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INTENSIFYING RURBAN SYSTEMS

Rurban: “Creation of an urban age in a city, maintaining an open structure that connects with the natural network of the environment which penetrates the city.”

Jessie Huston, Jasmine Lister & May Tang


CONTENTS

Rurban: The aim of rurban is to maintain an agricultural environment whilst still having the comforts of our urban lifestyle.

- J 2M

1. INTRODUCTION - The Wider Context

- Whitford Area

2. CONTEXT: BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL AND CULTURAL ELEMENTS

- Existing Vegetation - Elevation - Slope - Hydrology - MUL’s - Transport

Rurban: You live in the country, but you own no cows. You have all of the piped-in, cable-driven commercial needz as your rural brethren, but with far less concrete. - XPADREX

3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

- Buildable vs. Non-Buildable - High Density Residential - Mixed Commercial and Med/High Density Residential - Medium Density Residential - Mixed Schools and Low Density Residential - Low Density Residential - Re-vegetated Land - Riparian Management

4. FINAL PROPOSAL - Density Types

Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19

- Auckland CBD Proximity - Schooling Zone Proximity - Dwellings vs. Open Space - 3D Final Map and Conclusion

Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24

5. REFERENCES - References used within the e-book

Page 25


1. INTRODUCTION

THE WIDER CONTEXT

1. INTRODUCTION

WHITFORD AREA By 2050, Auckland’s population will increase from 1.5 million to 2.5 million therefore doubling the amount of residents living in the city. This creates a series of issues as the Auckland City Council will need to decide where the people are going to live in the city. For this to happen they will need to decide if the Metropolitan Urban Limit (MUL) will be extended in order to keep the city compact, or create satellite towns which intensifies certain rural areas.

New Zealand is full of history dating back to before 1130AD. To this day there are approximately 4.3 million people living in this country who are all from around the globe. There is a vast array of cultures which makes New Zealand a big tourist attraction and a popular country to live in. Auckland is known as the largest capital city in New Zealand. It currently houses approximately 1.5 million people1.

Our brief for the LAND6225 - Studio 5 paper is to find ways of designing a growth strategy for the Whitford, Clevedon and Brookby areas to fit 250,000 new residents. This could be from extending the MUL or creating a satellite city. We must analysis the main landscape factors, elements, processes and patterns within the wider Auckland region.

The Auckland region is full of potential with it’s rich volcanic soils, wide variety of plant species and its beautiful harbours and coastal beaches. The aim for Auckland is to make it one of the most livable cities in the world.

Our group consists of three people. Jessie Huston, May Tang and Jasmine Lister. We are interested in the Whitford area because we feel that extending the MUL would be a more suitable way to go.

For this to happen there are strict measures that need to be dealt with:

We think this would be the way to go because:

- population growth - keeping rural areas for particular Auckland residents - thinking about quality not quantity - creating the least amount of disturbances for ecosystem patches - making it easy for Auckland residents to travel throughout the city - keeping pollution to a minimum as there may be more cars in the future

- it’s easier to extend the MUL to intensify our area - a compact city is the way to as it’s easier for residents to go into the city for work and/or leisure - it has large potential for different ways of living Whitford is located towards the southern east area of Auckland central. It currently populates around 2000 residents2. Majority of the area contains lifestyle blocks which have a value of $600,000 - $8,000,000. There are very few shops and the closest school in the area is in Clevedon which educates students from years 1-8.

WHITFORD

The Whitford Country Club offers an 18-hole golf course as well as a bird garden named ‘Ayrlies’ which is one of New Zealand’s best known private gardens. There is also a pony club as Whitford is known as a horse ‘country’3.


2. CONTEXT

BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL & CULTURAL ELEMENTS

2. CONTEXT

BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL & CULTURAL ELEMENTS

Most of the vegetation is located on the hilltop to the right of the Whitford valley.

existing vegetation

The dark green areas in the Whitford valley represent an elevation of 0m - 35m which are the best places for building lifestyle blocks and/or medium density houses because they have more land to deal with.

elevation

There are very few vegetation patches inside of the MUL which are all manuka and/or kanuka.

This map easily shows the topography of the land and how all the yellow, orange and red areas are >210m which are unbuildable.

Broadleaved indigenous hardwoods are mainly found along the ridges compared to all the other vegetation types which are scattered amongst the Whitford valley.

vegetation

Manuka and or Kanuka

existing MUL

Not many patches are found inside of the flood plain or along the estuary.

