires caused by natural phenomena, such as lightning. While harmful for the environment, this type of pollution has always existed and the planet is capable of self-regulating itself to overcome its effects. As a result, the most harmful air pollution, and the most difficult to regulate as it is not due to natural causes, is the pollution generated by human activity.Industrial processes and the burning of fuels for transport are the main sources of pollution, although there are also others, e.g.deliberately caused fires. In the activity Quién contamina más el aire? from the Proyecto Newton developed by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, you can practice the causes of pollution [see].

One of the main sources of air pollution is the emission of industrial gases.

3.2 The effects of air pollution Air pollution has numerous harmful effects on the environment and living beings.The most serious are the following: •

The hole in the ozone layer: it consists of the thinning of the ozone layer and is caused by some pollutant gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) which are used in fridges, air conditioning, aerosols, etc.The ozone layer is in the stratosphere and its function is to protect the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

17


Science 1º ESO

The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

4 Meteorology

rays of the Sun and to make it possible to live on our planet.When the ozone layer thins, some rays that are harmful for living beings reach the surface more easily.These rays can cause injury, from burns to skin cancer. •

The greenhouse effect: this is a natural phenomenon which, reinforced by the high concentration of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere by industries, cars, aircraft, etc.causes an abnormal increase in the temperature of the Earth.This is the reason for the slow climate change that our planet is experiencing.The consequences of the greenhouse effect can be noted in the melting of the polar ice caps, the increase in the sea level and the desertification of some areas.

Acid rain: this precipitation is more acidic than normal rain due to the interaction of raindrops with some pollutant gases, such as nitrogen and sulphur oxides.Acid rain causes serious damage to living beings and even to some materials that are used to construct buildings.

In addition to these three major effects, air pollution can also be very harmful to health, as it causes various illnesses such as respiratory disorders, allergies and even some heart conditions.

Practise You will find more activities on aulaPlaneta.com

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4

Meteorology In our country, there are six different types climates and each one has certain characteristics.Nevertheless, if we consider the climate of our region, there are days when the weather does not correspond to the common characteristics of the region's climate.For example, it may rain a lot one day in a region that has a dry climate with scarce precipitation.Therefore, we have to differentiate between the weather and climate: •

Weather: the meteorological phenomena that occur in the atmosphere over a short period of time (one day or two) in a certain place.It can change quickly.For example, one day can be sunny in the morning and then it can rain in the evening.

Climate: the atmospheric conditions (precipitation, temperatures, atmospheric pressure, winds and humidity) recorded in an area over a long period of time.For examples, the regions on the Mediterranean coast have a Mediterranean climate, with mild temperatures and dry summer periods.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

18


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

4 Meteorology

Meteorology is the science that studies the weather, and the so- called meteorological variables need to be analysed.In addition to the atmospheric phenomena, two of the most important variables are temperature and humidity: •

Temperature: this is the heat that reaches the Earth through the sun's rays and is transmitted to the air.

Humidity: this is the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere.

To measure the meteorological variables, different types of instruments are used.Some of the most important are the following: •

Rain gauge: this is a graduated container that is used to measure the amount of rain that falls in a certain place.

Hygrometer: this is used for measuring the level of humidity.

Anemometer: this is used for measuring the wind speed.

Thermometer: this is used for measuring the temperature.

Barometer: this is used for measuring the atmospheric pressure.

You can revise the lesson on the atmosphere by doing the questionnaire on the Regional Government of Andalusia website [see].

The barometer is used to measure the atmospheric pressure, which is the force that the air applies on the planet's surface. Atmospheric pressure is measured in hectopascals (hPa).

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

19


The atmosphere

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Science 1º ESO

4 Meteorology

Study

Meteorology How are meteorological variables measured? Meteorology is the science that studies atmospheric weather, namely, all meteorological phenomena that occur in the atmosphere and take place for one or two days. When the atmospheric weather in a region is observed for more than thirty years, a study is conducted to define the climate of this region using the measurements obtained. Thus, we can say that climate is the set of all atmospheric conditions recorded in a specific area of region over time. The atmospheric phenomena that comprise atmospheric weather can be observed by using a series of meteorological instruments: - Pluviometer: the instrument used to measure the precipitations in a specific region. It consists of a graduated cylinder with an open top. When rain falls, the cylinder starts to fill up, so that the quantity of water that has fallen each day can be measured, observing when the cylinder is full. - Hygrometer: the instrument that is used to measure ambient humidity. It is expressed in percentages, where 100% is the highest humidity level possible. - Anemometer: the meteorological instrument used to measure wind speed. It consists of a little windmill that has cups on the ends of its blades. Depending on the force with which the wind blows, they turn faster or slower. The greater the intensity of the wind, the faster the windmill turns. The speed at which the windmill turns records the wind speed. - Thermometer: the instrument used to measure the temperature. With thermometers, we can measure the ambient temperature and find out the highs and lows for the day. - Barometer: this instrument measures the atmospheric pressure, which is the force of the air on the earth's surface. This pressure is measured in hectopascals (hPa). Thanks to this instrument, we can find out if we are in a high pressure area (anticyclone) or in a low pressure area (depression). Normal atmospheric pressure is 1 atmosphere (atm), which is equal to 1013 hPa.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

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The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Annexes: Enlarged images

The atmosphere is formed by a group of gases, the most important of which are nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

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The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Annexes: Enlarged images

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

22


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Annexes: Enlarged images

The atmosphere is divided into five layers, and the name of each layer has the suffix -sphere. The areas that separate the adjacent layers have the suffix -pause. For example, one layer is the troposphere and the zone that separates it from the next layer, the stratosphere, is called the tropopause.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

23


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Annexes: Enlarged images

The four basic types of clouds are the cirrus, nimbus, stratus and cumulus. The rest are combinations of these.

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

24


The atmosphere

Science 1º ESO

Impreso por Javier Espinosa Gallardo Centro COLEGIOS INTERNACIONALES PRIV.ARAVACA,SL

Annexes: Concept Map

© Editorial Planeta S.A.U., 2013. Todos los derechos reservados de reproducción, traducción, adaptación y ejecución reservados para todos los países.

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Atmosphere book