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UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES Bachelor of Arts in Communication Research

Jason Vildosola Mercene

PALAKASAN AT MEDIA: Analyzing the Sports Media Agenda on the Philippine National Sports Teams’ Performance at Southeast Asian and Asian Games

Thesis Adviser: Professor Elena E. Pernia, PhD. College of Mass Communication University of the Philippines Diliman

Date of Submission December 2015 Thesis Classification: F This thesis is available to the public.

Permission is given for the following people to have access to this thesis:

Available to the general public Available only after consultation with author/thesis adviser Available only to those bound by confidentiality agreement Student’s Signature: Signature of Thesis Adviser:

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I hereby grant the University of the Philippines non-exclusive worldwide, royalty-free license to reproduce, publish and publicly distribute copies of this thesis or dissertation in whatever form subject to the provisions of applicable laws, the provisions of the UP IPR policy and any contractual obligations, as well as more specific permission marking on the Title Page

Specifically, I grant the following rights to the University: a) to upload a copy of the work in these databases of the college/school/institute/department and in any other databases available on the public internet; b) to publish the work in the college/school/institute/department journal, both in print and electronic or digital format and online; and c) to give open access to above-mentioned work, thus allowing “fair use� of the work in accordance with the provisions of the Intellectual Property Code of the Philippines (Republic Act No. 8293), especially for teaching, scholarly and research purposes.

________________________ Jason V. Mercene

December 2015



Submitted to the COLLEGE OF MASS COMMUNICATION University of the Philippines Diliman In partial fulfilment of the requirements For the degree of


December 2015



has been accepted for the degree of BACHELOR OF ARTS IN COMMUNICATION RESEARCH by

Professor Elena E. Pernia, PhD.

and approved for the University of the Philippines College of Mass Communication by

Professor Elena E. Pernia, PhD. Dean, College of Mass Communication


Jason V. Mercene

Permanent Address

3237 A.V Jimenez St., Brgy. Kalawaan, Pasig City

Telephone Number


Date & Place of Birth

13 September 1994, Pasig City

Email Address


EDUCATION Secondary Level

Rizal High School, Brgy. Caniogan, Pasig City Journalist of the Year

Primary Level

Kalawaan Elementary School, Brgy. Kalawaan, Pasig City Salutatorian


Secretariat Committee Head, UP Communication Research Society, A.Y 2014- 2015 Contributor, Tinig ng Plaridel (Official Publication of the College of Mass Communication)


Intern, Consumer and Marketing Insights Unit, Smart Communications Inc., April 2014 - May 2014 Research Assistant, Department of Health – UP Open University DOTS Campaign evaluation project, December 2013 – February 2014 Research Assistant, National Union of Bank Employees, April 2013 Summer Intern, Office of the Chairman of the MMDA, April 2012 – May 2012


College Scholar, 2nd Semester AY 2011-2012, 1st Semester AY 2012-2013, 2nd Semester AY 2013-2014, 1st Semester 2014-2015, 2nd Semester 2014-2015


To the Almighty One, Your guidance and wisdom has always been present when I am struggling and doubting myself throughout my college years

To my parents, Gerry and Thelma, and my siblings, Geffen, Jeremy, Gerry Jr., and Glenn, your caring words and all-out support to my capabilities have inspired me to push myself to become a better person

To my partner, Isha, your undying support and unconditional love has kept me going throughout the toughest times of the data gathering and writing phase of this thesis

To my friends, Mariam, May Pearl, and Marielle, your thoughtful and cheerful attitude has boosted my morale and fighting spirit

To my families in Maskom, UP CommResSoc and CommRes-n-Peace, your bright and beautiful faces and minds have helped this study in many ways

To athletes, Kiefer, Alyssa, Garvo, and Dustin, and officials, Sir Nash, Sir Rick and Sir Jose, your passion for sports and this nation has been enough evidence to pursue this thesis topic

To Sir Sev, your expertise and knowledge on the local sports scenario has given this thesis more color and fresh insights, and Sir Josiah, your kindness has been a crucial twist to this research To my thesis adviser, Ma’am Pernia, and thesis proposal adviser, Ma’am Umali, your hard calls and sweet nods on my submissions have always been both frightening and rewarding Thank you.

To the Filipino athletes and to the people who keep on fighting despite adversities and challenges, may you always keep the torch of hope burning so that this nation will be great again


Mercene, J.V. (2015). Palakasan at media: Analyzing the sports media agenda on the Philippine national sports teams’ performance at Southeast Asian and Asian Games, Unpublished undergraduate thesis, University of the Philippines Diliman, College of Mass Communication.

This research probed the extent to which sports news coverage was able to reflect the perspective of stakeholders in terms of the performance of Filipino athletes. Using Agenda-Setting and Framing as theoretical anchors, it specifically examined the leading print media (i.e. Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippine Star, Manila Bulletin) in tackling the Philippine’s poor performance in international sport events over the years. Results showed that media heavily publicized the event but most of the articles remained to be factual, straightforward, and positive. Episodic frame were normally used in the coverage, suggesting that the media has minimal intention to describe the bigger picture and to discuss the root causes of problems. Insights from athletes and officials on how they view the current situation of sports in the country were also explored. This study revealed that aside from budget, internal and external elements were cited as hindrances in attaining good results from the sporting events. Media attention has been pointed out as a problem due to its bias on mainstream sports. However, it is important for stakeholders, especially the athletes, to be exposed for promotional purposes. This study provides points of discussion on both the media’s and the sporting bodies’ side to keep the people informed not only of the Games results, but also with significant reports on sports development.


Title Page


Approval Sheet


Biographical Data








Table of Contents


List of Tables


List of Figures


List of Charts




INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study


B. Statement of the Problem and Objectives


C. Rationale


D. Significance of the Study







Theoretical Level



Conceptual Level



Operational Level



Definition of Terms




Research Design



Variables and Measures



Research Instrument



Units of Analysis and Sampling



Data Gathering



Data Analysis



Scope and Limitation



The Researcher





The Games



The Articles



The Elite Sports Stakeholders



The Convergence



A Sports Journalist’s Perspective













Bibliography Appendices Appendix A: Coding Sheet Appendix B: Coding Guide Appendix C: Interview Guide Appendix D: Distribution Tables





Variables and Measures for Objective 1



Variables and Measures for Objective 2



Variables and Measures for Objective 3



Percentage of articles per event



Placement of news per broadsheet



Dimension (in inches) of articles per broadsheet



Stakeholders present in articles



Top 10 Sports coverage in the 2013, 2015 SEA and 2014 Asian


Games 9

Top 5 athletes and officials interviewed in the 2013, 2015 SEA and


2014 Asian Games 10

Framing of athletes



Framing of government and sports officials



Summary of encountered problems, causes of the problems and


potential solutions as pointed out by athletes and officials





Integrated Conceptual Model



Integrated Operational Model






Philippines medal production in the last six SEA Games edition



Total medal production vs. number of athletes participated in the last


six SEA Games edition 3

Medal production of Philippines in the last four editions of the Asian


Games 4

Percentage of article per broadsheet



Topic of article per event



Type of article per event



News placement per broadsheet



Number of articles with and without graphics



Athletes’ gender, age, and experience



Officials’ gender, age, and experience



Treatment of article per event



General tone of the articles per event



Specific tone of the articles per event



Reasons for Good Performance of the Athletes



Reasons for Bad Performance of the Athletes



Framing of the performance from each sports event



Framing of the responsibility on the performance from each sports



CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study 1. Relevance of International Sports Events Elite sports success has led nations to international prestige which relates to an increase in sports participation among the masses (Grixa & Carmichael, 2011). Several countries acknowledge the function of sports to achieve the development goals of the national government and promote the crucial value of integrated priorities and strategies within the system (United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace, 2003). The capacity and effectiveness of a national sports system is reflected on its international success. However, economic, political and sociological circumstances that are present internally should also be considered (De Bosscher, De Knop, van Bottenburg, & Shibli, 2006). 2. The Nation and its International Sports Status The Philippines has been consistently producing world-class champions in sports. Reigning boxing champions Manny Pacquiao and Nonito Donaire Jr., ice skating star Michael Martinez, and the sudden resurgence of the Philippine Dragon Boat and Philippine Rugby teams are continuing to raise the Philippine colors abroad and keeping the hopes of having a sports renaissance in the country. However in the amateur level, where most of the international competitions are being played, Philippines is faltering. Instead of improving, the country’s performance in international sports events was observed to be declining dramatically.


In recent years, the continuing decline of Philippine performance in international sports competitions has been brought to the public through print, broadcast, and online media. The national athletes failed to bring home any Olympic medal in the last four editions (Melendres, 2012). In addition, the Philippines is the only participating country that has not won a single gold medal in the Summer Olympics with Onyok Velasco in 1996 being the last Filipino that took home a medal (silver) from the quadrennial event (Noguera, 2013). In terms of medal production in the 2013 Asian Games and 2014 Southeast Asian (SEA) Games, they suffered the worst performance in history (Egco, 2014, Lagunzad, 2014). Philippines is falling behind the neighboring countries in the Southeast Asian region in terms of both medal count and gold medal production during the past editions of the biennial meet, right after winning the overall championship when it hosted in 2005. Once a powerhouse in the South East Asian region, Philippines can now only managed to place in fifth or sixth in the rankings in the last three editions of SEA games. In the Laos South East Asian Games (SEAG) edition, Philippines sent a much leaner delegation to compete in 25 sports but was only able to collect 38 golds, enough to settle for fifth out of 11 countries. The 2011 SEAG in Indonesia was a much sadder story for Philippine sports, where it fielded more than 500 athletes yet sliding down to sixth place with only 15 golds (Luarca, 2011), the worst performance of the Filipinos in the last 10 years. With the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC), the funding arm of the government for national sports, receiving a P187 million budget in the 2015 General Appropriation Act (Department of Budget and Management, 2015), the country is at a disadvantage to compete against neighboring countries like Thailand and Singapore.


After the Ramos administration, sports is not anymore a priority. Insufficient sports funding translates to lack of nutrition intake, mental and physical conditioning of the athletes (Gutierrez, 2012). Based on the same article, leadership and management were also cited and emphasized as issues experienced in the current Philippine sports system. 3. Efforts in Solving the Nation’s Sports Debacle Actions from government officials and other interested parties have been propagated in the attempt to address the issues surrounding elite sports. Grassroots program such as the Philippine National Games and Batang Pinoy are being revived by the PSC (Noguera, 2012). Meanwhile, some government officials offer different solutions like establishing an exclusive school for young athletes to provide them quality education and sports training (Philippine News Agency, 2015), or initiating an elaborate evaluation of the PSC and the Philippine Olympic Committee (POC) (Gutierrez, 2012). 4. Relevance of International Sports Competency Elite sports success has led nations to international prestige which relates to an increase in sports participation among the masses (Grixa & Carmichael, 2011). Several countries acknowledge the function of sports to achieve the development goals of the national government and promote the crucial value of integrated priorities and strategies within the system (United Nations Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace, 2003). The capacity and effectiveness of a national sports system is reflected on its international success. However, economic, political and sociological circumstances that are present internally should also be considered (De Bosscher, De Knop, van Bottenburg, &Shibli, 2006).


5. The Local Sports Media Scenario The mass media have the tools in realizing the full potential of development and pushing it into the public agenda (Cobb & Elder, 1971). In sports coverage, it is the role of the media to uphold the idea of being one with the community of followers by providing them with materials that elicits such emotion (Bernstein & Blain, 2002). However, sports media, just like any other media, have the tendency to focus on the capitalist view of telling the story or coverage (Dash, 2009). It was also one of the observations by former Senator Nikki Coseteng when she discussed why Philippine sports is a mess. She said, “Malaki rin ang part ng media parang chicken and egg situation yan e. Kinokober ng media ang basketball, lahat ng mga negosyante nagbibigay ng pera para sa basketball, kasi nandun ang media coverage. Bihira naman ang negosyante or bihira ang tao na gagastos ng pera tapos konti lang ang coverage.� (Noguera, 2013, par. 41)

True enough, only a handful of sports coverage are offered to the Filipino viewing public in which, more often than not, are the commercial leagues. In the local channels, Philippine Basketball Association (PBA), Shakey's V-League, University Athletic Association of the Philippine (UAAP), and National Collegiate Athletic Association of the Philippines (NCAA) have exclusive airing rights to particular TV networks. Although teams participating are not commercial, the latter two collegiate leagues are bombarded by advertisements. Moreover, while, TV networks are making efforts in covering international meets, only selected and popular sports are being aired (e.g., basketball, volleyball). Seeing that players and teams that have had sufficient coverage has led them to gain more support from stakeholders, the media can be studied as a platform that could ignite interest from public about their campaign and goal to bring glory to the country.


According to Juico (2013), “sports media has to lead, together with academia, in educating society in general and sports fans and policymakers in particular on the role of sports in national development” (par. 7). The media have the capacity to document the events and the situations experienced by the athletes. They are in the position to inform the public about the triumphs and hardships in elite sports. It is the role of the media to uphold the idea of being one with the community of followers by providing them with materials eliciting such emotion (Bernstein & Blain, 2002).In addition, sports is an aspect in the discourse on cultural matters in the society (Boyle, 2006). B. Statement of Research Problem and Objectives Knowing that players and teams who had sufficient coverage has led them to gain more support from stakeholders, the media may be studied as a platform that could ignite interest from the government, public, and private entities. After sharing a brief background on the status of Philippine sports, reviewing past studies on sports media, and providing evident reasons on raising concern for agenda setting and policy-making on elite sports, this research proposal addressed the question: 1. Research Problem To what extent is news media able to reflect the elite sports stakeholders’ perspectives in its coverage of issues related to the Philippine teams’ performance in the SEA and Asian Games? 2. Specific Objectives 1. To describe how the news media covered issues related to the performance of the Philippine national teams in the SEA and Asian Games in terms of: a. Level of importance


b. Treatment and tone c. Frames used 2. To explore stakeholders’ perspective regarding issues on Philippine national teams’ performance in terms of: a. Encountered problems b. Cause/s of the problems c. Possible solutions 3. To know the insights and opinions of elite sports stakeholders on the media coverage of Philippine national teams 4. To analyze the convergence of the media coverage and stakeholders’ perspectives on issues regarding Philippine national teams’ performance C. Rationale Sports has an influence in the social development of a nation (Nazeri & Ghasemi, 2011). National identity is a concept incorporated when tackling sports in an international context. It propagates a call for unity as it competes with other nations (Stead, 2008; Kneidinger, 2010). On a practical basis, sports has several functions in the society which is mainly associated to youth participation, health awareness and peace advocacies (UNNGLS, n.d). However, only few nations have implemented intensive programs in sports to promote national development and peace objectives (YourCommonwealth.org, 2012). According to Republic Act 6487, known as the Philippine Sports Commission Act, “it is the policy of the State to promote physical education, encourage and sustain the development of sports in the country to foster physical fitness, self-discipline, teamwork and excellence for the development


of a healthy and alert citizenry through a unified national sports promotion and development program�.