The yellow areas within the Whitford valley are to be left as they are because there are large patches of vegetation on them. This can also be seen along the ridge at the bottom of Whitford.

We found the Whitford valley to be a good area for the extension of the MUL because there are small patches of vegetation which we could protect and/or revegetate.

The hilltop to the right of Whitford has the highest elevation where the inside of the MUL has the flattest. It slowly rises as it grows closer towards the MUL.

Broadleaved Indigenous Hardwoods

Other Exotic Forest

existing MUL

245 - 280

175 - 210

105 - 140

35 - 70

Deciduous Hardwoods

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy

>280

210 - 245

140 - 175

70 - 105

0 - 35

Forest Harvested

Pine Forest - Open Canopy 0

4

Indigenous Forest

0

1

2

4

6

8 Kilometers

1

2

6

8 Kilometers


2. CONTEXT

BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL & CULTURAL ELEMENTS The black and red areas show the slopes that are 15° or greater. These patches are too steep to build on so they would be left as they are or they would be revegetated and/or retired.

slope

They could also be modified and used for walking trails along the Whitford, Clevedon and Brookby areas. The highest slope can be seen in black and they are mainly located to the right of the Whitford valley along the ridge. The lowest slopes are in grey which shows that most of the area is generally flat. The Whitford area is mostly 0° - 5° making it easier and cheaper to build on and there are small amounts of steep slopes within it. Majority of the land inside the MUL is flat or has a 5° slope. There are a few patches along the coast and along the MUL beside Whitford which have 5° - 15° slopes.

existing MUL

slope 0-5 5-8

8 - 15 15 - 45 45 - 63 0

1

2

4

6

8 Kilometers

2. CONTEXT

BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL & CULTURAL ELEMENTS This map shows the hydrology and water catchments within our area and inside the MUL. The small blue lines represent the valleys that lead into the sea. In the Whitford area all the valleys flow into the Turanga creek then into the sea. The blue patch with diagonal lines is the flood plain within the Clevedon valley. We want to leave this area as it is and create a 20m buffer on either side of the rivers. There are mainly mangroves growing into the Whitford and Clevedon estuaries. There are no lakes or ponds in our area.


2. CONTEXT

BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL & CULTURAL ELEMENTS The pink area and outline shows the current MUL in Auckland. The idea is to extend it into the Whitford valley which can be seen as the blue line . This may be the way to go because it’s easier to extend the MUL into the new rurban area. It would still be close to the city and it would be integrated with the current urban area. One of the main reasons why the Whitford valley was chosen over Clevedon is because we intend to preserve the valley and flood plains. Apart from the flood plain, the Whitford valley has the least amount of slopes making it the perfect area to intensify. The extended MUL follows the coast and Turanga estuary, along the boundary of the existing native forest bounday and through the bottom ridge. It then continues past the flood plain and back into the current MUL.

2. CONTEXT

BIOLOGICAL, PHYSICAL & CULTURAL ELEMENTS Transport will be a major factor in this design. There are already two ferry ports, one on either side of the valley which are easily accessible via roads and bus routes. The ferry routes will stay the same but will become more frequent. The dark red nodes represent the current main bus stops near the edge of the existing MUL whereas the orange nodes are proposed bus stops in our area. They connect with Whitford- Park Road, Brookby Road (which will become main roads for our area) as well as the Southern motorway for easier access into the Auckland CBD. Other intensified roads are: - Alfriston Road - Chapel Road - Ormiston Road - Sandstone Road - South-Eastern Highway - Ti Rakau Drive - Whitford Road


3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

BUILDABLE VS. NON-BUILDABLE

3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENSITY ZONES

When the south facing slopes, slopes that were >15° and the native vegetation patches were identified, the Whitford valley was divided into buildable vs. non-buildable areas.

The high density defines itself amongst the highest slopes. This is because the high density areas are to be 5-storey apartments, which gives them are great view of the harbour and Auckland central.

It is clear to see that there is more buildable land over non-buildable which helps to define our extended MUL.

This density is able to accommodate up to 80 people per hectare.

The black areas are to be revegetated or protected whereas the yellow areas are to be divided into different zoning densities.

The 5-storey apartment blocks consists of 3 apartments per level and can fit up to 3 people in each apartment. The overall population is 45 for each apartment block. These apartments have an average of 70m2 each (2 bedroom), and amount to a total ground space of 250m2 (this includes 40m2 for elevators, stairs, hallways, lobbys etc). The total ground cover that is required for these 3100 apartment blocks, is 77.5ha, leaving approximately 1700ha for open space, roads, parking, and agricultural use.

