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PREFACE This book is designed to support your preparation for IELTS test. It will help you stay competent with all the challenges you are going to face when accessing the IELTS test. With advice from your instructor in class, this book will guide you through the techniques and methods of how you are supposed to develop speaking, listening, reading and writing skills for the test. As a companion of this book, you will also have online access to a variety of resources such as videos, articles, or interactive media from popular online communities. Briefly, this book is serving as a tool between you and your instructor to interact, and discuss some key points to be mentioned before you face the real test. Be advised to strictly follow the activities and instructions provided in class, while using this book as a full support for your integrated learning an IELTS preparation course. IELTS Team


HOW TO USE THIS BOOK This book is intended to a great tool for teachers/instructors of IELTS. The pieces of reading, and listening are provided for the students to input some information, while those of writing, and speaking are encouraged to set up a context for a student to produce some output in written and verbal format. However, the exercises, activities, related materials are still needed to supply by the instructor of the course. This book stands as a core material which gives you a set of sophisticated authentic materials to work in.

HOW THIS BOOK IS ORGANIZED This book is divided into various sessions accommodating up to 2 or 3 hours of instruction per one session. The first and the last sessions are introduction and wrap-up, respectively, where the students are exposed to real environment of testing. These sessions serve as pilot sessions for the students to test and try the IELTS before they face the real test. Each of the rest covers 15 theme-based sessions covering a wide range of sophisticated topics, favorite for IELTS preparation. Each session consists of 4 sections: Lead-in (for Listening), Speak-up (for Speaking), Read-through (for Reading), and Write-up (for Writing). These 4 sections illustrate authentic materials from the fields so that the students see how native speakers and non-native speakers are expressing their English worldwide.



The Lead-in paves you through a community video presenting the opening point of the session.

The Speak-up prompts you to give feedbacks and arguments based on the case you just listened.

READ-THROUGH The Read-through opens up a chance to read authentic texts from the field, and learn new words.


WRITE-UP The Write-up is a mock-up situation where you are assigned to write something.

ADDITIONAL SUPPORT In addition, to support your own own in using this book, the website on is also provided as a free tool/service for you to enhance your learning outside the class. With that website and online support, you will enjoy the following features.


This book requires no companion CD-ROM. It, instead, provides online resources such as YouTube Playlists or other multimedia resources that can enhance your listening at times.


more worksheets and articles for reading will be posted on updated so that you have more chances to get in touch with more practices.


The virtual classroom, as powered by, will manage your assignment submission. If you want to know a feedback on your writing, just register with the class. You will see a variety of assignments to practice. Turn in, and then get your scores back via the system.


The customizable test, as supported by, will be provided for you to test your grammar, vocabulary, comprehension, and more. Once registered, you will be led to a test portal that will show you the score after you finish the test.


Give your email back with the website and you will receive English tips and tricks update from IELTS Challenge.




Session 1

An Introduction


Session 2



Session 3



Session 4

Work Hard


Session 5

Trait of Success


Session 6

Beauty Juice


Session 7



Session 8



Session 9



Session 10

New Breed


Session 11



Session 12



Session 13



Session 14



Session 15



Session 16



Session 17

Wrap-up Session



English Pronunciation and Intonation



More Information



SESSION 1: An Introduction IELTS, the International English Language Testing System, is designed to assess the language ability of people who want to study or work where English is the language of communication. IELTS is internationally focused in its content. For example, texts and tasks are sourced from publications from all over the English-speaking world; a range of native-speaker accents (North American, Australian, New Zealand, British etc.) are used in the Listening test; and all standard varieties of English are accepted in test takers’ written and spoken responses. IELTS is designed to assess English language skills across a wide range of levels. There is no such thing as a pass or fail in IELTS. Results are reported as band scores on a scale from 1 (the lowest) to 9 (the highest). There are two modules to choose from: IELTS Academic IELTS Academic is for test takers wishing to study at undergraduate or postgraduate levels, and for those seeking professional registration. IELTS General Training IELTS General Training is for test takers wishing to migrate to an English-speaking country (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK), and for those wishing to train or study at below degree level. You are tested on all four language skills – listening, reading, writing and speaking, unless you have an exemption due to a disability (see section on special requirements). Everyone takes the same Listening and Speaking tests. There are different Reading and Writing tests for IELTS Academic and General Training. The Listening, Reading and Writing tests must be completed on the same day. The order in which these tests are taken may vary. There are no breaks between these


three tests. The Speaking test may be taken up to seven days before or after the other three tests.


Four components of the IELTS test ➡ Listening __________________________________________________ Timing Approximately 30 minutes (plus 10 minutes’ transfer time). Questions There are 40 questions. A variety of question types are used, chosen from the following: multiple choice, matching, plan/map/diagram labelling, form completion, note completion, table completion, flow-chart completion, summary completion, sentence completion, short-answer questions. Test Parts There are 4 sections: Section 1 is a conversation between two people set in an everyday social context (e.g. a conversation in an accommodation agency). Section 2 is a monologue set in an everyday social context (e.g. a speech about local facilities or a talk about the arrangements for meals during a conference). Section 3 is a conversation between up to four people set in an educational or training context (e.g. a university tutor and a student discussing an assignment, or a group of students planning a research project). Section 4 is a monologue on an academic subject (e.g. a university lecture). Each section is heard once only. A variety of voices and native-speaker accents are used. Skills assessed A wide range of listening skills are assessed, including: ● understanding of main ideas ● understanding of specific factual information ● recognising opinions, attitudes and purpose of a speaker ● following the development of an argument.


Marking Each correct answer receives 1 mark. Scores out of 40 are converted to the IELTS 9-band scale. Scores are reported in whole and half bands.

➥ Reading __________________________________________________ Timing 60 minutes (no extra transfer time). Questions There are 40 questions. A variety of question types are used, chosen from the following: multiple choice, identifying information (True/False/Not Given), identifying a writer’s views/claims (Yes/No/Not Given), matching information, matching headings, matching features, matching sentence endings, sentence completion, summary completion, note completion, table completion, flow-chart completion, diagram label completion, short-answer questions. Test Parts There are 3 sections. The total text length is 2,150-2,750 words. Academic Reading Each section contains one long text. Texts are authentic and are taken from books, journals, magazines and newspapers. They have been written for a non-specialist audience and are on academic topics of general interest. Texts are appropriate to, and accessible to, test takers entering undergraduate or postgraduate courses or seeking professional registration. Texts range from the descriptive and factual to the discursive and analytical. Texts may contain non-verbal materials such as diagrams, graphs or illustrations. If texts contain technical terms, then a simple glossary is provided. General Training Reading Section 1 contains two or three short factual texts, one of which may be composite (consisting of 6-8 short texts related by topic, e.g. hotel advertisements). Topics are relevant to everyday life in an English-speaking country. Section 2 contains two short factual texts focusing on work-related issues (e.g. applying for jobs, company policies, pay and conditions, workplace facilities, staff development and training).


Section 3 contains one longer, more complex text on a topic of general interest. Texts are authentic and are taken from notices, advertisements, company handbooks, official documents, books, magazines and newspapers. Skills assessed A wide range of reading skills are assessed, including: ● reading for gist ● reading for main ideas ● reading for detail ● understanding inferences and implied meaning ● recognising writer’s opinions, attitudes and purpose ● following the development of an argument. Marking Each correct answer receives 1 mark. Scores out of 40 are converted to the IELTS 9-band scale. Scores are reported in whole and half bands.

➡ Writing __________________________________________________ Timing 60 minutes Tasks There are 2 tasks. You are required to write at least 150 words for Task 1 and at least 250 words for Task 2. Test Parts There are 2 parts. Academic Writing In Task 1, you are presented with a graph, table, chart or diagram and are asked to describe, summarise or explain the information in your own words. You may be asked to describe and explain data, describe the stages of a process, how something works or describe an object or event. In Task 2, you are asked to write an essay in response to a point of view, argument or problem. The issues raised are of general interest to, suitable for and easily understood by test takers entering undergraduate or postgraduate studies or seeking professional


registration. Responses to Task 1 and Task 2 should be written in an academic, semi-formal/neutral style. General Training Writing In Task 1, you are presented with a situation and are asked to write a letter requesting information or explaining the situation. The letter may be personal or semi-formal/neutral in style. In Task 2, you are asked to write an essay in response to a point of view, argument or problem. The essay can be slightly more personal in style than the Academic Writing Task 2 essay. Topics are of general interest. Skills assessed In both tasks, you are assessed on your ability to write a response which is appropriate in terms of: â—? content â—? the organisation of ideas â—? the accuracy and range of vocabulary and grammar. Academic Writing In Task 1, depending on the task type, you are assessed on your ability to organise, present and possibly compare data; to describe the stages of a process or procedure; to describe an object or event or sequence of events; to explain how something works. In Task 2, depending on the task type, you are assessed on your ability to present a solution to a problem; to present and justify an opinion; to compare and contrast evidence, opinions and implications; to evaluate and challenge ideas, evidence or an argument. General Training Writing In Task 1, depending on the task type, you are assessed on your ability to engage in personal correspondence in order to: elicit and provide general factual information; express needs, wants, likes and dislikes; express opinions (views, complaints etc.). In Task 2, you are assessed on your ability to provide general factual information; to outline a problem and present a solution; to present and possibly justify an opinion; to evaluate and challenge ideas, evidence or an argument.


Marking You are assessed on your performance on each task by certificated IELTS examiners according to the IELTS Writing test assessment criteria (Task Achievement/Response, Coherence and Cohesion, Lexical Resource, Grammatical Range and Accuracy). The public version of the assessment criteria can be found at Task 2 contributes twice as much as Task 1 to the Writing score. Scores are reported in whole and half bands.

➥ Speaking __________________________________________________ Timing 11-14 minutes Test Parts There are 3 parts. Part 1 Introduction and interview (4-5 minutes) The examiner introduces him/herself and asks you to introduce yourself and confirm your identity. The examiner asks you general questions on familiar topics, e.g. home, family, work, studies and interests. Part 2 Individual long turn (3-4 minutes) The examiner gives you a task card which asks you to talk about a particular topic and which includes points you can cover in your talk. You are given 1 minute to prepare your talk, and are given a pencil and paper to make notes. You talk for 1-2 minutes on the topic. The examiner may then ask you one or two questions on the same topic. Part 3 Two-way discussion (4-5 minutes) The examiner asks further questions which are connected to the topic of Part 2. These questions give you an opportunity to discuss more abstract issues and ideas. Skills assessed A wide range of speaking skills are assessed, including:


● the ability to communicate opinions and information on everyday topics and common experiences and situations by answering a range of questions ● the ability to speak at length on a given topic using appropriate language and organising ideas coherently ● the ability to express and justify opinions and to analyse, discuss and speculate about issues. Marking You are assessed on your performance throughout the test by certificated IELTS examiners according to the IELTS Speaking test assessment criteria (Fluency and Coherence, Lexical Resource, Grammatical Range and Accuracy, Pronunciation). The public version of the assessment criteria can be found at Scores are reported in whole and half bands. TEST TIPS Reading

Writing ●

You may write your answers directly on the answer sheet or you may write them on the question paper and transfer them to the answer sheet before the end of the test. You will not be given extra time to transfer answers at the end of the test. Nothing you write on the question paper will be marked.

● You must write your answers in pencil. ● An example of a completed Reading answer sheet is given on the next page.

● ●

‘Completion’ question types (e.g. note completion):

– The same rules apply to ‘completion’ question types as in Listening (see above).

– The word(s) you use must be taken from the Reading text. You will not need to change the form of the word(s) in the text.


You may write your answers in pencil or pen. Pay attention to the number of words required for each task. You will lose marks if you do not write at least 150 words for Task 1 and at least 250 words for Task 2. You should spend approximately 20 minutes on Task 1 and approximately 40 minutes on Task 2. You must write your answers in full; answers written in note form or in bullet points will lose marks. Pay attention to spelling, grammar and punctuation; you will lose marks for mistakes. You may write your answers entirely in capitals if you wish. You may make notes on the question paper but nothing you write on the question paper will be marked.

Listening ● Each recording in the Listening test is heard once only. ● You will be given time to read through the questions before you listen. ● As you listen, write your answers on the question paper. At the end of the test, you will have 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the answer sheet. It is essential that you transfer your answers to the answer sheet as nothing you write on the question paper will be marked. ● You must write your answers in pencil. ● n example of a completed Listening answer sheet is given on the next page. ● ‘Completion’ question types (e.g. note completion): – Pay attention to the word limit. For example, if you are asked to complete a sentence using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS, and the correct answer is ‘leather coat’, the answer ‘coat made of leather’ would be incorrect. – Transfer only the missing word(s) to the answer sheet. For example, if you have to complete the note ‘in the … ’, and the correct answer is ‘morning’, the answer ‘in the morning’ would be incorrect. – You will hear the word(s) you need to use in the recording. You will not need to change the form of the word(s) you hear. – Pay attention to spelling and grammar: you will lose marks for mistakes. – You may write your answers in lower case or in capitals.

How is IELTS marked? Marking is carried out by trained examiners who follow standardised guidelines. The examiners hold relevant teaching qualifications and are certificated by Cambridge English Language Assessment. Each examiner is tested every two years to retain their certification. They are also involved in ongoing training. The IELTS integrated system of recruitment, training, benchmarking, certification and monitoring for IELTS examiners ensures they are fully qualified, experienced and effective. Candidates receive scores on a Band Scale from 1 to 9. A profile score is reported for each skill. The four individual scores are averaged and rounded to produce an Overall Band Score. Overall Band Scores and scores for each sub-test (Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking) are reported in whole bands or half bands.


Overall Band Score Candidates receive a Test Report Form setting out their Overall Band Score and their scores on each of the four sub-tests: Listening, Reading, Writing and Speaking. Each of the sub-test scores is equally weighted. The Overall Band Score is calculated by taking the mean of the total of the four individual sub-test scores. Overall Band Scores are reported to the nearest whole or half band. For the avoidance of doubt, the following rounding convention applies; if the average across the four skills ends in .25, it is rounded up to the next half band, and if it ends in .75, it is rounded up to the next whole band. Thus, a candidate achieving 6.5 for Listening, 6.5 for Reading, 5.0 for Writing and 7.0 for Speaking would be awarded an Overall Band Score of 6.5 (25 ÷ 4 = 6.25 = Band 6.5). Likewise, a candidate achieving 4.0 for Listening, 3.5 for Reading, 4.0 for Writing and 4.0 for Speaking would be awarded an Overall Band Score of 4.0 (15.5 ÷ 4 = 3.875 = Band 4.0). On the other hand, a candidate achieving 6.5 for Listening, 6.5 for Reading, 5.5 for Writing and 6.0 for Speaking would be awarded band 6 (24.5 ÷ 4 = 6.125 = Band 6). Listening and reading IELTS Listening and Reading papers contain 40 items and each correct item is awarded one mark; the maximum raw score a candidate can achieve on a paper is 40. Band scores ranging from Band 1 to Band 9 are awarded to candidates on the basis of their raw scores. Although all IELTS test materials are pretested and trialled before being released as live tests, there are inevitably minor differences in the difficulty level across tests. In order to equate different test versions, the band score boundaries are set so that all candidates’ results relate to the same scale of achievement. This means, for example, that the Band 6 boundary may be set at a slightly different raw score across versions. The tables below indicate the mean raw scores achieved by candidates at various levels in each of the Listening, Academic Reading and General Training Reading tests and provide an indication of the number of marks required to achieve a particular band score.


Listening Band score

Raw score out of 40









Academic Reading Band score

Raw score out of 40









General Training Reading Band score

Raw score out of 40









The Academic and General Training papers are graded to the same scale. The distinction between the two modules is one of genre or discourse type. Academic papers may contain source texts featuring more difficult vocabulary or greater complexity of style. It is usual that, to secure a given band score, a greater number of questions must be answered correctly on a General Training Reading paper. Writing and speaking When marking the Writing and Speaking sub-tests, examiners use detailed performance descriptors which describe written and spoken performance at each of the 9 IELTS bands. Writing Examiners award a band score for each of four criterion areas: Task Achievement (for Task 1), Task Response (for Task 2), Coherence and Cohesion, Lexical 17

Resource and Grammatical Range and Accuracy. The four criteria are equally weighted. Speaking Examiners award a band score for each of four criterion areas: Fluency and Coherence, Lexical Resource, Grammatical Range and Accuracy and Pronunciation. The four criteria are equally weighted. Versions of the band descriptors for Writing and Speaking have been developed to help stakeholders better understand the level of performance required to attain a particular band score in each of the criterion areas. IELTS examiners undergo intensive face to face training and standardisation to ensure that they can apply the descriptors in a valid and reliable manner. More Information:


IELTS Introductory Test In this section, we will utilize a free test from British Council ( . Be prepared for IELTS with these free practice tests and answers. Time yourself and develop your exam technique. The practice tests in this section offer you the opportunity to ● ● ● ●

get to know the test format experience the types of tasks you will be asked to undertake test yourself under timed conditions review your answers and compare them with model answers

Remember, you will take the Listening, Reading and Writing tests all on one day with no breaks in between, so it is important to do the practice tests under similar conditions. Each test is presented over a number of web pages. Make sure you answer the questions and carry out the tasks on each page in the correct order.


Listening Practice Test The IELTS Listening test will take about 30 minutes, and you will have an extra 10 minutes to transfer your answers to the answer sheet. The four parts of this practice Listening test are presented over four separate web pages. Make sure you move swiftly from one page to the next so that your practice is as realistic as possible. Download the question paper and blank answer sheet before you start, and write your answers on the question paper while you are listening. Use a pencil. Listen to the instructions for each section of the test carefully. Answer all of the questions. There are 40 questions altogether. Each question carries one mark. For each part of the test, there will be time for you to look through the questions and time for you to check your answers. When you have completed all four parts of the Listening test you will have ten minutes to copy your answers on to a separate answer sheet. In the actual test you will be given the following instructions: ● ● ● ● ● ●

do not open this question paper until you are told to do so write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page listen to the instructions for each part of the paper carefully answer all the questions while you are listening, write your answers on the question paper you will have 10 minutes at the end of the test to copy your answers onto the separate answer sheet; use a pencil ● At the end of the test you will be asked to hand in the question paper. Once you have completed the practice test, download the answers and see how well you have done.











































Listening Section 1 This is the first section of your Listening test. Listen to the audio and answer questions 1-10. Listen to the instructions for each part of this section carefully. Answer all the questions. While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper. Use a pencil. When you have completed all four parts of the Listening test you will have ten minutes to copy your answers on to a separate answer sheet. You can listen to the speech by clicking here: Audio.mp3



Listening Section 2 This is the first section of your Listening test. Listen to the audio and answer questions 11-20. Listen to the instructions for each part of this section carefully. Answer all the questions. While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper. Use a pencil. When you have completed all four parts of the Listening test you will have ten minutes to copy your answers on to a separate answer sheet. You can listen to the speech by clicking here: Audio.mp3



Listening Section 3 This is the first section of your Listening test. Listen to the audio and answer questions 21-30. Listen to the instructions for each part of this section carefully. Answer all the questions. While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper. Use a pencil. When you have completed all four parts of the Listening test you will have ten minutes to copy your answers on to a separate answer sheet. You can listen to the speech by clicking here: Audio.mp3



Listening Section 4 This is the first section of your Listening test. Listen to the audio and answer questions 31-40. Listen to the instructions for each part of this section carefully. Answer all the questions. While you are listening, write your answers on the question paper. Use a pencil. When you have completed all four parts of the Listening test you will have ten minutes to copy your answers on to a separate answer sheet. You can listen to the speech by clicking here: Audio.mp3



Reading Practice Test You will be allowed 1 hour to complete all 3 sections of the IELTS Academic Reading test. The three parts of this practice Reading test are presented over three separate web pages. Make sure you move swiftly from one page to the next so that your practice is as realistic as possible. Time yourself and allow just one hour to complete all three parts. There are 40 questions in this practice paper. Each question carries one mark. Instructions to candidates In the actual test you will be given the following instructions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

do not open this question paper until you are told to do so write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of the page read the instructions for each part of the paper carefully answer all the questions write your answers on the answer sheet; use a pencil you must complete the answer sheet within the time limit At the end of the test you will be asked to hand in both the question paper and your answer sheet.

Review Once you have completed all three sections, download the answers and see how you have done.











































Reading Passage 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1–13, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. MAKING TIME FOR SCIENCE

Chronobiology might sound a little futuristic – like something from a science fiction novel, perhaps – but it’s actually a field of study that concerns one of the oldest processes life on this planet has ever known: short-term rhythms of time and their effect on flora and fauna. This can take many forms. Marine life, for example, is influenced by tidal patterns. Animals tend to be active or inactive depending on the position of the sun or moon. Numerous creatures, humans included, are largely diurnal – that is, they like to come out during the hours of sunlight. Nocturnal animals, such as bats and possums, prefer to forage by night. A third group are known as crepuscular: they thrive in the lowlight of dawn and dusk and remain inactive at other hours. When it comes to humans, chronobiologists are interested in what is known as the circadian rhythm. This is the complete cycle our bodies are naturally geared to undergo within the passage of a twenty-four hour day. Aside from sleeping at night and waking during the day, each cycle involves many other factors such as changes in blood pressure and body temperature. Not everyone has an identical circadian rhythm. ‘Night people’, for example, often describe how they find it very hard to operate during the morning, but become alert and focused by evening. This is a benign variation within circadian rhythms known as a chronotype. Scientists have limited abilities to create durable modifications of chronobiological demands. Recent therapeutic developments for humans such as artificial light machines and melatonin administration can reset our circadian rhythms, for example, but our bodies can tell the difference and health suffers when we breach these natural rhythms for extended periods of time. Plants appear no more malleable in this respect; studies demonstrate that vegetables grown in season and ripened on the tree are far higher in essential nutrients than those grown in greenhouses and ripened by laser.


Knowledge of chronobiological patterns can have many pragmatic implications for our day-to-day lives. While contemporary living can sometimes appear to subjugate biology – after all, who needs circadian rhythms when we have caffeine pills, energy drinks, shift work and cities that never sleep? – keeping in synch with our body clock is important. The average urban resident, for example, rouses at the eye-blearing time of 6.04 a.m., which researchers believe to be far too early. One study found that even rising at 7.00 a.m. has deleterious effects on health unless exercise is performed for 30 minutes afterward. The optimum moment has been whittled down to 7.22 a.m.; muscle aches, headaches and moodiness were reported to be lowest by participants in the study who awoke then. Once you’re up and ready to go, what then? If you’re trying to shed some extra pounds, dieticians are adamant: never skip breakfast. This disorients your circadian rhythm and puts your body in starvation mode. The recommended course of action is to follow an intense workout with a carbohydrate-rich breakfast; the other way round and weight loss results are not as pronounced. Morning is also great for breaking out the vitamins. Supplement absorption by the body is not temporal-dependent, but naturopath Pam Stone notes that the extra boost at breakfast helps us get energised for the day ahead. For improved absorption, Stone suggests pairing supplements with a food in which they are soluble and steering clear of caffeinated beverages. Finally, Stone warns to take care with storage; high potency is best for absorption, and warmth and humidity are known to deplete the potency of a supplement. After-dinner espressos are becoming more of a tradition – we have the Italians to thank for that – but to prepare for a good night’s sleep we are better off putting the brakes on caffeine consumption as early as 3 p.m. With a seven hour half-life, a cup of coffee containing 90 mg of caffeine taken at this hour could still leave 45 mg of caffeine in your nervous system at ten o’clock that evening. It is essential that, by the time you are ready to sleep, your body is rid of all traces. Evenings are important for winding down before sleep; however, dietician Geraldine Georgeou warns that an after-five carbohydrate-fast is more cultural myth than chronobiological demand. This will deprive your body of vital energy needs. Overloading your gut could lead to indigestion, though. Our digestive tracts do not shut down for the night entirely, but their work slows to a crawl as our bodies prepare for sleep. Consuming a modest snack should be entirely sufficient.