However, the country is not yet fully supportive of the functions of sports, especially in nation-building. In terms of national budget allocation, the Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) receives an average of P 166, 767, 208. 30 per year from the General Appropriation Act (Complativo & Panaligan, 2014). This figure is miniscule compared to the needed funds to improve sports facilities and programs that will significantly help athletes hone their skills and level their game to international standards. With this kind of set up in budgeting alone, sports development in the country is lagging. With the continuous decline of Filipino national athletes’ performances being evident in the past years, the local sports media have reported controversies on funding and corruption as hurdles in sports development in the country (Panaligan & Complativo, 2014). In addition, the current policies and programs of government bodies seem to be ineffective as the nation still failed to pull off a major stride in international competitions like the Southeast Asian (SEA) Games and Asian Games. It is the role of media to inform the stakeholders (e.g. sports fans, athletes, governing body) and the general public in order to have educated views regarding these issues on sports. Several studies on how media shape public perception and opinion on matters of national development have already been conducted, but there has been no local literature that explores the sports news angle. Getting different perspectives from stakeholders and involved institutions is also pertinent to the discussion of media framing. Government authorities are game changers


in terms of setting policies affecting sports development while the athletes are the key players in sports coverage. This study focused on the framing of news in print since there is an established section for sports that is necessary when exploring storylines of the international events. Print media has its online version also, making it an accessible form of information within the community of sports practitioners and enthusiasts. Moreover, sports page, be it offline or online, already established an audience who follows sports events of their interest, thus, making it an impactful tool for accumulation of information with regard to sports happenings. D. Significance of the Study As the study probes into the coverage of sports news, it explored how certain online news media outlets portray sports in general, the Filipino athletes, and the status of Philippine sports. It is the sportswriters’ and sports media organizations’ duty to forward the cause of empowering Filipino national teams. The study examined if the media coverage help the national sports organization in introducing their respective sports and making it more relevant to the public. It also aimed to bridge the information gap on causes and solutions of the recent struggle between the involved parties because the media are in the position to focus issues that must be addressed. The results of this study may provide insights on the politics of sharing a common goal towards of ending dismal performances in international competition. It can also be a basis of evaluating the policies and programs implemented since the study also looked into the issues discussed concerning the status of Philippine sports.



Studies have shown connections of how media contributes to the formation of public opinion and perception of reality based on the frames reported to them. To frame, according to Entman (1993), is to manipulate a certain reality and highlight portion of that reality in order to promote “particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment recommendation�. Citing the current Philippine sports status as a pertinent societal and national problem, media has the capacity of interpreting this crisis according on how they believed it should be addressed. This chapter is divided into two sections discussing media framing in different aspects relevant to the study’s objectives. The first part relates how media frames are used by news organization while the second part looks into literatures on sports coverage and media framing. A. Agenda setting in news organizations The media serve as a powerful tool to inform the public on different societal matters that. Consequently, they are also capable of setting the agenda which could affect public opinion (Barnes, Hanson, Novilla, Meacham, & McIntyre, 2008). However, media organizations are more leaning towards interpreting facts in dominant societal frames manner (Callaghan & Schnell, 2005). News organizations have tendencies of satisfying their audiences through production of provocative format of the content than informative (Wicks, 2005). With these insights, sports news organizations do not differ in this kind of practice. As much as it is far from possible that media will refrain from using dominant societal frames since there is a need for them to survive in the industry, it is interesting to


find out how media balance out their responsibility to the public and as partners of development in sports. Given the tantamount information available, media frames are crucial in supplying the people a better perspective on what is happening (McQuail, 2003). The information from the media is important to stakeholders and policymakers since they are directly involved in the information production for such problems. Since efforts in understanding and determining frames in the media were initially related to agenda setting (Scheufele & Iyengar, 1996), the interplay between the actual scenario and the information is blurred through framing. The popular frames used in media are the episodic and thematic frames. Episodic frames are focused on the specific and individual cases while thematic frames are set to discuss an issue in a broader context (Gross, 2008). However, the two (2) frames are not completely separable since most of news reports introduce an issue focusing first in an episodic approach then zooming out to its thematic frame (Iyengar, 1990). While no literature has exactly pointed out these two (2) frames in the context of sports coverage, however, thematic and episodic frames are helpful in understanding situational status of sports landscape in the nation. B. Media framing in sports coverage According to Karen and Washington (2001), topics such as gender, social class, and race, among others, were the common angles used when studying sports and society. With the use of media and the growing impact of globalization, there were also analyses on sports in terms of its social context.


With regards to studies on sports event, Stead (2002) argues that the media contribute to the “spectacularization,” “dramatization,” and “personalization” of sports. The spectacularization refers to the media making a grand spectacle of sports at the international level. On dramaticizing sports, it is not enough to simply report about the event, there has to be a story to be told. It is like a narrative set by the media and participated by athletes to generate feelings of excitement on the event. Lastly, the media would pick athletes and emphasize their characteristics which are favorable to the audience. They personalize the athletes in a way that would give them celebrity status. They become the frontrunners when the media report on events where they are involved. These three (3) tendencies of sports media are concerned on the narratives of articles, thus, framing shapes on how people see the relevance of international sports events. However, Walters and Murphy (2008) argued that on the coverage of Olympic Games, too much nationalistic frame should be a caution for media outlets since it can reinforce alarming consequences with regards to attitudes of the audiences. Social identity theory, one of the theories discussing the dynamics of in-group/out-group dynamic, has been used by American news organizations in presenting the Olympic Games. Media, in this essence, creates international tension rather than bridging and highlighting the purpose of the event. The study suggested that the media have the responsibility to carefully relay happenings in the international event despite focusing on nationalistic pride. The study also shared that the concept of building a nationalistic image in sports is propagated on several national and international since media have broadcasted nationalistic content and characteristic. This is much emphasized at the international level wherein there is a unified gathering of Bulgarian sports enthusiasts


with similar characteristics and moral virtues. Consequently, sports-mega events studies were primarily on focused on knowing how it was covered by the media and determining audience reception. There is still a lack of attention on looking at the nation branding angle of covering sports events (Knot, Fyall, & Jones, 2013). Previous studies related to framing and sports are also abundant in gender issue, specifically on media’s representation of women. In Fink and Parker (2008), experiments were used to ascertain the effect of commentator framing on the audience. It also looked at its impact on involvement and perceptions on the female athletes. Aside from broadcasting coverage, photography in an online news outlet was also content analyzed. The study of Jones (2010) also focused on female photo presentation in sports and argued that exposure for women is noticeable if they went outside the conventional ‘women sports’. Arguments regarding misrepresentation of female athletes have called for a more balanced reporting in terms of performance and subjective description in contrast with the male counterparts. This study aimed to raise arguments on why situational sports news must have a fair share of attention in local media. On the other hand, sports government entities and athletes have to find a way to expose them to the public since mainstream media only give greater attention to them during Olympic season (Eagleman, 2013). This was supported by a study of Greenhalgh et al. (2011), where they categorized sports by national governing bodies in which niche sports usually have low coverage in mainstream media. Other concerns were raised regarding issues on sports. Distinguished sports facilities is an area of sports research that is understudied. This kind of research would deal with the aspects of sports facilities which may encourage more participation from


athletes (O'Reilly, Berger, Hernandez, Parent, and Se'guin, 2013). In a developing country like the Philippines that does not pay much attention on sports as a tool for nation-building, media can raise call for support on private citizens to encourage national athletes in continue representing the country while also promoting lively citizens through sports. In an organizational level, meanwhile, several research findings have pointed out that only ‘specific elite sport policy structures’ are contextualized, therefore other national sports organizations are not effective in an elite kind of system (Truyens, de Bosscher, & de Knop, 2009) C. Synthesis Acknowledging the importance and impact of media framing in societies, several studies have been made. Media frames tend to highlight dominant and entertaining aspect of the report Studies on media framing have several extensive contributions on its effects to audience reception, which are done through experimentation and gender studies, which are focus on misrepresentation of women athletes. Previous works also gave significant findings in nationalistic framing, and other issues of sports organizations like participation and structural concern. D. Research Gap After reviewing related literature, this study would like to attempt in contributing to the research gap associated with media framing and stakeholder analysis in sports.


Local literature in sports and media are scarce and with no focus on how framing affect the opinions and decisions of direct stakeholders. No local literature have explored athletes and governments institutions sentiments on how they perceive to end the problems on both the media and external environment and push for development.



This study recognizes the power of news media in raising public concerns and agenda to mobilize concrete changes. The continuing decline of Philippine performance in international competitions have been brought to the public through print and broadcast media for quite some time now. Unfortunately, there is no evident sign of progress covered by the media as the country gears for the 2016 Olympics. The print media shape the production of knowledge towards concerns on the Philippine national teams’ welfare. Framing stories about national teams and their performance is crucial because it can define their relevance and attract support or sponsorship from private entities. Since elite sports stakeholders are direct actors in the country’s participation in international competitions, it is imperative to understand how they view their performance and their own take on how it can be improved. A. Theoretical Framework The main focus of this study is to investigate how extensive the media portrayal of news related to Philippine teams performances’ and how it is reflective to the various stakeholders’ perspectives in elite sports. With this endeavor, the proponent anchored this study based on two (2) theories, Agenda-setting and Framing. 1. Agenda-setting Originally published as a political explanation proposed by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw in 1972, the Agenda Setting Theory has inspired various interpretations on how media shape societal issues and influence public opinion (Littlejohn & Foss, 2009). The theory has two (2) core assumptions. First is that media filter reality and


second, the focus on certain issues dictates what the public should think about. Issues filtered that are salient in the media are perceived as more important over the others (Freeland, 2012). Meanwhile, levels of agenda-setting are explained through the concept of salience. “The first level is concerned with the salience of objects (public issues, public figures, or companies) and the second level is concerned with the salience of the characteristics of those objects” (Carol & McCombs, 2003, p. 38 as cited by Freyenberger, 2013). Patterns of media agenda is measured on periods and within these periods, reporting towards an aspect of an issue is either magnified or ignored (McCombs, n.d). Rogers & Dearing (1988) laid out the three types of agenda-setting as public agenda, media agenda, and policy agenda. While the first two agenda were elaborately expounded on many studies, other scholars are more interested on exploring how public agenda can deliberately influence policies (Walgrave& Val Aelst, 2006). These type of researches thrive in cementing change in a community and argue that media should not only inform their audience but also encourage the public to demand progress, to make a real impact (Wilson, 2011). Though political communication researches have transpired engagement in policy-making, few studies have pointed out the connection of policy studies and media agenda and rarely discussed media effects on policy development (Wolfe, Jones, & Baumgartner, 2013). This study anchored its premise on agenda-setting as it is the “central importance to any political system” (Walker, 1977, p. 423 as cited by Wolfe, Jones, & Baumgartner, 2013). Media are basically the molder of information in a policymaking approach (Jones & Wolfe, 2010) by looking at the “politics of attention and


attention dynamics at a political system level” (Wolfe, Jones, & Baumgartner, 2013). With much focus on elites in institutions, the policy agenda setting attempts in forming attention through which competing factors such as information, interests, and ideas are settled (Jones & Baumgartner, 2005).

2. Framing Agenda-setting scholars have emphasized that the media shape the way people think about certain issues. Framing, according to James Tankard, is “the central organizing idea for news content that supplies a context and suggests what the issue is through the use of selection, emphasis, exclusion, and elaboration” (Griffin, 2009, p.381). More researches were developed to understand set of frames discussing slant and biases over influential societal stakeholders with regards to dispute or conflicts. In essence, the media have the capability in shaping political perceptions and discourses (Littlejohn & Foss, 2009, pp. 407-408). Integration of theories In this study, the Agenda-setting theory was the backbone of the framework. The media, public, and policy agenda were the main elements in understanding the interplay of media coverage and stakeholders’ insights on the decline of the performance of Philippine national teams. Framing theory served as a supplemental theoretical anchor which was used to assess how media present news related to elite sports performance.


B. Conceptual Framework At the conceptual level, the performance of Philippine teams in international sporting events and ongoing developments on national teams were the public agenda since several sports studies posited that the public has great interest in their national teams during major international events (e.g., Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup). Media coverage was deemed as the media agenda, showing elements of framing and issue saliency embedded in its part as the Agenda-Setting theory suggests. Figure 1 shows how the study envisions to describe the extent of media coverage towards the nation’s performance in international events. The model assumes that both the media and the stakeholders reflect ideas and perspectives on the performance of Philippine sports. This study discussed how elite sports stakeholders look at the status of their performance, and of Philippines’ performance also, since they are the direct actors in the institution. Elite sports stakeholders’ perspectives represented the policy agenda in this study since they are immensely involved in the process of development in elite sports. Their perspectives were taken as a two-level segment, with issue-based and performancebased concerns as the first part, while the other tackled more on how these concerns are being relayed to the media. The framework suggests that the information given and the manner on how it is given to the media by the stakeholders holds a crucial role on how it was interpreted or reported by the sports journalists. The double-headed arrow describe the interaction of media and elite sports stakeholders which was explored in this study. The study determined the extent to which


the news media is able to reflect the perspectives of elite sports stakeholders in its coverage related to Philippines’ performance in the SEA and Asian Games.

Figure 1. Conceptual Model

C. Operational Framework Figure 2 shows the operationalized concepts in analyzing the extent of media’s coverage that is reflective of stakeholders’ perspective. In studying the Philippine national teams’ performance, the study only focused on heir participation in the 2013 and 2015 Southeast Asian Games and the 2014 Asian Games. These were the major international sports events which the media reported the struggles of the Philippine teams. Articles published in print media (Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippine Star, and Manila Bulletin) were described according to a.) Level of importance, b.) Treatment and


tone, and c.) Frames used. The stakeholders consisted of the government authorities in the Philippine Sports Commission and national athletes who participated in the SEA and Asian Games. Stakeholders’ concerns on organizational environment and policy changes and development were taken into account to help the proponent in looking for similarities and differences on the stakeholders’ and media’s side. Likewise, how they managed their media relations, particularly on the methods used and messages forwarded, was also checked to know the connection between stakeholders’ perspectives to the coverage of national broadsheets when it comes to national sports issues. Lastly, this study analyzed the convergence on the saliency and framing of local media coverage on elite sports events to the perspectives given by the stakeholders as it can provide pointers for improvement in covering important aspect of policy development in national sports. The model describes how the media portrayal and insights from stakeholders were assessed to determine the extent to which the media coverage is reflective of the stakeholders’ perspectives.


Figure 2. Operational Framework


D. Definition of Terms 

Stakeholders –the Philippine Olympic Committee authorities and national athletes

News media – print media that disseminate various news regarding national teams

Tone – the positive, negative, or neutral tone to the stakeholder in the news story

Frames – the various frame analysis to be used in this study

Performance – the output of a country in international competition, usually measured in terms of medals and winnings

Elite sports – games that are played competitively in an international level

National athletes –individuals who recently participated in the SEA and Asian Games

Government authorities – government employees who have been actively involved in the preparation and evaluation of the performance of national teams

Perspectives – insights and opinions on how Philippine performance on international events can be improved

Media Relations – the ways (manner) and form (message) that stakeholders bring a specific concern to the media’s attention


CHAPTER IV. METHODOLOGY A. Research Design and Methods This descriptive study aims to analyze the media portrayal of the situation of Philippine sports and how it is being viewed by the sports authorities and national athletes. Media portrayal in this study focused on the coverage of the Philippine teams’ performance in the 2013 and 2015 Southeast Asian Games and the 2014 Asian Games. The coverage included issues reported regarding pre- and post-event assessment of the performance. This cross-sectional research examined how topics and discourses relevant to the improvement of Philippine sports was discussed by the print media. Following the Agenda Setting Theory, this study recognized that the perspectives from stakeholders of sports on matters of media coverage and sports development should be highlighted. Insights from the national athletes and governing authorities depicted the policy agenda of the media coverage. The study explored the concerns of the stakeholders regarding salience and framing of media-generated stories. Since the study examined the media coverage on the performance of the Philippines in international sports competitions and stakeholders’ perspective of it, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were employed. Content analysis was done to determine and describe how media covered the Philippine teams. Framing and issue saliency of the current situation of Philippine teams depicted the status of Philippine sports in the mainstream media. Key informant interviews were also utilized to get the insights and opinions of sports stakeholders the subject matter. These were be thematically analyzed to observe trends and differences across informants. Finally, the


findings were integrated to find out how much the media reflect stakeholders’ perspective on improving the sports landscape in the country. At the end, the study suggested recommendations on how to bridge the gap between the media and policy agenda. B. Variables and Measures With concepts of these research focused on the media agenda, particularly on issue saliency and framing, and the policy agenda from the stakeholders’ perspective, this research used the following variables and measures. Table 1. Variables and Measures for Objective 1 1.