An example of this type of density is Kowloon in Hong Kong. It currently houses approximately 2 million people which is 48% of the country’s population. The density is 4.3 million hectares. We used this example because it has the high density apartment buildings which sit alongside the steep slopes4.


3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENSITY ZONES This mixed density area defines itself amongst the flatest slopes. This is because this area includes commercial buildings, which are more effective in flatter areas, as it is easier for people to walk around between shops. It is also in a central location in the Whitford valley, which is more convenient for residents in this area. This area is also along the main road (Whitford Park Road) which means that this can be used as a commercial strip. This density is able to accommodate up to 60 people per hectare. The 4-storey apartment blocks consists of 2 apartments per level and can fit up to 3 people in each apartment. The overall population is 24 for each apartment block. These apartments have an average of 70m2 each (2 bedroom), and amount to a total ground space of 180m2 (this includes 40m2 for elevators, stairs, hallways, lobbys etc). Approximately half of these apartments are situated on top of shops to allow for more concentrated population intensification. The total ground cover that is required for these 2375 apartment blocks, is 42.7ha, leaving approximately 900ha for open space, roads, parking, and agricultural use.

3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENSITY ZONES This medium density area is defined by its moderately high slopes . This area is made up of residential buildings which is the best solution because it’s spread amongst low, high, and vegetation zones. This density is able to accommodate up to 40 people per hectare. These dwellings have an average of 578m2, each with 3 bedroom (up to 4 people per property), and amount to a total ground space of 550ha. This allows for a total population of 38000. The total ground cover that is required for these 9500 properties, is 550ha, leaving approximately 440ha for open space, roads, parking, and agricultural use.


3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENSITY ZONES This mixed density area is again defined by the flattest slopes . This is because this area includes mixed schools (primary-college) and low residential density. This is the best location for the schools as it is in a close proximity to the Whitford, Brookby and Clevedon townships as well as the Southern motorway (see page 22 for proximity map) This density is able to accommodate up to 15 people per hectare. These dwellings have an average of 1000m2, each with 3 bedroom (up to 4 people per property), and amount to a total ground space of 2525ha. This allows for a total population of 10100. The total ground cover that is required for these 2525 properties, is 252.5ha, leaving approximately 430ha for open space, roads, parking, schools and agricultural use.

3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENSITY ZONES The low density area is defined by the coastal areas surrounding it. This is because it is the most practical area for low density lifestyle blocks. The gentle rolling slopes create a desirable living environment. This density is able to accommodate up to 20 people per hectare. These dwellings have an average of 1ha, each with 3 bedroom (up to 4 people per property), and amount to a total ground space of 1525ha. This allows for a total population of 6100. The total ground cover that is required for these 1525 properties, is 1525ha, leaving approximately 32ha for open space, roads and parking.


3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF DENSITY ZONES This area is to be used only as re-vegetated forest land. This is because it is located on the steepest and southern facing slopes (which are unpractical for development), and also a large proportion of this land is already covered by native forest. This density will accommodate no people, however, it can be modified in ways that will not compromise the preservation of these native forests. The total area for this will be over 1600ha. These vegetation patches provide: - ecological richness - green corridors for existing foresty around the area e.g the Hunua ranges and the Clevedon scenic reserve - prevents sediments from eroding and falling into the Whitford valley - slow water run off in to the valley - provides habitation for bird species - has potential for educational and scenic value with disturbance management

3. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

REVEGETATED STREAMS AND RIPARIAN stream and riparian management and revegetation, improve the quality of these streams and riparian areas, as well as the surrounding areas greatly. Without proper management, these areas are prone to flooding, pollution, erosion and large sediment deposits. An example of this is the port in Ephesus, which provided the inhabitants with a large prosperousness due to the amount of trade and commerce that were provided by this port. However, this port was unable to function when the surrounding forests were cut down to accommodate the growth of the city. This not only lossened the soil, which increased erosion, but it also caused the water table to rise as there was a huge decrease in transpiration, which (because it was such a low-lying area) just increased the water volume and sediment, which spread out into the port, meaning that it became unsuitable for ships of any type. By preserving all current forest areas, we will exponentially decrease the chances of this happening to any of the streams or coastal areas in th Whitford valley. Creating a 20m vegetaion buffer on either side of the streams and riparian areas in the Whitford valley, erosion will be minimised, providing a habitat for native fauna, and improvong the quality of life for those living in this area. Fences, or boundarys will be in place when land surrounding streams or riparian areas, is in use for farming (especially with animals)


4. FINAL PROPOSAL

INTEGRATED DENSITY ZONES

4. FINAL PROPOSAL

AUCKLAND CBD PROXIMITY TO WHITFORD

This map shows the final outcome of the integrated densities in the Whitford valley.