Questions 1–7 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1–7 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 1 Chronobiology is the study of how living things have evolved over time. 2 The rise and fall of sea levels affects how sea creatures behave. 3 Most animals are active during the daytime. 4 Circadian rhythms identify how we do different things on different days. 5 A ‘night person’ can still have a healthy circadian rhythm. 6 New therapies can permanently change circadian rhythms without causing harm. 7 Naturally-produced vegetables have more nutritional value. Questions 8–13 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter in boxes 8–13 on your answer sheet. 8 What did researchers identify as the ideal time to wake up in the morning? A 6.04 B 7.00 C 7.22 D 7.30 9 In order to lose weight, we should A avoid eating breakfast B eat a low carbohydrate breakfast C exercise before breakfast D exercise after breakfast 10 Which is NOT mentioned as a way to improve supplement absorption? A avoiding drinks containing caffeine while taking supplements B taking supplements at breakfast C taking supplements with foods that can dissolve them D storing supplements in a cool, dry environment


11 The best time to stop drinking coffee is A mid-afternoon B 10 p.m. C only when feeling anxious D after dinner 12 In the evening, we should A stay away from carbohydrates B stop exercising C eat as much as possible D eat a light meal 13 Which of the following phrases best describes the main aim of Reading Passage 1? A to suggest healthier ways of eating, sleeping and exercising B to describe how modern life has made chronobiology largely irrelevant C to introduce chronobiology and describe some practical applications D to plan a daily schedule that can alter our natural chronobiological rhythms


READING PASSAGE 2 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14–26, which are based on Reading Passage 2 below.

The Triune Brain1

The first of our three brains to evolve is what scientists call the reptilian cortex. This brain sustains the elementary activities of animal survival such as respiration, adequate rest and a beating heart. We are not required to consciously “think” about these activities. The reptilian cortex also houses the “startle centre”, a mechanism that facilitates swift reactions to unexpected occurrences in our surroundings. That panicked lurch you experience when a door slams shut somewhere in the house, or the heightened awareness you feel when a twig cracks in a nearby bush while out on an evening stroll are both examples of the reptilian cortex at work. When it comes to our interaction with others, the reptilian brain offers up only the most basic impulses: aggression, mating, and territorial defence. There is no great difference, in this sense, between a crocodile defending its spot along the river and a turf war between two urban gangs. Although the lizard may stake a claim to its habitat, it exerts total indifference toward the well-being of its young. Listen to the anguished squeal of a dolphin separated from its pod or witness the sight of elephants mourning their dead, however, and it is clear that a new development is at play. Scientists have identified this as the limbic cortex. Unique to mammals, the limbic cortex impels creatures to nurture their offspring by delivering feelings of tenderness and warmth to the parent when children are nearby. These same sensations also cause mammals to develop various types of social relations and kinship networks. When we are with others of “our kind” – be it at soccer practice, church, school or a nightclub – we experience positive sensations of togetherness, solidarity and comfort. If we spend too long away from these networks, then loneliness sets in and encourages us to seek companionship. Only human capabilities extend far beyond the scope of these two cortexes. Humans eat, sleep and play, but we also speak, plot, rationalise and debate finer points of 1

Triune = three-in-one


morality. Our unique abilities are the result of an expansive third brain – the neocortex – which engages with logic, reason and ideas. The power of the neocortex comes from its ability to think beyond the present, concrete moment. While other mammals are mainly restricted to impulsive actions (although some, such as apes, can learn and remember simple lessons), humans can think about the “big picture”. We can string together simple lessons (for example, an apple drops downwards from a tree; hurting others causes unhappiness) to develop complex theories of physical or social phenomena (such as the laws of gravity and a concern for human rights). The neocortex is also responsible for the process by which we decide on and commit to particular courses of action. Strung together over time, these choices can accumulate into feats of progress unknown to other animals. Anticipating a better grade on the following morning’s exam, a student can ignore the limbic urge to socialise and go to sleep early instead. Over three years, this ongoing sacrifice translates into a first class degree and a scholarship to graduate school; over a lifetime, it can mean groundbreaking contributions to human knowledge and development. The ability to sacrifice our drive for immediate satisfaction in order to benefit later is a product of the neocortex. Understanding the triune brain can help us appreciate the different natures of brain damage and psychological disorders. The most devastating form of brain damage, for example, is a condition in which someone is understood to be brain dead. In this state a person appears merely unconscious – sleeping, perhaps – but this is illusory. Here, the reptilian brain is functioning on autopilot despite the permanent loss of other cortexes. Disturbances to the limbic cortex are registered in a different manner. Pups with limbic damage can move around and feed themselves well enough but do not register the presence of their littermates. Scientists have observed how, after a limbic lobotomy2, “one impaired monkey stepped on his outraged peers as if treading on a log or a rock”. In our own species, limbic damage is closely related to sociopathic behaviour. Sociopaths in possession of fully-functioning neocortexes are often shrewd and emotionally intelligent people but lack any ability to relate to, empathise with or express concern for others. One of the neurological wonders of history occurred when a railway worker named Phineas Gage survived an incident during which a metal rod skewered his skull, taking a considerable amount of his neocortex with it. Though Gage continued to live and work as before, his fellow employees observed a shift in the equilibrium of his personality. Gage’s animal propensities were now sharply pronounced while his intellectual abilities suffered; garrulous or obscene jokes replaced his once quick wit. New findings suggest, however, that Gage managed to soften these abrupt changes over time and rediscover an appropriate social manner. This would indicate that reparative therapy has the potential to help patients with advanced brain trauma to gain an improved quality of life.


Lobotomy = surgical cutting of brain nerves


Questions 14–22 Classify the following as typical of A the reptilian cortex B the limbic cortex C the neocortex Write the correct letter, A, B or C, in boxes 14–22 on your answer sheet. 14 giving up short-term happiness for future gains 15 maintaining the bodily functions necessary for life 16 experiencing the pain of losing another 17 forming communities and social groups 18 making a decision and carrying it out 19 guarding areas of land 20 developing explanations for things 21 looking after one’s young 22 responding quickly to sudden movement and noise Questions 23–26 Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 23–26 on your answer sheet. 23 A person with only a functioning reptilian cortex is known as …………………. 24 ………………… in humans is associated with limbic disruption. 25 An industrial accident caused Phineas Gage to lose part of his …….. 26 After his accident, co-workers noticed an imbalance between Gage’s …..and higher-order thinking.


READING PASSAGE 3 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27–40, which are based on Reading Passage 3 below. HELIUM’S FUTURE UP IN THE AIR A In recent years we have all been exposed to dire media reports concerning the impending demise of global coal and oil reserves, but the depletion of another key nonrenewable resource continues without receiving much press at all. Helium – an inert, odourless, monatomic element known to lay people as the substance that makes balloons float and voices squeak when inhaled – could be gone from this planet within a generation. B Helium itself is not rare; there is actually a plentiful supply of it in the cosmos. In fact, 24 per cent of our galaxy’s elemental mass consists of helium, which makes it the second most abundant element in our universe. Because of its lightness, however, most helium vanished from our own planet many years ago. Consequently, only a miniscule proportion – 0.00052%, to be exact – remains in earth’s atmosphere. Helium is the byproduct of millennia of radioactive decay from the elements thorium and uranium. The helium is mostly trapped in subterranean natural gas bunkers and commercially extracted through a method known as fractional distillation. C The loss of helium on Earth would affect society greatly. Defying the perception of it as a novelty substance for parties and gimmicks, the element actually has many vital applications in society. Probably the most well known commercial usage is in airships and blimps (non-flammable helium replaced hydrogen as the lifting gas du jour after the Hindenburg catastrophe in 1932, during which an airship burst into flames and crashed to the ground killing some passengers and crew). But helium is also instrumental in deep-sea diving, where it is blended with nitrogen to mitigate the dangers of inhaling ordinary air under high pressure; as a cleaning agent for rocket engines; and, in its most prevalent use, as a coolant for superconducting magnets in hospital MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scanners. D The possibility of losing helium forever poses the threat of a real crisis because its unique qualities are extraordinarily difficult, if not impossible to duplicate (certainly, no biosynthetic ersatz product is close to approaching the point of feasibility for helium, even as similar developments continue apace for oil and coal). Helium is even cheerfully derided as a “loner” element since it does not adhere to other molecules like its cousin, hydrogen. According to Dr. Lee Sobotka, helium is the “most noble of gases, meaning it’s very stable and non-reactive for the most part … it has a closed electronic configuration, a very tightly bound atom. It is this coveting of its own electrons that prevents combination with other elements’. Another important attribute is helium’s unique boiling point, which is lower than that for any other element. The worsening global shortage could render millions of dollars of high-value, life-saving equipment totally useless. The dwindling supplies have already resulted in the postponement of research and development projects in physics laboratories and manufacturing plants around the world. There is an 39

enormous supply and demand imbalance partly brought about by the expansion of high-tech manufacturing in Asia. E The source of the problem is the Helium Privatisation Act (HPA), an American law passed in 1996 that requires the U.S. National Helium Reserve to liquidate its helium assets by 2015 regardless of the market price. Although intended to settle the original cost of the reserve by a U.S. Congress ignorant of its ramifications, the result of this fire sale is that global helium prices are so artificially deflated that few can be bothered recycling the substance or using it judiciously. Deflated values also mean that natural gas extractors see no reason to capture helium. Much is lost in the process of extraction. As Sobotka notes: "[t]he government had the good vision to store helium, and the question now is: Will the corporations have the vision to capture it when extracting natural gas, and consumers the wisdom to recycle? This takes long-term vision because present market forces are not sufficient to compel prudent practice�. For Nobel-prize laureate Robert Richardson, the U.S. government must be prevailed upon to repeal its privatisation policy as the country supplies over 80 per cent of global helium, mostly from the National Helium Reserve. For Richardson, a twenty- to fifty-fold increase in prices would provide incentives to recycle. F A number of steps need to be taken in order to avert a costly predicament in the coming decades. Firstly, all existing supplies of helium ought to be conserved and released only by permit, with medical uses receiving precedence over other commercial or recreational demands. Secondly, conservation should be obligatory and enforced by a regulatory agency. At the moment some users, such as hospitals, tend to recycle diligently while others, such as NASA, squander massive amounts of helium. Lastly, research into alternatives to helium must begin in earnest.


Questions 27–31 Reading Passage 3 has six paragraphs, A–F. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A–F, in boxes 27–31 on your answer sheet. 27 a use for helium which makes an activity safer 28 the possibility of creating an alternative to helium 29 a term which describes the process of how helium is taken out of the ground 30 a reason why users of helium do not make efforts to conserve it 31 a contrast between helium’s chemical properties and how non-scientists think about it Questions 32–35 Do the following statements agree with the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 32–35 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement agrees with the claims of the writer NO if the statement contradicts the claims of the writer NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this 32 Helium chooses to be on its own. 33 Helium is a very cold substance. 34 High-tech industries in Asia use more helium than laboratories and manufacturers in other parts of the world. 35 The US Congress understood the possible consequences of the HPA.


Questions 36–40 Complete the summary below. Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 36–40 on your answer sheet. Sobotka argues that big business and users of helium need to help look after helium stocks because 36 ……………….. will not be encouraged through buying and selling alone. Richardson believes that the 37 ……………….. needs to be withdrawn, as the U.S. provides most of the world’s helium. He argues that higher costs would mean people have 38 ……………….. to use the resource many times over. People should need a 39 ……………….. to access helium that we still have. Furthermore, a 40 ……………….. should ensure that helium is used carefully.


Writing Practice Test You will be allowed 1 hour to complete two tasks in the IELTS Academic Writing test. The two parts of this practice Writing test are presented on two separate web pages. Make sure you move swiftly from one page to the next so that your practice is as realistic as possible. If you prefer to work offline, download the test paper. In the actual test you will do your writing in an answer booklet. Timing The total time allowed for the IELTS Academic Writing test is 60 minutes. Time yourself and allow just one hour to complete both parts of the test. Task 2 contributes twice as much as task 1 to the Writing score. Writing task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on task 1 ● write in a formal style ● write at least 150 words Writing task 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on task 2 ● write in a formal style ● write at least 250 words Instructions to candidates In the actual test you will be given the following instructions: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

do not open this question paper until you are told to do so write your name and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page read the instructions for each task carefully answer both of the tasks write at least 150 words for task 1 write at least 250 words for task 2 write your answers in the answer booklet write clearly in pen or pencil; you may make alterations, but make sure your work is easy to read

At the end of the test, hand in both the question paper and your answer booklet. Review Once you have completed both tasks, review your work. Download the model answers to see good examples of how to complete the Writing test.


WRITING TASK 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graphs below give information about computer ownership as a percentage of the population between 2002 and 2010, and by level of education for the years 2002 and 2010. Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.


WRITING TASK 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Write about the following topic: A person’s worth nowadays seems to be judged according to social status and material possessions. Old-fashioned values, such as honour, kindness and trust, no longer seem important. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Write at least 250 words.


SESSION 2 : Aging LEAD-IN You are going to watch and listen to a community video about aging. Try catching some keywords and write them down in the space below.

The Science of Aging URL:

Listening Tip

Grasp The Ideas

● listen for the specific information you want ● try and anticipate what the speaker will say; this will require concentration ● do not worry if there is a word you do not understand; you may not need to use it


SPEAK-UP Divide the class into 2 groups. Then, assign individuals to ask the others with the following questions: Group A

Group B

1) Do you like being the age at which you now are? 2) What is the best age to be and why? 3) What is the worst age to be and why? 4) Do you worry about getting older? 5) Do you look your age? 6) Do you think scientists can slow the ageing process? 7) Why do some people seem to age faster than others? 8) Until what age would you like to live? 9) Are there and age groups you currently don’t like? 10) What is the best age at which to get married?

1) Do people respect the aged in your country? 2) How have you aged in the past ten years? 3) Do you mind being asked your age? 4) What do you think your old age will be like (or what is it like)? 5) Do you agree that you can never be too old to start something new? 6) What problems are there of an aging population? 7) What do you least like (like most) about getting older? 8) Is your society ageist? 9) Would you like to turn back the clock? 10) Do you look forward to your birthdays?

Speaking Tip

Be Natural

● develop your answers ● speak more than the examiner ● express your opinions; you will be assessed on your ability to communicate ● the examiner’s questions tend to be fairly predictable; practise at home and record yourself ● do not learn prepared answers; the examiner is trained to spot this and will change the question


READ-THROUGH You will read an article about human aging. After reading, you are supposed to report to the class on what you understand, how you deal with new vocabulary, and your interpretation of the text.

Scientists Urge Study of Environmental Factors That May Speed Aging3

Why do our bodies age at different rates? Why can some people run marathons at the age of 70, while others are forced to use a walker? New paper urges more work on "gerontogens" in the environment. Exposure to "gerontogens" such as toxic chemicals or stress may cause the body to age faster. Genes are only part of the answer. A trio of scientists from the University of North Carolina argue in a new paper that more work needs to be done on "gerontogens"—factors, including substances in the environment, that can accelerate the aging process.



Possible gerontogens include arsenic in groundwater, benzene in industrial emissions, ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, and the cocktail of 4,000 toxic chemicals in tobacco smoke. Activities may also be included, like ingesting excessive calories, or suffering psychological stress. Writing in Trends in Molecular Medicine, Jessica Sorrentino, Hanna Sanoff, and Norman Sharpless argue that focusing on such factors would complement more popular approaches like studying molecular changes in old bodies and searching for genes that are linked to long life. "People have focused on slowing aging, which always struck me as premature," says Sharpless. Even if scientists announced tomorrow that they'd discovered an antiaging pill, he says, people would have to take it for decades. "Getting [healthy] people to take medicine for a long time is challenging, and there are always side effects," Sharpless says. "If you identify stuff in the environment that affects aging, that's knowledge we could use today." Frailty and Mental Decline Twin studies have suggested that only around 25 percent of the variation in the human life span is influenced by genes. The rest must be influenced by other factors, including accidents, injuries, and exposure to substances that accelerate aging. "The idea that environmental factors can accelerate aging has been around for a while, [but] I agree that the study of gerontogens has lagged behind other areas of aging research," says Judith Campisi of the Buck Institute for Research on Aging. She adds that scientists have become more interested in these substances in recent years after learning that many types of chemotherapy, and some anti-HIV drugs, can speed the onset of age-related traits like frailty and mental decline. The quest to identify gerontogens is partly a quest to find better way of measuring biological age. There are several options, each one imperfect. Researchers could look in the brain and measure levels of beta-amyloid, a protein linked to Alzheimer's disease, but these levels would not reflect aging in other parts of the body. They could measure the length of telomeres—protective caps at the end of our DNA that wear away with time. But doing so is hard and expensive, and telomere length naturally varies between people of the same age.


Sharpless's team has focused on one particular aspect of aging—a process called senescence, in which cells permanently stop dividing. Senescent cells accumulate as we get older, and they contain ten times the usual levels of a protein called p16. Glowing Mice The team has developed a strain of mice that produce a protein that glows whenever they make p16. "When they get older and have lots of senescent cells, they glow like crazy," says Sharpless. "When you expose them to gerontogens, they'll glow at a younger age than you expect." The team members are using their mice to test potential gerontogens, and they've sent the animals to around 50 different labs that are doing the same. They're also working with a company called HealthSpan Diagnostics to create a version of their p16 test that could measure biological age in people. "One marker isn't going to do it. You need a panel," says Sharpless. "The perfect test doesn't exist, but I'm certain that within my lifetime we'll have the ability to measure someone's physiological age with precision." Sharpless expects the research to change perceptions. "If you did what we've done for carcinogens, where we've tested millions of compounds, you'd find stuff that you'd be really surprised were gerontogens," he says. Campisi adds, "It might take some time for toxicology agencies to classify environmental exposures as gerontogens." But she notes that it took many decades between developing a good test for carcinogens to the current situation, where hundreds of risk factors have been classified according to their potential for causing cancer. The field of aging is just taking its first steps towards that goal.

Reading Tip

Sense Units

Reading slowly necessitates adding the meaning of one word to the meaning of the next, which is a very inefficient process. By reading in ‘sense units’, rather than one word at a time, concentration will be improved and meaning will be more easily extracted.


WRITE-UP To develop and elaborate on what we have gone though so far on the topic, you are supposed to give a response in writing with the below details. In the developed world, average life expectancy is increasing. What problems will this cause for individuals and society? Suggest some measures that could be taken to reduce the impact of ageing populations. Some advice: ● Write 4 paragraphs: introduction, problems, solutions, conclusion. ● You don't need to separate ideas about individuals and ideas about society. Just mention something about both in your paragraphs. Some ideas: Problems ● an increase in the number of retired people who will receive a pension ● a smaller proportion of young adults = smaller working populations ● a greater tax burden on working adults ● demand for healthcare will rise ● young adults will have to look after elderly relatives Solutions ● people may have to retire later; the state pension age will rise ● medical advances and health programmes might allow elderly people to stay healthy and work for longer ● people should be encouraged to have more children ● governments could encourage immigration (in order to increase the number of younger adults)

Writing Tip

Plan Ahead

Always plan ahead for when large, written assignments are due, and take full advantage of the MC3 Center and Writing Peer Review in Willy T. It can only help you!


SESSION 3 : Energy LEAD-IN In this session, you will be greeted by this short video explaining about the overview of geothermal. Listen carefully, Be prepared to work with your instructor in the class.

Energy 101: Geothermal Energy VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP You will prompted to present and discuss these issues in class. Be prepared after you get some ideas from the previous video. Then, integrate your listening into the speaking session here. You are encouraged to say “true” or “false” or “agree” or “disagree” or “yes” or “no” with a well-grounded supporting details. ● The government should invest in renewable energy from solar, wind or water power. ● Recycling saves energy and raw materials. ● Modern buildings should be designed to be environmentally friendly ● They should use less energy and produce less waste ● Modern insulation can make houses more energy-efficient ● Solar and wind power can be used to generate electricity ● Rainwater and waste water can be recycled and used to flush toilets. ● Modern glass buildings take advantage of natural light ● There are several benefits to build more nuclear power stations ● Fossil fuel like oil and gas are running out ● Nuclear power is a sustainable energy source ● It can be used to produce electricity without wasting natural resources ● It could be replace the use of natural resources like coal, oil or gas ● Nuclear power stations are cleaner than fossil fuel power stations ● It is safer to produce energy from solar, wind or water power.


READ-THROUGH Study this article carefully and be prepared to work with your instructor in the class in order to develop and improve your reading skills.

Geothermal Energy4 Tapping the Earth's Heat Geothermal energy has been used for thousands of years in some countries for cooking and heating. It is simply power derived from the Earth's internal heat.This thermal energy is contained in the rock and fluids beneath Earth's crust. It can be found from shallow ground to several miles below the surface, and even farther down to the extremely hot molten rock called magma. These underground reservoirs of steam and hot water can be tapped to generate electricity or to heat and cool buildings directly. A geothermal heat pump system can take advantage of the constant temperature of the upper ten feet (three meters) of the Earth's surface to heat a home in the winter, while extracting heat from the building and transferring it back to the relatively cooler ground in the summer. Geothermal water from deeper in the Earth can be used directly for heating homes and offices, or for growing plants in greenhouses. Some U.S. cities pipe geothermal hot water under roads and sidewalks to melt snow.



To produce geothermal-generated electricity, wells, sometimes a mile (1.6 kilometers) deep or more, are drilled into underground reservoirs to tap steam and very hot water that drive turbines linked to electricity generators. The first geothermally generated electricity was produced in Larderello, Italy, in 1904. There are three types of geothermal power plants: dry steam, flash, and binary. Dry steam, the oldest geothermal technology, takes steam out of fractures in the ground and uses it to directly drive a turbine. Flash plants pull deep, high-pressure hot water into cooler, low-pressure water. The steam that results from this process is used to drive the turbine. In binary plants, the hot water is passed by a secondary fluid with a much lower boiling point than water. This causes the secondary fluid to turn to vapor, which then drives a turbine. Most geothermal power plants in the future will be binary plants. Geothermal energy is generated in over 20 countries. The United States is the world's largest producer, and the largest geothermal development in the world is The Geysers north of San Francisco in California. In Iceland, many of the buildings and even swimming pools are heated with geothermal hot water. Iceland has at least 25 active volcanoes and many hot springs and geysers. There are many advantages of geothermal energy. It can be extracted without burning a fossil fuel such as coal, gas, or oil. Geothermal fields produce only about one-sixth of the carbon dioxide that a relatively clean natural-gas-fueled power plant produces. Binary plants release essentially no emissions. Unlike solar and wind energy, geothermal energy is always available, 365 days a year. It's also relatively inexpensive; savings from direct use can be as much as 80 percent over fossil fuels. But it has some environmental problems. The main concern is the release of hydrogen sulfide, a gas that smells like rotten egg at low concentrations. Another concern is the disposal of some geothermal fluids, which may contain low levels of toxic materials. Although geothermal sites are capable of providing heat for many decades, eventually specific locations may cool down.


WRITE-UP Supposed that you going to write something and submit to an NGO, your work in this session is to choose what to write and how to organize your ideas as such. Read the instruction carefully. Renewable Energy Focus, an NGO for energy saving, willingly accepts cost-free, unsolicited contributions if they are useful and provide value to our readers and visitors. Please read the notes here before submission, to decide if your proposed submission is suitable, and what form it should take. We provide the renewable energy industry globally with a mix of information on renewable energy technology development and market developments. Broadly, speaking, we provide information for individuals all around the world, interested in the proliferation of renewable energy technology. Some (but not all) of the sectors we appeal to are: ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Renewable Energy Project Developers, Specifiers and Product Buyers; The Energy Utilities; Those innovating in Technology Research & Development; Those investing in renewable energy; Governments developing renewable energy policy; Companies that build Renewable Energy products and components. Companies involved in the process of constructing Renewable Energy projects.

If you feel your article would be interesting to any of these groups of readers, feel free to pitch or submit it. What are our products? We publish content on our website ( The best of this web content (news, features, blogs and downloads) is published in our weekly roundup of news emailed to our electronic database. So your article may well be sent to around 40,000 readers; We also publish a bi-monthly magazine (see a sample copy on our website). What different types of content can I write? Press Releases: We do publish press releases, but we receive literally hundreds a month, so to have the best chance of getting your release actually published we would recommend you read this excellent blog post.