To describe how the news media covered issues related to the performance of the Philippine national teams in the SEA and Asian Games Variables Measures Media portrayal

Issue saliency


         

Frequency of topics mentioned Frequency of causes/solutions mentioned Frequency of sports mentioned Frequency of sports organizations/personalities mentioned Tone of news towards stakeholder Treatment of news Characteristics of stakeholders Frames on the performance of athletes Frames on national athletes Frames on government officials

Table 2. Variables and Measures for Objective 2 2. To explore stakeholders’ perspective regarding issues on Philippine national teams’ performance Variables Stakeholders’ perspective on issues concerning Philippine teams’

Measures Problems

   

Corruption on sports governing bodies Lack of government support (funding) Lack of athlete conditioning Lack of training facilities




  

Review of policies and programs Promotion of grassroots program Strong support from the government

Table 3. Variables and Measures for Objective 3 3. To know the insights and opinions of elite sports stakeholders on the media coverage of Philippine national teams Variables

Elite sports stakeholders’ perspectives on media portrayal

Measures Insights

Experience on media interviews Perception of the media environment


View on abundance/lack of media coverage View on the media’s selection of topics on national sports View on media’s discussion of topics on national sports

C. Research Instrument The study employed two (2) research instruments for the quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The form for the content analysis was composed of three sections, namely (1) general information of the sports news story, (2) news portrayal, and (3) framing. For the part I of the content analysis form, the following were included: (1)

Name of the broadsheet


Date published


Time location relative to the event


Events covered



Sports covered


Length of article

For part II, the focus was on the sports article. This part was divided into two, level of importance and the tone/treatment on the stakeholder. Determining the level of importance implied how print media give emphasis on the issues connected to the topic being discussed. The last part was coding the frames that were reflected on the articles published. In order to extract as much data as possible, the researcher looked into the frames of the performance, the stakeholders involve, and the problems and solutions it present. Appropriate framing categories were determined in distinguishing news articles. This also tackled how issues or problems were discussed and presented on the media. Tone and treatment of the mentioned stakeholders were likewise necessary for determining how media portrays sports authorities and athletes in the country. For guidance purposes, the researcher prepared a codebook to ensure consistency of the coding process. Meanwhile, the key informant interview (KII) guide was divided into three (3) main parts, namely: (1) Concerns regarding issues on Philippine national teams’ performance (2) Perception and opinion on how media covers Philippine teams’ performance These parts were specifically designed to answer Objectives 2 and 3 of this study. The semi-guided interview both had open and close-ended questions to allow clarifications and elaborations from the stakeholder.


D. Units of Analysis and Sampling Media coverage of Philippine teams’ performance was analyzed through the SEA and Asian Games events. The study focused on the timeframe of the sports articles from 2013 to 2015. The timeframe is significant since these were the years when the performance of Philippines in international scenario declined. Articles that mentioned SEA or Asian Games were included in the pool, provided that it also focused on the Philippine teams’ performance or other related news (e.g., preparation, problems encountered). Specifically, sports news article published in Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippine Star, and Manila Bulletin during the months of December 2013, September 2014, June 2015, were the main unit analysis in the quantitative aspect of the study. Purposive sampling was done to select informants for the KII.The researcher interviewed three (3) sports officials, four (4) national athletes, and one (1) sports journalist. The government and sport authorities interviewed were actively involved in making decisions on sports policies and programs of the country while the national athletes interviewed were those who participated in the 2013 or 2015 SEA and 2014 Asian Games. E. Data Gathering and Construction The content analysis of the news articles covered the mentioned timeframe of events. The data gathering of news articles took place in the U.P. library while the interviews were conducted upon appointment. The content analysis was conducted on the 2nd week of October until the 1st week of November 2015 while the interviews were done on the last week of October up to the 2nd week of November.


F. Data Analysis The researcher first provided a background of the status of Philippine sports in terms of success in international competition. Official reports and the final tally from reliable media agencies were the main sources of information. Through descriptive statistics, presentation of relevant data from the coded form of news articles were analyzed and elaborated. Themes and quotes coming from the KII, meanwhile, were integrated in the discussion to determine the extent of media coverage that is reflective of the stakeholders’ view. The study compared and contrasted the media’s presentation and stakeholders’ perspective towards issues surrounding the current debacle in sports. These insights led the researcher in discovering reasons of convergence or gaps concerning the media-policy agenda dynamics in the context of sports. G. Scope and Limitations Since the focus of the study was on media’s portrayal of issues on Philippine national teams’ performance, the researcher only selected print media as its sole source of data. The print media, especially broadsheet, have an allotted section for sports, making it a reliable unit of analysis. The print media, therefore, have a more comprehensive approach when tackling issues in the recent sports debacle. Furthermore, mainstream broadsheets now have online versions, thus, the reach for the news now has a wider range. Radio and broadcast may have produced sports news in their respective programs but it is limited in terms of airtime. Given practical limitations, the study is time bound and only covered the media coverage of the Philippine teams in international competitions at the 2013 SEA Games, 2014 Asian Games, and 2015 SEA Games. The number of articles collected were sufficient since it also included pre- and post-event


news. To provide a vivid interpretation of the current situation of sports in the Philippines, the researcher decided to focus only on the happenings of the 2013 and 2015 SEA and 2014 Asian Games, making it a case study for these particular sports events. The study was also media-specific since it examines the media through its framing and media saliency while also cross checking it through stakeholders’ perspectives. H. The Researcher Jason V. Mercene is an avid fan of sports. He started on pursuing his interest of sports back in his elementary days, where he was both a table tennis varsity player and a young sportswriter. Although choosing to focus on his academics in high school, he still continued in celebrating the action and drama of sports through sports journalism. Sportswriting has been his ticket to success as he was recognized as one of the best sports news writer in the country back in 2011. He believes that Filipinos should appreciate the role of sports in society, and the significance of national athletes who wave the Philippine flag in international events. As a communication researcher, he has studied relevant societal issues together with his peers. Topics on national elections, the Metro Manila Film Festival, social labels, and Overseas Filipino Workers' (OFW) family leisure were some of his coauthored works. Recently, he and his peers presented their paper on OFWs' family leisure at the 4th Southeast Asia Research for Communication and Humanities Conference hosted by Taylor’s University at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.



A. The Games 1. Struggle in Southeast Asian Games The Philippines formally joined the Southeast Asian Games (SEA Games) in 1977 where it finished third overall in terms of gold medal count. Since then, the country has been a consistent contender for overall championship behind perennial powerhouse nations like Thailand and Indonesia. The country hosted the three SEA Games edition in Manila during the term of former presidents Ferdinand Marcos Sr. (1981), Corazon Aquino (1991) and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (2005). Curiously, Philippines was third and second in the 1981 and 1991 edition, respectively (Santos, 2015). Philippines is consistently performing well when it is hosting the event, which was evident in the 23rd SEA Games in 2005, where the Filipino athletes rallied to the top as they finally copped the regional championship in Southeast Asia after 28 years on home soil. The Philippines collected 113 gold, 84 silver, and 94 bronze with most of the medals coming from athletics, aquatics, and wushu. However, the Philippines struggled in the standings came the 24th SEA Games held in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand in 2007. From being the champion nation, it slid down to sixth place with only 41 gold medal to show. Since then, the performance of the Filipino athletes went on a free fall in the next three editions in terms of gold medal production (which is how the overall ranking is determined) and even hit a rock bottom in 2013 Myanmar SEA Games where the nation could only afford a 29-gold production which is good for seventh place and its worst finish in the Games history. In a span of a decade, the Philippines’ performance was from best to worst.


Chart 1. Philippines medal production in the last six SEA Games edition (Bueza, 2015) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0




























The competition in the Asian regional level got tougher for the Filipino athletes as they cannot even surpass gold medal targets set by Philippine Sports Commission before the event even began. Although there were political and technical concerns in favor of the host nation, the fact still remains that the Philippines is not consistent anymore in regional meets. While it is an indication of the state of sports in the country, the overall result can also reflect of how neighbor countries are vastly improving when it comes to the discipline of sports. This current debacle in producing good result did not stop the Philippines in sending athletes in the biennial meet, although there has been a decrease in the elite athletes being sent to compete since the disappointing 2007 campaign in Thailand. It was in 2009 Laos SEA Games when the Philippines only sent 153 athlete delegation, only a quarter of the number of delegates sent in the previous edition. Yet, the lean delegation


pushed the country to climb one spot higher for fifth place in the standing, proving the ‘quality over quantity’ approach effective that time. Unfortunately, the storyline of 2011, 2013, and 2015 in terms of the overall result has brought the Philippine delegation in a harsh reality. The 26th SEA Games in Palembang saw a 334% increase of Filipino athletes competing in various events this time, a total of 512. However, the development of sending more athletes did not translate of getting good result. The Philippines was once again in sixth (6th) place and two (2) gold medals short in matching the previous edition output. Meanwhile, the 2013 SEA Games was when the Filipino delegations’ performance was in its all-time low. With only 219 athletes, the Philippines took a step backward anew resulting to their worst finish in Games history. In 2015, despite sending again a bigger delegation of 466 athletes and predicting 50-gold medal haul, the Philippines only matched the production of the 2013 team by garnering 29 gold medals which resulted to a sixth place finish. The trend for the Philippines has been alternating the number of delegation sent every other biennial meet. However, as the results show, bigger delegation does not guarantee more gold medals and better results, while lean delegation does not necessarily produce quality performance if basing it on the 2013 results.


Chart 2. Total medal production vs. number of athletes participated in the last six SEA Games edition (Bueza, 2015). 743 620 512


291 228 124





Total Medal Production


169 101





Number of Participating Athletes

SEE MORE at http://www.rappler.com/newsbreak/iq/96897-philippines-medals-last-5-seagames

2. Alarming Asian Games Trend Just like the Southeast Asian Games pattern, the performance of the Philippines also went downhill these past three editions (Panaligan, 2015). Competing against the whole Asian region, where sports giants like China, South Korea, and Japan are leading the pact, national athletes have no room for error if they want to bring home medals to their home country. The Philippines was once a powerhouse country when it comes to the Asian level in sports It was one of the five founding country members of the Asian Games Federation in 1949, which gave way in the inaugural Asian Games held in New Delhi in 1951 (Olympic Council of Asia, ) . Three years later, Manila hosted the Asian meet and placed


second behind Japan. The country was finishing either second or third in the first four installations of the Games but steadily fell behind the rankings during the 1970’s up until now. Chart 3. Medal production of Philippines in the last four editions of the Asian Games (Panaligan, 2014) 16

11 9 7 3


6 4



3 1

2002 Busan

2006 Doha Gold

2010 Guangzhou Silver

2014 Incheon


In the 2014 Asian Games held in Incheon, South Korea, the Philippine delegation went home with only just a gold, three silvers, and 11 bronze, dragging the country’s ranking to 22nd, another worst finish in history. Daniel Caluag, the athlete who was responsible for clinching the country’s lone gold medal, was considered hero by then as he prevented a gold medal shutout. Caluag, a US-based national athlete, won in the BMX event of cycling, a sports unpopular in the Philippines.

SEE MORE at http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/382897/sports/othersports/specialreport-charting-alarming-trends-for-philippines-at-the-asian-games


In the last four editions of the Games, the country could not produce more than four (4) golds. The SEA Games trend has transcended in the Asian Games performance. Despite the good fight they put under the national colors, Filipino athletes were not winning much in the recent events. Indeed, there were some athletes who shine in their games but the status of Philippine sports in general is still in the dark times.

B. The Articles Given the current performance debacle the Philippine sports is facing, mass media could play a vital role in supplying relevant information to the public and policymakers to support the cause of national athletes and playing for the flag. The country’s sports situation right now is in dire need of attention and the media have the tools to forward the goal for Filipino athletes to be competitive and respected in the different kind of sports, be it the Asian and even world level. The sports media was examined to determine if their reporting and framing of stories captured the national sports agenda. There are four (4) main parts for discussed: (1) broadsheet reporting of SEA and Asian Games, (2) emphasis given to SEA and Asian Games reporting, (3) treatment and tone, and (4) frames used. 1. The Broadsheet Reporting of SEA and Asian Games Out of the 609 content analyzed articles, Philippine Daily Inquirer has the most sports news published (40.39%), about Southeast Asian and Asian Games combined followed by Manila Bulletin (32.02%) . Philippine Star turned out to be the least publishing


newspaper (27.59%) on the three (3) international events because there were six (6) issues missing in the library archives where the data gathering was conducted.

Chart 4. Percentage of article per broadsheet (n=609) 40.39%

32.02% 27.59%




Meanwhile, when it comes to comparing the three events in terms of the number of articles, there was not much difference. Despite 2015 SEA Games having 16 more articles published, it is within the range of 200 stories per event. The SEA and Asian Games both usually last for two weeks which can explain the almost same number of articles. Since there were fewer delegates sent to Asian Games due to tougher and higher level of competition, there should be fewer stories too for the event compared to SEA Games. However, results showed (Table 4) that reporters managed to still reach the 200mark in the month when the Asiad happened.


Table 4. Number of articles per event (n=609) Event 2013 SEAGAMES 2014 ASIAN GAMES 2015 SEAGAMES TOTAL

% 32.35% 32.51% 35.14% 100%

Reporters from the three (3) national broadsheets wrote more results-based stories across all three events as shown in Chart 5. However, with a slight decrease of resultsbased stories during the 2014 Asian Games coverage, there was an increase in the number of primer or preview stories on the athletes who competed. The same trend was found on the national sports stories. This may be due to the fact that Asian Games had higher stakes since it involves more nations in the whole of Asia. Preparations may be relatively more intense because of a higher level of competition among athletes. Chart 5. Topic of article per event (n=609) 69.04% 60.75% 55.56%

27.27% 16.75% 12.18%


16.67% 10.28% 5.14%










The results in Chart 6 supported the observation as more feature stories and column writing were produced during the Asian Games. Because straight news (or hard news) sports stories were commonly results-based when it comes to multi-sports event reporting, SEA Games happening usually receive straight news angle. The increase in terms of columns written on the topic of Asian Games was because of the dismal performance of the Philippines, and with 2013 SEA Games tragedy still fresh, sports columnists have turned their ire and disappointment into writing opinion on the recent debacle. Chart 6. Type of Article per Event (n=609) 87.38%

84.77% 77.78%

15.15% 9.64% 3.55%




6.57% 0.51%






2. Emphasis Given to SEA and Asian Games Reporting Before analyzing the exact of content of the sports news published by the three national broadsheet, this study also considered other factors that may affect how readers receive a certain topic or story by analyzing the news placement, article area, and present of graphics for a more in-depth analysis of the subject matter.


a. News placement While there are occasions when the broadsheets feature photos of gold medalists on the front page, sports news is more likely to appear in its designated section of the newspaper as presented in Table 5. Sports enthusiasts would then normally proceed to the sports section. In particular, Manila Bulletin has shown more relevance in the happenings of the SEA and Asian Games since they place most of the stories at the section front (73.33%). Table 5. Placement of news per Broadsheet (n=609) Event HEADLINE SECTION FRONT INSIDE OF PAGE TOTAL



2.02% 37.65% 60.32% 100.00%

0.60% 45.83% 53.57% 100.00%

MANILA BULLETIN 1.54% 73.33% 25.13% 100.00%

In terms of newspaper layout, Chart 7 shows that there are more Asian Games stories placed in front of the sports section. Since the Asiad is bigger and more prestigious, and news placement has an indication for news importance, sports editors may have put more emphasis on the ongoing international meet that features Asia’s best athletes than the SEA Games which is only participated by 11 nations and has lesser scope and significance. However, only a miniscule chance can be given to international sports stories to be included in the front page area of the newspaper. Usually, the gold medal winner or any momentous feat for the Philippines is sometimes included, with its graphics as the banner headline news.