The proximity map illustrates distances from the Auckland CBD to Whitford.

It provides a view of the different zones when they are interconnected, how it’s split into different maps and that it gives a detailed conclusion of how the zones work amongst each other.

The Whitford valley is within 55km radius from the Auckland CBD which means that while it is still possible for residence to travel and work in the city it is more practical to work in the commercial area within the valley. By doing this they would also reduce car use as the commercial area would be a reasonable walk from anywhere in the valley.

The mixed commercial density is placed well within the context of the Whitford valley as it is in close proximity to the surrounding zones. The total population for the Whitford area will be approximately 250,700.

Cycling could also be an option. Limiting car use would also be an effective way to lower the amount of traffic during rush hour. The furtherest distance is measured to be approximately 55km which would take around 30 minutes by car, 35 minutes on the ferry and 1 hour, 30 minutes by bus.

This 3D map shows the intensified density zones at different heights.


4. FINAL PROPOSAL

SCHOOLING ZONE PROXIMITY

4. FINAL PROPOSAL

DWELLINGS VS. OPENSPACE

This density map shows the proximity for the schools.

The pie chart represents dwellings vs. open space (opportunities for agricultural use), for each density zone except the re-vegetated area which will be protected and preserved.

density types

This was chosen as the best location for schools because of its close proximity to the Whitford, Brookby and Clevedon townships as well as being 12km from the motorway allowing those outside the Whitford valley area to attend school here also.

The low density zones have more potential for farming and agricultural use because the area is less populated and has more open space.

This would take approximately 10 minutes from the motorway into the schooling zone.

Another reason for this is because each lifestyle block in the low densities have around 1ha of land per block.

It’s also in walking distance for the majority of Whitford.

This map reinstates the Rurban setting. While many of these zones are highly intensified the area that is taken up with dwellings and such is very low in comparison to the amount of space that is left for open space, roads, schools and agriculture. A small portion of this extra area will be used as a 20m buffer (minumum) for stream and riparian areas. Another use for these areas are roads, some of which already exist but there will be a need to build more as the Whitford valley population increases over the next 40 years. Open space (recreational spaces, parks and reserves) play an important part in the lives of New Zealanders as we are never located far from any of them. They also create an evironment for birds and New Zealand animals in which they can live happily. existing MUL new_MUL housing area other area (roads, open space etc) 0

0.5

1

2

3

4 Kilometers


4. FINAL PROPOSAL

3D DENSITY ZONING AND CONCLUSION By integrating various density types, native forest, open space and agricultural areas, the image and definition of the rurban lifestyle is able to be maintained. Whitford is the most practical area for this as it has a wide variety of land form and vegetation which allows it to be used in many different ways. The many different uses of this area will allow the 25% of people that will be arriving in Auckland in the next 50 years to be housed with sufficient space for agricultural use. This will mean that our aim of a Rurban environment will be accomplished in a way that will even allow for more development in the future if needed.

5. REFERENCES

REFERENCES USED WITHIN THE E-BOOK

Top photo layout

Vista. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://www.visions.co.nz/topofthehill/views.htm Bottom photo layout

Brickworks Cafe Whitford. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://brickworkscafe.co.nz/ 1.What is the auckland plan. (n.d). Retrieved from

http://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/EN/ABOUTCOUNCIL/PLANSPOLICIESPUBLICATIONS/THEAUCKLANDPLAN/Pages/ theaucklandplan.aspx

2. Interactive boundary map. (2006) Retrieved from http://apps.nowwhere.com.au/StatsNZ/Maps/default.aspx

3. Whitford. (n.d.) Retrieved from

http://www.pohutukawacoast.co.nz/Whitford-55.html

4. Kowloon. (2012). Retrieved 2nd April 2012, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kowloon

Ephesus case study Introduction to Phytoremediation of Contaminated Groundwater: Historical Foundation, Hydrologic Control, and Contaminant Remediation. By James E. Landmeyer. page 121-122. Published September 15, 2011


Studio 6225 - e-book