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Pro Christo Per Ecclesiam: A History of College Ministry in the Episcopal Church by Brian W. Turner

A thesis submitted to the faculty of the Department of History of the Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary in Virginia in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Divinity

May 17, 2010

_____________________________ The Rev. David T. Gortner, Ph.D. Faculty Advisor

_____________________________ The Rev. Sam A. Portaro, Jr., D.Min. Reader


Table of Contents Introduction

3

I. The Church and Higher Education

5

II. Higher Education in America

9

III. Episcopal Higher Education

16

IV. The Beginnings of College Ministry

25

V. Episcopal National College Ministry

32

VI. Episcopal Local College Ministry

39

VII. Non-Episcopal College Ministry

45

VIII. The Role of Funding in College Ministry

53

Conclusion

57

Appendix I: Timeline of College Ministry

59

Appendix II: Units of the National Student Council

69

Appendix III: The Church Society for College Work Ten-Year Plan for College Work

71

Endnotes

73

Bibliography

82

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Introduction This master’s thesis project is an attempt to provide an overview of the history of college ministry in the Episcopal Church. Beginning with the Middle Ages, the project traces the relationship between the Christian Church and higher education up to the present day, focusing especially on the work done in this area by the Episcopal Church in America. Through gathering and reviewing this complex history, questions of how and why the structure and focus of the Episcopal Church’s college work has changed are analyzed with the goal of providing some insight into future directions the Church may be able to take in this important ministry. In the end, it is hoped that a review of the Episcopal Church’s work in college ministry can help spur the Church on to further work and support of ministry among college students and institutions of higher learning. It is important to note from the start that the Episcopal Church has historically provided varied amounts of leadership, funding, and support for college work. Episcopal ministry to colleges has taken a winding course from its initial founding of Episcopal colleges in the 17th century, to its grassroots efforts by students and local clergy at public colleges and universities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, to a National Student Council in the 1910s and the Church Society for College Work in the 1930s, to the Episcopal Society for Ministry in Higher Education in the 1960s when national funding was cut, and finally to renewed efforts in national support since the 1980s. Throughout this time, the Episcopal Church has considered the college campus to be “one of the most vital missionary fields in American life,”1 yet its support for this type of missionary work has been inconsistent. In retelling this story of the Episcopal Church’s historical role in college ministry, perhaps the Church can seek to reestablish this missionary initiative as one of its priorities for its future work.

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As this thesis traces out the history of college ministry below, the first section focuses on the origins of higher education in the West and the history of the Church’s relationship with education and secularization. The second section then focuses on the establishment of higher education in America, first by the Church and then followed quickly by the state governments. The third section narrows its focus to the work of the Episcopal Church in founding its own colleges and universities. In the fourth section, the beginnings of college ministry through student movements, student clubs, and college chaplaincies are explored. The fifth section offers examples of early work done by the Episcopal Church nationally and regionally in ministering to its students at non-Episcopal colleges and universities. The sixth section then discusses college ministry at the local level and the types of campus ministries that have arisen in the Church. In the seventh section, a brief account of college work done by other denominations and faiths is provided, in an effort to broaden the picture of college ministry in the United States during the 20th century. Finally, in the eighth section, an analysis of the Episcopal Church’s historical support for college ministry will be provided with an eye toward future ministry in this area.

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I. The Church and Higher Education Teaching and education have always been central to the work of the Christian Church as a means for spreading the gospel and passing on “the faith that was once for all entrusted to the saints” (Jude 1:3).2 As Jesus exhorted his disciples to “go into all the world and proclaim the good news to the whole creation” (Mark 16:15), and Paul called Christians to be “ambassadors for Christ” (2 Corinthians 5:20), so the Church continued to seek ways to teach the gospel to the masses and spread the work of Christ in the world. As the Church grew in size and resources, so did its need to effectively train its leaders in the work of imparting its Biblical teachings, theological doctrines, dogma, and traditions. Thus higher education found its start in the Middle Ages when Christian monasteries became the centers of education and literacy in Europe. These learning centers began as scriptoria where the Bible, commentaries, and other theological works would be copied and illuminated. The Church’s education centers soon increased and grew to become cathedral church schools where the subjects of the trivium (grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic) and the quadrivium (arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy) were taught to the clergy with theology as the unifying principle between the arts and sciences.3 These first monasteries and cathedral schools paved the way for the establishment of universities in major European cities, the oldest being the University of Bologna founded in the 11th century, making literacy available to a wider class of people than just the clergy.4 Thus higher education was officially established, and the Church was better able to continue the spread of its gospel to the masses through this medium. The progress of European higher education in the 11th and 12th centuries was related to the rise of scholasticism, or syllogistic reasoning, and the development of theology as a systematic discipline.5 The end of the medieval period and beginning of the Renaissance era