Chart 7. News Placement per broadsheet (n=609)

67.17% 55.61%

53.30% 45.69%










b. Area of Article Meanwhile, comparing the three (3) based on the allotted space of their articles in the newspaper, Philippine Star is more generous on sports news related to SEA and Asian Games stories. With an average length of 7.16 inches, width of 4.97 inches, and area of 35.59 square inches, it is relatively bigger compared to PDI and MB. However, the base divisor might have a small influence in the average area result since the three (3) broadsheets have different total number of articles.


Table 6. Dimension (in inches) of Articles per Broadsheet Dimension LENGTH WIDTH AREA

INQUIRER (n=246)


5.49 5.39 25.59

7.16 4.97 33.56

MANILA BULLETIN (n=198) 5.81 5.79 33.64

c. Presence of Graphics When it comes to attaching graphics to an article, more than half (53.2%) of the sampled articles did not contain any photo, be it file, wired, or caricature. While photos are added attraction for readers, especially in sports section, there can be two reasons of why there are more stories without photos. First, editors do not require a corresponding photo in every story since newspaper space is limited. Second, the logistics for sending an official photographer may be too costly since the events are held abroad and may require additional costs for travel and lodging of the coverage team. The 46.8% may be a good sign since almost 300 photos are featuring faces of national athletes and sports officials. Chart 8. Number of articles with and without graphics (n=609)




3. Sports and Stakeholders’ Presence Since sports stakeholders like athletes, coaches and government officials are primary source of information of sportswriters in covering SEA and Asian Games, this study also looked into the ‘who’ and ‘what’ of the published articles. This led to more detailed insights on the media coverage. As seen in Table 7, most of the time the athletes are the main subject of the articles. The athletes are usually quoted for their reaction and opinions before and after the game. Reporters also cite the views by the athletes’ coaches or an officer of the governing body, in this case, the national sports associations (NSAs). They are under the Philippine Olympic Committee (POC)’s jurisdiction since they are privately-recognized sports association with International Olympic Committee as their mother organization. The Philippine Sports Commission (PSC), being the duly-recognized government body in the sports sector, or other higher government authorities are rarely consulted in the proceedings of the SEA and Asian Games. Table 7. Stakeholders Present in Articles Event



85.37% 11.79% 41.87% 0.81% 0.41%

PHILIPPINE STAR 89.29% 6.55% 45.24% 1.19% 0.00%

MANILA BULLETIN 94.36% 9.23% 37.44% 0.00% 0.00%

TOTAL 89.33% 9.52% 41.38% 0.66% 0.16%

a. Portrayal Meanwhile, broadsheets usually feature national athletes as a young man with a regular experience in competing internationally. For sports officials, it is usually an older


male with coaching-level job status. The findings pose a challenge for reporters to cover sports in the women’s division since there are many females in the Philippine delegation who are performing well. On the other hand, interviewing coaching-level officials in the reports can mean that stories are more devoted in getting the strategic and episodic angle of the game. This also explains why topics covered in Chart 5 is mostly on the results and not much on the programs and other thematic discussions coming from the higher officials (e.g., government, sports authorities). Chart 9. Athletes’ Gender, Age, and Experience (n=407)

Chart 10. Officials’ Gender, Age, and Experience (n=374)


b. Top Sports, Athletes, and Officials While SEA and Asian Games are multi-sports event, it cannot be denied that there are certain sports that are well-covered than the other. Logistically speaking, since the events are scattered in different areas gathering facts is a difficult task. Hence, the sports media coverage has tendency of focusing only in a limited number of sports. As shown in Table 8, basketball has been the consistent media sports darling for three straight years in both SEA and Asian Games. Basketball may have attracted so much media attention because of two things. First, it is the most successful SEAG campaign after successfully defending the championship since 1991. Second, because it is the most popular sports in the country. All but one of the sports in the top 10 are all multiple medals to offer and where Filipino athletes excel in. The return of volleyball in the SEA Games 2015 after a decade of absence has been a welcome development in the country and the media were quick to give this sports exposure because of its gaining popularity in the local scene. However, despite the expectations for the Philippine volleyball team, the team went home empty-handed but that did not stop the media from providing more exposure than other well-performing teams, even making it into the Top 5 mentioned sports in the 2015 SEA Games. Table 8. Top 10 Sports coverage in SEA and Asian Games 2013 SEAGAMES TOP Sports 1 Basketball 2 Athletics 3 Boxing 4 Billiards 5 Golf 6 Wushu 7 Swimming

f 40 30 27 17 17 15 13


8 9 10

Taekwondo Wrestling Chess, Judo, Karate 2014 ASIAN GAMES TOP Sports 1 Basketball 2 Boxing 3 Wushu 4 Tennis 5 Cycling 6 Golf 7 Softball 8 Taekwondo 9 Bowling 10 Archery, Swimming 2015 SEAGAMES TOP Sports 1 Basketball 2 Athletics 3 Boxing 4 Billiards 5 Volleyball 6 Tennis 7 Triathlon 8 Golf 9 Football, Softball, Taekwondo

11 11 8 f 70 45 19 18 14 14 13 12 10 9 F 40 24 23 21 19 17 13 10 9

Meanwhile, Filipino boxer Daniel Caluag was the top athlete mentioned due to his consistent good showing in BMX event enroute to a three-gold romp for three-straight years in SEA and Asian Games. Caluag brought something to cheer about when he captured the lone gold medal for the Philippines and was in the news for days after winning it. However, Caluag remains to be unknown to many Filipinos since he is not a home-grown athlete. Other athletes were also multi-medalists in their respective sports. For officials, Chot Reyes and Richie Garcia were the most sought after officials. Reyes was the Gilas national coach who stirred the squad to its return to the world stage


but flopped in the Asian Games as the basketball team ended up 7th in the tournament, the national team’s worst finish. Since basketball is heavily publicized during these events, he was usually interviewed every after Gilas game for his comments on how the game turned out. Garcia, on the other hand, is the PSC chairman who is also the chef-demission in the 2014 Asian Games. He was usually quoted to comment on the recent performances, debacle, and development of athletes. Table 10. Top 5 athletes and officials interviewed in the 2013, 2015 SEA and 2014 Asian Games Athletes TOP 1 2 3 4 4 5

Name Daniel Caluag Princess Superal Charly Suarez Eric Cray Mark Barriga Rubilen Amit

TOP Name 1 Chot Reyes 1 Richie Garcia 2

Ed Picson

3 4

Jong Uichico Julian Camacho


Jeff Tamayo

Sports Cycling Golf Boxing Track and Field Boxing Billiards Officials Position and Organization/Sports Coach, Men’s Basketball (2014 Asian Games) Chair, Philippine Sports Commission Executive Director, Association of Boxing Alliances in the Philippines Coach, Men’s Basketball (2013 SEA Games) Secretary General, Wushu chef-de-mission (chief of mission), Philippine Delegation to the 2013 SEA Games

f 19 17 13 11 11 10 f 32 32 24 20 19 18

4. Treatment and Tone In news, treatment is essential for readers to fully grasp the causes and effects of a certain topic or event. Although there are more sports news with a straightforward treatment in all of the events, there is an increase in comprehensive news when it comes to the Asian Games. This result also supports the previous observation with regard to the


Asian Games reporting. Comparing the 2013 and 2015 SEA Games, there is an increase of 21.54% in terms of the number of comprehensive news. Reports that are more elaborate and descriptive can be more helpful for readers, including policy makers, to understand the situation. The 2015 Singapore SEA Games may also be a factor in the upturn of more detailed news since the host country employed a fast and reliable release of the results digitally. This means that the media personnel would have more time and access to interview athletes and officials before their deadline. With how the 2015 SEA Games was reported, it is interesting to know if there will be a trend of increased comprehensive news in the next installations of the Games. Chart 11. Treatment of article per event (n=609) 81.73% 73.83% 65.66%

34.34% 26.17% 18.27%





The tone of the news is also relevant factor in the discussion of media agenda in sports. While the country was evidently struggling in the Asian and Southeast Asian sports meet, positive news still dominate most of the article in the newspapers. For the Asiad, however, there were more news with negative and neutral tones. The findings can be related to the struggle of the Filipino athletes wherein they were outclassed by other Asian rivals. It could also be connected to the dismal performance of the Gilas Pilipinas


basketball team in the Asian meet. The basketball squad failed to live up the expectations of fans and the media after their moral victories in the FIBA World Cup. The team ended up losing big and finished seventh, the worst performance of Philippines in the tournament. With only one gold for the Philippines, the 40.91% positive news may be coming from the angle wherein winning silver or bronze is already a feat since it is in the Asian level.

Chart 12. General tone of the articles per event (n=609)



40.91% 33.84% 28.93%


23.36% 15.42%







Having positive and negative tone as general measures, this study also examined specific tones in order to know how SEA and Asian Games results were being reported. Almost half of the articles analyzed were factual which means reporters wrote it in an objective and detached manner. A total of 107 articles had a disappointing tone that peaked at the Asian Games (30%). Disappointing tone is when the article describes the


results of the game in a dejected way, possibly because of high expectation or bad showing. This was the same trend observed in the negative reports on the 2014 Asiad. Other tones that occurred were surprising (results and victories were not expected), expected (athletes are the best, hence being the favorite to win), inspiring (the article related the athlete or result as something inspirational) and optimistic (the article used athletes’ or officials’ quotes that connotes positivity). Chart 13. Specific tone of the articles per event (n=609) 4.25%


3.65% 4.89% 11.79%


30.21% 13.04% 2.36%


4.69% 1.09% 53.77%


44.79% 50.00% 9.91%


6.25% 19.02%



10.42% 11.96%





a. Frames used This study also looked at possible frames used in the articles written and published in the month-long span of the SEA and Asian Games coverage. The results helped the researcher in understanding the sports media agenda. Additionally, some of the variables in these findings are assumed by the coder and researcher since some of the contents were not explicitly mentioned. b. Reasons for good and bad performance In sports articles, reasons for good performance of the athletes were often not mentioned. Chart 14 excluded “not applicable” in the total and yet, there is wide gap between concrete reasons why athletes win and those without citing any reasons at all. The high turnout for the unmentioned reasons (53.68%) could be because of articles reporting multiple sports. Often times, these kind of articles briefly discuss the winning moments of the athletes and just mentioned them in passing without highlighting specific actions that led to their triumph. On the other side, reporters cite the athletes as ‘welltrained and ‘well-prepared’ as key for their success, which comes second. Other reasons sometimes mentioned are being the dominant team, exposure to various international competitions, veteran instincts, and good personal motivation.


Chart 14. Reasons for Good Performance of the Athletes (n=536) 53.68%

21.14% 13.24% 5.88%

4.41% 1.10%


On the other hand, when reporting about reasons on bad performance, articles usually frame it by mentioning that opponents are more prepared and stronger than the Filipino athletes. Framing the dismal performance that way could be acceptable, but on hindsight, it is just scratching the surface of the cause of a bigger problem. Athletes chosen to represent the country have passed series of evaluation before being included in the national delegation list so it means that they have proven their worth. Citing the opposition that are more superior is giving a message that sports authorities could not do anything about ways to improve the performance because the likes of China and Japan are locked in to win it all.


Chart 15. Reasons for Bad Performance of the Athletes (n=157) 64

25 18

16 10


12 3

The low turnout of reasons for bad performance (n=157) compared to the good ones (n=536) are consistent with the findings that there are positive than negative news in international multi-sports event. c. Framing on the performance and level of responsibility In this section, the study used Iyengar’s (1990) episodic and thematic frames and level of responsibility frames as they are also appropriate in content analyzing articles in the topic of performance of Filipino athletes in SEA and Asian Games. As the results showed, four out of five articles feature episodic frames. In 2015, it almost grew to 9:1 episodic to thematic ratio which is contrasting to a previous result that there has been an increase in comprehensive treatment news. Thematic frames are more


concerned on the background details, the future, or the bigger picture, hence it is more likely comprehensive when it uses thematic. Stories that are episodic are usually just tackling results and athletes as primary subjects. While newspapers are more biased towards day-to-day results in terms of sports reporting, it is only in SEA and Asian Games wherein athletes who are not playing basketball or volleyball are given opportunity to be in the sports headline. This may explain the high turnout for the episodic news of over 80% across the three events. The SEA and Asian Games coverage might be the appropriate time for reporters to feature more athletes and discuss issues related to the status of Philippine sports in general.


Chart 16. Framing of the performance from each sports event (n=555) 87.56% 81.40%









The previous result is also aligned and almost has the same finding for level of responsibility frames. Articles are more leaned in citing individual athletic ability and coaching capacity as responsible factor for the result of the game. It could also mean that episodic framed articles are only pointing out individual aspects in the story. Organizational factor, which involves training, athletic program, and organizational direction among others, has only 10-20% exposure come the coverage of the SEA and Asian Games. This might be also because articles that mention some of it were not included in the data collected.


Chart 17. Framing of the responsibility on the performance from each sports event (n=557)











d. Framing of athletes and officials Being the central subject of the article most of the time, it is also an objective of this study to look into possible frames used for or against the athletes and sports officials. In general, there are more positive frames when it comes to athletes. This could also be related to the higher positive tones that were published. “Competent” frames, which describe the athlete as capable of competing and winning, are often used (69.58%) in articles that tackled performance of Filipino athletes. “Commendable” frames, used when the athlete wins against all odds and sacrifices, came far second at 24.73%. Other frames coded but had low significant values were “hero”, and “benefitting the system”. On the other hand, articles that have negative frames for athletes usually mentions sub-par performance frame. The stories connote that the athlete performed under the high expectations of either the coaches or the fans. This was more evident when the Gilas


Pilipinas basketball squad failed to enter the semifinals of the Incheon Asian Games after an impressive showing in the world stage in the previous year at the 2013 FIBA World Cup in Spain. The “victim of the system” frame usually refers to stories mentioning the pitiful living or training conditions of athletes caused by government and organizational failures.

Table 10. Framing of Athletes (n=563) Frames Used POSITIVE


69.58% 24.73% 4.16% 1.53%


63.21% 15.09% 5.66% 4.72% 8.49% 2.83%


With regard to the officials, their low exposure in the news may account for the low turnout of positive and negative frames for them (n=336) compared to the athletes. Nonetheless, positive frames are also higher with responsible framing as the usual set up for officials. The responsible frame could be more associated to the victories bagged by the country. Competent frame was distinguished when officials have discretion to comment or plan out strategies because of his background while truthful frame is for the articles that mention officials’ honest view regarding the results of the match. In contrary, “incompetent” frame topped the negative frames that points out uncharacteristic errors of officials leading to the loss of the game while the


“irresponsible” frame usually describes officials’ abandonment of his/her responsibility. These frames are episodic in nature which implies that the news look at the individual characteristic of the official as opposed to linking it to the larger picture or the possible organizational problem. Table 11. Framing of government and sports officials (n=336) Frames Used POSITIVE


42.76% 19.41% 20.72% 11.84% 5.26%


33.33% 8.33% 45.83% 12.50%


C. The Elite Sports Stakeholders The elite sports stakeholders in the country, consisting of the national athletes and officials of the Philippine Sports Commission and Philippine Olympic Committee with all the national sports associations, are directly affected by the controversies in the dismal performances of the country during SEA and Asian Games in the past years. However, they are also the direct game changers in pushing for reform of sports in the country. With the manner of media reporting the sports events are more results-based and episodic, it is interesting to know if the stakeholders duly agree with how they see the problems in sports and how they see to improve the situation. Also, this study explored the athletes’ and officials’ perspective on the sports media coverage in the country.


1. Perspective on the Problem of National Sports The journey for international sports success for Filipino athletes and officials has been difficult and marred with controversies and dilemma this past few years. Sports authorities, either government or private, have been facing uncertainties and doubts whenever the national delegation went home in a disappointing manner. Suggestions from many sports analysts and officials on how to improve the state of Philippine sports will emerge on the latter period but as the results show, there has been no drastic change in the national sports system. a.