Word count: 250-600 Shorter articles: i.e. news analysis, project information, technology pieces, market information, top-tens, technology innovation case studies, Comment pieces etc: Please send in a short email with the following information: 1. Who is the article aimed at? 2. A short and succinct description of the proposed article (focus on what is new, important, controversial (?) and how this article will add value for our readers). 3. Add a short list of questions that the proposed article will answer for readers. Word count: 750-1400 Feature articles: i.e. longer, more in depth articles on renewable energy projects, policy, markets, science, technology development, case studies etc. Please send in a short email with the following information: 1. Who is the article aimed at? 2. A short and succinct description of the proposed article (focus on what is new, important, controversial (?) and how this article will add value for our readers). 3. Add a short list of questions that the proposed article will answer for readers. Word count: 1000-2500 You can try submitting your real articles here: ergy-focus/


SESSION 4 : Work Hard LEAD-IN You will listen to an interview with Steve Jobs on what it takes to be successful. Work with your instructor on how hard working becomes key factor for success.

Steve Jobs explains the rules for success VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Focus on these three questions. Separate into three groups and brainstorm your ideas and how to support your answer.

Are you a firm believer of hard work or luck? Why?

Tell us about three things for which you worked yet did not get success?


Do you consider yourself to be a hard worker? Why?

READ-THROUGH In this article, Ricky Gervais explains what he believes they are key factors in becoming successful in his life. Read it carefully and then be prepared for the activity in the class.

Be a Cocky Little Nobody5 Ricky Gervais on what's made him so successful By Ricky Gervais

Whenever I’m asked that standard question, “What advice would you give to someone who wants success like yours,” I say “work hard, be original and write about what you know” (I’m always tempted to add “and get final edit” but I’m aware that this is very difficult starting out, and that I’m an incredibly rare case to have always been afforded this privilege.) The first, “work hard,” is not only the most important, but actually, essential. I believe that if you didn’t have to work for something, it can’t truly be considered success. Luck doesn’t count. I think success is allowed a certain pride and you can’t be proud of luck or even of being born smart, artistic, or talented. It’s what you do with it that counts. I think I learnt this lesson relatively late in life. I was one of those people who would pride themselves on getting results without trying too hard. Passing exams without revising too much. I realize now, that was the wrong attitude. You should always try your hardest. The Office was the first thing I really tried my hardest at. I don’t know why I started this radical new approach then, but I think it was one of those carpe diem type revelations. I came into the industry with a slightly older head on my shoulders than most and maybe deep down knew I shouldn’t blow the opportunity. I put everything into it. A lifetime of experiences, and I couldn’t have been prouder of the results. I don’t even mean the success of the show, but simply the finished product. I was the laziest man in the world before 5



I made The Office but now I’m addicted to that sort of success. Pride in my work. Now I’m a workaholic, because I realize that the hard work is sort of a reward in itself. Winston Churchill said, “If you find a job you really love, you’ll never work again.” That’s what it feels like most of the time. I love it so it’s less like work and more like play. Although I’m a strong believer that creativity is the ability to play. Secondly, being original is often considered dangerous if you want huge mainstream success. It seems safer to make anodyne stuff that most people might consume without offense. Homogenized by committee and focus grouped to be like something else that was quite successful. The white sliced bread of art. This is indeed a reasonably safe approach but where’s the fun, apart from the commercial gain? As a businessman this strategy makes perfect sense, but not as an artist. And here’s the thing. From my own experiences I’ve learned that quirky, different, fringe projects that may only be cult, often travel a lot better internationally. Mainstream comedians and TV shows that might be the biggest thing, on say, UK TV for a while, often don’t sell a sausage around the world. Comics selling out arenas in the UK often can’t sell a ticket in America or many other places. If you do something peculiar and remarkable it might not be for mass consumption in your own country but there are 7 billion people in the world. People everywhere in the world will recognize and appreciate its innovation. A world cult is many times bigger than a single country’s mainstream hit. So in the long run, being different can make commercial sense as well as artistic sense. And you’ll often hear the term “water cooler moment.” The broadest, most inoffensive, mainstream hits are so often the least “talked about.” They just happen and wash over a disconcerting majority once a week. Again, this is fine if you just want commercial success but it’s soul destroying if you have loftier ambitions. The third thing is to write about what you know. Making The Office taught me this. I truly believe this was a huge part of the show’s success. I worked in a real office for 10 years and since I’ve always been a people watcher, or “piss taking twat,” as it’s also known, it was easy to keep an uncompromising attention to detail. Whatever I didn’t know starting out, I did know the truth of the minutiae of modern day behaviour, and exactly how it should look. In my case, it was paramount to get final edit but as I said earlier, this is very rare for a cocky little nobody, like I was back then, to attain. I was going to call my autobiography A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to The Office, but I think Cocky Little Nobody is much better. Be a cocky little nobody. But work hard, be original and write about what you know.


WRITE-UP Write a well-organized paragraph on this subject. SUBJECT: "When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success" do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position.


SESSION 5 : Trait of Success LEAD-IN You will listen to a coaching on 8 traits of successful people. Be prepared for the activity after the listening.

8 traits of successful people - Richard St. John VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Here are the list of 20 questions prompting you to generate ideas about success. Work in group to interpret the question. Then, propose an answer to the class with your supporting ideas in spoken language. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘success’? Are you a success? Who is the most successful person you know? Is success important to you? What does success taste like? How do you measure success? What success stories do you have of studying English? What part does luck play in success? Woody Allen said: "Eighty percent of success is showing up.” Do you agree with him? Albert Einstein said: "Try not to become a man of success, but rather try to become a man of value." What do you think of this? What is your biggest success in life? What small successes do you have every day? How would you define success? Is success a journey or a destination? What is your formula or recipe for success? Does success keep you happy? Do you think success breeds success? Do you think you can teach someone to be successful? Someone once said: "Success is getting what you want; happiness is wanting what you get." Do you agree with this quote? Someone once said: "The two hardest things to handle in life are failure and success." What do you think of this?


READ-THROUGH Read this article and pick up the essential information that you get from it as much as possible.

Keys to Success: 6 Traits the Most Successful People Have in Common6 Stanford MBA school professor Jeffrey Pfeffer looked at the research on success and power along with studying the lives of such high achievers as LBJ and Robert Moses. He identified six traits that were keys to success. Pfeffer was thorough in that he did not just note the qualities all successful people had, but specifically sought out the elements that were present in the powerful and lacking in those who had accomplished less. Pfeffer pulls no punches. These are not all kind words fit for Hallmark cards and inspirational posters.

These are what studies have shown works and what has been demonstrated through history when analyzing the lives of those who have reached the highest levels.

Keys To Success #1: Energy And Physical Stamina In a study of general managers in industry, John Kotter reported that many of them worked 60 to 65 hours per week–which translates into at least six 10-hour days. The ability and willingness to work grueling hours has characterized many powerful figures‌ Energy and strength provide many advantages to those seeking to build power. First, it enables you to outlast your opposition, or to use sheer hard work to overcome others who surpass you in intelligence or skill. Second, your energy and 6



endurance provide a role model for others, something that will inspire those around you to work harder.

Keys To Success #2: Focus In Kotter’s study of 15 successful general managers, he found that they tended to have concentrated their efforts in one industry and in one company. He concluded that general management was not general, and that the particular expertise acquired by concentrating on a narrow range of business issues is helpful in building a power base and in becoming successful. Concentrating your career in a single industry and in one or a very few organizations is also helpful because it means that your energy is not diverted, and your attention is focused on a narrower set of concerns and problems.

Keys To Success #3: Sensitivity To Others In this effort to influence others, it is clearly useful to be able to understand them, their interests and attitudes, and how to reach them… It should be clear that being sensitive to others does not mean that one is necessarily going to act in their interests, in a friendly fashion, or on their behalf. Sensitivity simply means understanding who they are, their position on the issues, and how best to communicate with and influence them.

Keys To Success #4: Flexibility Sensitivity to others is not worth much unless you are able to use that information to modify your behavior… Although flexibility sometimes carries a negative connotation, it is a very important characteristic for those who hope to develop power. It provides the capacity to change course and to adopt new approaches, rather than clinging to actions that are not working. Flexibility also helps one to acquire allies, as it is easier to shift approaches to accommodate different interests.

Keys To Success #5: Ability To Tolerate Conflict Because the need for power arises only under circumstances of disagreement, one of the personal attributes of powerful people is the willingness to engage in conflict with others… being pliable may win you more genuine liking among your co-workers. But it is not the case that those who are the most liked by others for their pleasant personalities are inevitably the most powerful or able to get things accomplished.

Keys To Success #6: Submerging One’s Ego And Getting Along Sometimes it’s important to fight, to be difficult, to make rivals pay for getting their way instead of doing what you want done. At other times, it is important to build alliances and networks of friendship by getting along. People who are able to develop great power often seem to have the knack for changing their behavior according to the needs


of the occasion‌ The problem in getting along, building alliances, and developing a coterie of supporters is that our ego sometimes gets in the way. Thus, the final characteristic I have identified as a source of power is the ability to submerge one’s ego in the effort to get something accomplished.


WRITE-UP Pick up one of the following questions and then write a response to it.

(1) Talk about a time in which you felt really accomplished. This could be any number of things. Go into extreme detail, especially about your emotions surrounding the event. How did other people feel about your achievement. (2) What is the definition of success to you? Is it the absence of failure? Keep in mind that failure allows you to learn things, so if "the absence of failure" is your definition, try to revise it to be more positive and achievable. Write a few different definitions before you settle on one that's right for you. Then apply it to your life and talk about ways in which this definition could help. (3) Talk about the ways in which you are a success and the ways in which you are not. Go into extreme detail with every part of your life. How could you become more successful in some of the areas that are lacking?


SESSION 6 : Beauty Juice LEAD-IN You are going to listen to a community VDO on a finding on fruit juice. After listening, participate in class about what you think of this.

The Fruit Whose Juice Is Healthier VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Discuss the following questions with your instructor and the class. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

What do you do to stay healthy? Is it easy to keep fit where you live? What do you think is more important, eating healthily or doing exercise? Do you have a good public health system in your country? Is there anything you’d like to improve about it? What are the most popular ways of keeping healthy in your country? Do you think people worry more about their health as they get older? Why do you think some people continue bad habits when they know that they are damaging to their health? ● How can children be encouraged to adopt healthy eating habits? ● Do you think people have become more health conscious in recent years? ● Could governments do more to promote healthier lifestyle options?


READ-THROUGH Read the following article about juice fast. Then, generate your ideas around this issue.

Cleansing's Dirty Secret7 Touted for myriad health benefits, chic juice diets are all the rage, but in their quest to detox and lose weight, some women (calling them ‘juicerexics’) are hitting the bottle to dangerous degrees. WHEN 22-YEAR-OLD Katie Bourus was a sophomore at the University of Oregon in 2010, she heard about the Master Cleanse from friends. At 5'7" and 130 pounds, Bourus wasn't trying to lose weight, just flush out her system fast, and the multiday liquid regimen, consisting of a mix of water, cayenne pepper, lemon juice, and maple syrup, seemed like an easy way to go. But Bourus soon found that she liked the empty feeling in her stomach, and three days on the cleanse stretched to five. Once she finished the fast, her previously balanced diet grew irregular. She refused fatty foods, claiming to be a vegetarian to avoid a lasagna dinner at her sorority house. Within a few months, Bourus was subsisting on Chex cereal with skim milk, her weight dwindling to 97 pounds. Alarmed, her parents checked her into an eating disorder treatment center in San Diego, where she was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. "A cleanse sounded healthy," she says. "But I couldn't stop." 7



Today, the fresh juice business, including juice fasts, is worth $5 billion and growing, and indie cleanses like the one Bourus tried are being crowded out by scores of bigger players targeting young women with three- to 10-day programs of blended fruit and vegetable drinks and little to no solid food. The companies hire respected nutritionists and "integrative" doctors to hawk cleanses' supposed benefits—clearer skin, sounder sleep, more energy, instant weight loss—and celebrities from Gwyneth Paltrow to Blake Lively have signed on. In stylish offices on both coasts, carrying a bright green bottle of pulverized spinach, celery, and kale now confers automatic insider status. Even Starbucks has expanded into juices. But despite being a great source of vitamins and minerals, the plans—which claim to flush the body of toxins, curing everything from headaches, nausea, and fatigue to cold sores, insomnia, and yeast infections—are controversial. And as interest in them peaks, public health professionals and doctors are dealing with the fallout: an epidemic of malnourished, run-down young women—juicerexics—some of whom have stumbled into full-fledged anorexia or bulimia. Statistics don't exist on the precise link between eating disorders and juice fasts, but Debbie Westerling, director of nutrition services at the Renfrew Center, one of the nation's best-known eating disorder treatment facilities, says that among the program's 60 residents, discussion of juice fasts has "exploded." During intake questioning, at least half of patients now report experimenting with juice fasts. "Maybe a patient tried it and became obsessed, or maybe the eating disorder was already there and the juicing became part of it," says Westerling. Other experts agree. Dr. Pauline Powers, who leads the scientific advisory committee for the Global Foundation for Eating Disorders, calls juice cleanses "the perfect pathway to disordered eating," with an alarming power to seduce otherwise healthy women. Last year, the University of North Carolina Center for Excellence for Eating Disorders added juice fasts to the list of topics addressed with patients. Marjorie Nolan Cohn, a registered dietitian and nutrition director for Metro Behavioral Health Associates, an eating disorder treatment center in New York, points to the country's current food climate as conducive to cleansing. High-profile books and documentaries—like Fast Food Nation, Food, Inc., and Michael Pollan's entire oeuvre—have heightened consumer skepticism of processed food, chemicals, and pesticides. That's great, but it makes "the idea that you're releasing toxins an easy buy-in," says Cohn. "If you have a type A personality, a cleanse brings on a euphoric, overwhelming sense of control." On top of that, juice cleanses are marketed ingeniously as quick fixes designed to erase the damage from weekend-long calorie benders. "Don't ever stress about those little bacon cheeseburger attacks," reads the website of Nékter Juice Bar, a California company that ships nationally. Nékter doesn't deliver on weekends, instructing clients via its website to spend the time "eating comforting foods with friends and family before you begin your fresh start." Companies have a vested interest in clients losing control occasionally. "We have customers who 'retox' and detox and that's their lifestyle: full tilt in one direction, then full tilt in the other," says Matt Shook, co-owner of JuiceLand in Texas. Ka-ching. The key is to drink responsibly. Trisha O'Connor, 25, a public relations associate in New York City, heard about cleansing from fashion industry colleagues who often ate out with clients. "Everyone had the same mantra: 'Look at these truffle fries—this is so bad for me,'" says O'Connor, who cleanses seasonally. "You'd know what you were doing was bad, but a juice cleanse made you feel better." But detoxes attract more extreme devotees, too. Taylor Becker, who runs a New York City nonprofit, has done three mini-meal and juice cleanses from local operation Joulebody over the past four months and calls cleansing "addictive." "You get a high—the juices are powerful. My eyes are bright, my


stomach is flatter, my pants are loose," says Becker, 43. Although she worries that the cleanses could trigger a binge-and-purge cycle—she's dealt with bulimic tendencies since adolescence—she believes she's not alone. "My secret theory is that most women of a certain income in urban environments like New York have eating disorders. Juicing is expensive, healthy, in the same category as SoulCycle"—a premium service for wealthy, weight-conscious women. "It's in vogue." There’s nothing wrong with juice cleanses, of course. But when coming off the plans, some women cut out entire groups of foods and develop aversions: no bread, no meat. Juice companies sell the idea that certain meals are bad; some even condemn healthy snacks like sugary fruits. And clients are buying in, nudged along by online sales and incentives. Chicago-based company JuiceRx brags online that many customers cleanse twice a month. Catalyst, which ships to customers across the U.S., calls clients who commit to 30, 45, or 60 days' worth of juice Rockstars and gives them discounts. But for women who are genetically predisposed to eating disorders, Johanna Kandel, founder of the Florida-based Alliance for Eating Disorders Awareness, says cleanses can be dangerous. One girl she worked with, who had a family history of eating issues, left for college healthy. She tried a juice cleanse and wound up in treatment. "It wasn't the cause, but it was the drop that made the cup overflow," says Kandel, who is peppered with cleanse questions—how often to do one, or how to tell if a roommate does too many—from college women. "Cleanses bring food and ritualistic behavior into focus." Tim Martin, founder and CEO of Los Angeles–based iZO Cleanse, concedes that "cleanses can turn into an eating disorder if they're used as an excuse to binge afterward," behavior he dubs "macrobulimia." IZO Cleanse asks clients to confirm that they don't have eating disorders and to commit to a balanced post-cleanse diet; Yvette Rose, founder of Joulebody, gives customers post-cleanse dietary guidelines. Asked for comment, a few of the companies mentioned in this story acknowledged that juicing could exacerbate unhealthy eating habits. "We try very hard to discourage misuse of the cleanse," says Alexis Schulze, cofounder of Nékter Juice Bar. Others, like JuiceLand's Shook, were less attuned to the potential issues. "We make no claims to diagnose or treat psychological disorders," he says. Of most concern? For women already in the throes of anorexia or bulimia, juice fasts provide a great cover. Kari Adams, 42, a blogger in Princeton, New Jersey, had been bingeing and purging for years when she tried a juice fast more than two years ago. Her yoga instructor was offering one to clients, and Adams knew "it would make me thinner," she says. After three weeks of juicing, she was sicker and frailer than ever. Her family intervened and checked her into a treatment center for five months. "I was like an addict who'd found a new drug," says Adams, who got positive reactions from friends during her juice fast. "People said, 'Oh, good for you. That's so healthy.' It's society's most accepted form of eating disorder."


WRITE-UP You are required to write a response to this question based on what you read and what you have seen from your own experience. In some countries the average weight of people is increasing and their levels of health and fitness are decreasing. What do you think are the causes of these problems and what measures could be taken to solve them. Word Counts: 550 words


SESSION 7 : Narcissus LEAD-IN How much do you know about Narcissus? In Greek mythology, Narcissus was a hunter from the territory of Thespiae in Boeotia who was renowned for his beauty. He was the son of a river god named Cephissus and a nymph named Liriope. He was exceptionally proud, in that he disdained those who loved him. Nemesis noticed this behavior and attracted Narcissus to a pool, where he saw his own reflection in the water and fell in love with it, not realizing it was merely an image. Unable to leave the beauty of his reflection, Narcissus died. Narcissus is the origin of the term narcissism, a fixation with oneself. In modern psychology, the name of Narcissus is used to refer to a disorder called “Narcissism” or “Narcissistic Personality Disorder”, which involves arrogant behavior, a lack of empathy for other people, and a need for admiration-all of which must be consistently evident at work and in relationships. People who are narcissistic are frequently described as cocky, self-centered, manipulative, and demanding. Narcissists may concentrate on unlikely personal outcomes (e.g., fame) and may be convinced that they deserve special treatment. Related Personality Disorders: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic. Narcissism is a less extreme version of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Narcissism involves cockiness, manipulativeness, selfishness, power motives, and vanity-a love of mirrors. Related personality traits include: Psychopathy, Machiavellianism.

In this video, you will watch how to spot a narcissist in via a simple explanation.

How To Spot A Narcissist - Lesson 1 VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP There are two forms of egoism are actually closely related to one another. Read the categorization first, and then work with your partner to find out how to give a response to this question. Psychological egoism is essentially the observation that humans are characteristically motivated by their own self-interest. When they choose to take an action, it is ultimately going to be one that provides them some personal benefit (directly or indirectly), regardless of how altruistic it may appear to observers. Ethical egoism is an ethical position claiming that the morally right actions for an agent are exactly those that maximize the agent's self-interest. The only moral guideline for an action is whether it increases our own happiness. This taken to its logical conclusion implies that all moral agents ought to do that which is in their own self-interest. Of course, it does not require the infliction of any harm or pain upon others, but at the same time, it explicitly disavows the existence of an overarching moral obligation to help or serve others, arguing that an individual moral agent ought not treat one's self ("the subject") any differently than she treats others, and that the interests and desires of others ought not be placed above those of the same.

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION Can a person be Psychological Egoist and Ethical Egoist at the same time? Or those terms are not mutually exclusive and one can be both? Here below is a response from the community. What do you think about this?

As I see it, the only significant area of conflict between the two forms is that psychological egoism is explicitly non-normative, whereas ethical egoism is a normative philosophy. Normativity is a winding and fairly convoluted concept, but the important component here is with regards to the differing types of statements that are made by each philosophical viewpoint. A normative view tends to be one that is prescriptivist; that is, it speaks about what one ought to do. Normative theories attempt to prescribe behavior and enumerate principles that advise what one should do in a particular situation. By contrast, a non-normative view is one that makes claims only about how things are, rather than how they ought to be. Fundamentally, the difference is one of is vs. ought statements. And thus, one could argue that she is a psychological egoist purely because she believes that the position is fundamentally consistent with human nature, not because she thinks that actions which benefit only the self are either necessary or sufficient to achieve morality. In layman's terms, I could agree that such is how the world is, but not like it or endorse it. That would make me a psychological egoist, but not an ethical egoist. But on the other hand, it would be relatively more difficult for an ethical egoist to distance herself from psychological egoism entirely. In fact, one of the justifications for ethical egoism might be its consistency with human nature, that moral agents are fundamentally given to look after their own welfare first before attempting to secure the welfare of others—an argument from the psychological egoist school of thought. Of course, there are plenty of other possible justifications, but the point remains that an ethical egoist is likely to also accept psychological egoism, whereas it would be theoretically possible for a psychological egoist to reject the prescriptive tenets of ethical egoism.


READ-THROUGH Read this text about how to spot a narcissist. Then, be prepared for the activity in the class.

How Do You Spot a Narcissist? Just Ask8 It's not easy to diagnose most personality disorders. But narcissism is a snap—since the narcissists themselves know who they are. Narcissus got a bad rap. Sure, the guy was self-absorbed—what with all that staring at his own reflection in a stream. But once he fell in and drowned, well, lesson learned, and he wasn’t around to cause anyone else any grief. But the modern-day people who suffer from the disorder named after him? They’re a whole different matter. Narcissists are alternately preening, entitled, aggressive, greedy, insensitive, vain, unfaithful, dishonest, lethally charming (a charm you buy at your peril) and sexually exploitative. They may represent merely 1% to 3% of the general population—but that’s only full-blown, capital-N narcissism, the kind formally known as narcissistic personality disorder. There are plenty of other people with lowercase, sub-clinical cases of the condition who can do all kinds of damage—and the odds are very, very good there are at least a few in your life. How can you learn to recognize a narcissist at a glance? Easy, suggests a new study published in PLOS ONE: Just ask them.



Narcissism is typically diagnosed with a 40-item questionnaire known as the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, or NPI. (Take it here.) The NPI is a so-called forced choice test, one that asks people to choose between two generally contradictory statements such as “I prefer to blend in with the crowd” and “I like to be the center of attention,” or “I like to have authority over other people” and “I don’t mind following orders.” In many cases, both qualities may apply—it’s entirely possible to like to be the boss and to accept another person’s authority as well. But the “forced” part of “forced choice” means you must pick the quality that more closely describes you. The lowest you can score on the NPI is a zero, the highest is a 40. Average in the U.S. is between 15 and 16, depending on age, gender and other variables. The problem with the NPI is it’s time-consuming and inconvenient—hardly the kind of thing you can administer on a first date to find out if you’re getting mixed up with a charming louse before you accept a second date. But a team headed by psychologist Sara Konrath of the University of Michigan suspected that in some cases it might be possible to go at things more directly, asking people one carefully phrased written question: “To what extent do you agree with this statement: ‘I am a narcissist.’ (Note: The word ‘narcissist’ means egotistical, self-focused, and vain.)” The parenthetical was included to ensure that all participants in the study were working from the same definition. They were then asked to rate themselves on a 1 to 7 scale, with 1 meaning “Not very true of me” and 7 meaning “very true of me.” To a remarkable, statistically significant extent, the scores on this Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS) correlated with the subjects’ scores on the more-complex NPI. Even with those results in hand, the researchers wanted to probe further, so they also tested their subjects on ten other personality metrics such as extraversion, agreeableness, aggression, sexual adventurousness, entitlement and more—all of which are either direct or inverse indicators of the narcissistic personality. Here too, the results lined up tidily. The reason narcissists are so honest—a lot more honest than you’d be if someone asked you, say, “Are you a sociopath?”—is because they just don’t think their narcissism is a problem, which is perfectly consistent with people who think so highly of themselves. “Narcissists have these great mental health outcomes,” Konrath told me when I was researching my upcoming book The Narcissist Next Door. “If you’re trying to think of a group of people who are low in depression and anxiety, high in creativity and accomplishment, that’s narcissists.” That, by itself, doesn’t sound bad at all. But narcissists often possess those good qualities to the general exclusion of others—especially social and relationship skills, a shortcoming that can hurt both them and those around them. Indeed, one of the metrics Konrath’s group looked at was whether the subjects rated primal rewards—such as a favorite food—higher than social rewards, such as seeing a friend. The friendship thing just doesn’t mean much to someone in the grip of narcissism.


