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Integration of transport & land-use The case of the Leiden - Gouda area

Delft, 24th Januari 2013

Jasper Bras: 1402579


Table of content

• Rationale & problem statement • Case study & research • Conclusions & design

2


Betuwelijn

Source: thomas Schlijper - www.vn.nl

3


Randstadrail

Source: thomas Schlijper - www.vn.nl

4


Complex technogical systems • Integration with the environment • Stakeholder participation

5


1: Integration of policies 2: Devolution of powers

6


Infrastructure

Land-use

Spatial interactions 7


Infrastructure

Land-use

Spatial interactions 8


Infrastructure

GOVERNANCE

Land-use

Spatial interactions Influenced by governance

9


NATIONAL Infrastructure PROVINCIAL Infrastructure MUNICIPAL Infrastructure

Three tiers of governance

GOVERNANCE

GOVERNANCE

GOVERNANCE

Land-use

Land-use

Land-use

10


NATIONAL Infrastructure PROVINCIAL Infrastructure MUNICIPAL Infrastructure

Changing power relations

GOVERNANCE

GOVERNANCE

GOVERNANCE

Land-use

Land-use

Land-use

11


1: Integration of policies

2: Devolution of powers

12


• Law reforms: Wro (2008) • National planning documents (2011)

Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu

National

Ontwerp Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en Ruimte Nederland concurrerend, bereikbaar, leefbaar en veilig

Provincial

Ontwerp Structuurvisie Infrastructuur en Ruimte

Municipal

13


• Law reforms: Wro (2008) • National planning documents (2011) Top sectors & networks

t (inter)nationale bereikbaarheid van stedelijke regio’s met topsectoren

National Kaart (inter)nationale bereikbaarheid van stedelijke regio’s met topsectoren

Provincial

Stedelijke regio met topsectoren Mainport Schiphol Mainport Rotterdam

Municipal

Brainport Zuidoost Nederland Greenport Zuidas Stad van internationaal recht, vrede en veiligheid HSL /ICE station Overige luchthaven van nationale betekenis Zeehaven van nationaal belang Binnenhaven van nationaal belang Stedelijke regio met topsectoren

Voornaamste achterlandverbindingen

14


National

Provincial

‘Regional gap’

Municipal

15


Province

Railway line

Municipalities

Possible impact on regional infrastructure

16


Complex technological systems: binding story, institutional & operational structure

17


Complex technological systems: binding story, institutional & operational structure

18


Space

Railway line

Multi-dimensional

19


Space

Institutions

Railway line

Multi-dimensional

20


Space

Institutions

Railway line

Multi-dimensional

Process

21


Problem statement # Aim

What are the issues of governance between local planning agencies, around the integration of sectoral policies on mobility and land-use and around the implementation of a transport infrastructure project such as the Rijn Gouwe Lijn at regional level?

22


Problem statement # Aim

What are the issues of governance between local planning agencies, around the integration of sectoral policies on mobility and land-use and around the implementation of a transport infrastructure project such as the Rijn Gouwe Lijn at regional level? What planning mechanism could address issues of governance, facilitate integration of policies and support the implementation of such projects?

23


Theory # TIP-model

Space

Institutions Study & Design

1. Technical (spatial) design 2. Institutional design 3. Process design

Process

Source: Koppenjan, J. & Groenewegen, J. (2005)

24


Theory # TIP-model

Space

Institutions Study & Design

1. Technical (spatial) design 2. Institutional design 3. Process design

Process

Source: Koppenjan, J. & Groenewegen, J. (2005)

25


Theory # Integrated transport planning

Space

Institutions

Process

Single modes

Multi-modes

Accessibility modes (TOD)

Source: CURTIS, C. & JAMES, B. (2004)

26


Transit zones Source: www.zaanstreek.nl

27


Source: BALZ, V. & SCHRIJNEN, J. (2009)

28


1. Rural areas

2. Small towns

3. Outskirts of cities

4. Cities of the future

5. Business sites

6. Regional crossroads

7. Randstad hubs

8. Creative cities

9. City centres 29


Theory # Adjustment of policies

Space

Institutions

Process

Integration

Coordination

? Cooperation

Source: STEAD, D. & MEIJERS, E. (2004)

Fragmented field of interest

Degrees of adjustment 30


Theory # Institutional relations

Space

Institutions

Institutions

Process

Province

Municipality A

Municipality B

31


Theory # Institutional relations

Institutional structures

Space

Institutions

Process

Province

Project organization/ authority

Municipality A

Municipality B

32


Theory # Institutional relations

Institutional structures

Space

Institutions

Process

Nested territorial institutions

Strategies/ frameworks of flexible response Nested territorial institutions

Nested territorial institutions

Source: SALET, W. (2006)

33


Theory # Institutional capacity

Space

Institutional capacity

Institutions

Process

â‚Ź Material

Resources

Financial

Legal

Intellectual

34


Theory # Institutional capacity

Institutional capacity

Space

Institutions

Process

Do the instutions have the attitude to adjust their policies? ...or the attitude to collaborate?