Encountered problems While the executive branch cried disappointment and unhappiness over the

performance of Philippine delegation in the Asian Games (Esguerra, 2014), athletes and officials were more concerned on the hurdles they have to make amends before even competing in the event. For Kiefer, 20, the experience of representing the country has been momentous for his career. Despite balancing his academics and collegiate basketball career, he still donned the national colors in three consecutive edition of SEA Games (2011, 2013, and 2015). His experience on competing in Southeast Asian basketball made him realized a thing, “We would see our opponents really preparing and seeing na parang ‘oh this was the team during the 2011, buo pa rin sila sa 2015’. Kami maraming umalis from the 2011 to 2015, to pros. Dalawa na lang kaming natira noong 2015, ay actually ako na lang natira from 2011. Yung team na nakalaban namin noong 2011 na Thailand, buo pa. As in hindi man sila nawalan, nadagdagan pa. Kaya it became tougher.” – Kiefer, 20

For team sports like basketball, he knows the importance of team chemistry in international tournaments. Despite being a powerhouse country in the region, he believes


that continuity of the program is important for any team sports. A good sports program need intensive preparation before the event. However, since there are obligations in commercial, collegiate and other local leagues, preparation time has been a problematic factor for some sports. He explained, “Sometimes kasi, sa atin Philippine basketball is year-round, maraming tournaments. May mga players na hindi pwede, kailagnan naka-focus sila sa mother teams nila kaya siguro yung time minsan kulang, minsan sakto lang.” – Kiefer, 20

Volleyball player Mika, 20, also observed this kind of situation in her first participation in the SEA Games. Despite being thankful and overwhelmed on the pressure of representing the country, she rued players’ contract as commercial athlete as a hurdle of having a good preparation time for the event. She argued, “Honestly, less than a week na we're together. Kasi others have commitments sa mga club teams nila so you can't really [blame them]. Syempre they have to do their commitments and obligations for their clubs pero ayon. Medyo nahirapan din sa preparation.”

Since it has been a long time since volleyball participated in the SEA Games, the commercial clubs are doubtful on the competency level of the squad to be sent abroad. Media has followed the story of their return in the international scene since declaring their entry. The resurgence and growing popularity of volleyball in the local scene might be connected to the media coverage. Local leagues were then established to give volleyball athletes opportunities in playing. It is quite understandable for athletes to honor first their signed contract since they are being paid to play unlike the national team squad, where they play for a minimal allowance. Sir Nash agreed to the current set-up for national teams,


“Normally players and coaches really focus their commitment to their mother teams first. But I think you are given a month of two before the actual tournament.” – Sir Nash, 38

This practice will be continuously in play unless sports authorities will come in agreement to change the calendar year for team events. However, agreements in sports environment is also a problem of its own. Conflict of interest, and not support has been pointed out as root cause in fully supporting national teams of some sports. For Kiefer, it is all about following knowing who to follow and what the goal is, “Actually in basketball there is none, the support is not lacking. MVP (Manny V. Pangilinan) has been there, the SBP (Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas) and the PBA (Philippine Basketball Association), the UAAP (University Athletic Association of the Philippines) or the NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association). Siguro yun lang, kailangan lang may one voice na papakinggan. One voice and one goal. (Maybe it’s just we need one voice that we can listen into. One voice and one goal)” – Kiefer, 20

Sir Nash also gave his piece on the politics of sports, proving that there will be always clash of interest when setting up a competitive national team. “Because players and coaches are committed to certain organizations, doon nagkakaroon ng problema. Nagcla-clash yung interest nila doon and interest sa national team. It all boils down to which is more important.” – Sir Nash, 38

While the case maybe for assembling a team only, conflict of interest has been a common storyline for national sports associations (NSAs) and the athletes’ private handler. Other times, it is just within associations where officials dispute over another. Politics take over the importance of having a competitive team that can give positive results in this regard. Without healthy organizations with a goal to


represent the country in its best possible, national athletes will always be the victim. Organizational matters may also lead to budgetary constraints. This has been the case for the National Golf Association of the Philippines, which is experiencing balancing a limited budget for preparation purposes. Sir Jose, 52, bared, “Whether you like it or not, let's say on your training day, you will spend 3 or 4 thousand. So matitira, mga 5000, that's only good for 5 games or 5 days of golf which is very minimal in game improvement. In fact if you only play 5 per month, you will deteriorate.”

Given that the national budget for sports is limited, NSAs are forced to solicit to private sponsors for the expenses of athletes. Other athletes, meanwhile, already support themselves just to be able to practice and compete for the national team. However, there are cases that athlete is dependent on the allowances given by the government. But for Dustin, a consistent medal producer in poomsae taekwondo, the allowance given is not enough to hone other athletes’ talents, “Sabihin natin na may mga athletes akong kilala na taga probinsya pupunta dito para mag training tapos lunch time kakain sa mga turo-turo kasi hindi nila talaga kaya. In my case, I can afford nutrition pero yun nga, maraming talented players who are not able to optimize their performance because of the financial needs.”

Dustin sees that for the performance to improve, it should begin and end with the athlete. He believes that giving the proper assistance and nutrition can really spell the difference for the country while also expounding on the concept that there are sports more popular on the other. He believes that it must be a government


initiative to supply able athletes for all sports to be on an advantage in terms of nutrition and supplements. “We don’t have the support that the more popular sport gets. Support in terms of government, that’s a given na for all sports. We don’t get supplements, or nutritional supplement from sponsors. Tipong basketball nga every training may Gatorade. Kahit UAAP team na hindi national team, kami sariling sikap lang kahit national team. Those are small things but it amounts to a lot when you are talking about the quality of the team.” – Dustin, 19

Additionally, logistical expenses like training camps, venues and facilities, add up also to the problems that some sports organization experiences. “Since we select players from all over PH, iba ibang golf course nila so nahirapan kami makakuha ng venue where we can try them together, house them together. When you do that, you are bringing up additional costs, bringing up your budget to higher limits na hindi mo naman kaya. So ayon, budget constraints. After golf courses, karamihan ng golf courses dito puro privately owned, you ask special permission. Normally yung mga pumapayag, yung mga nasa labas, mga nasa Cavite, Silang, Tagaytay, malalayo yan. Pati yung mga parents ng players, apprehensive when you try to get them out of the house and stay there for the week.” – Sir Jose, 52

This kind of situations are more likely to appear for sports that does not belong to the priority sports listed by the Philippine Sports Commission. Ironically, golf has been performing well in the SEA Games and developing young athletes, yet still the association receives meager appropriation for their training. However, for Sir Rick, the problem on the Filipino athletes’ performance is more on how scientific is the approach for training and rehabilitation. For him, coaches and officials should look for sports science data to be able to compete well against other countries.


“I think a lot of Philippine sports is they know how to train. Well-trained hardworking, what we fell behind in a lot of times was the recovery, and the therapy, and the rehabilitation because when you train it's just not a matter of working out. You have to allow the body to recover.” – Sir Rick, 50

Aside from internal and organizational factor, threats to improve the performance of the Philippines also came from the external side. For the SEA Games, it has been a practice that host country can pick events to include and exclude to their favor. This has been the case for triathlon, in which Sir Rick recalled, “there was an absence in the triathlon in the SEA Games, what happened is that in 2009, 2011, 2013, they were held in countries that do not have triathlon.” Aside from event manipulation of the host country, the Philippines also experienced biased decisions in subjective sports, particularly in boxing and gymnastics. There are times also where athletes chose the greener pasture to develop their talent effectively. There have been cases where Filipino talents are recruited by schools from the United States, as bared by Sir Jose, “When they become good naman, the schools in the US get them scholarships then we lose them. So we get again from our young ones. But anyway, we have done our program, they have improve, they got their scholarships, and they are now playing for the US schools. Parang kami training ground na lang, which is also part of our duty as golf officials.”

It may be a good thing for athletes to experience and participate on high-level of competition in the United States but it is sad on the part of the status of national sports that the country is failing to develop potential local talents in home soil. It may also be difficult for sports fans to connect to an athlete based abroad since they are not on the media radar.


There may be problems, either internal or external, but for Garvo, 24, he always focus at the brighter side of things of representing the country, “As a player, kailangan lang kung ano binibigay na opportunity sa'yo, imamaximize mo lang. Sayang lang e. Kunwari, magttraining kayo abroad, kailangan I-maximize. Sayang e, bihira yung ganoon. Sayang yung opportunity.”


Perceived root cause of the problem From the point of view of athletes and officials, the problems in Philippine sports

have been embedded in the management and system of the sports program in the nation. While international events are there to evaluate Philippine’s current standing in an Asian standard, it also exposed the weaknesses of the current administration in remedying the sports debacle. For Garvo, it should be the task of the highest leader of the nation to lead as an example in recognizing sports programs should be aided by the government, “Siguro support from government ever since naman siguro. Yung presidente natin hindi mahilig sa sports. Kung mahilig president natin, all support yan. Kawawa rin yung ibang athlete na hindi nasusuportahan. Puro basketball syempre sumisikat, kasi mahilig mga Pinoy sa basketball. Hindi natin napapansin may mga ibang sports din na sobrang gagaling ng mga Pilipino na walang suporta, which is kailangan ng support from the President. Pero since hindi nga mahilig, napapabayaan.” – Garvo, 22

Since Philippine Sports Commission is under the executive branch, this statement holds true if it will be based on the results of 2013 and 2015 SEA Games, and 2014 Asian Games. The disappointing performances of athletes in these events happened during the term of outgoing President Benigno Aquino III. While the results cannot be entirely blamed on an administration, it could be an implication on an ineffective reform done in sports during his stay in power or his appointees


in the sports sector are underperforming. The government and organizations in charge, with their role to promote sports in a nationwide scale, is failing to do its job given how national athletes are treated. Mika recalled, “Doon ko lang na-experience kung ano yung mga problema, ano yung mga pinagdadaanan ng mga atleta. Na-open talaga yung eyes ko kasi before, I was just an audience na susubaybayan at sumusoporta. Pero grabe rin ang pinagdadaanan ng mga atleta. In my opinion, we cannot blame the athletes by not winning medals. Like kami, every athlete, when we go to a game, we are going to give our best.

Her shocking experience on the reality of the athletic system had her thinking of what is wrong on the matter at hand. For her, lack of system is the root cause of the dismal performance of athletes. She said,

Siguro, there is a lack of system and I guess the support system and the athletes are not meeting halfway. Yun lang naman, we really have to meet halfway for us to improve and perform better di ba. I guess yon, it is two sides. Two sides talaga, the athlete side and the politician's side, [and] it's hard [not meeting halfway].” – Mika, 20

Support system is also what Dustin thinks is the advantage of other countries and spelling the difference between a good and bad performance in the international level. In a specific example, he pointed out the scientific approach in coaching of other nations that the Philippines do not have the capacity to do. “Let’s say for example, [other countries] have a technical coach, fitness coach, nutritional specialist, and psychologist. Dito, isa lang coach mo, lahat yan isang coach lang. The organization cannot afford to hire but if we could sana, that would mean a lot for the players. That would go also for the other sports. That’s one of the things that other countries are able to put more resources into the program.”


For the country to perform better, it should match, at least, the level of preparation or training other athletes in the different world. The talent is given for any Filipinos, but to finish at the podium, it seems that national athletes should beat training and conditioning problems first. “I think one of the main problems siguro is support financially by the government. Nagkaka-confict of interest, and that all boils down to a lack of system siguro because of the lack of financial stability. We are not able to have our players at peak performance, lalo na mga talented players natin from the provinces.”

However, for Sir Nash, it is not entirely the country’s fault for a low performance in sports, “Not because they're getting close to us ibig sabihin ang dedeteriorate tayo. Nagiimprove din sila. We might be stagnating or maybe nagslo-slow down improvement natin. But I think a major factor is that other countries are really improving.”

Ultimately, the challenge for every sports nation is to be at par with world’s best. At that level, the nation will benefit as athletes will be popular across nations. The Philippines, with sports superstar like Manny Pacquiao and Efren Bata Reyes, has plenty of athletic talents waiting to be discovered. While the observation is that the country is slowing down in terms of improvement, it should not stop from developing young athletes who aspire to represent the Philippines in the future. The challenge now is stepping up. The government, officials, and athletes should be in one stroke and one direction to be able to boost the morale of Philippine sports.


In order to achieve such feat, Dustin believes that it should start with appreciation, “It’s more of, there is a lack of appreciation for other sports, other than the spectator sports. Look, in the US, NBA is very famous pero the other sports, mga athletics nila, are very well supported by the government.”

Basketball is only one sport, and it can only give one gold medal count in the standing. The government should also lead, with the help of media, in attracting people on recognizing and appreciating other sports that gives success.

c. Possible solutions Finding solutions in this debacle may take time if there are many elements contributing to the problem. For a country that has more than 90 million in population, informants agree that the talent of athletes is not one of them. Dustin summarized the point: “I think Filipinos are innately great athletes, no doubt about that. It’s just a matter of properly harnessing it to produce really good athletes.” For many athletes and officials, it is all about support. Mika have expressed thoroughly her view to combat Filipinos’ mediocre performance in international events, “Our government should have a good support system, not saying that it's bad but we can do better. It's not only with basketball. I think Filipinos are great athletes, it can be in the SEA level or even the Asian level that we are able to compete with the best. It just happens na kailangan we put ourselves in a good position to be successful. Meaning, we give our athletes decent benefits, we give our athletes good training, great training for them to be able to perform during competition. Yung mga ganoon bagay, kasi you know as an athlete, you can eat well, train well, sleep well, you are well rested. When it comes competition time, you are confident. ‘I trained, the government supported me with my training, I'm confident I can do this.’”.


In this regard, media should intensify its support on sports, particularly sports that produces multiple medals. The government can only attain giving the sports sector a minimal annual budget. This is evident on why the idea of focus sports has been suggested. The government, together with the media, has to step up to promote excellence in sports. Kiefer also shares the idea, and he expects that it could have a positive effect on the nation’s tourism,

“As a basketball player, gusto ko mapansin ang ibang atleta natin kasi yung country yung nirerepresent e, hindi lang iisang tao e. Kung sisikat sila, sisikat bansa natin. Magandang tourism din yon para sa atin.”

In sports, producing good results is a matter of investing in athletic development. According to the informants, key steps should be prioritized by the government in order to send only the nation’s best in international sports competition. Mika remarked,

“Kailangan talaga magstart sa grassroot para skills-wise, maturity, experience pag lumalaban sa international or kahit local competitions, buo yung loob. Yun yung kailangan, the experience kailangan talaga.”

She elaborated that grassroots should have continuity in its process, “The continuity of the support for the sport. Continuity, maintenance, lahat ng mga ganon word. We really have to focus on the kids, the grassroots talaga kasi sila talaga yung future. Maraming may potential talaga, and if given the chance na makapag training nang maayos, mabigyan ng facilities, I guess one more problem is that we don't have the facilities to mold and enhance. The consistency, kailangan ma-maintain, the support…”


Meanwhile, Sir Jose thinks that it must be accompanied by proper treatment to the athletes in terms of benefits and amenities, “We really have to look into developing our coaching style, nutrition of the athletes, those stuff. Facilities, not only gymnasiums but also dormitories para it's not hassle for athletes to go home. And the focus, kung magkakasama at kung meron pinagsstayan, focused ka sa training to represent the country. You know your priorities, your priorities is to represent the country. I think yun lang naman kailangan ng mga athletes.”

Mika recalled her stint in Singapore SEA Games in 2015, where she witness the big difference of how Singaporean athletes are trained and treated in their own world-class facilities. While it may be a case of economic stability, this may also be the result of proper resource management to the sides of the Singaporean. While Mika recognizes that it may seem too realistic in the near future, she hoped at least for providing proper nutrition to the athletes. She said, “When we were in Singapore for the SEAGames, it was so motivating. It's different when you see facilities na ganoon. You wake up everyday seeing that [facilities], nakaka-inspire. Let's start siguro small then help how to properly like nutrition of every athlete. The biggest role ng government is to provide the stuff that athletes need, vitamins, food, shoes, and everything and the facilities.”