“If you told a narcissist he’s not good in interpersonal relationships, he wouldn’t be any more upset than anyone else,” said Ohio State University psychologist Brad Bushman, another participant in the study, whom I also interviewed for my book. “But if you tell them they’re not smart, they get angry.” All of this—the fragile ego, the tenuous human ties, the overweening self-regard–inevitably comes crashing down, even if less calamitously than it did for the proto-Narcissus. It’s for the narcissists themselves to recognize the dangers in the condition to which they admit so readily. And it’s for everyone else to get out of the way while they’re figuring it out.


WRITE-UP From this excerpt, gather the essential information and write a response explaining how we can spot a narcissist living around social media such as Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube these days. Are you a narcissist? If you answered "yes," then you probably are, at least according to a new study done by researchers at Ohio State University. The word for narcissism comes from Greek mythology: Narcissus was an infamous hunter who was known for his startling beauty and the fact that he was in love with himself. The goddess Nemesis, wanting to teach him a lesson, brought him to a pool, where he became enamored with his own reflection. Unable to turn away, he died there. Today, narcissism is a personality disorder derived from extreme vanity and egotism. Narcissists have trouble with empathy, sustaining healthy relationships, hypersensitivity to criticism and an inability to view the world from a perspective other than their own. Although narcissism exists in almost everyone at low levels, those with high levels of the disorder have more extreme negative personality traits. So how can we identify narcissists? Researchers discovered that the easiest way is just by asking people a simple question: "To what extent do you agree with this statement: 'I am a narcissist.' (Note: The word 'narcissist' means egotistical, self-focused, and vain.)" In the Ohio State University study, researchers asked participants this question and then told them to rate themselves on a scale of 1 to 7, 1 being not narcissistic at all and 7 being extremely narcissistic. The results of 11 studies with over 2,200 participants, showed responses similar to those received with a 40-question test called the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. "People who are narcissists are almost proud of the fact," says study co-author Brad Bushman. "You can ask them directly because they don't see narcissism as a negative quality - they believe they are superior to other people and are fine with saying that publicly." Narcissism creates problems for society as a whole because those who suffer from it have less empathy than their peers, which means they don't donate time or money to charitable causes. Narcissists do tend to do better in the corporate world though, with studies scarily showing that narcissistic CEOs have the highest salaries. Of course, this one question doesn't replace other tests for those who suffer from an extreme narcissistic disorder. It doesn't answer questions about what type of narcissism someone has, but it offers a faster way to diagnose the disorder before ordering other tests. For those of us that aren't psychologists, though, this question could help choose a partner. "Narcissists are very bad relationship partners and they are bad team players," says Bushman. "It might be nice to find out how much of a narcissist someone is." From:


SESSION 8 : Gangsters LEAD-IN You are going to listen to a community video explaining the environment of joining a gang in a confined community such as a school or a prison. Listen carefully, then be prepared for the activity.

GANGS (Do's & Don'ts #8) VDO URL:

SPEAK-UP Do you think that a prison is really the right way we capture, maintain and correct human bad behaviors?


READ-THROUGH Read this article and your instructor will discuss about the reading skills being applied to this article.

The Gangs behind Bars: Prison Gangs9 Prison gangs are flourishing across the country. Organized, stealthy and deadly, they are reaching out from their cells to organize and control crime in America's streets. Prison gangs are flourishing from California to Massachusetts. In 1996, the Federal Bureau of Prisons found that prison disturbances soared by about 400 percent in the early nineties, which authorities say indicated that gangs were becoming more active. In states such as Illinois, as much as 60 percent of the prison population belong to gangs, Godwin says. The Florida DC has identified 240 street gangs operating in their prisons. Street gangs, as opposed to gangs originating in prisons, are emerging as a larger problem on the East Coast. Of the 143,000 inmates Texas houses in state pens, 5,000 have been identified as gang members and another 10,000 are under suspicion. Texas prison-gang expert Sammy Buentello says the state's prisons are not infested with gangs, but those that have set up shop are highly organized. "They have a paramilitary type structure;' he says. "A majority of the people that come in have had experience with street-gang membership and have been brought up in that environment accepting it as the norm. But some join for survival." After James Byrd Jr. was dragged to death in Jasper last June, rumors spread throughout Texas linking two of the suspected assailants to racially charged prison gangs. While authorities and inmates dismiss these rumors, the Jasper murder occurred only weeks after a San Antonio grand jury indicted 16 members of the Mexican Mafia, one of the state's largest and most lethal prison gangs, for ordering the deaths of five people in San Antonio from within prison walls.



As they are being released into the community on parole, these people are becoming involved in actions related to prison-gang business. Consequently, it is no longer just a corrections problem--it is also a community problem. It is a misnomer that when you lock a gang member up they cease criminal activity. It has only been in the last five years that law enforcement has realized that what happens on the inside can affect what happens on the outside and vice versa. According to gang investigators, the gang leaders communicate orders through letters. Where mail is monitored they may use a code--for instance, making every 12th word of a seemingly benign letter significant. They use visits, they put messages into their artwork and in some states they use the telephone. Of the two kinds of gangs, prison gangs and street gangs, the prison gangs are better organized, according to gang investigators. They are low-key, discreet--even stealthy. They monitor members and dictate how they behave and treat each other. A serious violation means death, say investigators. The street gangs are more flagrant. "Their members are going into the prisons and realizing that one of the reasons they are in prison is that they kept such a high profile" making it easier for the police to catch them, says Buentello. "So, they are coming out more sophisticated and more dangerous because they aren't as easily detected. They also network and keep track of who is out and so forth." According to gang investigators and prisoners, the prison gangs were formed for protection against predatory inmates, but racketeering, black markets and racism became factors. They developed within the prison system in California, Texas and Illinois in the 1940s. Godwin says Texas should never have outlawed smoking in the prisons, adding cigarettes as trade-goods contraband to the prohibited list. "If you go back to the Civil War era, to Andersonville prison," Godwin says of the prisoner-of-war facility for Union soldiers, "you will see that the first thing that developed was a gang because someone had to control the contraband--that is power. I'm convinced that if you put three people on an island somewhere, two would clique up and become predatory against the other at some point." But protection remains an important factor. When a new inmate enters the prison system he is challenged to a fight, according to a Texas state-pen prisoner. The outcome determines who can fight, who will be extorted for protection money and who will become a servant to other prisoners. Those who can't join a gang or afford to spend $5 a week in commissary items for protection are destined to be servants. Godwin explains: "The environment is set up so that when you put that many people with antisocial behavior and criminal history together, someone is going to be the predator and someone the prey, and that is reality." The Texas inmate describes a system in which gangs often recruit like fraternities, targeting short-term inmates because they can help the gang--pay them back, so to speak--when they leave prison for the free world. Most of the groups thrive on lifelong membership, according to the Florida DC, with "blood in, blood out" oaths extending leadership and membership beyond the prison into the lucrative drug trade, extortion and pressure rackets. Prison gangs operating in Texas and Florida include Neta, the Texas Syndicate, the Aztecs, the Mexican Mafia, the New Black Panthers, the Black Guerrilla Family, Mandingo Warriors, Aryan Brotherhood, La Nuestra Familia, the Aryan Circle and the White Knights. Some of these gangs have alliances, and some are mortal enemies. Many on this list originated in California over the decades, some of them (such as the Texas Syndicate) to protect members from the other gangs. In addition, street gangs such as the Crips and Bloods and traditional racial-hate groups such as the Ku Klux Klan also operate in the prisons. What prisoners may not realize is that because the gangs are monitored by prison authorities the law-enforcement community is becoming very sophisticated about the gangs. "Sixty percent of what we learn about what is going on in the city streets of Florida" is garnered in prison and not from observing the streets, says Godwin.


Prison officials say they concentrate on inmate behavior to identify gang members. They do not single out gang leaders to strike any deals because acknowledging the gang as anything other than a "security-threat group" gives them too much credibility. This has been a particular problem in Puerto Rico with the native and political Neta gang. Recognizing groups during the 1970s, in a system in which prisoners have the right to vote, has led to a tendency among politicians to award clemency to some inmates.


WRITE-UP Should Juveniles Be Tried as Adults? Since the juvenile court was started more than a hundred years ago, a basic assumption underlying the juvenile court has been that juvenile offenders shouldn't go through the adult criminal courts. The juvenile court was created to handle juvenile offenders on the basis of their youth rather than their crimes. The purpose of juvenile court is treatment and guidance rather than punishment. During the 1980s and 1990s, the public called for getting tough with juveniles and trying them as adults. Many states passed laws making it easier to try certain youthful offenders as adults; some states considered the radical proposal of abolishing juvenile courts. We have two sides of arguments here, whether the juvenile courts be abolished or not: Juvenile courts should be abolished

Juvenile courts should not be abolished

Supporters of getting rid of juvenile courts center their arguments on the need to punish juvenile criminals and a concern for juveniles' rights.

Many experts believe abolishing the juvenile court will only make matters worse.

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The juvenile court is founded on false premises because its purpose is to shield youths from the consequences of their own actions. The juvenile court fails to deter juvenile violence. The current juvenile crime problem requires that we punish juvenile offenders in order to deter the next generation of juveniles from becoming predators. Justice demands that juvenile courts be abolished—if juveniles are tried in adult courts, they will be afforded their full array of constitutional rights.

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The premise of the juvenile court is sound—since children have not fully matured, they shouldn't be held to the same standards of accountability as adults. The purpose of the juvenile court is to treat, not to deter. Changing the social environment in which juveniles live is a more effective way to reduce juvenile violence than punishing juvenile offenders in adult courts. While the denial of full constitutional rights for juveniles is sometimes a problem, the juvenile court's mission is benevolence—to serve the best interests of children.

Evaluate the case for abolishing juvenile courts. You are supposed to choose either of the sides and write a piece of writing explaining your reasons and support.


SESSION 9 : Knowledge LEAD-IN Listen to this community VDO and discuss the importance of knowledge sharing to you as individuals and organizations.

Creating a truly knowledge sharing organisation VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Discuss these issues with your partners/instructors. When we talk about the knowledge element of knowledge sharing we are looking at five key questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What knowledge are we talking about? Why would we share knowledge? Who has this knowledge and how do we know they have it? When should we share knowledge? How do we undertake knowledge sharing successfully?


READ-THROUGH Read this article about knowledge sharing. Then, discuss the points with your instructor.

When Knowledge Sharing Turns to Knowledge Hiding 10 Employees balk at requests for information out of distrust — or worse. Why don’t companies investing in knowledge-transfer software see more of an improvement in their information flow? One big reason, according to this paper, is that some employees simply won’t share what they know. Often, they balk because they don’t trust their colleagues and they want to protect their own interests or those of their company. Other times, the motivation is more personal: Employees want to undermine or retaliate against a co-worker. The researchers dub this newfound phenomenon “knowledge hiding.” In contrast with knowledge hoarding, which is the accumulation of information that may or may not be shared at a later date, hiding is “an intentional concealment of knowledge requested by another [individual].” The authors conducted several studies to confirm evidence of knowledge hiding and to identify ways to predict when it will occur. In addition, they provide companies with strategies to keep information flowing. Some situations involve overt deception, such as when a co-worker provides part, but not all, of the requested information. In other situations, knowledge hiding takes the form of a “white lie” — employees could be concealing knowledge to protect a co-worker’s feelings or reputation, to preserve confidentiality, or to guard a third party’s interests. 10


In the first study, 35 employees at a Canadian financial-services firm completed a daily survey for a week that logged their responses to internal requests for information. They were asked whether they shared or hid information and the extent to which they distrusted the individual making the request. Of the 113 knowledge-transfer “events” that were logged, slightly more than 10 percent were identified as instances of knowledge hiding — a significant number because people tend to underreport such actions, according to the researchers. In a second study, at companies in the manufacturing and education sectors, the researchers conducted in-depth interviews with 11 employees in a range of jobs, including engineers, project managers, and clerical workers. They, too, were asked to describe examples of knowledge transfer or withholding; they were also asked to evaluate their relationships with co-workers. The researchers found that the more employees distrusted the person requesting the information, the more likely they were to hide knowledge from that person. In the next study, 194 employees representing a wide variety of organizations, ages, experience, and education levels completed a questionnaire about their experiences with knowledge transfer. Slightly more than half of the participants were from the United States, 11 percent were Canadian, and the rest were from other countries. Managers made up 36 percent of the sample, which included employees from administration, sales, and information technology. An analysis of the data from the questionnaire revealed three approaches that employees use to hide knowledge. The first, playing dumb, occurs when employees pretend not to have the requested information. The second, being evasive, describes a situation in which an employee provides incorrect information or falsely promises to give a complete answer later. Employees taking the third approach, rationalized hiding, offer a justification for balking, suggesting that they aren’t allowed to provide the information or blaming another party. The final study, a survey of 105 Canadian undergraduate business students with work experience, showed that the type of knowledge being sought helped determine which approach was used to conceal it. When the information requested was complicated, employees were more likely to use evasive hiding, offering the excuse that the complex, intricate details couldn’t be properly explained at that moment. It is ineffective to play dumb or to rationalize when the requested knowledge is straightforward. When those surveyed were asked for specific job-related knowledge (for instance, “How should I do this task?”), they were more likely to engage in evasive hiding, because it’s easier to duck a simple question than provide a rationale for not answering it. The organization’s climate also affects employees’ knowledge-sharing decisions, the researchers found. In companies with stronger knowledge-sharing cultures, employees were less likely to engage in evasive hiding, the most deceptive and least socially acceptable tactic. (In contrast, rationalized hiding allows employees to preserve their relationships with co-workers by saying, for example, “I’d like to tell you, but I’m not supposed to.”) Managers who wish to curtail knowledge hiding have several options, the researchers suggest. To increase staff members’ perceptions of their colleagues’ trustworthiness, managers can emphasize a shared identity or publicly highlight instances when an employee followed through on a promise. Managers should also try to encourage direct contact between employees and to discourage a reliance on e-mail communication. It’s also important to not offer incentives for employees to “betray” their co-workers; for instance, salespeople shouldn’t be rewarded for poaching one another’s clients.


Managers should also voice their support for knowledge sharing, the authors conclude. When instances of knowledge hiding are detected, managers should act quickly before the habits become entrenched. “A lot of companies have jumped on the bandwagon of knowledge sharing” by investing heavily in software, according to one of the authors, David Zweig. “It was a case of, ‘If you build it, they will come.’ But they didn’t come.... If you don’t work on creating that climate and establishing trust, it doesn’t matter how great the software is, people aren’t going to use it.” Bottom Line: Although companies have increasingly invested in knowledge-sharing software, employees sometimes undermine the effort by deliberately concealing information from their co-workers. The culture of the organization and the level of distrust among employees are key factors in determining whether and how employees hide what they know.


WRITE-UP What can be the importance of knowledge sharing, knowledge management and knowledge transfer and the value of local wisdom developed through organisational history? Write an illustrative paragraph based on your discussion in the class.


SESSION 10 : New Breed LEAD-IN Be familiarized with the definition of metrosexuals first. Then, we will discuss this story shortly.

Metrosexual VDO URL:

SPEAK-UP Do you agree that a stereotype of a man should be tough, while girls are reserved for being pretty? Can a man stay beautiful and gorgeous? Will he be defined as a homosexual?


READ-THROUGH Read this story about metrosexuals and then discuss with the class.

Metrosexuals: It's a Guy Thing!11 An emerging breed of man, the metrosexual, shows his soft, sensitive, feminine side. There, deep in the hair-care aisle, carefully selecting the product du jour, or in the salon having his nails buffed to the perfect shine while checking out the latest fashion magazines -- it's not a bird, not a gay man, it's a metrosexual! And judging by the popularity of the new TV program Queer Eye for the Straight Guy, many more once slovenly men want to join the ranks of this new breed of Renaissance man. Not yet familiar with the new buzzword, "metrosexual"? Some social observers and product marketers believe it's just a matter of time until "metrosexual" becomes part of your vocabulary -- and perhaps a description of your own lifestyle as well. So what makes a metrosexual man? He's been defined as a straight, sensitive, well-educated, urban dweller who is in touch with his feminine side. He may have a standing appointment for a weekly manicure, and he probably has his hair cared for by a stylist rather than a barber. He loves to shop, he may wear jewelry, and his bathroom counter is most likely filled with male-targeted grooming products, including moisturizers (and perhaps even a little makeup). He may work on his physique at a fitness club (not a gym) and his appearance probably gets him lots of attention -- and he's delighted by every stare.



Blurring Gender Lines Curiosity about metrosexuals climbed considerably in June when Euro RSCG Worldwide, a marketing communications agency based in New York City and more than 200 other cities, explored the changing face of American males in a report titled The Future of Men: USA. As part of this research, men ages 21 to 48 throughout the U.S. were surveyed on masculinity-related issues. The conclusions? According to the report, there is "an emerging wave of men who chafe against the restrictions" of traditional male roles and who "do what they want, buy what they want, enjoy what they want regardless of whether some people might consider these things unmanly." The metrosexual male is more sensitive and in some ways more effeminate than his father probably was, says Schuyler Brown, one of the architects of the study and associate director of strategic trendspotting and research at Euro RSCG Worldwide. Metrosexuals are willing to push traditional gender boundaries that define what's male and what's female, she adds, but they never feel that they are anything but "real men." Yes, a little primping and pampering were once considered solely female indulgences, but they are becoming much more permissible for men, too. Metrosexual men "are very secure in their sexuality," says Brown. "They're comfortable getting a facial or a pedicure. It doesn't make them feel any less masculine or any less heterosexual." The Future of Men report noted, "One of the telltale signs of metrosexuals is their willingness to indulge themselves, whether by springing for a Prada suit or spending a couple of hours at a spa to get a massage and facial." They might devote an afternoon to choosing their ultrafashionable attire for the night. They may don an apron and prepare a mean and meatless pasta dish for friends. Beyond Testosterone So what's prompting men to think outside the box of male stereotypes? They might be influenced by a new breed of male-oriented magazines such as FHM and Maxim, which are devoting an increasing number of their pages to fashion. These popular magazines are encouraging men to dress to the nines and fall into line with media images of men with washboard abs and bulging biceps. Members of the homosexual community also appear to have influenced their straight brethren. Even though metrosexual men are absolutely heterosexual, the gay movement has helped society as a whole accept so-called effeminate characteristics and lifestyles. "As a society, we're more comfortable with homosexuality today," says Brown. "It's no longer taboo, it's portrayed on prime-time TV, and heterosexual men have become more comfortable with the gay culture." Ironically, if one of the metrosexual's goals is to transform himself into a "chick magnet," some of his efforts -- particularly those spent pumping iron in the local fitness facility -- might be misplaced. Some research suggests that his straining and sweating to inflate the size of his muscles may not be as interesting to women as he might think. According to Roberto Olivardia, PhD, co-author of The Adonis Complex: The Secret Crisis of Male Obsession, the average male thinks that women are attracted to men who are 15 to 20 pounds more muscular than what women actually find attractive. Coming to Your Neighborhood Who are examples of prominent metrosexual men? Brown points to the flamboyant, makeup-wearing Johnny Depp ala Pirates of the Caribbean at one end of the metrosexual continuum and Bill Clinton at the other. The former president, she says, "conveys a personal concern for body image, and is a publicly sensitive guy who wears his feelings on his sleeve." The list of metrosexual-style celebrities includes Brad Pitt and George Clooney. British soccer star David Beckham (whose wife is Victoria


Adams - a.k.a. Posh Spice) may be the quintessential metrosexual icon, sometimes attired in a sarong and embellishing his nails with colorful polish. While you're most likely to find metrosexual men in big cities, particularly media centers such as New York and Los Angeles, they are certainly not confined there. "Because of Hollywood and the fact that many of the male glitterati exhibit metrosexual qualities, you can see the imitation and the experimentation among men in many smaller cities as well," says Brown. Yet facial plastic surgeons such as Seth M. Goldberg, MD, whose patients in his Rockville, MD, office include politicians, lobbyists, and attorneys in the Washington, D.C., area, question whether the label "metrosexual" is one that is really catching on in the nation's capital. At the same time, however, he notes that "in the last few years there has been a tripling of the number of men who are coming into my office for cosmetic surgery or office-based cosmetic procedures such as Botox injections. A generation ago, we wouldn't have seen any of these men in our office." Coming to Your Neighborhood continued... Olivardia points to a Psychology Today survey showing that 43% of men are dissatisfied with their overall appearance, and 63% are unhappy with their abdomen in particular. So they might seek out the services of a cosmetic surgeon for some major or minor retrofitting. Abdominal liposuction to wipe out love handles is particularly popular. The number of lip augmentation procedures in men in the U.S. increased by a startling 421% from 2001 to 2002, according to the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. "It's definitely more acceptable for men to undergo these procedures than it once was," says Olivardia, clinical instructor of psychology at Harvard Medical School. "Even so, there are still many men who won't tell anyone they've done it; they won't volunteer that information." Goldberg says that when men opt for cosmetic surgery, it's often the last step in their personal campaign to improve their appearance. They tend to be well dressed and well groomed, and then thanks to their affluence, can afford to move on to plastic surgery -- for example, eyelid procedures, chin augmentation, or laser skin resurfacing. But can a metrosexual's preoccupation with his physical appearance be carried to extremes? Olivardia says that if your preoccupation with maximizing your looks is interfering with your relationships, your job, or your schoolwork, perhaps you should talk to a therapist and work on creating a healthier balance and a more sensible approach to your physical exterior.


WRITE-UP Supposed that you are trying to do a study on metrosexuality in your country, the hypothesis could be "How metrosexual are you?". You have to prove that most men have a component of metrosexuality in them. Write a paragraph discussing the elements of the metrosexuals in a favor of YES to the proof point. Use this draft outline as your starter: All men have some components of metrosexuality in them and these are how we can measure them ‌ Component one = How = 1

Component two = How = 2

Component three = How = 3


SESSION 11 : Pain-Killer LEAD-IN You will listen to an educational story about a pain-killer, morphine. After listening, discuss the effects of morphine in every life of all those who become addicted.

Morphine VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP These are the issued to be discussed with your partners and the instructors in the class. ● Have you felt stress recently? ● Did the stressful feeling last a long time or a short time? ● Had the cause of the stress happened to you before or was this a new situation? ● How often do you think you feel too much stress? ● Do you feel too busy sometimes? ● In what way does a too full schedule lead to stress? ● Do you like being busy? ● If you are very busy at work or at school, do you have ways to balance your life? ● If you have nothing to do, do you enjoy yourself or do you get bored? ● Does stress make it hard for you to think or act? ● How can you judge what is the right amount of stress for you? ● Is your stress caused by relationships with other people? ○ At work? ○ At school? ○ At home? ○ With best friends? ○ With partners? ● Can you think of some examples? ● Does stress come when you worry about your life? ● Do you keep your worries a secret from other people? ● Do you have anyone you can talk to when you are worried? ● When did we start talking about stress as a psychological condition? ● What do you do when you have stress


READ-THROUGH Read this informative article about a pain-killer. Then, discuss the details being supplied throughout the article.

