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Jason Le 699195 ENVS10003 Tutorial T15

CONTENTS Compression 1.0


Compression 1.1


Compression 1.2


Knowledge map week 1


Frame 1.0


Frame 1.1


Frame 1.2


Knowledge map week 2


Source Bibliography



The foundation

Experimenting construction with MDF using block laying to form a tower. Requirements include doorway for a small dinosaur and reach a towering height (attempt to reach the roof. Learning and understanding the techniques required to keep the structure in a sturdy hold using load and compresssion.

Initial start of construction surrounded with 3 layers of staggering technique. This is the foundation that makes the tower hold. 3 layers continue to develope. However it requires many blocks it will support a heavy towering load. Door way constructed uses rubber band lintels. Technique had to change due to load slanting in one direction. It is also to reduce the amount of blocks used and at the same time make it higher. The blocks were turned sideways. The effect of blocks on a sideway position made the structure unstable, techique had to change by flipping the block sideways once again so that it supports the load. It balances the force evenly and leans the building close to 90 degrees.

Stagger bond Staggered bonds are more commonly used and are more secure. It distributes more of the load down the blocks as it travels. Stack bond This technique requires layering material on top of each other, however the spread is not even hence less stability.

Entry lintel Staggering structure provides strong support for balance with litels Materials used: - MDF - Medium density fibreboard - Rubber band 2

COMPRESSION 1.1 Block construction

Entry of structure made with support of lintels for dinosaur to go through. Difficult to balance hence it required many blocks to keep up the support. Block structure connection from the base is close together to encompass the load that will be forcing down on the structure as the tower rises. Staggered effect from the base with spaces in between so that reduction of blocks can increase the height of tower however made the structure flimsy and unstable. Flipped the blocks but maintained staggering technique. The flat end of blocks served as an anti load to make the leaning move inside the tower and became acceptable for load. magnitude direction


Forces are defined by direction, sense, and magnitude (size). The sense is the reaction that opposes the direction and magnitude (gravity) which creates the reaction for the load.

Dead loads (roof, beams) give support for all surface it runs down all the way to the bottom.

Live loads are moveable and are temporary loads for a structure. Sometimes too much live loads in one position can alter the form of the structure below. 3

COMPRESSION 1.2 Completion and deconstruction

This part of the construction is to deconstruct the building, to learn which areas have unneccesary blocks. Also to consider the weight and load on blocks and how when removed, the building may still be standing up right. The compression made the blocks stay in tact regardless of fallen pieces. Removal of blocks at the base proves that the amount of blocks used can be unnecessary which leads to more areas being taken off.

Blocks were so compressed due to the load. This made it stable even with the removed blocks. The load spreas across the blocks with the stagger bond allowing full distribution of load.

Deconstruction Pulling pieces out and seeing that the structure is still stable. As a result, the foundation of the building was willing to stand without the unnessary amount of blocks. However the outer layer can be seen as scaffolding around the building.

The final construction of the building stands 1 metre tall.




Dead loads act vertically downwarrd on the structure. It also acts as supporting weight for buildings. Loads travel through a beam or surface, eventually reaching the bottom

Qualities of materials are important for structures. Things to consider are strength, stiffness, shape, behaviour, economy and sustainability.

Irregular structures not taller than 5 stories will be at low seismic risk, hence load will travel a shorter distance.

It is evident through quality that steel for example is stronger than timber, also tougher and stronger. Shape is also important, from mono-dimensional (linear), planar or volumetric Isotropic - has the same behaviour regardless of direction or shape. Key terms Beams - Structure that holds building in tact, primarily made of steel. Reaction force - Force that counteracts on opposite direction where force is applied.

Melbourne Blue Stone Melbourne city was built over a lava plain. As a result, Melbourne has a distinct feature of materials in comparison to Sydney’s sand stone. Melbourne’s blue stone is used commonly on buildings and found on pavements of the city. Damage and tear is seen on them which also shows a sign of historical features. Blue stone is able to withstand years of footsteps and tyre load. However it goes out of shape due to overload of force.