Governance culture

Source: www.synobys.nl


Theory # Strategic spatial planning

Space

Institutions

Process

Long term vision

4-tracks

Long-term & short-term actions

Contact stakeholders

Involvement citizens/ interest groups Source: Albrechts (2004)


Case study area

37


Case study area # Location

Leiden

Alphen aan den Rijn Zoeterwoude Rijnwoude Boskoop

RGL West RGL East Rijn-Gouwelijn

Waddinxveen

RijnlandRoute (RR)

Gouda Zuidplas

N 38


Case study area # Location

39


Case study area # Location

40


Case study area # Project agreements Research Research Research Research Research on on on on on practice practice practice practice practice#### #Institutional Institutional Institutional Institutional Institutional analysis analysis analysis analysis analysis

Stops

Spatial program

Contribution per unit

Financial distribution RGL project agreement (2005) Source: Source: Source: Source: Source: 1st 1st 1st Project 1st 1st Project Project Project Project agreement agreement agreement agreement agreement RGL RGL RGL RGL RGL East East East East East (between (between (between (between (between all allall muncipalities, all muncipalities, all muncipalities, muncipalities, muncipalities, province, province, province, province, province, Rijkswaterstaat Rijkswaterstaat Rijkswaterstaat Rijkswaterstaat Rijkswaterstaat and and and and ProRail) and ProRail) ProRail) ProRail) ProRail) (2005) (2005) (2005) (2005) (2005)

Total sum

Key distribution ďƒžgures (municipal)

41 119 118 117 116 115


Case study area # Integration of policies

â‚Ź financial

Policies for compact development around transit zones

culture - policies - instruments

42


Empirical research

43


?

Empirical research # Studies

Spatial

?

?

?

?

• Spatial patterns of the region [mapping] • Station typologies [field/photo study] • Adjustment of plans between agencies [mapping]

Institutional & process

?

?

? ?

• Observation of the project agreements [desk research] • The adjustment of policies [interviews] • Institutional structures & capacity [mapping & interviews]

?


Empirical research # Spatial studies


Empirical research # Spatial studies


Empirical research # Spatial studies

47


Boskoop Small town

Source: GOOGLE STREET VIEW (2012) 48


Waddinxveen Zuid Industrial/business site

Source: GOOGLE STREET VIEW (2012) 49


Empirical research # Institutional structure Mileudienst West-Holland

Noordwijkerhout

Nieuwkoop

Hillegom Lisse

Actor

Rijnstreekberaad

Noordwijk

Partnership

Alphen a/d Rijn

Teylingen

General partnership

Holland Rijnland

Katwijk

Rijnwoude

Oegstgeest

Economic relation

Kraag en Braassem

Environmental relation

Greenport Boskoop

Voorschoten Leiden

Zoeterwoude Leiderdorp

Stichting Land van Wijk en Wouden

Stichting Groenfonds Midden-Delfland

Reeuwijk

Den Haag Zoetermeer

Planning relation

RGL-East

Bodegraven

Boskoop LeidschendamVoorburg

Schoonhoven

Oude Rijnzone

Waddinxveen

Water Board

Bergambacht

Midden-Holland

Vlist Province of Zuid-Holland

ZevenhuizenMoerkappelle Greenport Westland-Oostland

National government

Nieuwerkerk a/d IJssel

Midden-Delfland Private actors

Pijnacker-Nootdorp

Westland

Nederlek

Regionale ontwikkelingsorganisatie Zuidplas

Ouderkerk Moordrecht

Gouda

Natuur & recreatieschap Reeuwijkse Plassen

Partnership region Gouda

Lansingerland Rotterdam

50


Empirical research # Interviews

Interviews

• • • • • •

Province of Zuid-Holland (2x) Regional partnership Holland Rijnland Chamber of Commerce (KvK) ProRail Municipality of Zoeterwoude Involved alderman municpality of Leiden 51


Empirical research # Interviews Mutual competition between participants

“The interventions of the municipality where very limited - non-interventions. Each municipality had strong individual interest. The cohesive element was created by the province.” - Rep. C

“It was a project wherein everybody thought it could realize their aims but the aims where not always corresponding. Eventually the project became the aim itself and not the instrument anymore to achieve the aim.” - Rep. C

“The RGL-East does no appeal on the partnerships but on the partnerships, but on the municpalities. The first project agreement has been made between all municipal governments individual, which required a relatively comprehensive steering group. This can be seen as one of the issues regarding the institutional structure on the RGL-East.” - Rep. C

52


Empirical research # Interviews Insufficient integrative concepts, visions & policies

“Almost no one can explain anymore what the original ambitions, visions or reason behind the RGL was or everybody tells a different story: there is no shared vision, no shared ambition.” - Rep. C

“There has neither been a good supporting story for the RGL nor a good concept - never.” - Rep. C

“We now see that the project and its organizational structure was strongly oriented towards traditional infastructure policies: the project office had a strong focus on the technical aspects, but not on the areas around the stations.” - Rep. B

“The ‘Verordening Ruimte’ or ‘inpassingsplan’ is not integral, it is committed to one singel sector.” - Rep. B