Dustin shared the same thought by elaborating the need for proper financial and resource management, “Well-placed financial support is the key, it all boils down to that. Let’s say I have a talented player but if he does not have proper food on his table, if he does not have the proper coach or enough coaches (psychological, nutritional, fitness), if he does not have access to good gym, it all amounts to nothing. So well-placed financial support, well-placed in terms of resources, is I think one of the main keys and also the grassroots programs, yung mga Palarong Pambansa.”


While officials agreed that support in sports is still lacking, they believed that the track to improve is already set. It is just the matter of having the sports bodies be fully-committed in the program. Sir Rick pointed out, “We are sort of in the right path, it needs a lot of improvement and some modification but if that perspective is there and if [sports leaders] can look beyond self-interest and their hidden agenda, we should meet some sport success.”

Sports success is not all about winning medals, but also for policies and programs to be fully functional and efficient to attain consistency or improvement. National sports bodies are being blamed of the deteriorating state of sports but for Sir Nash, it is a challenge that must be faced head-on, “I don't see it as a problem, I see it as a challenge doon sa program because nagiimprove lahat ng nasa paligid natin. It just suggests na dapat tayo din keep on improving. And in the end, yung lagi nilang sinasabi, yung sacrifice. Whatever it is, baka kailangan lang gawin.”

In contrast, Dustin begged to disagree and thinks that the country is not moving forward and remained laidback compared to other neighboring countries.

“In general, I think we are where we’ve been since. I think there was a time that we were better but we’re kind of a nation, in terms of sports, we’re kind of floating, we’re just there. To push for the next level, meron akong chart na nakita e, yung support ng each country sa SEA Games sa national team program ng lahat ng sports, may chart kung magkano yung financial support, tayo yung pinaka-kauinti. And it showed sa results, tayo ang pinaka kaunting gold medals, compared to Thailand which I think had 80+ because they are supported the most.”

This statement is consistent in terms of medal production of the previous SEA and Asian Games. It seems that elite sports programs are in a disarray and are mismanaged. For how


long this debacle could be resolved, Sir Rick believes that it will be better for the coming years. “It could get bad but there are some things now that the POC, they are trying to rationalize the conditioning program, trying to feed the athletes better, it doesn’t happen overnight. Such success in the international sports is a product of a process that takes years. You can’t say two months training for 2015. It takes years and years.”

However, for this plan to succeed, he also noted that the sports governing body should also scout other nations’ performance and capacity. He pointed this out as the Philippines suffered its worst finish in the SEA Games in 2013, “What they didn’t take into account is that other countries are now surpassing their 2011 [performance].”

Table 13. Summary of encountered problems, causes of the problems, and potential solutions as pointed out by athletes and officials Encountered Problems Causes of the Problems Solutions Conflict of interest

Lack of initiative from the executive branch

Grassroots program

Preparation and team chemistry

Other countries improving fast

Good support system (nutrition, conditioning, facilities, equipment)


Lack of support system for athletes

Continuity/development of good sports programs

Athletes getting opportunities abroad

Lack of appreciation in other sports

Stable financial support

Host country manipulation

2. Perspective on Media Coverage a. The Good Side Based on the previous results, the print media has been consistent on delivering sports news with regards to the results and other spectacle that SEA and Asian Games


offered, particularly Filipino athletes’ performances. Coverage of these events, however, did not translate to major development in sports. Philippines still struggled in the recent 2015 SEA Games despite sending more than 400 delegates. While sports media is only a part of the national sports agenda, its function is crucial as it can attract both sponsors and supporters to rally behind the athletes. Sir Nash recognized this, “…helps a lot in the awareness ng mga tao. When people are aware, then kung sponsor ka, magkakaroon ka ng interest.” Since the last two SEA Games and the Asian Games were held abroad, informants think that the media exposure is good for public awareness. “Aware lahat ng tao, yun ang maganda doon. Nakakapanood ang mga kababayan natin na wala sa host country,” said Kiefer. He admired the efforts of the online and TV broadcast team in keeping the public informed to latest news about their performance. Sir Nash particularly pinpoint social media as a big boost in giving relevance to the event. “Okay naman, tingin ko kasi people get to see, people in Manila or in the Philippines get to see the events. Malaking tulong ngayon ang social media, nasusundan ng mga tao,” he said. Since broadsheet newspapers have its online version now, sports fans and enthusiasts have more channel of information that can feed up-to-date details and results. Mika praised the efforts of media as the continuous coverage made her sports more popular, “Now honestly it's really good that the media, in general, help us for the [recognition of sports]. Hindi lang sport yung tinutulungan ng media, individually tinutulungan din ng media, bawat atleta talaga. Transparency lang kung ano dapat makita ng bawat tao. Hands down to all the people who work behind the scenes.”


Continuous exposure is also beneficial for athletes in terms of sponsorship. Being covered by the media attracts companies that have sports marketing, especially if it is televised. Sir Nash said, “You can get all the sponsors, that's a good thing but it's the private companies that support the team, [but] we also need the government. That will make it work better, yun yung maganda. Na-attract natin lahat ng companies kasi nagiging televised lahat.”

b. The Bad Side Sadly, the media has the power in selecting sports that will be televised or published. Usually, those sports that are popular and attracts audience take most of the airtime or column area, as it is consistent to this study’s findings. For Dustin, the media is still biased towards certain sports which can bring revenue to the table, “Kasi Philippines is very dominated by the media in a way that even if let’s say in basketball naka-silver lang sa Asian level, sobrang big thing na kahit Asian level. Pero kung tutuusin, sabihin natin, sa dragonboat, nag-gold tayo sa world level or sa taekwondo, nag-gold tayo sa world level, it won’t be as publicized as basketball kasi we are dominated by the entertainment industry.”

From his point of view, every athlete should have an equal opportunity and exposure in the media since they are all representing the country and made necessary sacrifice to compete in an international scene. However, media organization are picking up stories unless athletes win. Dustin’s observation pointed out, “The way the SEA Games is portrayed is much publicized in the local media in the Philippines. So when we win in taekwondo, it’s a big thing for the sport because we don’t have the luxury that other spectator sports have like basketball and volleyball to get publicized like PBA or UAAP. When we win, it’s a really big contribution to the taekwondo side in Philippines.”


The practice of covering only victorious athletes is being critiqued by both athletes and officials. They believe that instead of helping the sports, media is being counterproductive in terms of limiting them to few sports and athletes. Sir Jose, with his various insights in the media practice, explains, “I think the first problem is media. Ang media, hindi finofocus yung mga developing athletes. Ang finofocus nila yung mga finished athletes lang, yung mga nandoon na sa taas, mga professionals. So ano nangyayari sa mga bata, nawawalan sila ng idol di ba. High school ka, kaklase mo sikat, gusto mo sikat ka rin. So gusto mo mag-strive na kaya mo yung kaya niya. May competition. That's what we need. We don't have newspaper exposure for local athletes, for our HS athletes. And then even for developing athletes sa national level, if you are not that skillfull, you do not come out in the newspaper.”

He then connected it to the stagnant sports development in the country, “Tapos sila pa nagsisisi kung bakit walang sports development, sila din nagsusulat ng ganyan diba pero isipin mong mabuti kung HS pa lang, sinusulat na nila yung mga HS na bata, maraming bata gusto maging sikat. Dadami ang ating grassroots program. Sa skill-level, that's to start it off, then of course the parents and the sports association.”

As a sports official, Sir Jose is not anymore a fan of media reporting in newspaper, as he cannot fathom the fact that officials like him are being framed as sole perpetrators of mismanagement of sports in the country. He blurted, “To tell you frankly, I don't even read the newspapers anymore. So I dont know what they discuss but mostly when they say “failed”, “failed miserably in SEA/Asian games” can be true, but it is also partly their fault.”

He also exposed that sometimes, sports organizations are paying sports journalists just to cover their events. “First of all, our news people, they don't go there to report on what's happening in sports, they're there because the sports association pay them to cover up the results. Unlike other countries, they really want to see the results of the


tournament. Dito hindi, babayaran mo para pumunta para maisulat ka. Para sa akin, yan ang may kasalanan kung bakit wala tayong sports development.”

This practice may prove media’s selectivity in terms of sports coverage. Since funds are scarce to some organizations that are struggling to produce medals, it may also be the explanation why some sports are being left out by the media. Sir Rick’s concern, meanwhile, questions the agenda of sports media as he sees it as an important tool for bringing legitimacy of sports leadership in the country. He said, “Assuming the reporting is accurate, it adds to the transparency and accountability because people will know ‘kung ano ginagawa ng mga hayop na yan [sports authorities]’ di ba? But the problem again is the accuracy and the validity of what is being reported. There, what is their agenda? Is it to cause trouble and sensationalize? That can create a lot of problems.”

C. Towards a well-rounded coverage Philippines, being a sports-loving nation, is in a national sports debacle in terms of performance in international meets. In order to improve and halt the mediocre performances, various stakeholders should be held reliable in their functions to sports development. In the case of the sports media, it should realize the impact it can bring to the athletes and the youth. Media exposure give two things in the world of sports, as pointed out by the informants. First is boost in sponsorship. Aside from aforementioned testimonies how media helps in sponsorship, Dustin emphasized the factor of bringing the sports closer to the people through various channels of media, “It’s big because if that happens, it means being able to attract more people to join the sport. That’s the first thing. It would be able to attract sponsors to support the athlete or the sports organization. And also more public knowledge of the sport, public acknowledgement of the sport, more respected by the public.”


In relation, Sir Rick believes that media should be cautious of limited reporting. “They know that if focused too much on some sport, you don’t build a balance and wellinformed readership. You want to support all sports to give people options also,” he said. While this might not be the current the situation, he cited that during his younger days, it used to be basketball, billiards, and boxing that have extensive exposure in print or television. The second important impact of sports media is inspiring the youth. In summary, Sir Rick brought the concept of hero in the culture of Filipino. “Filipinos love heroes, how are you going to present a hero except through media. Media is such an essential part in presenting the heroes. Media is important,” he said. In order to inspire Filipinos, especially the youth, it should start on the sports journalism principle. Sir Rick elaborated, “The sports writing has to be well done, and eloquent, put it in ways that are interesting. However, a lot of it falls short. Reporting is one thing, create an article that will move, that will stir and inspire I think we need a lot of work in that regard.”

Aspiring young Filipinos to play sports could also spark a good grassroots programs for the national sports associations could mold. “Very important aspect of elite sports is the aspirational, to inspire young kids to be the next Manny Pacquiao or the next Terrence Romeo,” he highlighted. The media, with its resources and influences, has the capacity to push for sports development in the country. Dustin summarized the idea, “When media exposes a lot for a sport, in means a lot for the sport. People or parents will bring their children to that sport, it would mean more audience for the sport. Meaning more funds from the organization to support the national players of that certain sport. It attracts sponsors. That’s one of the main roles that the media plays.”


If properly coordinated with sports authorities, this can give a big boost in pushing for improvement in the status of sports and potentially, this could lead to the end of dismal performances in SEA and Asian Games and the start of a realistic journey towards finally capturing an elusive Olympic gold. D. The Convergence The coverage of SEA and Asian Games of national broadsheets has been consistent in terms of the number of articles published during the event. In this light, the study compared the results based on the content analysis of the news stories and how it is aligned to the point of view of direct stakeholders like the athletes and officials. The print media treated the events as regular beats, giving it exposure mostly in the sport section. Most of the articles are in the form of straight news, depicting the stories as episodic and straightforward while there were also articles that are in feature or column form. Hence, when it comes to SEA and Asian Games coverage, the media is objective and seldom give opinions on the current debacle. On the other hand, athletes and officials believe that the media is important for them to be exposed both in public and potential sponsors. They need media’s support for the appreciation of sports. However, given that the storytelling is objective, it might not capture readers and sponsors as they cannot connect well to a certain sports. Despite giving details in almost all sports event where a Filipino athlete was participating, basketball has occupied most of the space in the newspaper. It consistently topped the list of sports covered by the three major broadsheets in both SEA and Asian Games. While being successful in the SEA Games level, basketball failed to land in the


podium in the Asian Games, and this led in several stories following the development in basketball. Other sports that have successful Filipino athletes, like boxing and athletics, were also consistently next in the lists. Curiously, these sports do not have budget problems, as it is tagged as priority sports as long as it can produce medals. The stories published were more biased on sports that gave good results, with the results were leaning towards positive tone despite the struggle in the overall performance of the country. This result suggest that the sports media agenda is taking the national sports debacle lightly, and the event as a mere showcase of sports superiority. As the stakeholders viewed it, the media, together with the government, must see the relevance of elite sports in the country. Aside from reporting results and commentaries, the focus must be on the problems surfacing and how it can be solved. While the print can give substantial stories on conflict of interest, or budget dilemma of some sports associations, it must also have stories that are devoted for grassroots talent. By doing this, media could inspire more Filipinos, especially the young ones to try any sports they like. In terms of portrayal and framing, young, male athletes have more exposure in sports pages of the newspaper. For officials, the common portrayal are also male with a coaching-level position. Despite the number of females in SEA or Asian delegation were also growing, stories published gave more highlights to their male counterparts. Stories were also framed in positive way as much possible, but most of it failed to mention what was the cause. However, when it is framed in a negative way, it is usually the ‘opponents’ superior skills and talent’ reason that is used. Although the reason is valid, from the vantage point of stakeholders, factors affecting a bad performance have more internal reasons. For them, preventing dismal performances in international meets is


attainable as long as the president of the country commit himself to sports development and the support system for the athletes is sufficient. The print media have given much but not enough of the relevant stories that could bring change on how sports are being governed in the country. Print media were also reluctant in covering other sports unless it gave positive results. Thus, some sports are left underappreciated since only few people understand and witness it. With the way athletes and officials see it, the media has to keep the public and the government informed not only with the results, but also with significant reports on sports development.

E. A Sports Journalist Perspective

Given that the sports media is main subject of this study, it is fitting to consult a veteran sports journalist who have covered many games inside and outside of the country. This gave the study a broader concept on the ongoing debacle in sports and how the media is playing its part on it. Sir Sev, has been one of the country’s pioneer in sports journalism. He had stint covering SEA, Asian and Olympic Games on television and newspaper in his career. For Sir Sev, it was always fun and exciting covering Filipinos competing in international scenes but it could get tricky when objectivity comes in. Sir Sev said, “It’s never easy to cover the Philippines, you’re biased right away. I don’t think anybody can say that they were not biased. But what I try to do is to be fair, it’s a given when you are covering the Philippines, may bias ka na but what you try to do is to be fair. Kung talo tayo sa Korea or talo talaga tayo sa isang country, like sa China, you should say so and say why. Some people misunderstand that, they call it un-nationalistic but that’s your job. Your job is to provide your perspective, your commentary.”


Throughout his career, he have witnessed how the Philippines and other parts of the Asian country developed, and provided a bitter truth for the Filipino case. Sir Sev mentioned that Filipinos are naturally gifted in sports. However, more developed countries slowly caught up to the skill level and further enhanced the discipline. “Kung sports in general, it’s a simple reason that other countries have decided to do better to train better and their economies are better, pinagbubuhusan nila ang pera sa sports. Meron kasing myth na Filipino athlete na magaling, kasi while the rest of Asia was still learning how to play these sports, Filipinos were already good at them. The Japanese being such patient and very industrious people, ‘let’s learn how to play this game’. Learn how to play tennis abroad, may pera sila. Tayo kasi nagrerely sa ‘e magaling naman tayo’”.