Pain and Progress12 Is it possible to make a nonaddictive opioid painkiller? For thousands of years, humans have turned to opioids to relieve their pain. Morphine and its cousin compounds work so magnificently to blunt feelings of pain that, in 4,000 years of use, we have found nothing to top them. As the famous 17th-century physician Thomas Sydenham put it, “Among the remedies which it has pleased Almighty God to give to man to relieve his sufferings, none is so universal and so efficacious as opium.” Today, physicians write more than 200 million prescriptions for opioid painkillers in the U.S. each year. But it’s well known that opioids have a dark side. As good as the drugs are at stopping pain, they also arouse a hardwired reward network in the human brain, eliciting strong feelings of euphoria that can drive craving, dependency, and addiction. As long as there has been opium use, there have been opium addicts. In December 1995, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved OxyContin, a delayed-release formulation of oxycodone, a semisynthetic opioid that has been used as an analgesic for almost a century. The idea was that extending the medicine’s absorption time would prevent abuse, because users wouldn’t get an immediate high from swallowing a tablet. The drug worked well—curbing pain as effectively as the original oxycodone—and the number of prescriptions



skyrocketed. Soon enough, however, people figured out that crushing the pills and snorting or injecting the drug could generate an epic high, and by 2000, Purdue Pharma, the maker of OxyContin, was receiving reports that its product was being abused. “It was all hands on deck” to solve the problem, says Jennifer Giordano, the director of analytics at Purdue. But a decade later, prescription opioid abuse and addiction had reached epidemic proportions. In 2010, more than 16,000 people in the U.S. died of an opioid painkiller overdose; in 2009, the drugs sent 475,000 people to the emergency room. “The numbers are sobering,” says Douglas Throckmorton, the deputy director of regulatory programs in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “They’re the kinds of numbers that call on everybody to do all the things they possibly can.” The question is what to do. Restricting the use of opioids is not likely to happen. The drugs are the only painkillers that work for many people, and an astounding number of patients suffer from pain. “It’s quite a quandary, because we have 100 million people in this country who are in pain, and a lot of them need [opioid medications],” says Dave Thomas, the deputy director of the Division of Clinical Neuroscience and Behavioral Research at the National Institute on Drug Abuse. “We’re caught between trying to medicate people in pain and trying not to exacerbate the epidemic.” So, scientists are getting creative, tweaking opioids’ mechanisms of action in the body and brain, combining opioids with other compounds that can limit the opioid high while retaining the drugs’ pain-killing power, and designing new abuse-deterrent technologies that addicts might not be able to crack. In all cases, the end goal is the same: develop an effective, nonaddictive painkiller. HURTS SO GOOD Opioids bind to the receptors that modulate pain perception, hunger, thirst, mood, and other processes. Whether produced naturally in the brain or a poppy pod, or synthetically in the laboratory, opioids typically have an inhibitory effect on the firing of the nerve cells they interact with. Upon binding to opioid receptors on the cell membrane, the drugs, like their endogenous relatives, lead to an increase in the charge difference between the interior and exterior of the cell. This hyperpolarization makes it more difficult for the cell to depolarize and generate an action potential, or nerve impulse. Opioid receptors are dense in neurons involved in pain transmission, such as those in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. By quelling the activity of these neurons, opioids block the sensation of pain. “When you flood the system with a drug such as morphine, you switch on dampeners,” says Clifford Woolf, a neurologist and neurobiologist at Harvard Medical School. And unlike other analgesics, which don’t work for everyone and for all types of pain, “at high enough doses morphine is almost universal in its effect.” Because opioid receptors aren’t just present along pain pathways, however, the drugs have some nasty side effects. In the brain stem, opioids can inhibit neurons that control breathing, contributing to suffocation during overdose. In the gut, the drugs can calm muscles of the digestive tract, leading to constipation for many opioid users. Another problematic side effect is tolerance—the longer a patient takes opioids, the more drug he needs to get the same amount of pain relief. And, of course, the side effect with the biggest public-health impact: opioids are highly addictive.


Alex Peterson was 19 when he first experienced the intense high from opioids. He and his girlfriend had just broken up, and Peterson, who had been drinking and using drugs throughout his teens, turned to alcohol, consuming a liter of vodka a day. His drinking habit was so bad that he was coughing up blood and passing it in his stool. When he went to the doctor for a colonoscopy, the physician gave him an opioid painkiller called fentanyl during the procedure. “That’s when I had my first, like, real rush of painkillers,” Peterson, now 23, recalls. “I just remember coming out of that, it was such a euphoric, numbed-out feeling. It was definitely unlike anything else I’d had.” Peterson became addicted to opioids—morphine, OxyContin, Dilaudid, heroin, anything he could get his hands on. Like many addictive substances, opioids tickle the brain’s sweet spot, activating reward circuitry to encourage the continued use of the drug. Opioid drugs’ target receptors are particularly dense in the limbic system, the part of the brain that is involved in emotions. Activation of opioid receptors in certain neurons leads to a release of dopamine from neurons in another brain region called the nucleus accumbens, giving users a high and a sense of happiness and well-being that can lead to dependence. “With an addict it’s a craving, a hunger for something,” Peterson says, “whether it’s to get you out of your reality or take you out of your sickness.” Receptors to the rescue One way that some scientists aim to curb opioid abuse is to uncouple the drugs’ reward signals from their analgesic effects, possibly by targeting different opioid receptors. There are three types of opioid receptors, known as mu (μ), delta (δ), and kappa (κ), but pretty much every opioid painkiller in use today is thought to interact with the μ receptor, typically causing neurons to hyperpolarize and quiet down. In the 1990s, a couple of mouse studies showed that blocking the activity of δ opioid receptors seemed to reduce the tolerance and dependence associated with opioids that activate μ receptors. Fourteen years ago, Andrew Coop, the chair of the pharmaceutical sciences department at the University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, set out to make a drug that fit the bill. “My approach was to design a single molecule that binds to μ and acts as an agonist”—activating the receptor and depolarizing the cell as opioids normally would—“and binds to δ as an antagonist” to inhibit its activity, he says. After more than a decade of work, Coop finally found his answer: UMB 425, a synthetic derivative of a naturally occurring opioid. “[UMB 425] has the correct profile,” he says, and so far, animal studies are yielding promising results. His team synthesized UMB 425 from thebaine, a natural opioid used to make oxycodone and other drugs. The big difference is a hydroxymethyl group attached to the opioid skeleton. The compound appears to be just as potent as morphine in pain assays in mice, but after five days on the drug, the animals display far less tolerance—“nowhere near [what] we see with morphine,” Coop says. Why a drug with dual targets has fewer side effects is not entirely clear, he adds. “No one knows. That is an open debate.” Medicinal chemist Philip Portoghese of the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy was among the first to report that targeting μ receptor activation while inhibiting δ activity reduces drug tolerance. He says the effects of opioids on neurons are more complicated than the activation of individual opioid receptors. Evidence is emerging that opioid receptors can also form heteromers—complexes of receptors—and that opioid drugs can bind these structures. Morphine,


for instance, appears to activate a heteromer of μ and δ receptors in addition to stimulating μ receptors alone. This could explain why Coop’s drug helps to reduce tolerance. UMB 425 may be blocking the δ receptor that opioids activate as part of μ-δ complexes. “Most investigators weren’t thinking of the combination of receptors” as drug targets, says Portoghese. “It’s another level of complexity.” Developing drugs with receptor complexes in mind could yield those sought-after compounds that disrupt the usual opioid activation of reward or tolerance pathways, Portoghese proposes. Recently, his team published findings on a new drug candidate, MMG22, that acts as both an agonist for the μ opioid receptor and an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5, which binds the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. MMG22, derived in part from the opioid oxymorphone, is believed to target a heteromer of the two receptors, which are both expressed in neurons in the dorsal horn, a region of the spinal cord that receives sensory information and is important in pain transmission. In mice, MMG22 was extremely effective in blocking pain.2 “It’s the most potent analgesic that we’ve discovered . . . more than any that we have seen in the literature,” says Portoghese. More importantly, “it has no tolerance.” In other words, his group developed a drug many times more powerful than morphine that doesn’t require higher and higher doses with long-term use. Finally, the drug works in animal models of inflammation, a type of pain that isn’t always well treated with opioids. The downside of the drug is that it is too big to cross the blood brain barrier—unlike Coop’s drug, which is a small molecule—so it must be injected directly into the central nervous system, rather than taken orally. And because of the study design, the team wasn’t able to test if the rodents became dependent on MMG22. Nevertheless, a University of Minnesota translational team is now moving the drug forward to see how it performs in humans. Portoghese’s group has also developed another molecule, called NNTA, that activates μ opioid receptors only when they are in tandem with a κ opioid receptor. In human embryonic kidney cells having only μ opioid receptors, the compound acts as an antagonist, plugging up the receptor. The drug is an extremely potent painkiller when injected into the mouse spinal cord, plus, it shows “really little, if any, physical dependence,” says Portoghese.3 Beyond neurons Neurons are not the only cells involved in pain. In the past few years, new evidence has implicated glial cells, which serve a number of important roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, in pain. “We, and now others, have come to the same conclusion that immune-like glial cells are activated in every model of pain,” says Linda Watkins, a neuroscientist at the University of Colorado Boulder who has been banging the glial drum for some time. “Block them, and you block pain in every clinically relevant animal model.” One approach to blocking the activity of glia is by jamming up toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). When activated in glia, this receptor amplifies pain signals by causing the release of neuroexcitatory substances, Watkins says. It turns out that some opioids, including morphine, activate TLR4,


dampening their own pain-killing effects. Logic would then dictate that blocking TLR4 might enhance the analgesic effect of an opioid. Without knowing for sure what would happen, Watkins and her colleagues tested the idea on rats. They used (+)-naloxone, a stereoisomer of an approved drug used to treat opioid overdoses. A TLR4 antagonist, (+)-naloxone has no effect on the opioid receptor. When rats were given morphine following (+)-naloxone, “morphine is able to suppress pain, but not able to activate glial cells,” Watkins says. Remarkably, and for reasons that remain unclear, the drug combination doesn’t seem to tap into the brain’s reward network.4 In particular, the combo-treated animals had no “place preference” for morphine, a commonly used measure in which animals favor a particular chamber within their enclosure where a drug was given. Watkins is now working on a proposal to the FDA to start moving (+)-naloxone through the clinical-trial process. New targets Despite these successes in the lab, some worry that targeting the opioid receptor is like playing with fire. A number of researchers, including Harvard’s Woolf, are looking in new directions, such as targeting cannabinoid, capsaicin, and other receptors to ease pain. “My own attitude is rather than trying to play with the opioid receptor system, look for completely alternative strategies,” he says. Woolf points to a number of promising avenues. Sodium channels uniquely expressed in pain fibers look attractive as drug targets, he says, and certain subunits of calcium channels enriched in pain pathways are also attractive. Researchers recently published evidence that a compound in centipede venom works better than morphine to quell pain in rodents, for example; the venom’s target is a sodium channel whose function is lost in people who don’t sense pain. Marijuana has also gained considerable support as states have pushed to make the drug more accessible to people in pain. Looking to seize upon the painkilling power of cannabinoids, Dale Deutsch of Stony Brook University and his colleagues screened a million compounds to find those that would inhibit the enzyme that breaks down anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter. The result is an increase in anandamide, which activates natural cannabinoid receptors, and which Deutsch’s group found has painkilling powers.5 His team is now working to develop a medicine from these compounds, but it is unlikely that they could be as effective as opioids. Developing a less effective drug is a tough sell, but there are other advantages, such as safety, Deutsch notes. “If you overdose with this or marijuana, your heart doesn’t stop, your breathing doesn’t stop. People are dying from [opioids].”


WRITE-UP Are painkillers bad for you? A recent report says that taking over-the-counter tablets for everyday aches and pains could do more harm than good. According to a recent survey six out of 10 people who suffer regular aches and pains rely on over-the-counter painkillers to get them through the day. But many are putting their health at risk because long-term use can be deadly. A report from health watchdog NICE warns of a “very definite trend” linking paracetamol to heart attacks, strokes, kidney failure and gastric problems and says it should be used at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible time. It also states to “use cautiously in combination with oral NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)”. NSAIDs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, are known to cause gastric bleeding and experts at Oxford University estimate they are responsible for 12,000 hospital admissions and 2,500 deaths every year. Despite these risks a recent survey for the pain-relieving cream/ointment Deep Relief revealed that one in six people said they regularly took the maximum dose, while three per cent admitted they took as many as needed “regardless of what is recommended on the pack”. More than a third had not discussed their pain with a doctor or pharmacist. “A number of studies have linked long-term use of NSAIDs to serious side effects,” says GP and author Dr Sarah Brewer. “As a result many people may be unaware of the risks and the potential for interactions with medicines such as blood-thinning drugs.” From

Write a paragraph or essay throwing your opinions on it is whether good or bad to take a pain-killer. Can we avoid using it to get rid of our pain? Do we have any other method? So what are the effective alternatives?


SESSION 12 : Autonomy LEAD-IN Listen to the history of colonization here before you enter into the content of this session.

Effects of European Colonization: Christopher Columbus and Native Americans VDO URL:



What is your opinion about the age of colonization? What are the opinions towards the colonizer and those towards the countries being under colonization?


READ-THROUGH Read these two articles and then compare and contrast the ideas you get from those articles. Passage 1

Britain's Betrayal of Hong Kong13 London fails to call Beijing on its broken promises of autonomy. A political showdown looms in Hong Kong. Beijing has stripped the city of the high degree of autonomy it promised in a 1984 treaty with the United Kingdom. Local residents are preparing a campaign of civil disobedience in protest. Yet London has failed to express even mild criticism of Beijing's treaty violation. The people of Hong Kong overwhelmingly want to elect their next Chief Executive, a reform that until a month ago seemed within reach. On Monday university and secondary students began a week-long boycott of classes to demonstrate for democracy. A new poll from Chinese University shows that one-fifth of the population is considering emigration because of the city's uncertain future. 13


This turmoil is the result of Beijing's shock decision at the end of August to rig the 2017 Chief Executive election with the most antidemocratic system tabled by its local supporters. Only politicians who receive majority support from a committee packed with Beijing's supporters will be allowed to run. The Communist Party's response to criticism is that any election conducted with universal suffrage is a step forward. The Sino-British Joint Declaration did not explicitly promise democracy, and the British didn't introduce elections for legislators until five years before their departure. So it is the "rankest hypocrisy," in the words of the Chinese ambassador to the U.K., for Chris Patten, the last colonial governor, to claim London has a moral responsibility to speak up for Hong Kong. Yet the desire for greater democracy was the critical issue facing Hong Kong long before the 1997 handover. Beginning in 1985, a drafting committee of local residents and Chinese officials created a constitutional document, the Basic Law, reflecting the Sino-British Joint Declaration's promise of self-government. "How Hong Kong develops its democracy in the future is completely within the sphere of the autonomy of Hong Kong," Lu Ping, China's top official on Hong Kong matters, promised in the People's Daily in March 1993. "The central government will not interfere." That's a promise Beijing broke. In 2004 it reinterpreted the Basic Law to mean that Hong Kong could not initiate political reform without its prior approval. In 2007 it ruled out elections in 2012. Last month's decree mandates a vetting system similar to the kind of "democracy" that exists in Iran, where thousands of candidates are routinely disqualified by the regime. As a signatory to the Joint Declaration, only the U.K. has the legal standing to protest Beijing's broken promises. So how did London respond? For four days, the Foreign Office said nothing. Finally it put out a statement even more abject than silence: "We welcome the confirmation that China's objective is for the election of Hong Kong's Chief Executive through universal suffrage." Martin Lee, Hong Kong's doughtiest fighter for democracy, rightly summed up London's attitude as "kowtowing to Beijing for 30 pieces of silver." It's true Britain's power to influence developments in Hong Kong is limited. Yet Beijing's xenophobic bluster shows that it still fears a principled statement from London to defend the territory's autonomy. Chinese media routinely accuse


pro-democracy politicians of being funded by foreign "black money"—even as Beijing pumps money into local puppet groups. When Margaret Thatcher agreed to return Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, she defended the decision on grounds that the U.K. would hold Beijing to its treaty commitments. Count that as one more Thatcherite legacy her successors have failed to honor.

Passage 2

U.K. Promises More Powers to Scotland if Nation Rejects Independence14 "They have failed to scare the Scots, now they are trying to bribe us" The British government has promised a range of new financial powers for Scotland if voters choose to stay part of the U.K.



Residents of Scotland will head to polling booths on Sept. 18 in a historic vote to decide whether to become an independent nation for the first time in more than four centuries. The new offer comes as opinion polls swung in favor of a Yes vote for Scottish independence for the first time this month. A YouGov poll put the Yes campaign at 51% while the No campaign slid down to 49%. In light of the sudden swing, British Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne said the new powers would include more autonomy on tax, spending and welfare if Scots vote against independence. “Then Scotland will have the best of both worlds. They will both avoid the risks of separation but have more control over their own destiny, which is where I think many Scots want to be,” the Conservative MP told the BBC. But many in the Yes camp feel the offer smacks of desperation, and is too little too late. “I don’t think people are going to take this seriously. If the other parties had been serious about more powers, then something concrete would have been put forward before now,” Nicola Sturgeon, deputy leader of the proindependence Scottish National Party, told the BBC. Her views were echoed by First Minister Alex Salmond of Scotland. “This is a ridiculous position being put forward by a campaign … in terminal trouble,” he said. “They have failed to scare the Scots, now they are trying to bribe us.” Since the referendum campaign started, surveys have shown that Scotland would likely stay within the U.K., but the current shift in the polls now has the British government worried that Scots will choose to secede. A key issue has been whether an independent Scotland could continue to use the currency pound sterling — a prospect all three of the major London-based political parties say they would veto, but the Yes campaign insists it is outside of Westminster’s control.


WRITE-UP Write an argument discussing the positive and negative effects of colonization upon civilizations and social development of a country or region. State the two side of the effects clearly in your essay/paragraph.


SESSION 13 : Euthanasia LEAD-IN If killing is a crime, then is killing a coma patient who has little chance to live also a crime? A doctor of a criminal? Is it moral to let a doctor kill those patients who deserve death as a wish for the last of his life? Listen to this video carefully and discuss with your class.

what is the definition of Active euthanasia (Medical Dictionary Online) VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Discuss these questions with your classmates and instructor. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

What comes to mind when you hear the word ‘euthanasia’? What is the legal status of euthanasia in your country? Do you agree with euthanasia? Do you understand why people choose euthanasia to end their life? The Ancient Greek for euthanasia is ‘good death’. What do you think of this meaning? ‘Passive euthanasia’ is where somebody refuses medication knowing they will die without it. Do you think this is OK? ‘Non-aggressive euthanasia’ is where life support systems keeping someone alive are switched off. What do you think of this? ‘Aggressive euthanasia’ is where lethal substances are used to kill someone who wants to die. What do you think of this? What do you understand by the terms ‘mercy killing’ and ‘assisted suicide’? Do you know any famous cases of euthanasia? What is the difference between euthanasia and suicide? Is there a difference between euthanasia and murder? Does a family member or a doctor have the right to turn off a life support machine? How long should doctors keep someone alive who is brain dead? What does your religion say about euthanasia? Don’t you think doctors have a duty to keep people alive? Is euthanasia a compassionate way for the dying to die? Do governments have the right to keep suffering people alive? Why not allow euthanasia to save on health care costs? Do people have a right to die?


READ-THROUGH Read and understand what are being implied by the texts. Also, figure out what are the opinions of the writers and other people involved in the argument. Passage 1

Euthanasia: We can live without it...15 Disabled people, elderly people, adults made vulnerable by terminal and other illnesses, and now children are being told that their lives are not worth living. This view was forcefully expressed by Professor Etienne Vermeersch in a recent public debate on euthanasia in Brussels. One of the authors of Belgium's controversial euthanasia law, Vermeersch said it had been specifically designed to include disabled people. For Vermeersch it seemed obvious that "a man with no arms or legs" would want to die.



Without conscience or insight into the discrimination of choosing only disabled people as examples, he shouted at a member of the audience "Just wait until you are paralysed." A paraplegic wheelchair-user for forty years, I was sitting directly in front of him, and had spoken before the debate. His chilling and very final solution to suffering is to remove the sufferer. His zealous delivery caused a frisson in the room amongst most (though sadly not all) of the audience. With its clear echoes, this discourse from a government adviser was shocking. Earlier in the same debate, Alex Schadenberg of the Euthanasia Prevention Coalition had pointed out that the law in Belgium is just not safe: â—? Nearly half (47%) of euthanasia deaths are not reported (according to a study carried out in Flanders in 2007): This is illegal. â—? Euthanasia deaths should be carried out by doctors, but according to a 2007 study, nurses are doing them: This is illegal. â—? Some euthanasia deaths are carried out without consent (according to a 2007 study in Flanders): This is illegal. Dr. Jan Bernheim, a leading promoter of euthanasia, admitted that there are problems with Belgium's euthanasia law. But despite its "imperfections" he still believes it should be extended to children. Bernheim argued euthanasia was necessary to remove suffering: yet pain is hardly ever the reason for seeking euthanasia. In fact, any palliative care specialist will say no-one should ever be in intolerable pain. Bernheim claims Dr. Wim Distelmans as his protege: Distelmans recently ended the life of Nancy/Nathan Verhelst, in front of TV cameras. After a series of botched sex-change operations, in the absence of other support, Verhelst sought refuge in death by euthanasia. The Belgian commission to regulate the practice of euthanasia has never referred a case of euthanasia to prosecutors (and remember only half of those are reported). It is co-chaired by Distelmans. It is fundamentally unsafe that the most high-profile doctor in Belgium to carry out euthanasia is also the regulator.


Distelmans also carried out the euthanasia of Mark and Eddy Verbessem, 45-year-old identical twins, who were deaf and decided they wanted to die after their eyesight began to fail. Anorexic Ann G. also opted to have her life ended after being sexually abused by the Belgian psychiatrist who was supposed to be treating her for her life-threatening condition. The core of good clinical governance is patient safety but under Belgium's euthanasia laws that is sacrificed in the name of individual choice. Verhelst, the Verbessems and Ann G. -- bereft of support -- felt they had no choice but death. The European Social Rights Committee has condemned Belgium for violation of the European Social Charter because of its lack of social care. It is little wonder that disabled Belgian people fall into terminal despair, but that does not validate euthanasia becoming a "treatment" for depression as it has in Belgium. Killing someone by lethal injection is not an act of medicine: it comes when medicine apparently has nothing left to offer. With a 500% increase in euthanasia in Belgium in ten years, it is crystal clear that the law in Belgium is not safe; we cannot stand by as they try to extend that law to children.


Passage 2

Euthanasia: Hope you never need it, but be glad the option is there16 The time was always going to come when society would need to face the pointy end of the voluntary euthanasia debate: Those hard cases that would challenge most people's support for the issue, the cases and circumstances which constitute never-before trodden ground. While in most Western countries polls repeatedly show strong community support for a terminally ill person's right to obtain medical assistance to die, the results would likely be quite different if the person involved was not an adult, was not of sound mind or was not, in the strictest sense, terminally ill. As Belgium decides whether to extend the right to euthanasia to those who have Alzheimer's and to children, the sharp end of the debate is staring us all in the face, regardless of where we live. The euthanasia argument is about to escalate to heights unknown: We will all be challenged about how to have a good debate, a rational debate as members of



the human race, and in being challenged, we must guard against the moral panic that this issue will inevitably throw up The issues on the table are too important for hysterical indignation and fundamental religious dogma. We are all grown-ups. The debate we are set to have -- some two decades after the world's first right to die law was passed in Australia's Northern Territory -- should be grown-up too, even if some of the stakeholders we are about to discuss are not. Historically, children and people with Alzheimer's are two segments of the community that have been viewed as having little or no agency, something that is referred to as 'capacity' in legal terms. Generally speaking, neither group has been held to be competent to make decisions that would be in their best interests. Yet this is what the Belgians are now planning. For many in the ageing population, there are few fears which top that of getting dementia. Anyone who has watched a loved family member sink into the abyss of confusion and disorientation will know the utter terror that can accompany the process, as the person in question tries to juxtapose moments of clarity with the awfulness of knowing one's grip on reality -- and with it one's dignity and sense of self -- is slipping. In New Zealand earlier this year, the Labor Member of Parliament Maryan Street paved the way with her private members bill which, if passed, would allow New Zealanders to include an assisted suicide in their Living Will. For those who may find themselves with Alzheimer's in future, this inclusion would be a valuable pre-planning tool: "If I do get dementia, at least the children will know what I want. I can now rest assured that my wishes not to live "like that" will be respected." Within the membership of Exit International, this is a common sentiment. So too is the wish not to waste government money keeping the demented elderly alive in the nation's care homes if that is not how, when they could communicate, they said they wanted to spend their last days. On the topic of children, the debate is a little easier. Some children do develop terminal illnesses and do die well before their time. It is not impossible for such young people to have a well-developed sense of their own mortality.