53


Empirical research # Interviews Insufficient culture for public-private partnerships

“The provincial government has the right instrument and authority, but has an administrative culture which is not there to invite NGO´s and private actors regarding such projects...” - Rep. G

“For the RGL there was no publicprivate partnership, which has to do with the political and adminstrative culture of the province.” - Rep. D

“The province did neither exclude nor invate private actors directly.” - Rep. B

“The collaboration between the province and ProRail was one without trust. (…) This is mainly because the province did not have sufficient technical expertise regarding such projects, and did not want to give ProRail the room for contribution...” - Rep. E 54


Empirical research # Interviews Insufficient steering culture (province) & communication between participants

“The communication between the involved actors should have been better and should have been started in an earlier stage.” - Rep. D

“Origionally, there was alomost no mutual correspondance between the participating municipalities, the assumption was that the province would do the communication.” - Rep. C

“...the provincial government has the executive boards which are quite reserved in the use of instruments that would steer development on local level, that is not part of the administrative culture.” - Rep. B

“The municipalities had more contact with the provincial government than with each other. (...) In global lines we knew what the plans of other municipalities where, but often we did not know how far they were in their plans.” - Rep. F 55


Empirical research # Level of policy adjustment

Integration

Coordination

?

Cooperation

Fragmented field of interest


?

Conclusions

Spatial

?

?

?

?

• ‘Liberal’ planning policies at local level: dispersed development • Absence of strong (integral) vision for the region and no clear link with a supporting development concept for the project • Little adjustment of policies on mobility and land-use • Differentiation along the line: different station environments

Institutional & process • • • •

?

?

?

?

Province: appropriate legal authority and planning instruments Insufficient ‘governance culture’ for adjustment of policies Insufficient trust between public and private actors Presence of project organization, but with too little authority, and responsible for the implementation of the project • Absence of platform for negotiation - no clear communication among stakeholders and no joined vision

?


Design

58


Design # Spatial, institutional, process

Space

Institutions

Design

Process

59


Design # Process design

Track 1 Track 1 Long-term vision Long-term vision

Track 2 2 Track Long-term & Long-term & short-term actions

Track 3 Track 3 Contact with Contact with stakeholders

Define integrative concept

Policy adjustment Policy adjustment railway stations & land-use

Define institution. structure Invite NGO’s & civl committ. Define institution. structure environment Invite NGO’s & civl committ. province - regional partnerships - KvK

Define integrative concept TOD TOD

short-term actions

railway stations & land-use

Track Track 4 4 Basic process with Basic process with citizens/interest groups

stakeholders

Integration

Integration

citizens/interest groups

province - regional partnerships

environment - KvK

Coordination

Coordination

Define alliance (PPS) stakeholder alliance

Cooperation

Define alliance (PPS) stakeholder alliance

Cooperation

Define financial mechanism regional & pension funds + TDR

Define financial mechanism regional & pension funds + TDR €

60


Design # Process design Cooperation

?

Potential stakeholders local authorities (semi-)private actors NGO´s

Lower authority brings subject to higher agenda

Active participation

Transparancy

Open vision

Platform for discussion

Project authority

Legal framework

Process of decision-making in order facilitate collaboration and adjustment of policies

Regional authority Province

Interactive simulation

Policy adjustment

Governance culture: Willing to collaborate?

Responsibility

Planning instruments

Agreements

Monitoring

Integration

61


Design # Spatial design Regional structure vision + concept of TOD

Development conditions around stations Waddinxveen Zuid office - industrial site

A

A

1. Mix of functions 2. High densities:

r = 1200m

FSI 1,0 - 3,0 (depending on location) Section A-A

3 1

urbanizing corridors residential expans.

preserved cultivated landscape

green greenbuffers buffers

town hall

library

wo/hbo/mbo

intensive agriculture

commercial commercial

museum

(music) theater

swimming

H

hotel/ camping cultural landmark

62


Design # Spatial design Regional structure vision + concept of TOD

Development conditions around stations Boskoop small town - village

A

A

1. Mix of functions 2. High densities:

r = 1200m

FSI 1,0 - 2,0 (depending on location) Section A-A

3 1

urbanizing corridors residential expans.

preserved cultivated landscape

green greenbuffers buffers

town hall

library

wo/hbo/mbo

intensive agriculture

commercial commercial

museum

(music) theater

swimming

H

hotel/ camping cultural landmark

63


Design # Institutional design

Municipality Leiden

Municipality Zoeterwoude

Municipality Rijnwoude

Municipality Gouda Province Zuid-Holland

Municipality Alphen a/d Rijn

Municipality Waddinxveen Municipality Boskoop

64


Design # Institutional design

Province Zuid-Holland

Partnership Holland Rijnland

Partnership Midden-Holland

Involve regional partnerships instead of municipalities individually

65


Design # Ready for change?

Are the authorities open for changes? Are the authorities open for changes? Change your governance culture...

66


Design # Ready for change?

They have to!

Source: http://blog.eboardsolutions.com

67


Thank you!

68


Integration of Transport & Land-use: The case of the Leiden-Gouda area