This statement is supported by the data that showed Philippines as Asian Games contended in the 1950’s. However, without having enough foundation for sports, the Philippines plunged in the standings as years go by. The country failed to realize what sports contribute to the nation, contrary to East Asian nations, as “…they felt that the sport was important for their development for the country, especially China. So Japan did the same thing, Korea had a sense of nation also,” shared Sir Sev. He also gave three reasons why the Philippines lagged behind several nations in sports. In summary, he mentioned (1) sense of nationalism, (2) the amount of money being spent on sports, and (3) prioritization of sports in schools, as factors in the current debacle. To provide a better future for sports, he also believed that it is a fusion of three national goals that involves different sectors of society. “One, government and the private sector must help each other a little more. Sometimes, people don't want to trust government but in many of the countries that have done well in terms of sports, government and the private sector help each other so well. Thailand for example. Swimming and boxing, and now in


volleyball. Isipin mo volleyball noong 90s, tinatalo natin ang Thailand sa volleyball. Ngayon world contender na. Lumalaban na sila sa Grand Prix. So naiwanan tayo. Two, other sports that used to be on TV have to be back on TV. Like the government network must pick up the kind of sports. Noong araw kaya sumikat si Lydia de Vega and other heroes because they were constantly on Channel 4. Third, we have to make sports active in schools. Kung di marunong magbasketball, ano pwede ibang sport pwedeng gawin. Volleyball, o football o iba pa? Kids must be interested in sports.”

This is a sector-by-sector strategy to fully emphasize the importance of sports for nation building. Government, the private, the media, and the education sectors must commit to it for the country’s sake. Idealistically, media has to take a radical step towards a full commitment in development of sports before it can serve beyond the entertainment value. It has to bring out the untapped talents of many young Filipinos for a progressive side of sports. However, sports programs must also look at the sociological and psychological aspect of sports, as pointed out by Sir Sev, “[Bias] naturally goes to basketball because it is still the easiest sport for Filipinos to understand. You roll a basketball in any street and children will pick it up. Children seem to know what to do with the basketball. It is the simplest sport in the Philippines. Volleyball can also be easily picked up because Filipinos like action. ‘Gusto niya kinilig siya, kinikiliti siya’. ‘Gusto niya sa sports na magaganda yung mga nakikita niya.’ Magaganda naman mga volleyball players, mga basketball players gwapo naman. So may sex appeal pa rin pagdating sa sports. But that is a matter of production. For instance, you can make heroes as sexy as possible.”

This could be the valid explanation as to why media have been following basketball as a consistent subject in print, aside from having successful runs in the past. Although some individual sports are also easy to understand, it lacks in ‘sex appeal’ and action for the audience. Thus, it looks boring and cannot fully appreciate the sports.


Sir Sev also revealed that the television medium is the most effective way giving the young athletes its needed exposure. “Unless we put it on television, people will never find out these other athletes who may be playing for instance the Palarong Pambansa. Ang daming mga bata diyan na naglalaro na nadidiscover ng mga schools pero hindi kino-cover. Halimbawa, hindi kino-cover ang NCAA at UAAP ang track and field. Bakit? Kasi tingin nila hindi bebenta. That's a matter of opinion of course.”

In print media, he shared that he is not satisfied how sports news were delivered during the SEA and Asian Games. He revealed that the practice of sports journalism in the country that does not fully look into the other kinds of sports reporting that could be beneficial to the delegates. “Not well..feeling kasi ng sports page [editors], it is limited to games and events. They feel sa hiwalayan ng dyaryo yung nutrition and good living is for another section of the newspaper,” Sir Sev said. In issues like corruption or controversies of organizations, Sir Sev thinks, “Hindi equipped yung mga tao sa sports page to do full-pledged stories. They do not have the training to be able to do that. Hindi ganoon ang training nila. I think the guys in the front page have the better training. However, the guys in the front page do not understand the world of sports. They might have to team up so one guy from sports section, one guy from the main news section.”

In this light, sports journalism in the country, especially in professional ranks must also be revisited and re-evaluate as it does not answers to the demand of the current state of sports. While most of the broadsheets are dependent on the commercial side, it is must be a necessary feature of every sports page to give regular updates on developing athletes, grassroots events or if necessary, the political side of sports. In this way, readers will have a better grasp to the general atmosphere of the national sports and not just one sports.


Lastly, Sir Sev is seeing major changes in the sports media in the years to come. Recognizing social media as the ‘new frontier’, he said, “We are getting there. It takes money to run a good website, the pictures, digitizing the materials. It's a lot, what media will continue to do. You have to understand that sports is a major beat. People turn to sports when the work of the day is done. People like watching other people play games. It's still entertaining, they need to see other athletes play out your fantasy. It's also fun to cheer for your country whether it's football, basketball, or even volleyball. That's what media's role is to be that bridge between people who are looking for that future and people who play the sports.”


CHAPTER VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION A. Summary Following Agenda Setting Theory and Framing as theoretical anchor in this study, it explores the sports media agenda in terms of the coverage of SEA and Asian Games through framing and salience. The researcher probed the extent of which sports news able to reflect the perspective of stakeholders in terms of the performance of Filipino athletes. Quantitative data were gathered through content analysis of the three major newspapers (i.e., Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippine Star, Manila Bulletin) while key informant interviews of athletes and officials were held to get the perspective of elite sports stakeholders. In analyzing both quantitative and qualitative data, the researcher looked at possible convergence between the sports media agenda and the policy agenda. The media gave an equal and high importance to SEA Games (2013, 2015) and Asian Games (2014) in terms of number of published articles. This showed that the media heavily publicized the events since it is an international-scale occasion. While giving salience to the events, most of the articles remained to be objective, straightforward, and factual. Hence, media uses episodic frames in this kind of reporting. Using episodic frames could suggest that readers may take the results of the games in a smaller scale and miss the bigger picture. For a country like the Philippines that struggles recently in terms of medal production, the athletes’ performances in SEA and Asian Games are crucial since it reflects the state of sport. Also, it usually points out individual skills as responsible for the athletes’ success, mainly discrediting organizational efforts in the process.


Additionally, the trend for positive news has been consistent throughout the events. This could be a potential agenda of the media to which it is more bias on success storylines in the sporting world. The media have also reported more highlights on sports that produces medals and glory for the country. Daniel Caluag, a Fil-Am BMX rider, has topped the list of athletes commonly quoted in the articles because of his consistent gold medal finish in SEA Games while also producing the lone gold medal of the Philippines in Asian Games. For sports, it was basketball that dominated most of the stories. It ruled the SEA Games but was shamed in the Incheon Asian Games after failing to reach the semifinals. Curiously, more stories were published about basketball despite the series of defeats, clearly giving the sports more importance. Athletes were definitely the main subject of stories, appearing in 8 out of 10 articles, as young, male athletes have slightly more exposure than their female counterpart. While it could gave an idea of how much females are participating in elite sports, there were no clear signs of gender bias on the sports media agenda. When framing Filipino athletes, they cited competent as major descriptor for them. However, article did not mention most of the time the reason of their good performances but blamed strong competitors when the performances were bad. This agenda may be aligned to the episodic frames, since it generally assumes that sports success does not need elaboration. Defeat, on the other hand, need to be fully explained as to which reporters would mention stronger opponents as reason. Meanwhile, the stakeholders’ perspectives revealed a lot more depth in the current struggle in Philippine sports.


Aside from meager budget, several internal and external factors were cited by the informants as hindrances in attaining good results from the sporting events. Internal concerns like conflict of interest, and short preparation time were reasons surfaced out of the interview. External issues like host nation manipulation of results and athletes getting offers abroad have been also put in the table as actual problems. Good support system has been their primary concern to be able to improve their performance. This support system must prioritize athletes to be fully equipped with advance coaching and conditioning, reliable nutrition, and world-class equipment and facilities. Sports governing bodies must also have transparency and consistency in managing and honing athletes. Grassroots programs are also deemed necessary as it harness raw talents from the different sides of the country. Sports bodies were also challenged to prove that the continuity of their programs are effective and efficient when it comes to producing medals for the country. In sports, the media has a good and bad side. Media has been helpful in propagating awareness and attracting sponsors for athletes. However, there are sports that are left-behind since these are the sports that are unpopular. There has been bias for ‘spectator’ sports and ‘at peak’ athletes. While it is not harmful to sports, it defeats the purpose of giving choices to people. The public, especially the youth, must appreciate sports in its many facets. Media has to accept its roles in sports through helping athletes in sponsorship and inspiring future generation.


B. Conclusion The coverage of the print media of the events and issues regarding Philippine national teams’ performances in the Southeast and Asian Games has been a crucial element in monitoring the state of sports in the country. This study showed the dynamics of agenda-setting of the media through news portrayal and frames given to the athletes and other stakeholders. Despite sufficient coverage on the recent SEA and Asian Games, the country still failed to show a decent overall performance. The power of media of bridging information and of influencing how people think should be utilized in the benefit of development of sports in the country. In the SEA and Asian Games coverage, the media only scratched the surface of the problem. Despite featuring more articles on the winning moments of the athletes, there were few stories and columns were published discussing organizational and other factors affecting athletes’ performances (i.e. support system, grassroots program). Since there were lack of support on sports in the part of the government, the media failed to rally behind national athletes in support to sports development by mostly reporting objective and straight news type of stories. The media had also given country’s mainstream sports (i.e. basketball, volleyball) and multi-medal sports (i.e. athletics, wushu) more space and frequent exposure in the newspaper. Less popular yet equally successful sports have not been prioritized despite their need for exposure and promotion to the public. The sports media’s agenda in the coverage of international events were more inclined on producing positive, episodic frames related to sports success. It missed essential stories that must be told for the public to see the general picture of the performance debacle. Despite the opportunity of extensively focusing on long term solutions in line with international


performance, the media has the minimal intention to discuss the root causes of the problems, as also mentioned by the elite sports stakeholders. The media has been important for sports in forwarding relevance and exposure to the public. However, the media’s coverage of the events failed to elaborately promote sports that can benefit the future of athletes. Since the convergence of media and policy agenda in promoting sports has been established, the researcher concluded that the media and government must work together to fully establish long term goals and to involve the private and public sector in harnessing good programs and talents for the benefit of sports in the country.


CHAPTER VII. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Through the media, sports events here and abroad has been satisfactorily covered. Since these events are heavily publicized and nationalistic pride is at stake, the media have allotted space and time to cover national athletes and how will they fair in the competition. The media and policy agenda, however, blurs as it delve into the business and political side of sports as expounded in this study. Given that the sports media has been adapting to the current trend of technology, the researcher allotted this chapter in order to give practical implications and recommendations based on the findings of the research. As the Agenda Setting Theory of Mass Media suggests, media has the power to shape public knowledge regarding issues of society. Through framing, the media can filter reality that can affect opinions relevant to solving the problems at hand. Saliency of news can also reflect the importance given to respective international events. The process to which the media and the policy agenda interact should be handled well as it can dictate how stories would be created and disseminated to the general public. However, media presented the case of Southeast and Asian Games as just an event that must be monitored throughout its duration. It revealed a trend there has been no immediate concern for the side of the media that help officials and private individuals to analyze the situation. Consistent with the framework, the findings of this study explained the dynamics of the sporting bodies and media in the country.



To sports reporters This study could be of great significance to them as it expounded on the

importance of recognizing the root cause of the problem. It is now a challenge for them to give information and construct frames that can influence public’s view in sports. As suggested by the framework, the media must have a harmonious relationship with the sporting bodies as they can provide more context and actual data for sports stories to be comprehensive. Also, for some sports, the Southeast and Asian Games competitions are the only time they can be fully covered. It is huge to the athletes as potential sponsors can be monitoring their performance. It should be the duty of the writer to create articles that feature athletes in different kind of sports. In this way, it will be beneficial for both parties. 2.

To the sports media As an institution, the sports media has the capacity in bringing the public and

policy together for one cause. However, as the findings showed, there were few stories that delved in creating attention to both parties. This study can provide vivid concepts on how coverage of international events should be handled as it included athletes’ and officials’ opinions and perspectives regarding the debacle. In line with the frame, they must also recognize that the media is not outside the dynamics of sports environment. In fact, they have a crucial role to play for promotion and marketing purposes. Additionally, sports journalism must not narrow itself in reporting results for results sake. Based from the insights gathered, articles in sports page should be eloquent


to the point that it can inspire young Filipino athletes to follow the footsteps of their sports idol. Sports editors and reporters must also be equipped of comprehensive or investigative news gathering skills. The skills may come in handy when reporting on various controversial stories on sports governance in the county.


To the sports officials Media attention is a must for a sports to be recognized. Knowing that the media

has tendency to cover successful sports in the international stage, it should be logical that sports officials must be careful and thoroughly efficient in training athletes that can produce medals. As the results showed, the media gave successful sports more exposure in newspaper pages. This means that athletes must be consistent and productive in a span of time to be fully recognized by the media. In addition, communication and coordination skills is a must have for the officials. Given the impact of media in sports being well-established, sports governing bodies must have a better working relation with the media, and vice versa. The SEA and Asiad debacle has been a major controversy in the field of sports for years now. In this regard, the PSC and POC must get the attention and support to rebuild its image. This will prevent private sponsors of pulling out their support to athletes. 4.

To future sports media researchers This study aimed to provide both quantitative and qualitative data for a more

holistic understanding of the subject matter. It gave more depth to the sports discourse in the Philippine setting. However, the study briefly discuss the business side of sports,


which has been a common theme in the interviews. Since sports media research are quite scarce in the local setting, future researchers may want to explore other aspects of sports. They may also want to modify this study through testing other theories or utilizing other methodologies.


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United Nations Non-governmental Liaison Service. (n.d.). Sport: A catalyst for development and peace. Retrieved from www.unngls.org/spip.php?page=article_s&id_article=3432 Walgrave, S., & Van Aelst, P. (2006). The contingency of the mass media's political agenda setting power: Toward a preliminary theory. Journal of Communication, 56, 88-109 Wilson, B.J. (2011, April). Examining the relationship between media coverage and policy outcomes. Paper presented at the Western Political Science Association Conference, San Antonio, U.S. Abstract retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1806522 Wolfe, M., Jones, B.D, & Baumgartner, F.R. (2013). A failure to communicate: Agenda setting in media and policy studies. Political Communication, 30(2), 175-192. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2012.737419 Wylleman, P., De Knop, P., &Sillen, D. (1998). Former Olympic athletes’ perceptions of retirement from high-level sport. Paper presented at the 28th congress of the international association of applied psychology. San Francisco, United States, August

APPENDIX A Coding Sheet Code sheet no: Date coded: GENERAL INFORMATION Name of Broadsheet: 1 - Philippine Daily Inquirer 2 - Philippine Star 3- Manila Bulletin Date Published: MM: DD: Sports event: 1 - Asian Games 2 - Southeast YYYY: Asian Games Time location relative to the event: 1 - Before 2 – During 3 -After Months before/after: Type of sports covered: Sports: Number of sports 1 - Individual 2 - Team 3 - Multicovered: sports Sources used: _ Reporter _ Primary Sources _Leaked documents _ Secondary sources _Tip-offs _News wires Story headline: Type of story: 1 – Straight news 2 – Continuing story 3 – Feature 4 – Column 5 - Editorial Stakeholders present: ____ Athletes ___ Government authority/ies ___ POC/NSA official ___ Private business individuals/companies ___ Fans ___ Others (specify: __________) NEWS PORTRAYAL I. Level of importance News placement: 1 - Front page 2 - Section With graphics: 1 – Yes 2 - No front 3 - Inside of page Column width: Type of graphic: 1 – Actual photo 2 – File photo 3 – Face photo 4 – Caricature 5 Others: ___________ II. Treatment and Tone Type of coverage: 1 - Factual 2 - Personal 3 Treatment: 1 - Straightforward 2 Combination of Factual &Personal - Comprehensive FRAMING I. Stakeholders Gender Age Experience Socio-economic Athletes status Athlete 1 1 – Male 2 1 – Young 2 1 – Veteran 2 1 – Elite 2 – –Female – Old Rookie 3 – Middle-class 3 – LGBT 4 3 – Not Regular 4 – NS 3 – Poor 4 – NS – NS mentioned 4 –NS Athlete 2 1 – Male 2 1 – Young 2 1 – Veteran 2 1 – Elite 2 – –Female – Old Rookie 3 – Middle-class 3 – LGBT 4 3 – Not Regular 4 – NS 3 – Poor 4 – NS – NS mentioned 4 –NS Athlete 3 1 – Male 2 1 – Young 2 1 – Veteran 2 1 – Elite 2 – –Female – Old Rookie 3 – Middle-class 3 – LGBT 4 3 – Not Regular 4 – NS 3 – Poor 4 – NS – NS mentioned 4 –NS Gender Age Position held Socio-economic Government status officials Government 1 – Male 2 1 – Young 2 1 – High 2 – 1 – Elite 2 – official 1 –Female – Old Middle Middle-class