While the Belgians will likely structure legislative developments in this area with stringent safeguards, it is the practice of forcing terminally-ill children to battle on in spite of an appalling prognosis, trying to make it to 18, that is driving the agenda. For both groups, the Belgians are bravely tackling difficulties emerging in their existing legislation, current laws that are quite obviously inadequate, even cruel, in certain circumstances. Unless modern medicine has a cure for Alzheimer's and any number of the terminal illnesses that confront children, the current situation is that they will keep suffering. If suffering cannot be relieved, the question then becomes: what should the State do? Should we all be forced to live on regardless of the quality of life that confronts us? Or, should legislation be extended to ensure dignity and choice for all? At Exit International our motto is "a peaceful death is everybody's right." Somehow the tagline "a peaceful death is everybody's right unless you are a child or a teenager or have dementia, in which case tough luck!" doesn't have the same appeal or the same logic. The Belgians are to be applauded for their progressive thinking and acting -- in the cold light of day, the morality of their intentions is not that challenging when the alternatives are considered. As a son to my aged mother and as a grandfather to my son's three boys, I welcome the type of society that the Belgians are proposing. Of course, I hope no one I love will ever need to use such laws. But I draw great comfort from knowing they are there all the same.


SESSION 14 : The TECH LEAD-IN What do you think about modern life and the effects of technology? Listen to this and give some responses.

Modern Technology: The Ugly Truth VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP What do you think about technology and its effects to our life on daily basis? Answer these questions and support your ideas with a clear set of experiences. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

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What springs to mind when you hear the word ‘technology’? Is technology a good or a bad thing? What new technology could you not live without? Do you like reading about technology? Do you like using technology to learn? What do you think very old people think of modern technology? How has technology changed society? Has technology made us more impatient? Max Frisch said: "Technology is the knack of arranging the world so that we don't have to experience it." Do you agree with him? Mark Kennedy said: "All of the biggest technological inventions created by man - the airplane, the automobile, the computer - say little about his intelligence, but speak volumes about his laziness." Do you agree? What do you think of today’s technology? What do you think of tomorrow’s technology? Do you think we’ve become obsessed with technology? Do you always trust technology? Does technology ever let you down? What things would you never let technology replace? Has technology made our lives better than our grandparents’ lives? What technology is dangerous? Frank Lloyd Wright said: "If it [technology] keeps up, man will waste away all his limbs but the push-button finger." What does this mean? Do you like this quote? Alan M. Eddison said: "Modern technology... Owes ecology... An apology." What does this mean? Do you agree?


READ-THROUGH Read through these passages and do the in-class activity together. Passage 1

U.S. Threatened Yahoo With Massive Fines Over User Data17 Yahoo tried to fight the government's requests for user information The U.S. government threatened Yahoo with a $250,000-a-day fine in 2008 if the tech company did not comply with requests for user information, according to roughly 1,500 pages of newly released legal documents. “We refused to comply with what we viewed as unconstitutional and overbroad surveillance and challenged the U.S. Government’s authority,” Yahoo’s General Counsel Ron Bell wrote in a Tumblr post published on Thursday. “The released



documents underscore how we had to fight every step of the way to challenge the U.S. Government’s surveillance efforts.” Yahoo’s multiple challenges against the government were unsuccessful however, and the company started providing user data to PRISM, the controversial National Security Agency program that was shut down in 2011 and revealed to the public by Edward Snowden in 2013, the Washington Post reports. Yahoo felt these government requests, which asked for data about whom and when users outside of the U.S. emailed (though not email content itself), bypassed required court reviews of each surveillance target. Federal Judge William C. Bryson of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review ordered the unsealing of the documents as part of a move to declassify cases and documents that established the legal basis for the PRISM program.


Passage 2

Most Americans Don’t Want Internet ‘Fast Lanes,’ Poll Finds18 A particularly timely finding, as the public comment period for Federal Communications Commission's proposed rule on net neutrality draws to a close Two-thirds of Americans don’t like the idea of big web companies paying Internet service providers (ISPs) to deliver their content more quickly via so-called “fast lanes” on the Internet, according to a recent poll. CALinnovates, a San Francisco-based coalition that works on public policy in technology, asked people earlier this month about whether they thought rules should be in place “prioritizing Internet traffic – such as one company willing to pay over another.” Well over half of the respondents–63%–replied either that all



traffic should be treated equally or, if priority gets placed, the reason behind the prioritization shouldn’t be because one company pays for it. The results of the poll, released Thursday, arrive just as the end of the public comment period draws near for the Federal Communications Commission’s sharply criticized proposed rule on net neutrality, the idea that ISPs cannot discriminate against certain web content. The deadline is Sept. 15. The FCC’s proposed rule on net neutrality has come under fire in recent months, resulting in the Commission’s receipt of a record-breaking 1.4 million public comments. On Sept. 10, a coalition of tech companies, consumer advocates and public policy groups organized a “day of action” called Battle for the Net, in protest of the FCC’s proposed rule, which generated nearly 2.5 million calls and emails to members of Congress and more than 700,000 comments to the FCC. That coalition advocates for the FCC to categorize ISPs under “Title II” of their statute, which would give the agency the legal jurisdiction to strictly regulate the broadband industry. When it came to the concept of “net neutrality” within CALinnovate’s poll, however, Americans responded more ambivalently, CALInnovates Executive Director Mike Montgomery told TIME in a conference call. Two-thirds of those polled would like “new laws to deal with fast-paced changes that occur in technology,” but three-fourths weren’t sure the Federal government is capable of keeping up with the pace of technological innovation. The Internet Association, an umbrella group that includes Google, Amazon, Ebay, Facebook and other web giants, also opposes the FCC’s proposed rule, but like many of those polled by CALinnovates, stops short of advocating for a specific solution. “Protecting an open Internet, free from discriminatory or anticompetitive actions by broadband gatekeepers should be the cornerstone of net neutrality policy,” said Michael Beckerman, the President and CEO of the Internet Association. “The FCC should leave all of its legal authorities on the table to accomplish this goal.”


Passage 3

Why Terrorists Love Twitter19 In 2011, the Somali Islamist group known as Al-Shabab took to Twitter. Its official handle taunted the group’s enemies, boasted of battlefield triumphs and shared images from the front lines of conflict zones. It sparred with political antagonists, rattling off missives in grandiose English. The terrorists—like the site’s less murderous users—used Twitter to share news and promote their brand. In 2013, a Shabab account live-tweeted commentary as allied fighters carried out a terrorist attack at a Nairobi shopping mall. Terrorists love Twitter. That includes the Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria (ISIS), the Sunni Muslim extremists whom the U.S. is targeting in an expanded military campaign. ISIS has emerged as the most sophisticated group yet at using the service to spread its bloodthirsty message. And when ISIS jihadists and tens of thousands of acolytes swarmed Twitter in recent months, it raised the question of how social media sites should respond when unsavory groups colonize their platform.



There are no easy answers. Social-media networks exist so users can share information; sites like Twitter are neither equipped nor inclined to police large numbers of rogue feeds themselves. And within the intelligence community, there is no consensus on whether the use of sites like Twitter as a propaganda tool hurts or helps U.S. interests. To some observers, Twitter was derelict in allowing extremist accounts to flourish. “For several years, ISIS followers have been hijacking Twitter to freely promote their jihad with very little to no interference at all,” says Rita Katz, director of the SITE Intelligence Group, which studies jihadi extremists’ behavior online. “Twitter’s lack of action has resulted in a strong, and massive pro-ISIS presence on their social media platform, consisting of campaigns to mobilize, recruit and terrorize.” Others say it’s not so simple. “There is a case to be made for removing the content or removing the most prolific [jihadist] accounts online. Each time that happens, they had to rebuild their audience. It has a disruptive effect,” says counterterrorism expert Clint Watts, who has studied ISIS’s behavior online. But ISIS accounts may also, in some cases, be a boon to intelligence-gathering efforts. “Their braggadocio tells us what we don’t know about what’s happening in eastern Syria,” Watts says. “In Iraq they show us every one of their successes. There is value in that.” For that reason, some government officials may prefer the accounts remain open. “There is some value to being able to track them on Twitter,” says William McCants, a former State Department senior adviser who directs the Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World at the Brookings Institution. McCants recalls that a U.S. intelligence official described the site as a “gold mine” of information about foreign-fighter networks, better than any clandestine sources. The State Department is using Twitter itself, with a counter-propaganda campaign run through an account, Think AgainTurn Away. It tries to nettle ISIS and neutralize their recruiting. A Twitter spokesperson declined to comment for this article. The site’s rules prohibit threats of violence, harassment and other abuses, and government agencies or law enforcement officials are able to request the removal of prohibited content. In 2013, it received just 437 such requests from governments worldwide; it received 432 in the first half of this year. In recent months, Twitter has cracked down on some accounts, including those sharing macabre images or videos of the beheading of American journalists


James Foley and Steven Sotloff. But it is not trawling for the content that some government officials believe has the greatest potential to convert potential conscripts. “This is not necessarily a bloody picture. It’s somebody telling you to go kill,” says Alberto Fernandez, coordinator of the State Department’s Center for Strategic Counterterrorism Communications, whose digital outreach team is responsible for the Twitter counter-messaging campaign. “That discussion is not being taken down by Twitter.” It’s easy to see why terrorists flocked to the platform. Beginning in the mid-2000s, al-Qaeda has been organizing online through bulletin-board forums, which were largely password protected and sometimes required special contacts to gain access. Moderators would scrub signs of dissension. In contrast, Twitter is something of a digital town square—a free megaphone to reach a mass audience, easily accessible on smartphones and largely unmonitored. As ISIS fighters began capturing vast swaths of Syria and Iraq this summer, its network of online organizers—there are around 30 key players, according to analysts who study global extremism online—tweeted about territorial gains, posting photographic proof of their conquests. They softened their hard-edged image by sprinkling in common humanizing touches, like pictures of meals and cute cat photos. And they set about trying to recruit more conscripts—including Westerners—to the cause. It may seem incongruous; religious extremism is in large part a renunciation of modern society, while the social-media platform is both emblem and enabler of the networked world. But since it is impossible to scrub all pro-ISIS sentiment from Twitter, U.S. analysts are trying to use the service to piece together a better understanding of the terrorist group’s dynamics. Twitter’s decision to silence some accounts but not all is fine, McCants says, and watching the group latch onto a new account when a big one is blocked can be instructive. “When you knock one of them down, it’s interesting to see how quickly they reconstitute and who their earliest followers are,” he says. “Those are the guys that are plugged in.”


SESSION 15 : Brainwave LEAD-IN What is a brainwave vibration? Listen to the overview carefully.

What Is Brain Wave Vibration? VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Do you autism? How can autistic persons can live a normal life like those ordinary people? Talk about these myths of autism in class. Are they all true or not? 1.

People with autism don't want friends. If someone in your class has autism, she probably struggles with social skills, which may make it difficult to interact with peers. She might seem shy or unfriendly, but that's just because she is unable communicate her desire for relationships the same way you do. 2. People with autism can't feel or express any emotion—happy or sad. Autism doesn't make an individual unable to feel the emotions you feel, it just makes the person communicate emotions (and perceive your expressions) in different ways. 3. People with autism can't understand the emotions of others. Autism often affects an individual's ability to understand unspoken interpersonal communication, so someone with autism might not detect sadness based solely on one's body language or sarcasm in one's tone of voice. But, when emotions are communicated more directly, people with autism are much more likely to feel empathy and compassion for others. 4. People with autism are intellectually disabled. Often times, autism brings with it just as many exceptional abilities as limitations. Many people with autism have normal to high IQs and some may excel at math, music or another pursuit. 5. People with autism are just like Dustin Hoffman's character in Rain Man. Autism is a spectrum disorder, meaning its characteristics vary significantly from person to person. Knowing one person with autism means just that—knowing one person with autism. His or her capabilities and limitations are no indication of the capabilities and limitations of another person with autism. 6. People who display qualities that may be typical of a person with autism are just odd and will grow out of it. Autism stems from biological conditions that affect brain development and, for many individuals, is a life long condition. 7. People with autism will have autism forever. Recent research has shown that children with autism can make enough improvement after intensive early intervention to "test out" of the autism diagnosis. This is more evidence for the importance of addressing autism when the first signs appear. 8. Autism is just a brain disorder. Research has shown that many people with autism also have gastro-intestinal disorders, food sensitivities, and many allergies. 9. Autism is caused by bad parenting. In the 1950s, a theory called the "refrigerator mother hypothesis" arose suggesting that autism was caused by mothers who lacked emotional warmth. This has long been disproved. 10. The prevalence of autism has been steadily increasing for the last 40 years. The rate of autism has increased by 600% in the last 20 years. In 1975, an estimated 1 in 1,500 had autism. In 2009, an estimated 1 in 110 had an autism spectrum disorder.


READ-THROUGH Read these two articles and be prepared for a thoughtful discussion. Passage 1

Brainwave Test could improve autism diagnosis, classification20 A new study by researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University suggests that measuring how fast the brain responds to sights and sounds could help in objectively classifying people on the autism spectrum and may help diagnose the condition earlier. The paper was published today in the online edition of the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 1 in 68 children has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The signs and symptoms of ASD vary significantly from person to person, ranging from mild social and communication difficulties to profound cognitive impairments. "One of the challenges in autism is that we don't know how to classify patients into subgroups or even what those subgroups might be," said study leader Sophie Molholm, Ph.D., associate professor in the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience and the Muriel and Harold Block Faculty Scholar in Mental Illness in the department of pediatrics at Einstein. "This has greatly limited our understanding of the disorder and how to treat it." Autism is diagnosed based on a patient's behavioral characteristics and symptoms. "These assessments can be highly subjective and require a tremendous amount of clinical expertise," said Dr. Molholm. "We clearly need a more objective way to diagnose and classify this disorder."



An earlier study by Dr. Molholm and colleagues suggested that brainwave electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings could potentially reveal how severely ASD individuals are affected. That study found that children with ASD process sensory information -- such as sound, touch and vision -- less rapidly than typically developing children do. The current study was intended to see whether sensory processing varies along the autism spectrum. Forty-three ASD children aged 6 to 17 were presented with either a simple auditory tone, a visual image (red circle), or a tone combined with an image, and instructed to press a button as soon as possible after hearing the tone, seeing the image or seeing and hearing the two stimuli together. Continuous EEG recordings were made via 70 scalp electrodes to determine how fast the children's brains were processing the stimuli. The speed with which the subjects processed auditory signals strongly correlated with the severity of their symptoms: the more time required for an ASD individual to process the auditory signals, the more severe that person's autistic symptoms. "This finding is in line with studies showing that, in people with ASD, the microarchitecture in the brain's auditory center differs from that of typically developing children," Dr. Molholm said. The study also found a significant though weaker correlation between the speed of processing combined audio-visual signals and ASD severity. No link was observed between visual processing and ASD severity. "This is a first step toward developing a biomarker of autism severity -- an objective way to assess someone's place on the ASD spectrum," said Dr. Molholm. "Using EEG recordings in this way might also prove useful for objectively evaluating the effectiveness of ASD therapies." In addition, EEG recordings might help diagnose ASD earlier. "Early diagnosis allows for earlier treatment -- which we know increases the likelihood of a better outcome," said Dr. Molholm. "But currently, fewer than 15 percent of children with ASD are diagnosed before age 4. We might be able to adapt this technology to allow for early ASD detection and therapy for a much larger percentage of children."


Passage 2

Brainwave Neurofeedback for Autism: Can It Help?21 Helping children to control their own brainwaves may help autism symptoms Autism is a condition that effects 1 in 88 children according to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control. Treatments for autism remain very limited with many families attempting to try to improve symptoms based on changes in diet, supplements, or other interventions. Several people had recently mentioned the benefits their children had experienced from neurofeedback. Neurofeedback involves being monitored by a machine that monitors your brainwave activities through an electroencephalographic (EEG) machine. These brainwaves can be presented on a computer screen by either lines or graphs, or by simple objects such as a ball. As the child uses neurofeedback, and gets closer to having the “normal� brainwave patterns, they will notice the ball or lines on the screen change. This is essentially a way of teaching a child how to self-regulate their own brainwaves. As with any activity, practice is essential to improving performance. Very few side effects to neurofeedback have been identified, and in large part no serious concerns have been seen. Some children have noted headaches and muscular tension. Reports from caregivers of people with autism suggest people have witnessed improvements in a variety of areas including speech and irritability. A few scientific reports have highlighted that a demonstrated increase in social interaction may be seen in child with autism following treatment. One study suggested that parents who noticed an improvement continued to see the benefits for at least a year after neurofeedback. We know from other studies that 21


the brainwaves of children with autism may well be different in many ways to the brainwaves of their non-autistic peers. Although neurofeedback looks promising as one option for treating some of the symptoms of autism, looking through the scientific literature, it appears that there have been only a very limited number of small studies, with widely varying methods. Some researchers have suggested that the findings supporting the use of neurofeedback in ASD are inconclusive. I think, as several others have commented, that this is likely to be as a result of a lack of research studies into this interesting area. The story of neurofeedback and another childhood condition, attention-deficit–hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is different. Neurofeedback has been shown to help children with ADHD by improving hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Interestingly, we know that many children with autism may also have these symptoms. It has been suggested that 1 in 3 children with autism may also have ADHD. It is clear that we need further research in this area, as we need to explore how the brainwaves of children with autism may be different, and then determine if neurofeedback is an intervention that we should be using more frequently.


WRITE-UP Do you think that autism is a problem or not? Can we track down the actual cause or provide a cure to this issue? Express your opinions about the autism.


SESSION 16 : Diversity LEAD-IN Listen to a short video from the community. See how diversity becomes benefits to an organization.

The benefits of diversity in organisations. Some real examples. VDO URL:


SPEAK-UP Discuss some of these questions with your classmates and instructor. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

What are some things that define a culture? For example, music, language, ... What do you think is interesting about your culture? Do you know much about your own culture? When people from other countries think about your culture, what do they usually think of? In your culture is it polite to be straightforward and direct when you talk to someone? What has surprised you when you've met people from other countries? Have you looked at Internet pages from a different culture? If so, how were they different from those of your own culture? What do you like about your culture? What don't you like about your culture? How do young people in your culture behave differently from older people? How do young people in your culture behave differently from people in this culture? Are there many people of different cultures in your country? Are you friends with any? Have you ever felt confused by the actions of someone from another culture? How are your language teachers who are not from your country different from your other teachers? Who in your culture do you admire most? What your culture are you most proud about? Why do you think culture is important? If you could change one thing about your culture, what would it be? Would you ever consider marrying or dating someone from another culture? Would you ever consider living permanently in a country other than your home country? Why or why not? What does it mean to be polite in your culture? What is considered rude in your culture? Is there anything in this culture that is considered rude that may not be considered rude in your culture? If a group of people just came to your country from overseas, what advice would you give them?


READ-THROUGH Read these two articles carefully and be ready for the activity in the class. Passage 1

Expanding your business in India? Embrace the cultural differences22 Expanding your business in India? Embrace the cultural differences New survey from Jones Lang LaSalle identifies the challenges of driving workplace productivity in India Forty four percent of companies surveyed globally plan to expand in India over the next three years, but the country's vast cultural diversity is one of the biggest challenges they will face when it comes to driving workplace transformation in the country, according to a new report by global real estate advisor Jones Lang LaSalle.



India Corporate Real Estate Trends shows that 22 percent of both Western and Indian corporate real estate (CRE) executives based in India view complexity arising from cultural diversity as a major limitation for workplace transformation, in comparison to the seven percent global average. Yash Kapila, Managing Director, Corporate Solutions, India at Jones Lang LaSalle said, "Accommodating diversity in the workplace is challenging, especially when companies are required to create productive and coherent spaces at the same time. India's astounding diversity of religions, languages and cultures requires businesses to adopt a more tailored approach to workplace transformation, based on a deep understanding of the country and the culture." As both Indian and Western companies seek to capitalise on India's economic growth, there is increasing pressure to contain costs while enhancing workplace productivity. The report shows that 89 percent of CRE executives in India, compared to 72 percent globally, are being challenged by their senior leadership to impact and add value to the productivity of their workplace. Boosting productivity through real estate is a high expectation amongst companies across the globe and is moving beyond the workplace to include people, business and asset productivity. Mr Kapila said, "In India, more than in most countries, enhancing workplace productivity is a strategic priority and this calls for more commitment from CRE teams. Workplace transformation projects offer CRE teams a unique opportunity to demonstrate value to the business. However, lack of investment capital, cultural diversity, employee resistance and lack of continued support often stop complex projects from being completed successfully." The report shows that 72 percent of CRE teams in India do not feel well equipped to address the increasing demands of senior leadership and are at risk of under-performing. However, India's BPO culture nurtures the readiness to adopt outsourcing models and solutions making outsourcing the delivery of CRE services to external partners an increasingly accepted and cost effective solution for both global companies looking to expand into the country and Indian companies looking at domestic growth.


Passage 2

No unity in diversity Remembering the giants of 20th-century Asian politics THE cliché of the “Asian century” is usually presented as an economic argument: that the startling growth of a number of Asian countries is shifting the centre of gravity of the global economy to the continent where the bulk of its people live. But, argues an Indian historian, Ramachandra Guha, in the introduction to this entertaining and illuminating collection of essays, “the politics matters just as much as the economics.” Modern Asia is of course also the result of the anti-colonial movements, wars and revolutions of the previous century. The justifiable conceit behind the book Mr Guha has edited is that a good way to understand this is to look at the national leaders thrown up by the tumult. The strength of the idea lies in the 11 leaders it covers and the expertise of the writers assembled to tell their extraordinary stories. They range from Mr Guha himself on Gandhi (pictured right with Jawaharlal Nehru), an ascetic apostle of non-violence, to Rana Mitter on Mao Zedong, responsible for more deaths than perhaps any other modern leader. Yet, as Mr Mitter notes, these two share the distinction of being among the very few non-European leaders to achieve global brand-name status in the 20th century. Three other Chinese leaders are included.


Two of them, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping, made their names by not being Mao. Zhou kept his reputation as a moderate who had tempered Mao’s excesses; Deng doffed his cap to Mao but dismantled virtually everything he stood for. The final Chinese “maker”, Chiang Kai-shek, ended up in exile, founding one of Asia’s great success stories in Taiwan. Mr Guha also includes two more Indians, Nehru and his daughter Indira Gandhi. She remains an important figure if only because the dynastic obsession that has ruined Congress, her father’s party, started with her. Vietnam’s independence leader, Ho Chi Minh, was an obvious choice. So, given the intellectual influence he has wielded far beyond Singapore, was Lee Kuan Yew, the sole subject still alive. For Indonesia, the founding president, Sukarno, too, is a pivotal figure, though his successor, Suharto, ruled far longer and arguably casts a longer shadow over the country today. Mr Guha justifies the choice of the 11th leader, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan, over the nation’s founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, by denying that Jinnah’s legacy matters today. Well, except in the country’s very existence. Telling Asia’s story through its leaders has its limitations. Japan, for example, failed to produce a leader who is remembered today, and it appears in the book only within the context of other Asian countries. Yet, as Mr Guha notes, Japan was central to the Asian story as its first industrial nation, and the first to win a war against a European power. Korea is also absent. Mr Guha dismisses Park Chung-hee, who began South Korea’s economic miracle, as a modernising dictator in the style of Mr Lee. He appears not to have considered Kim Il Sung, the dictator thanks to whom North Korea has yet to escape the worst of 20th-century politics. On the other hand, the chapters on Sukarno, by James Rush, and on Bhutto, by Farzana Shaikh, are exceptional. They highlight some common themes. All the leaders were shaped by what Mr Rush calls “the same large forces” of global imperialism. Yet they derived many of their ideas from Western thinkers: Marx, of course; Lenin, especially, in China and Vietnam; but also Tolstoy (Gandhi) and even Napoleon (Bhutto). And though many are seen in retrospect as towering leaders, most, like politicians everywhere, spent their careers preoccupied with threats to their own power, fending off the attacks of forgotten political rivals. Many of them also had problems institutionalising the revolutions they had led, so their passing or political downfall led to instability. None of this, however, is unique to “Asian” leaders. The sheer size and diversity of the continent gives the book a slightly random feel. The disparities between Mr


Guha’s 11 portraits, however well written and however important their subjects, makes it hard for the reader to trace a coherent “Asian” thread linking the chapters. This is, of course, a problem that faces many anthologies. It is also a problem that confronts Asia, as it searches for regional integration and common values and identities that will make the idea of the “Asian century” more than simply a cartographic observation.