Point load - Is indicated by an arrow where the load is being pushed or compressed. Load path - Weight distribution of a load that moves down on an object Masonry - types of stonework Compression - characteristic of mass construction where a structure in between is being pushed against (opposite of tension where object is being pulled).



Using balsa wood to construct a tower using frames and structural joints to learn and understand the behaviour of how load and weight is delivered in order maintain stability in the tower. Initial Sketch The initial sketch of how the building will look like. It uses triangles instead of the convential square to reduce amout of balsa wood use. Level 7

Level 6

Level 5

Level 4

Level 3 Level 2 Level 1


Base as foundation using 3 sticks. Framework level one complete, with the addition of framing (bracing) to support the compression on the length of sticks facing up. Framework level two complete. Continuing of bracing however flipped so that the load is directed to the bottom. This level has a slope to reduce the volume space going up. 40cm

Red and blue indicates framework that supports the structure. 60cm

Base of structure is largest and becomes smaller from the top.


Materials used: - Balsawood - Super glue



Structural joint connects together at two levels which allows the load to travel down the bracing. If the framing were to stay the same direction, the load travel all along the edges of the building and would not be strong enough to hold the tower.


Where the two bracings touch under the beams that run across, the weight of gravity the pushes the beam down is being transfered to towards the two bracings.


As the slope of the triangle base moves to 40cm, the framework became a lot easier. Tower currently stands at 180cm tall. The triangle base being smaller allows the tower to rise with stability as oppose to same size triangular shape going up.

7 60cm

FRAME 1.2 Concluding the structure of the tower with frames and bracing for support, we were able to reach a height of 300cm. The braces provided load bearing to send the weight down to the base where the foundation is biggest. The building is tall to the point where it reaches the roof of the studio room. Due to the bracing technique, the weight that surrounds the top of the tower is able to travel down to the bottom. The big base provides stability for the tower to also stand tall. Using a light book to place on each base to determine the support the frames can encompass. Although the tower is tall, it was unable to support much weight due to non sufficient amount of bracing across the floor of each level.




KNOWLEDGE MAP WEEK 2 Structural Systems

Structural Joints

Solid - historical uses of stones, brick, mud are primarily used in compression

Roller joint - loads transfer vertically

Shell - Example of Opera House Skeletal system - efficient way of transfering load

Pin joint - allows movement at certain directions. Example of a pin joint is a crane

Membrane - sport stadiums have this to cover large areas Hybrid - consists of 2 or more systems into 1

Fixed joint - bending can occur if a load is occuring at a joint

Load bearings - support to transmit applied gravity

This stage provides essential service to a building, including heaters and cooling, electricity, water supply and ventalation ESD and Selecting Materials Buildings can be though of as a third skin. Most building constructions consider and construct buildings as a filter for the environment. Embodied energy is total energy used in stages of material life (life cycle). Common ESD strategy

Construction (Enclosure) Systems

Framework for Analysing form

Envelope structure (shell) - performance - Aesthetic qualities - Environmental impact - Affordability - Initial cost - Life cycle cost

Column/Wall - A standard body - Same proportion - Relation from column to wall is similar due to their purpose of support - They have a formal contrast

Using precedents is the most important practice

Architecture as Art

Carbon footprints This is the measurement of green house gas based on quantity of production and mass.

Mechanical (service) Systems

- Have to consider scale and proportion - Functionality and purpose - Qualities, space, light A building consists of systems from physical embodiment, systems and sub systems

- Local material - Efficiency - Thermal mass - Night air purge - Solar Energy - Wind Energy - Cross ventilation - Smart sun design - Insulation - Water harvest Design has a cycle which follows as source, mining > distribution > consumer > installation. Depending on the material quality, it could be recycled or disposed. Key terms Stability - stable, solid, firm Tension - stretched Frame - structure that surrounds an object Bracing - Support of structure 9

SOURCE BIBLIOGRAPHY Building construction illustrated,Francis D.K Ching, published (2008)

Constructing environments