3 – LGBT 4 3 – Not 3 – Low 4 – 3 – Poor 4 – NS – NS mentioned 4 –NS NS Government 1 – Male 2 1 – Young 2 1 – High 2 – 1 – Elite 2 – official 2 –Female – Old Middle Middle-class 3 – LGBT 4 3 – Not 3 – Low 4 – 3 – Poor 4 – NS – NS mentioned 4 –NS NS Government 1 – Male 2 1 – Young 2 1 – High 2 – 1 – Elite 2 – official 3 –Female – Old Middle Middle-class 3 – LGBT 4 3 – Not 3 – Low 4– 3 – Poor 4 – NS mentioned 4 –NS NS – NS II. Performance Outcome: 1 – Good 2 – Fair 3 Tone: 1 – Surprising 2 – Expected 3 – Factual 4 – Satirical – Poor 4 – N/A 5 – Disappointing 6 – N/A Reason on good performance of athletes 1 – Well-trained 2 – Exposure to various competitions 3 – Veteran instincts 4 – Wellsponsored 5 – Sports prioritized by the government 6 – Others: ________ 7 – Not applicable Reason on poor performance of athletes: 1 – Bad officiating 2 – Opponent/s are too strong 3 – Lack of training 4 – Lack of exposure in international competitions 5 – Lack of private sponsors 6 – Lack of financial support from the government7 – Others: ______________ 8 – Not applicable Framing on the performance issue: Framing of responsibility on the performance 1 – Episodic 2 – Thematic 1 – Individual 2 – Organizational Framing of athletes: 1 – Positive 2 - Negative 1 – Hero 2 – Competent 1 – Disgrace 2 – Underperforming 3 – Commendable 4 – Benefiting from 3 – Unqualified 4 – Victim of the system the system 5 – Others: ___________ 6 – N/A 5 – Others: _____________ 6 – N/A Framing of government authorities: 1 – Positive 2 - Negative 1 – Responsible 2 – Truthful 1 – Irresponsible 2 – Corrupt 3- Competent 4 – Others: ________ 3 – Incompetent 4 – Other: __________ 5 – N/A 5 – N/A

APPENDIX B Coding guide CATEGORY Coding sheet no. Date coded

CODE As is As is

Name of Broadsheet Date Published

1 – Philippine Daily Inquirer 2 – Philippine Star As is

Time location to the event

1 – Before 2 – During 3 - After

Months before/after

As is

Sport event Type of sports covered

As is 1 - Individual 2 - Team 3 – Multi-sports

Story headline Stakeholders mentioned

1 – Via reporter/contributor 2 – News wire agencies 3 – Not mentioned As is As is

Column width

As is

News placement

1 – Front page 2 – Section front 3 – Inside sports section 1 – Yes 2 - No Factual

Type of source

With graphics Type of coverage


DESCRIPTION/NOTES Coder assigned number Date when coder accomplished the article in mm/dd/yyyy form Broadsheet where the article being coded was published Date when the article was published in mm/dd/yyyy form Before – the article is published before the event takes place During – the event is happening when the articles is published After – the article is published after the event takes places Number of months before or after the event actually happens Individual – single person is involved and competing Team – two or more persons are involved and competing Multi-sports – two or more sports are mentioned

Mentions of stakeholders in the article, check that all applies Length of column width in inches

Presented with a complementary photo in the newspaper Data and quotes are presented plainly Focus of the story is the personal aspect of the athletes and officials


Tone towards stakeholders

Gender of stakeholders

Age of stakeholder

Socio-economic status

Experience of national athletes


Does not mention any angle of the event in focus


Going beyond the results and data of the event/result, has multiple sources and varying perspectives/opinions Code 2 Neutral if it didn’t mention anything on the stakeholder

1 – Positive 2 – Neutral 3 - Negative 1 – Male 2 – Female 3 – LGBT 1 – Young 2 – Old 3 – Not mentioned 1 – Rich 2 – Middle-class 3 – Poor 4 – Not mentioned 1 – Veteran 2 – Rookie 3 – Regular 4 – Not mentioned

Position held

1 – High 2 – Middle 3 - Low


1 – Good 2 – Fair 3 – Poor 4 – Not applicable 1 – Impressive 2 – Disappointing 3 – Not applicable

Young – 30 and below Old – 31 and above Distinguished thru attribution of the personality

Veteran – participated in at least four editions of SEA or Asian Games Rookie – first time competing in SEA or Asian Games relative to the event High – officials ranked as senators, congressman, chef de mission, commissioner of PSC Middle – director and head of national sports organizations Low – coach, assistant coaches of national sports teams Score Fair if the article doesn’t mention positive nor negative description on the results Score not applicable if the result is expected

Reasons on good performance

Reasons on bad performance

Framing of national athletes relative to the performance

Framing of government official relative to the performance

1 – Bad officiating 2 – Opponent/s are too strong 3 – Lack of training 4 – Lack of exposure in international competitions 5 – Lack of sponsors 6 – Lack of financial support from the government 7 – Not applicable 1 – Bad officiating 2 – Opponent/s are too strong 3 – Lack of training 4 – Lack of exposure in international competitions 5 – Lack of sponsors 6 – Lack of financial support from the government 7 – Not applicable 1 – Heroes of the country 2 – Victims of the national sports system 3 - Incompetent 1 – Irresponsible 2 – Corrupt 3 – Incompetent

APPENDIX C Key Informant Interview Guide For athletes 1. Ano ano po ang mga nararanasan nyong problema pagdating sa performance ng organization nyo? 2. Ano ano po ang mga binibigyan nyong pansin pagdating sa pagpapaganda ng performance sa SEA at Asian Games? 3. Bilang isang atleta, ano ang mga nakikita mong problema ng sports sabansa? 4. Ano ang mga nakikita mong solusyon patungkol dito? 5. Ano po ang mga kailangan mas bigyang pansin ng gobyerno sa sports? 6. Ano ang nakikita mong kahalagahan ng media sa pagpapaunlad ng sports sa bansa? 7. Paano kayo kinocontact ng media? (O paano niyo silak inocontact?) 8. Paano niyo binibigayang mga impormasyon patungkol sa mga problema ng national sports sa bansa?

For government officials 1. Ano ano po ang mga nararanasan nyong problema pagdating sa performance ng organization nyo? 2. Ano ano po ang mga binibigyan nyong pansin pagdating sa pagpapaganda ng performance sa SEA at Asian Games? 3. Bilang isang sports official, ano ang mga nakikita mong problema ng sports sabansa? 4. Ano ang mga nakikita mong solusyon patungkol dito? 5. Ano po ang mga kailangan mas bigyang pansin ng gobyerno sa sports? 6. Ano ang nakikita mong kahalagahan ng media sa pagpapaunlad ng sports sa bansa? 7. Paano kayo kinocontact ng media? (O paano niyo silak inocontact?) 8. Paano niyo binibigayang mga impormasyon patungkol sa mga problema ng national sports sa bansa?

APPENDIX D Distribution Tables Percentage of article per broadsheet f 246 168 195 609


% 40.39% 27.59% 32.02% 100.00%

Percentage of articles per event EVENT 2013 SEAGAMES 2014 ASIAN GAMES 2015 SEAGAMES TOTAL



197 198 214 609

32.35% 32.51% 35.14% 100.00%

2014 ASIAN GAMES f % 33 16.67% 54 27.27% 110 55.56% 1 0.51% 198 100.00%

2015 SEAGAMES f % 22 10.28% 51 23.83% 130 60.75% 11 5.14% 214 100.00%


2013 SEAGAMES f % 24 12.18% 33 16.75% 136 69.04% 4 2.03% 197 100.00%


2013 SEAGAMES 2014 ASIAN GAMES f % f % 167 84.77% 154 77.78% 7 3.55% 1 0.51% 19 9.64% 30 15.15% 4 2.03% 13 6.57% 197 100.00% 198 100.00%

2015 SEAGAMES f % 187 87.38% 1 0.47% 24 11.21% 2 0.93% 214 100.00%


2013 SEAGAMES f % 1.02% 2 45.69% 90 53.30% 105 100.00% 197

2014 ASIAN GAMES f % 1.01% 2 67.17% 133 31.82% 63 100.00% 198

2015 SEAGAMES f % 2.34% 5 42.06% 90 55.61% 119 100.00% 214

News placement per broadsheet INQUIRER


f 5 93 149 247


MANILA BULLETIN f % 3 1.54% 143 73.33% 49 25.13% 195 100.00%


% 2.02% 37.65% 60.32% 100.00%

f 1 77 90 168

% 0.60% 45.83% 53.57% 100.00%

Dimension (in inches) of articles per broadsheet DIMENSION LENGTH WIDTH AREA

PHILIPPINE STAR 7.16 4.97 35.5852

INQUIRER 5.49 5.39 29.5911

MANILA BULLETIN 5.81 5.79 33.6399

Number of articles with and without graphics PRESENCE OF GRAPHICS WITH GRAPHICS WITHOUT GRAPHICS TOTAL

INQUIRER f 11 6 13 0 24 6

% 47.15 % 52.85 % 100.00 %















TOTAL f 28 5 32 4 60 9

% 46.80 % 53.20 % 100.00 %



INQUIRER f 21 0 29 10 3 2 1

% 85.37 % 11.79 % 41.87 % 0.81% 0.41%














2 0

1.19% 0.00%

0 0

0.00% 0.00%

TOTAL f 54 4

% 89.33 %



25 2 4 1

41.38 % 0.66% 0.16%


f 254 153 407 f 274 70 59 4 407 f 71 107 201 28 407

% 62.41% 37.59% 100.00% % 67.32% 17.20% 14.50% 0.98% 100.00% % 17.44% 26.29% 49.39% 6.88% 100.00%

Officials’ gender, age, and experience f 361 13 374 f 0 255 119 0 374 f 86 95 189 4 374


% 96.52% 3.48% 100.00% % 0.00% 68.18% 31.82% 0.00% 100.00% % 22.99% 25.40% 50.53% 1.07% 100.00%

Treatment of article per event TREATMENT



f 161 36 197


% 81.73% 18.27% 100.00%

f 130 68 198

% 65.66% 34.34% 100.00%

2015 SEAGAMES f 158 56 214

% 73.83% 26.17% 100.00%

General tone of the articles per event GENERAL TONE POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE TOTAL

2013 SEAGAMES f 118 57 22 197

% 59.90% 28.93% 11.17% 100.00%

2014 ASIAN GAMES f 81 67 50 198

% 40.91% 33.84% 25.25% 100.00%

2015 SEAGAMES f 131 50 33 214

% 61.21% 23.36% 15.42% 100.00%


2013 SEAGAMES f 22 35 92 2 24 16 6 197


% 11.17% 17.77% 46.70% 1.02% 12.18% 8.12% 3.05% 100.00%

f 20 12 86 4 58 17 1 198

% 10.10% 6.06% 43.43% 2.02% 29.29% 8.59% 0.51% 100.00%

2015 SEAGAMES f 38 21 114 0 25 16 0 214

% 17.76% 9.81% 53.27% 0.00% 11.68% 7.48% 0.00% 100.00%


2013 SEAGAMES f % 39 22.41%

2014 ASIAN GAMES f % 34 18.78%

2015 SEAGAMES f % 42 22.22%

20 8 1 0 27 79 17 4

11.49% 4.60% 0.57% 0.00% 15.52% 45.40%

9 1 4 2 8 123

4.97% 0.55% 2.21% 1.10% 4.42% 67.96%




3 15 1 1 37 90 18 9

1.59% 7.94% 0.53% 0.53% 19.58% 47.62% 100.00%

*Other reasons for good performance of athletes OTHERS Dominant team Personal condition/motivation Good strategy External factor TOTAL

2013 SEAGAMES f 16

2014 ASIAN GAMES f 2

2015 SEAGAMES f 25




2 2 27

0 0 9

5 0 37

Reasons for Bad Performance of the Athletes OTHERS




9 14 4

6 40 2

1 10 4

1 0

0 1

17 0

3 3 0 34

3 31 1 84

2 9 2 45


2013 SEAGAMES 2014 ASIAN GAMES 2015 SEAGAMES f f f 0 9 0 1 7 4 1 4 1 1 5 0 0 1 4 0 5 0 3 31 9

REASONS Bad coaching Bad day/performance External factor Lack of program Injuries Lack of motivation TOTAL

Framing of the performance from each sports event FRAMING EPISODIC THEMATIC TOTAL

2013 SEAGAMES f 140 32 172

% 81.40% 18.60% 100.00%

2014 ASIAN GAMES f 148 34 182

% 81.32% 18.68% 100.00%

2015 SEAGAMES f 176 25 201

% 87.56% 12.44% 100.00%

Framing of the responsibility on the performance from each sports event FRAMING





f 144 29

% 83.24% 16.76%

f 148 35

% 80.87% 19.13%

f 174 27

% 86.57% 13.43%








Framing of Athletes FRAMES


2013 SEAGAMES f % 16 2 100.00% 10 3 63.58%

2014 ASIAN GAMES f % 124




2015 SEAGAMES f % 17 1 100.00% 12 6 73.68%

48 2

29.63% 1.23%

26 6

20.97% 4.84%

39 2

22.81% 1.17%

TOTAL f % 45 100.00 7 % 31 69.58 8 % 11 24.73 3 % 10 2.19%

1 1 7

0.62% 0.62% 4.32%

2 1 0

1.61% 0.81% 0.00%

4 0 0

2.34% 0.00% 0.00%

7 2 7

1.53% 0.44% 1.53%







10 6













0 2 3 1

0.00% 9.52% 14.29% 4.76%

3 1 2 2

5.56% 1.85% 3.70% 3.70%

3 2 4 0

9.68% 6.45% 12.90% 0.00%

100.00 % 63.21 % 15.09 % 5.66% 4.72% 8.49% 2.83%

67 16 6 5 9 3

Framing of government and sports officials FRAMES


2013 SEAGAMES f % 95

2014 ASIAN GAMES f %

2015 SEAGAMES f %

TOTAL f % 30 66.52 4 % 13 28.45 0 % 12.91 59 % 13.79 63 % 10.72 49 % 3 0.66%

























12.63% 2.11%

21 1

19.44% 0.93%

16 0

15.84% 0.00%







10.50 %

38.46% 7.69% 23.08% 30.77% 0.00%

8 1 16 3 0

28.57% 3.57% 57.14% 10.71% 0.00%

3 0 1 3 0

42.86% 0.00% 14.29% 42.86% 0.00%

16 2 20 10 0

3.50% 0.44% 4.38% 2.19% 0.00%


Profile for Jason Mercene

Mercene, J.V. (2015). Palakasan at media: Analyzing the sports media agenda on the Philippine nation  

This research probed the extent to which sports news coverage was able to reflect the perspective of stakeholders in terms of the performanc...

Mercene, J.V. (2015). Palakasan at media: Analyzing the sports media agenda on the Philippine nation  

This research probed the extent to which sports news coverage was able to reflect the perspective of stakeholders in terms of the performanc...


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