WRITE-UP Pick up one of the following three questions and write an essay in a well-developed format. (1) Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Modern technology is creating a single world culture. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. (2) Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Dancing plays an important role in a culture. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. (3) What are the important qualities of a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in your culture? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.


SESSION 17 : Wrap-Up 20 Tips for IELTS Success23 1. In Listening, use the example at the beginning of the first section to familiarize yourself with the sound, the situation, and the speakers. 2. Keep listening until the recording stops, looking only at the questions that relate to the part being played. 3. There are often pauses in the recording between different sections. Use these to prepare for the next set of questions. 4. Answer Listening questions in the order they appear on the Question Paper. Remember that they normally follow the order of the information in the recording. 5. At the end of the recording you have some time to transfer your answers to the Answer Sheet. Check your grammar and spelling as you do so. 6. In Academic Reading, begin by going quickly through each passage to identify features such as the topic, the style, the likely source, the writer’s purpose and the intended reader. 7. As you read, don’t try to understand the precise meaning of every word or phrase. You don’t have time, and those parts of the text might not be tested anyway. 8. Reading tasks sometimes have an example answer. If this is the case, study it and decide why it is correct. 9. Some tasks require you to use words from the text in the answer; in others you should use your own words. Check the instructions carefully. 10. The instructions may also include a word limit, e.g. Use no more than three words. Keep to this by avoiding unnecessary words in your answer. 11. In Academic Writing, you must always keep to the topic set. Never try to prepare sections of text before the exam. 12. Keep to the suggested timing: there are more marks possible for Task 2 than Task 1. 13. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, using a wide range of language and showing your ability (in Task 2) to discuss ideas and express opinions. 14. If you write less than 150 words in Task 1 or less than 250 in Task 2 you will lose marks, but there is no maximum number of words for either. 15. When you plan your essay, allow plenty of time at the end to check your work. 23


16. In Speaking, don’t try to give a prepared speech, or talk about a different topic from the one you are asked to discuss. 17. Always speak directly to the Examiner, not to the recording equipment. 18. Whenever you reply ‘Yes’ or ‘No’ to the Examiner’s questions, add more details to your answer. In each case, aim to explain at least one point. 19. Remember that you are not being tested on your general knowledge but on your ability to communicate effectively. 20. Organize and link your ideas and sentences appropriately, talking clearly at normal speed and using a wide range of structures and vocabulary.


In this section, you will be wrapped up buy your instructor. The content here is referred to the website

LISTENING There are four sections in the listening test. Each section has 10 questions, making a total of 40 questions. The sections become progressively harder. The answers to the questions come in the same order as the information on the recording. The whole test lasts about 30 minutes, including the instructions, your reading and listening time, and the time allowed for transferring your answers from the questions paper to an answer sheet. The instructions are included on the recording. SECTION 1 Questions 1-7 Complete the form below, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.


Questions 8-10 Label the diagram/plan below. Write the correct letter, A–G, next to questions 8–10.

Section 2 Questions 11-14 Complete the sentences below, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.

Questions 15-17 Label the identification sheet below. Write the correct letter A–E next to questions 5–8.


Questions 18-20 Complete the summary below, using NO MORE THAN ONE WORD in each space.


SECTION 3 Questions 21-26 Which company website has the following features? A Hills Cycles website B Wheels Unlimited website C both websites Write the correct letter, A, B, or C next to questions 21–26.


Questions 27-30 Choose the correct letter, A, B, or C.


SECTION 4 Questions 31-37 Answer the questions below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer.


Questions 38-40 What does the lecturer say about each type of elephant call? Choose your answers from the box, and write the letters A–H next to questions 38–40.


READING Reading is the second part of the IELTS test, and takes 60 minutes. It consists of three or sometimes four reading passages of increasing difficulty, and there is a total of 40 questions to answer. Though you can mark and write on the Question Paper, you must enter your answers on the Reading Answer Sheet, and be aware that no extra time is given for transferring your answers from the test booklet to the Reading Answer Sheet.

Academic Reading Passage 1 The coral reefs of Agatti Island A Agatti is one of the Lakshadweep Islands off the southwest coast of India. These islands are surrounded by lagoons and coral reefs which are in turn surrounded by the open ocean. Coral reefs, which are formed from the skeletons of minute sea creatures, give shelter to a variety of plants and animals, and therefore have the potential to provide a stream of diverse benefits to the inhabitants of Agatti Island. B In the first place, the reefs provide food and other products for consumption by the islanders themselves. Foods include different types of fish, octopus and molluscs, and in the case of poorer families these constitute as much as 90% of the protein they consume. Reef resources are also used for medicinal purposes. For example, the money cowrie, a shell known locally as Vallakavadi, is commonly made into a paste and used as a home remedy to treat cysts in the eye. C In addition, the reef contributes to income generation. According to a recent survey, 20% of the households on Agatti report lagoon fishing, or shingle, mollusc, octopus and cowrie collection as their main occupation (Hoon et al, 2002). For poor households, the direct contribution of the reef to their financial resources is significant: 12% of poor households are completely dependent on the reef for their household income, while 59% of poor households rely on the reef for 70% of their household income, and the remaining 29% for 50% of their household income. D Bartering of reef resources also commonly takes place, both between islanders and between islands. For example, Agatti Island is known for its abundance of octopus, and this is often used to obtain products from nearby Androth Island. Locally, reef products may be given by islanders in return for favours, such as help in constructing a house or net mending, or for other products such as rice, coconuts or fish. E The investment required to exploit the reefs is minimal. It involves simple, locally available tools and equipment, some of which can be used without a boat, such as the fishing practice known as Kat moodsal. This is carried out in the shallow eastern lagoon of Agatti by children and adults, close to shore at low tide, throughout the year. A small cast net, a leaf bag, and plastic slippers are all that are required, and the activity can yield 10–12 small fish (approximately 1 kg) for household


consumption. Cast nets are not expensive, and all the households in Agatti own at least one. Even the boats, which operate in the lagoon and near-shore reef, are constructed locally and have low running costs. They are either small, non-mechanised, traditional wooden rowing boats, known as Thonis, or rafts, known as Tharappam. F During more than 400 years of occupation and survival, the Agatti islanders have developed an intimate knowledge of the reefs. They have knowledge of numerous different types of fish and where they can be found according to the tide or lunar cycle. They have also developed a local naming system or folk taxonomy, naming fish according to their shape. Sometimes the same species is given different names depending on its size and age. For example, a full grown Emperor fish is called Metti and a juvenile is called Killokam. The abundance of each species at different fishing grounds is also well known. Along with this knowledge of reef resources, the islanders have developed a wide range of skills and techniques for exploiting them. A multitude of different fishing techniques are still used by the islanders, each targeting different areas of the reef and particular species. G The reef plays an important role in the social lives of the islanders too, being an integral part of traditions and rituals. Most of the island’s folklore revolves around the reef and sea. There is hardly any tale or song which does not mention the traditional sailing crafts, known as Odams, the journeys of enterprising ‘heroes’, the adventures of sea fishing and encounters with sea creatures. Songs that women sing recollect women looking for returning Odams, and requesting the waves to be gentler and the breeze just right for the sails. There are stories of the benevolent sea ghost baluvam, whose coming to shore is considered a harbinger of prosperity for that year, bringing more coconuts, more fish and general well-being. H The reef is regarded by the islanders as common property, and all the islanders are entitled to use the lagoon and reef resources. In the past, fishing groups would obtain permission from the Amin (island head person) and go fishing in the grounds allotted by him. On their return, the Amin would be given a share of the catch, normally one of the best or biggest fish. This practice no longer exists, but there is still a code of conduct or etiquette for exploiting the reef, and common respect for this is an effective way of avoiding conflict or disputes. I Exploitation of such vast and diverse resources as the reefs and lagoon surrounding the island has encouraged collaborative efforts, mainly for purposes of safety, but also as a necessity in the operation of many fishing techniques. For example, an indigenous gear and operation known as Bala fadal involves 25–30 men. Reef gleaning for cowrie collection by groups of 6–10 women is also a common activity, and even today, although its economic significance is marginal, it continues as a recreational activity.


Questions 1-9 Reading Passage 1 has nine paragraphs A窶的. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list of headings below.


Questions 10-13 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.


Academic Reading Passage 2 Urban planning in Singapore British merchants established a trading post in Singapore in the early nineteenth century, and for more than a century trading interests dominated. However, in 1965 the newly independent island state was cut off from its hinterland, and so it set about pursuing a survival strategy. The good international communications it already enjoyed provided a useful base, but it was decided that if Singapore was to secure its economic future, it must develop its industry. To this end, new institutional structures were needed to facilitate, develop, and control foreign investment. One of the most important of these was the Economic Development Board (EDB), an arm of government that developed strategies for attracting investment. Thus from the outset, the Singaporean government was involved in city promotion. Towards the end of the twentieth century, the government realised that, due to limits on both the size of the country’s workforce and its land area, its labour-intensive industries were becoming increasingly uncompetitive. So an economic committee was established which concluded that Singapore should focus on developing as a service centre, and seek to attract company headquarters to serve South East Asia, and develop tourism, banking, and offshore activities. The land required for this service-sector orientation had been acquired in the early 1970s, when the government realised that it lacked the banking infrastructure for a modern economy. So a new banking and corporate district, known as the ‘Golden Shoe’, was planned, incorporating the historic commercial area. This district now houses all the major companies and various government financial agencies. Singapore’s current economic strategy is closely linked to land use and development planning. Although it is already a major city, the current development plan seeks to ensure Singapore’s continued economic growth through restructuring, to ensure that the facilities needed by future business are planned now. These include transport and telecommunication infrastructure, land, and environmental quality. A major concern is to avoid congestion in the central area, and so the latest plan deviates from previous plans by having a strong decentralisation policy. The plan makes provision for four major regional centres, each serving 800,000 people, but this does not mean that the existing central business district will not also grow. A major extension planned around Marina Bay draws on examples of other ‘world cities’, especially those with waterside central areas such as Sydney and San Francisco. The project involves major land reclamation of 667 hectares in total. Part of this has already been developed as a conference and exhibition zone, and the rest will be used for other facilities. However the need for vitality has been recognised and a mixed zoning approach has been adopted, to include housing and entertainment. One of the new features of the current plan is a broader conception of what contributes to economic success. It encompasses high quality residential provision, a good environment, leisure facilities and exciting city life. Thus there is more provision for low-density housing, often in waterfront communities linked to beaches and recreational facilities. However, the lower housing densities will put considerable pressure on the very limited land available for development, and this creates problems for another of the plan’s aims, which is to stress environmental quality. More and more of the remaining open area will be developed, and the only natural landscape surviving will be a small zone in the centre of the island which serves as a water catchment area. Environmental policy is therefore very much concerned with making the


built environment more green by introducing more plants – what is referred to as the ‘beautification’ of Singapore. The plan focuses on green zones defining the boundaries of settlements, and running along transport corridors. The incidental green provision within housing areas is also given considerable attention. Much of the environmental provision, for example golf courses, recreation areas, and beaches, is linked to the prime objective of attracting business. The plan places much emphasis on good leisure provision and the need to exploit Singapore’s island setting. One way of doing this is through further land reclamation, to create a whole new island devoted to leisure and luxury housing which will stretch from the central area to the airport. A current concern also appears to be how to use the planning system to create opportunities for greater spontaneity: planners have recently given much attention to the concept of the 24-hour city and the cafe society. For example, a promotion has taken place along the Singapore river to create a cafe zone. This has included the realisation, rather late in the day, of the value of retaining older buildings, and the creation of a continuous riverside promenade. Since the relaxation in 1996 of strict guidelines on outdoor eating areas, this has become an extremely popular area in the evenings. Also, in 1998 the Urban Redevelopment Authority created a new entertainment area in the centre of the city which they are promoting as ‘the city’s one-stop, dynamic entertainment scene’. In conclusion, the economic development of Singapore has been very consciously centrally planned, and the latest strategy is very clearly oriented to establishing Singapore as a leading ‘world city’. It is well placed to succeed, for a variety of reasons. It can draw upon its historic roots as a world trading centre; it has invested heavily in telecommunications and air transport infrastructure; it is well located in relation to other Asian economies; it has developed a safe and clean environment; and it has utilised the international language of English.


Questions 14-19 Complete the summary below using words from the box.


Questions 20-26 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 2. In boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage


Academic Reading Passage 3 A Spice plants, such as coriander, cardamom or ginger, contain compounds which, when added to food, give it a distinctive flavour. Spices have been used for centuries in the preparation of both meat dishes for consumption and meat dishes for long-term storage. However, an initial analysis of traditional meat-based recipes indicated that spices are not used equally in different countries and regions, so we set about investigating global patterns of spice use. B We hypothesized initially that the benefit of spices might lie in their anti-microbial properties. Those compounds in spice plants which give them their distinctive flavours probably first evolved to fight enemies such as plant-eating insects, fungi, and bacteria. Many of the organisms which afflict spice plants attack humans too, in particular the bacteria and fungi that live on and in dead plant and animal matter. So if spices kill these organisms, or inhibit their production of toxins1, spice use in food might reduce our own chances of contracting food poisoning. C The results of our investigation supported this hypothesis. In common with other researchers, we found that all spices for which we could locate appropriate information have some antibacterial effects: half inhibit more than 75% of bacteria, and four (garlic, onion, allspice and oregano) inhibit 100% of those bacteria tested. In addition, many spices are powerful fungicides. D Studies also show that when combined, spices exhibit even greater anti-bacterial properties than when each is used alone. This is interesting because the food recipes we used in our sample specify an average of four different spices. Some spices are so frequently combined that the blends have acquired special names, such as ‘chili powder’ (typically a mixture of red pepper, onion, paprika, garlic, cumin and oregano) and ‘oriental five spice’ (pepper, cinnamon, anise, fennel and cloves). One intriguing example is the French ‘quatre epices’ (pepper, cloves, ginger and nutmeg) which is often used in making sausages. Sausages are a rich medium for bacterial growth, and have frequently been implicated as the source of death from the botulism toxin, so the value of the anti-bacterial compounds in spices used for sausage preparation is obvious. E A second hypothesis we made was that spice use would be heaviest in areas where foods spoil most quickly. Studies indicate that rates of bacterial growth increase dramatically with air temperature. Meat dishes that are prepared in advance and stored at room temperatures for more than a few hours, especially in tropical climates, typically show massive increases in bacterial counts. Of course temperatures within houses, particularly in areas where food is prepared and stored, may differ from those of the outside air, but usually it is even hotter in the kitchen. F Our survey of recipes from around the world confirmed this hypothesis: we found that countries with higher than average temperatures used more spices. Indeed, in hot countries nearly every meat-based recipe calls for at least one spice, and most include many spices, whereas in cooler ones, substantial proportions of dishes are prepared without spices, or with just a few. In other words, there is a significant positive correlation between mean temperature and the average quantity of spices used in cooking. G But if the main function of spices is to make food safer to eat, how did our ancestors know which ones to use in the first place? It seems likely that people who happened to add spice plants to meat during preparation, especially in hot climates, would have been less likely to suffer from food poisoning than those who did not. Spice users may also have been able to store


foods for longer before they spoiled, enabling them to tolerate longer periods of scarcity. Observation and imitation of the eating habits of these healthier individuals by others could spread spice use rapidly through a society. Also, families that used appropriate spices would rear a greater number of more healthy offspring, to whom spice-use traditions had been demonstrated, and who possessed appropriate taste receptors. H Another question which arises is why did people develop a taste for spicy foods? One possibility involves learned taste aversions. It is known that when people eat something that makes them ill, they tend to avoid that taste subsequently. The adaptive value of such learning is obvious. Adding a spice to a food that caused sickness might alter its taste enough to make it palatable again (i.e. it tastes like a different food), as well as kill the micro-organisms that caused the illness, thus rendering it safe for consumption. By this process, food aversions would more often be associated with unspiced (and therefore unsafe) foods, and food likings would be associated with spicy foods, especially in places where foods spoil rapidly. Over time people would have developed a natural preference for spicy food. I Of course, spice use is not the only way to avoid food poisoning. Cooking, and completely consuming wild game immediately after slaughter reduces opportunities for the growth of micro-organisms. However, this is practical only where fresh meat is abundant year-round. In areas where fresh meat is not consistently available, preservation may be accomplished by thoroughly cooking, salting, smoking, drying, and spicing meats. Indeed, salt has been used worldwide for centuries to preserve food. We suggest that all these practices have been adopted for essentially the same reason: to minimize the effects of harmful, food-borne organisms. -------------------------------1 poisons produced by living organisms, especially bacteria

Questions 27-33 Reading Passage 3 has nine paragraphs, labelled A窶的. Which paragraphs contain the following information?


Questions 34-39 Answer the questions below with words taken from Reading Passage 3. Use NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer.

Question 40 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.


WRITING IELTS Writing Test lasts for 60 minutes, and you will need to complete two writing tasks, each of which requires different text types (description, report, discussion, argument, opinion text). IELTS Writing Task 1 In the first part, you are given a task based on some graphic or pictorial information. You are expected to write a descriptive report of at least 150 words on the information provided. IELTS Writing Task 2 The second task is more demanding. You are expected to produce a written argument on a given topic and to organise your answer clearly, given some examples to support your points. You will have to write at least 250 words and, as Task 2 is longer than Task 1, you are advised to spend approximately 40 minutes on this task and 20 minutes on the first task.

Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. The graph below shows the total value of exports and the value of fuel, food and manufactured goods exported by one country from 2000 to 2005. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. Write at least 150 words.



Writing Task 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. Tests and examinations are a central feature of school systems in many countries. Do you think the educational benefits of testing outweigh any disadvantages? Give reasons for your answer, and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. You should write at least 250 words.


SPEAKING IELTS Speaking is a one-to-one interaction between the candidate and an examiner. The three parts give the candidate the opportunity to use a range of different speaking skills. IELTS Speaking is recorded. Timing: 11 – 14 minutes Marks: Candidates are assessed on their performance throughout the test. Part 1 Answer the questions: ● ● ● ●

Where are you from? Are you a student, or do you have a job? What do you study? / What is your job? Do you enjoy your job / your studies?

Part 2 You will have to talk about the topic for one to two minutes. You have one minute to think about what you’re going to say. You can make some notes to help you if you wish.

Part 3 Answer these questions related to finding things: Collecting things as a hobby ● What kind of things do people like collecting as a hobby? ● What educational benefit do you think collecting objects like coins or stamps might have? 167

Archaeology ● How useful do you think it is for humans to uncover objects from the past? ● Who do you think historic objects should belong to when they have been found? Exploration ● Can you suggest what motivated people in the past to explore the world? ● Do you think interest in space exploration will increase in future?


APPENDIX Basic Sounds of Spoken English A vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as uu!, ah! or oh! An English vowel is pronounced with an open vocal tract and there is no obstacles of air released through your mouth and. This manner of sound production is contrary with English consonant sounds, such as English sh!. There is an obstacle at some point in your mouth and sound-producing organs. Most importantly, a vowel is considered as syllabic, which means that it defines the number of syllables in English words.

ENGLISH VOWELS In learning about the English vowel sounds, you should understand that the English vowels are classified by the followings: 1. 2. 3.

The relationship between palate and tongue vertically and horizontally. This basically means you should know the position of your tongue inside your month. The manner of your lips when producing those vowel sounds. The muscular tension around your tongue, mouth and face when producing the English vowels.

All vowels are voiced, so when you are speaking you will feel that your vocal cord is vibrating all the time. The key point is also that the air stream through your vocal organs will face no obstacles when you are making English vowel, while producing English consonant sounds.


English vowels are divided into 2 major groups: Monophthongs and Diphthongs. The monophthongs are the sounds in tea, free, pull, cup, letter, and call, for example. The diphthongs are those in kite, found, and boy. Sometimes, the short sound counterpart of the monophthongs such as fit, or could are called diphthongoids, where the ending is not so distinctive as the monophthongs. To visualize the sounds of English vowels, you should be familiar with this chart explaining the differences of English sounds. So, there are 12 monophthongs. Your Tongue





/i/ as in feet /ɪ/ as in fit


/e/ as in pain /ɛ/ as in pen

/ʌ/ as in cup /ə/ as in sofa

/o/ as in soul


/æ/ as in fair

/a/ as in art

/ɔ/ as in hall

/u/ as in cute /ʊ/ as in full

Here are the diphthongs. /ai/ as guy

/au/ as in found

/aɔ/ as in oil

1. The sounds of /i/ as in feet and /ɪ/ as in fit The monophthong /i/ is found in the following spellings. e: ee: ea: ie: i: Others:

we, these, theme see, need, meet mean, clean, weak chief, brief, piece routine, machine, technique people, key, Caesar, daemon, subpoena, quay

The monophthong /ɪ/ is found in the following spellings. i: e: a: y: u: ui: ay: Others:

sit, rich, city era, basket, women village, bondage, private physics, body, pretty busy, business, lettuce build, guilty, guitar Sunday, Tuesday, Tuesday* (Could be pronounced with /e/) fear, here, beer, weird, mirror, lyric


2. The Sounds of /e/ as in pain and /ɛ/ as in pen The monophthong /e/ is found in the following spellings. a: ai: ay: ei: ea: ey: eigh:

late, make, lady daily, mail, train day, stay, play vein, rein, veil steak, great, break grey, prey, obey eight, weigh, neighbor

The monophthong /ɛ/ is found in the following spellings. a: e: ea: u: ie: eo: ai:

any, many bed, leg, egg head, dead, heavy bury, burial friend leopard, Leonard said

3. The sounds of /æ/ as in fair The monophthong /æ/ is found in the following spellings. a: au: ai: ua:

fat, gap, fast, lamb, back, hang, slang,flat laugh, aunt plaid guarantee

4. The sounds of /ʌ/ as in cup and /ə/ as in sofa The monophthong /ʌ/ is found in the following spellings. u: o: ou: oo: oe:

cup, hut, bun, jump month, front, cover, money cousin, country, trouble blood, flood does, doesn’t

The monophthong /ə/ is found in the following spellings. a: e: o: i: u: ou: ia: io: ea: eo: ious:

among, away, stomach effect, license, sherbet occur, second, melon policy, terrible, possible upon, until, lotus famous, callous, enormous special, racial, official nation, mention, lotion ocean, sergeant pigeon, surgeon, delicious, anxious, gracious


5. The sounds of /a/ as in fair The monophthong /a/ is found in the following spellings. a: o: ea: al: aa:

car, star, hard bomb, hot, profit heart calm, balm, palm bazaar

6. The sounds of /u/ in cute and /ĘŠ/ in full The monophthong /u/ is found in the following spellings. o: oo: u: ue: ew: ou: ui: ough: eu:

to, do, move, prove too, cool, moon flu, rule, rude due, sue, blue new, chew, grew soup, group, rouge fruit, canoe through, slough rheumatism, pseudonym

Note: /u/ can be produced as /yu/ in the follow words as well. u: ew: iew: eu: ue: eau: Others:

cute, mute, fume few, pew, mew view, review feud, feudal cue, hue beauty use, useful, usual, unit, usage, uniform

The monophthong /ĘŠ/ is found in the following spellings. u: oo: o:

bush, sure book, cook, foot, good wolf, woman

7. The sounds of /o/ in soul The monophthong /o/ is found in the following spellings. o: oa: ou: ow: ough:

no, so, old, cold, home coal, soap, road, foal soul, boulder, shoulder own, slow, snow, know though, although, doughnut, thorough


8. The sounds of /ɔ/ in hall The monophthong /ɔ/ is found in the following spellings. a: aw: au: oa: o: augh: ough: Others:

all, tall, call, hall law, saw, draw fault, cause, sausage broad, abroad off, soft, loss caught, taught, daughter ought, bought, sought, thought George, cough

9. The Sound of Diphthongs /ai/ in guy, /aʊ/ in found and /ɔɪ/ in oil The monophthong /ai/ is found in the following spellings. i: ie: ig: igh: y: ye: eigh:

time, wife, hide lie, pie, die sign, benign, resign high, sigh, bright by, type, sky dye, rye, bye sleight, height

The monophthong /aʊ/ is found in the following spellings. ou: ow: ough:

out, house, about cow, now, down bough, drought

The monophthong /ɔɪ/ is found in the following spellings. oi: oy:

oil, boil, voice boy, joy, toy


ENGLISH CONSONANTS The English consonant sounds are the sounds with airstream that is stuck in somewhere inside your vocal organs. Here is the list of the sounds.

A consonant letter usually represents one consonant sound. Some consonant letters, for example, c, g, s, can represent two different consonant sounds. Letters





baby, best, buy, bring, blind, absent, about, number, labor, robber, tub



center, cellar, cigarette, cinema, agency, notice;


cake, come, cucumber, clean, cry, scratch, act, panic



day, dear, die, door, duty, admire, hidden, lady, kind, ride, ended



fast, female, five, forest, fund, fry, flight, often, deaf, cuff



game, gap, get, go, gun, great, global, giggle, ago, begin, dog, egg;


general, gin, giant, agent, suggest, Egypt, energy, huge, manage;


mirage, garage, beige, rouge


hair, help, history, home, hotel, hunt, behind, inherit;


hour, honor, honest, heir, vehicle, Sarah



jam, Jane, jet, jelly, Jim, jingle, joke, John, June, just



Kate, kind, kill, kilogram, sky, blanket, break, take, look



late, let, live, alone, close, slim, please, old, nicely, table, file, all



make, men, mind, mother, must, my, common, summer, name, form, team



napkin, never, night, no, nuclear, funny, student, kindness, ton, sun



paper, person, pick, pour, public, repair, apple, keep, top, crisp

q (qu)


quality, question, quite, quote, equal, require;


unique, technique, antique, grotesque





rain, red, rise, brief, grow, scream, truck, arrive, hurry, turn, more, car



send, simple, song, system, street, lost, kiss, release;


cause, present, reason, realism, advise, always, is, was



task, tell, time, tone, tune, hotel, attentive, student, boat, rest



vast, vein, vivid, voice, even, review, invest, give, move, active



wall, war, way, west, wind, word, would, swear, swim, twenty, twist



exercise, exchange, expect, ex-wife, axis, fix, relax;


exam, exact, executive, exert, exist, exit, exult;


Xenon, Xerox, xenophobia, xylophone


zero, zoo, horizon, puzzle, crazy, organize, quiz, jazz;


pizza, Mozart, Nazi, waltz


Note 1: The letter Y The letter Y can function as a vowel or as a consonant. As a vowel, Y has the vowel sounds [i], [ai]. As a consonant, Y has the consonant sound [y] (i.e., a semivowel sound), usually at the beginning of the word and only in the syllable before a vowel. [i]: baby, hurry, lyrics, mystery; [ai]: by, try, rely, nylon, type; [y]: yacht, yard, year, yes, yet, yield, you, young, Yukon. Note 2: The letter W The letter W represents the vowel sound [u:] in the diphthongs [au] and [ou]: now, how, owl, brown; low, own, bowl.

The -s/es ending of nouns and verbs After a voiceless consonant: [s] After a voiced consonant or vowel: [z] After the letters s, z, x, ch, tch, ge, dge, sh: [iz]




tapes [teips], streets

ribs [ribz], kids [kidz], legs [legz], leaves

pieces ['pi:siz], roses ['rouziz], prizes

[stri:ts], parks [pa:rks],

[li:vz], clothes [klouðz], girls, games,

['praiziz], boxes ['boksiz], coaches

chiefs [chi:fs], myths

cars, boys, pies [paiz], cows [kauz], cities

['kouchiz], bridges ['brijiz], dishes




(he) grips [grips],

(he) robs [robz], reads [ri:dz], digs [digz],

(he) kisses ['kisiz], loses ['lu:ziz],

writes [raits], takes

saves [seivz], falls, plans, swims, offers,

relaxes, catches, judges, manages,

[teiks], sniffs [snifs]

plays, cries, goes [gouz], copies ['kopiz]

flashes, washes, rouges

Pip's [pips], Kate's

Abe's [eibz], Fred's [fredz], Meg's

Chris's ['krisiz], Tess's ['tesiz],

[keits], Mike's [maiks],

[megz], Olive's ['olivz], Ben's [benz],

Rose's ['rouziz], Liz's ['liziz], Rex's

Jeff's [jefs], Seth's

Molly's ['moliz], Anna's

['reksiz], George's ['jo:rjiz]



The -ed ending of verbs After a voiceless consonant: [t] (После глухого согласного звука: [t]) After a voiced consonant or vowel: [d] (После звонкого согласного или гласного звука: [d]) After the letters t, d: [id] (После букв t, d: [id]) [t]



stopped [stopt], liked [laikt],

robbed [robd], saved [seivd], seized

wanted ['wontid], hated

coughed [ko:ft], crossed [cro:st],

[si:zd], called [ko:ld], planned,

['heitid], counted ['kauntid],

released [ri'li:st], reached [ri:cht],

occurred, bathed [beiðd], managed,

started, needed [ni:did], loaded

washed [wosht]

played, tried, studied

['loudid], folded, added

Consonant combinations Letters





accent, accept, access, eccentric, accident;


accommodate, account, accuse, occur, acclaim


chain, check, chief, choose, teacher, much, church;

ch tch

kitchen, catch, match, watch, pitch, stretch

ch (Latin, Greek)


character, chemical, Chris, archive, mechanic, technical, ache;

ch (French)


champagne, charlatan, chef, chic, machine, cache



black, pack, deck, kick, pick, cracker, pocket, rocket



bridge, edge, judge, knowledge, budget, badger



ghost, ghastly, Ghana, ghetto;


cough, enough, rough, tough, laugh;


though, through, weigh, neighbor, bought, daughter


guard, guess, guest, guide, guitar, dialogue;


language, linguistics, Guatemala, Nicaragua


king, sing, singer, singing, bang, long, wrong, tongue;


finger, anger, angry, longer, longest, single



phone, photograph, phrase, phenomenon, biography



quality, question, quite, quote, equal, require;


unique, technique, antique, grotesque


science, scissors, scene, scent, scythe;


scan, scandal, scare, score, Scotch, scuba




176 sch


school, scholar, scheme, schedule;


schnauzer, schedule



share, she, shine, shoe, fish, cash, push, punish



thank, thick, think, thought, thunder, author, breath, bath;


this, that, then, though, father, brother, breathe, bathe


what, when, where, which, while, why, whale, wheel, white;


who, whom, whose, whole




exhumation, exhume, exhale;


exhaust, exhibit, exhilarate, exhort, exhume, exhale

With silent letters



bt, pt


doubt, debt, subtle; receipt, pterodactyl

kn, gn, pn


knee, knife, know; gnome, sign, foreign; pneumonia, pneumatic

mb, lm


lamb, climb, bomb, comb, tomb; calm, palm, salmon



psalm, pseudonym, psychologist, psychiatrist



rhapsody, rhetoric, rheumatism, rhythm, rhyme



wrap, wreck, wrestle, wrinkle, wrist, write, wrong

Letters in the suffix



ti, ci, si, su


nation, patient, special, vicious, pension, Asia, sensual, pressure

si, su


vision, fusion, Asia, usual, visual, measure, pleasure




SPEAKING PRACTICE: The Topics Here is a list of 40 new topics that you might find useful if you are preparing for Part 1 of the iBT TOEFL Speaking section. These are all Independent topics of the "open choice" / personal experience or opinion type.

1. Who is your best friend? Describe this person and say why he/she is your best friend.

2. What is your favorite place to visit on weekends? Describe it and explain why it is your favorite place to go.

3. What is your happiest childhood memory? Describe it and give reasons to explain why it is your happiest memory.


4. What is your most important possession? Describe it and say why it is so important.

5. Talk about a person in your life who has inspired you. Describe the person and explain why you found him/her inspirational.

6. Where do most like to go to eat out? Describe this place and say why you like it most.

7. Talk about an important national holiday in your home country. Describe it and explain why it is important.


8. What is your favorite book or movie? Describe it and say why it is your favorite.

9. Who do you feel close to in your family (or extended family)? Describe this person and say why you feel close to him/her.

10. Where is a good place to have fun in your city or town? Describe this place and explain why it is fun.


11. Talk about an experience in your life that made you feel embarrassed. Describe it and say why it was embarrassing.

12. What was your favorite subject at school? Describe it and explain why this subject was your favorite one.

13. Who is an important person in your country? Describe this person and explain why he/she is important.


14. Talk about an interesting tourist attraction you have been to. Describe it and say why it was interesting.

15. Talk about a time when you experienced success. Describe the experience and say why it was a success for you.

16. What is your favorite style of clothing? Describe it and explain why it is your favorite.


17. Name a person whom you truly admire. Describe the person and say why you admire him/her.

18. Think of a place that makes you feel relaxed and peaceful. Describe it and explain why it is relaxing and peaceful for you.

19. Talk about a difficulty you have overcome in your life. Describe the experience and say why it was difficult to overcome.


20. What is your most useful study aid? Describe it and explain why it is useful in helping you to study.

21. Talk about a teacher who had a positive influence on you. Describe this person and explain why he/she was so influential to you.

22. Where is your favorite place to study? Describe this place and say why it is a good place for you to study.


23. Talk about a positive experience with learning or using English. Describe the experience and say why it was a positive one.

24. What is your favorite kind of food? Describe it and explain why it is your favorite.

25. Name a famous or influential figure who has inspired you. Describe this person and say why he/she has been inspirational to you.


26. Which place has fond memories for you? Describe this place and explain why it is memorable to you.

27. When have you been happily surprised by something? Describe the experience and say why the surprise was a happy one for you.

28. Describe a resource that helped you to do something better than before. Describe it and explain why it was helpful to you.


29. Describe a person from your country’s history. Why do you think this person was important?

30. Where would you like to go to spend a vacation? Describe this place and say why you would like to holiday there.

31. Talk about something you and your family enjoy doing together. Describe it and explain why you all enjoy it.


32. What is your favorite recreational activity? Describe it and say why you enjoy doing it.

33. Who is the most intelligent person you know? Describe the person and say why you think he/she is intelligent.

34. Where would you most like to live? Describe this place and explain why you would like to live there.


35. What is your favorite season of the year? Describe the season and explain why you like it so much.

36. What custom from your home country are you most fond of? Describe the custom and explain why you are fond of it.

37. Which person are you most likely to go to with a personal problem? Describe this person and say why you would go to him/her in particular.


38. Name a place in your country you would recommend others to visit. Describe this place and explain why you would recommend it.

39. Talk about an event from the past that you would like to relive. Describe the original event and say why you would like to relive it.

40. What is your favorite way of getting around? Describe it and explain why it is your favorite means of transportation.


Word Stress and Intonation Patterns Word Stress in English24 Word stress is your magic key to understanding spoken English. Native speakers of English use word stress naturally. Word stress is so natural for them that they don't even know they use it. Non-native speakers who speak English to native speakers without using word stress, encounter two problems: 1. 2.

They find it difficult to understand native speakers, especially those speaking fast. The native speakers may find it difficult to understand them.

In this lesson we look at the most important aspects of word stress, followed by a short quiz to check your understanding.

What is Word Stress? In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In one word, we accentuate ONE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly. Let's take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.

This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE, converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera, etCETera, etCETera The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. Native speakers of English listen for the STRESSED syllables, not the weak syllables. If you use word stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension.


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Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio, or in films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it! There are two very important rules about word stress: 1. 2.

One word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses, you have heard two words, not one word.) The stress is always on a vowel.

In a short summary, a stressed syllable combines five features: 1. It is l-o-n-g-e-r ; com p-u-ter 2. It is LOUDER ; comPUTer 3. It has a change in pitch from the syllables coming before and afterwards. The pitch of a stressed syllable is usually higher. 4. It is said more clearly. The vowel sound is purer. Compare the first and last vowel sounds with the stressed sound. 5. It uses larger facial movements. Look in the mirror when you say the word. Look at your jaw and lips in particular.

Why word stress is important Mistakes in word stress are a common cause of misunderstanding in English. Here are the reasons why: Stressing the wrong syllable in a word can make the word very difficult to hear and understand; for example, try saying the following words:

b'tell hottle And now in a sentence:

"I carried the b'tell to the hottle." Now reverse the stress patterns for the two words and you should be able to make sense of the sentence!

"I carried the bottle to the hotel." Stressing a word differently can change the meaning or type of the word:

"They will desert* the desert** by tomorrow." Think about the grammatical difference between deSERT* and DESert***. Even if the speaker can be understood, mistakes with word stress can make the listener feel irritated, or perhaps even amused, and could prevent good communication from taking place.


Where do I Put Word Stress? There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But...the rules are rather complicated! Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try to develop a feeling for the "music" of the language. When you learn a new word, you should also learn its stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe (') just before or just after the stressed syllable. (The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used.) Look at (and listen to) this example for the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable #1 is stressed.

Rules of Word Stress in English There are two very simple rules about word stress: 1.

One word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words.)


We can only stress vowels, not consonants.

Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It is better to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally. 1. Stress on first syllable


2. Stress on last syllable

ENGLISH TIPS There are many two-syllable words in English whose meaning and class change with a change in stress. The word present, for example is a two-syllable word. If we stress the first syllable, it is a noun (gift) or an adjective (opposite of absent). But if we stress the second syllable, it becomes a verb (to offer). More examples: the words export, import, contract and object can all be nouns or verbs depending on whether the stress is on the first or second syllable. 3 Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)

ENGLISH TIPS For a few words, native English speakers don't always "agree" on where to put the stress. For example, some people say teleVIsion and others say TELevision. Another example is: CONtroversy and conTROversy. 4 Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)


5 Compound words (words with two parts)

SEE IT IN ACTION Go to the following community videos to learn and realize how you should manage your pronunciation. VDO Name: Lesson 6a - WORD STRESS - English Pronunciation Link URL:

VDO Name: Word Stress in English (5 basic rules to improve your pronunciation) Link URL:

VDO Name: American English Word Stress: Unstressed vs Reduced syllables Link URL:

Some Other Rules of Word Stress25 1. Two-Syllable nouns and adjectives In most two syllable nouns and adjectives, the first syllable takes on the stress. Examples: SAMples CARton COlorful RAIny


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2. Two-Syllable verbs and prepositions In most two syllable verbs and prepositions, the stress is on the second syllable. Examples: reLAX recEIVE diRECT aMONG aSIDE beTWEEN More about word stress on two-syllable words ● ● ●

About 80% or so of two-syllable words get their stress on the first syllable. There are of course, exceptions to this rule, but very few nouns and adjectives get stress on their second syllable. Verbs and prepositions usually get stress placed on the second syllable, but there are exceptions to this too.

3. Three-Syllable words For three syllable words, look at the word ending (the suffix), using the following as your guide. 4. Words ending in er, or, ly For words ending with the suffixes er, or, or ly, the stress is placed on the first syllable. Examples: DIRect/DIRector ORder/ORderly MANage/MANager 5. Words ending in consonants and in y If there is a word that ends in a consonant or in a y, then the first syllable gets the stress. Examples: RARity OPtimal GRADient CONtainer 6. Words with various endings Take a good look at the list of suffixes below (suffixes are word endings). Your stress is going to come on the syllable right before the suffix. This applies to words of all syllable lengths.


Examples: able: ADDable, ARable, DURable ary: PRIMary, DIary, liBRary cial: juDIcial, nonSOcial cian: muSIcian, phySIcian, cliNICian ery: BAkery, SCENery graphy: calLIgraphy, bibliOgraphy, stenOgraphy ial: celesTIal, iniTIal, juDICial ian: coMEdian, ciVILian, techNIcian ible: viSIble, terRIble, reSIstible ic: arCHAic, plaTOnic, synTHEtic ical: MAgical, LOgical, CRItical ics: diaBEtics, paediAtrics ion: classifiCAtion, repoSItion, vegeTAtion ity: imMUnity, GRAvity, VAnity ium: HElium, ALUminum, PREmium imum: MInimum, MAXimum, OPtimum logy: BIology, CARdiology, RAdiology tal: caPItal, biCOAstal, reCItal 7. Words ending in ee, ese, ique, ette Words that use the suffix ee, ese, eer, ique or ette, have the primary stress actually placed on the suffix. This applies to words of all syllable lengths. Examples: ee: agrEE, jamborEE, guarantEE eer: sightsEER, puppetEER ese: SiamESE, JapanESE, cheESE ette: cassETTE, CorvETTE, towelETTE ique: unIQUE, physIQUE 8. Prefixes Usually, prefixes do not take the stress of a word. There are a few exceptions to this rule, however, like: un, in, pre, ex and mis, which are all stressed in their prefix. Examples: ex: EXample, EXplanation, EXamine in: INside, INefficient, INterest mis: MISspoke, MIStake, MISspelled pre: PREcede, PREarrange, PREliminary


9. Stress on the second from the end syllable You put stress on the second syllable from the end of the word, with words ending in ic, sion and tion. Examples: iCONic hyperTENsion nuTRItion 10. Stress on the third from end syllable You put stress on the third from end syllable with words that end in cy, ty, phy, gy and al. Examples: demoCRAcy TREAty geOGraphy ALlergy NAUtical 11. Word stress for compound words A compound noun is a noun made out of two nouns in order to form one word. In a compound noun, the first word usually takes on the stress. Examples: SEAfood ICEland TOOTHpaste A compound adjective is an adjective composed of at least two words. Often, hyphens are used in compound adjectives. In compound adjectives, the stress is placed within the second word. Examples: ten-MEter rock-SOlid fifteen-MInute A compound verb is when a subject has two or more verbs. The stress is on the second or on the last part. Examples: Matilda loves bread but deTESTS butter. Sarah baked cookies and ATE them up.


Dogs love to eat bones and love DRINking water. Noun + compound Nouns are two word compound nouns. In noun + compound noun, the stress is on the first word. Examples: AIRplane mechanic PROject manager BOARDroom member 12. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs are words made from a verb and preposition. In phrasal verbs, the second word gets the stress (the preposition). Examples: Black OUT break DOWN look OUT 13. Proper nouns Proper nouns are specific names of people, places or things. For example: Jeniffer, Spain, Google. The second word is always the one that takes the stress Examples: North DAKOTA Mr. SMITH Apple INCORPORATED 14. Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the person who performs the action. For example: I hit myself. The second syllable usually takes the stress. Examples: mySELF themSELVES ourSELVES 15. Numbers If the number is a multiple of ten, the stress is placed on the first syllable. Examples:


TEN FIFty ONEhundred

Word Stress Quiz 1 Circle the syllables of the underlined words.


Can you pass me a plastic knife?


I want to take a photography class.


China is the place where I was born.


Please turn off the television before you go out.


I can't decide which book to borrow.


Do you understand this lesson?


Sparky is a very happy puppy.


It is critical that you finish your essay.


My Grandfather wears an old-fashioned coat.

10. There is a lot of traffic on the highway today. Word Stress Quiz 226 Practice reading the passage below. Put the stresses on the syllables as appropriate as well as highlight the word and the stressed syllables. And put a slash ( / ) between phrases or sentences to indicate a good place to pause. Of course, you always pause for commas and periods.

My friend has a new job. He is working as an IT specialist for the new bank that opened down the street. He's excited because he gets to create his own position since the bank is new. The pay is good too. That's lucky because his wife recently lost her job. She has been applying all over town for the past two months and hasn't had any luck. Now she's going to take one month off, relax, and then try again.


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Here is your answer key.

My friend / has a new job. He is WORking / as an IT specialist / for the new bank / that Opened / down the street. He's exCIted / because he gets to creATE / his own poSItion / since the bank is new. The pay is good too. That's LUcky / because his wife / recently lost her job. She has been apPLYing / all over town / for the past two months / and HASn't had any luck. Now she's going to take one month off, reLAX, and then try again.

Word Stress Quiz 3 Mark TRUE or FALSE for the following statements.

1. In the sentence, "My friend bought some groceries," the commonly stressed words are "friend" and "groceries." True or False?

2. In the sentence, "He was listening to her attentively" both "he" and "her" will commonly be stressed. True or False?

3. In the sentence "The tree fell on the house," "fell" is commonly stressed. True or False?

4. "John has a new motorcycle. He rides it all the time. Every day, John rides to work." In the third sentence, "every" will be commonly stressed. True or False?

5. You can reduce small words, for instance "to" becomes "t'. True or False?

6. It is necessary to de-stress small words so that the stressed words can stand out. True or False?

7. Adjectives or adverbs may be stressed before nouns if they are important to the meaning of the speaker. True or False?


8. You can reduce the "H" in "her" when saying "What's 'r name?" True or False?

9. "And" commonly reduces to "an." True or False?

10. You can practice good stress by pausing before or after the stressed word. True or False?

Intonation Patterns Pitch is raising and lowering the voice while speaking. The use of pitch is called intonation. The most well known use for English intonation is to communicate basic grammar, such as the use of a falling pitch on the sentence, "You're coming." compared to a rising pitch at the end of the question form, "You're coming?"

Beyond that simple example, intonation is a complex world of personal choice and context-driven options. Understanding English intonation patterns will increase not only your spoken English pronunciation competence, but your English listening comprehension as well. The terms "intonation" and "pitch" are often used interchangeably when talking about the "highness" or "lowness" of our voice when we speak. The difference between the terms is not very significant; in short, intonation is the use of pitch, just as mathematics is the use of numbers, or photography is the use of light and color. Intonation is a broader term than pitch. Being able to perceive pitch (the highness of lowness of our voice) leads to the use of correct intonation.

The Pitch and Three categories of Intonation Instead of studying the use and pronunciation of American English pitch only in sentence-sized units, this website separates pitch into three categories in order to study each aspect of intonation individually. It is important to realize that no category of intonation acts alone, and all three categories of intonation affect the others. The three categories of intonation are: ● ● ●

pitch words pitch boundary starting pitch


Pitch words are individual words that speakers choose to set apart by raising or lowering their voice on that word. Pitch words convey which word of the sentence is most important, and how to interpret the importance of that particular word. Related Lesson: Introduction to pitch words. A pitch boundary happens at the end of an intonation unit, and tells the listener what kind of interaction the speaker is planning or expecting to happen next. Related Lesson: Coming Soon! A starting pitch occurs at the beginning of an intonation unit and helps the listener know how what the speaker will say is going to tie in with what was already said.


Common Use of Intonations Rising-Falling Intonation First I’ll tell you about rising-falling intonation. In rising-falling intonation the speaker’s pitch rises and falls on the focus word in a sentence (you learned about focus words in last week’s lesson). The final falling pitch indicates that the speaker is finished talking. Rising Intonation In rising intonation the speaker’s pitch rises and stays HIGH at the end of a sentence. The rising pitch at the end of a sentence indicates that the speaker is waiting for a reply.

SEE IT IN ACTION See how you can manage the pitch and intonation from this VDO.

VDO Name: Intonation Patterns of American English Link URL:

Intonation Practice27 A sentence normally consists of a combination of lexical words (mainly nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs) carrying important meaning, and form words (conjunctions, articles, pronouns, prepositions, auxiliaries, etc.) which function as support for the sentence structure and do not in themselves carry much meaning. The lexical words are normally stressed ("heavy"), and the form words are normally unstressed ("light"). The tone (or glide) up or down will in most cases fall on lexical words that are important for the meaning of a sentence. Sometimes the glide may be found on a form word (see example 4 below), but that would create a special effect, or a special focus. Listen to, and repeat, the following sentences:


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