5


then brought a recovery of the classical works of Greece and Rome and the birth of the humanist movement, which organized its studies in academies outside of the universities. This was a result of the universities rebuffing Renaissance learning over their scholasticism, although humanism began to find its way into university teaching in England, where it was first introduced at the University of Oxford in the early 16th century. As secular forms of study started to take root in higher education, there became a need for religion and theology to regain their status in universities. Thus when the Protestant Reformation arose soon thereafter, many reforms in higher education took place reorganizing learning around the studies of humanism and religion. By this point, more traces of the modern period were found in higher education, as the “critical inquiry applied to the investigation of natural phenomena led to the rise of science and the development of empirical methodology” in education.6 Educators had long believed that religious and moral instruction was fundamental to all other forms of learning; therefore, during the Age of Enlightenment religious principles and Biblical knowledge were seen to coexist with science, history, and languages in universities.7 As institutions grew and academic fields became more varied, however, the Church found its place in education weakening. Earlier efforts to integrate all forms of learning with basic religious principles began to seem “simplistic and grandiose,” and new research advances in diverse directions made academic learning much more heterogeneous.8 As studies became more secularized and the study of civil law overtook that of canon law, local and national governments started establishing their own public universities focusing on secular subjects rather than theology. These public, secular institutions soon outpaced religious universities in number and enrollment, and many Church institutions in order to compete expanded their curricula and secularized many of their programs. Religion still played a role in campus life through the work

6


of churches and student groups, but in many cases religion became something to dissect rather than practice. Likewise the study of world religions challenged the notion that Christianity could be made the foundation of all other forms or learning, and faculty fought against making one religious perspective a unifying principle at their institution.9 Student religious activity also started becoming more secularized over time. As universities grew and became more residential, students moved away for home and their local churches to pursue higher education. For religious worship, students attended church services organized in the chapel at the religious universities or at churches near the secular universities. Students also began forming their own religious groups on campuses and inviting local clergy to lead them. Student religious efforts on campuses grew in the 20th century as campus chapels flourished and denominational campuses ministries cropped up on many secular college campuses. At the same time, however, students turned to scientific inquiry and scholarly pursuits to find truth in their lives, realizing that religion couldn’t provide all of their answers. Institutional religion yielded to a sense of spirituality or mysticism for many young adults,10 and over the course of the second half of the 20th century studies have shown great declines in “the proportion of students identifying as Jewish, Protestant, and Catholic, while there were increases in the ‘none’ and ‘other’ categories” of religious identification.11 Other studies have reported that students have become less involved in religious services and are devoting less time to prayer and meditation as they once had.12 Some have linked these trends in student religious attitudes and involvement to an increased secularization of American culture or higher education. George Marsden has written about this “methodological secularization,” in which religious beliefs are suspended in the pursuit of scientific objectivity, paired with phenomena such as “the elimination of a Christian

7


voice in shaping policy” and “the questioning of all beliefs as mere social constructions” that have led to the marginalization of religion on campus.13 Others such as David Sloan point to “the gradual disappearance from colleges and universities of such things as close relations between church and academy, the appointment of clergy to college and university presidencies, required chapel, and mandatory courses in divinity and moral philosophy [as] a sure sign of a secularization process.”14 James Burtchaell also notes the rise of pietism, “a religious posture that elevates the emotions over the intellect and the personal over the communal,” at religious schools which have “seen religion as embodied so uniquely in the personal profession of faith that it could not be seen to have a stake in social learning” as well.15 While all of these factors can be considered as shaping the secularized nature of higher education in the 20th century, still others note that religion is still alive and active on college campuses. While coerced religious activity at colleges—through mandatory chapel services and required conformity to moral standards rooted in religious principles—has disappeared, many also see the practice and study of religion active and vital in higher education even as religion has become more optional and pluralistic.16 Certainly, cultural and moral shifts in society along with curricular expansion at colleges and universities has played an important role in redefining the place of religion in the life of higher education over the past centuries. As the relationship between religion and education continues to become more complex in the 21st century, it is important for the Church to seek new ways to proclaim its gospel and spread its teachings in places of higher learning, so that it may continue to prosper as a relevant institution for young adults in this changing world.

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II. Higher Education in America Turning our focus toward the development of higher education institutions in America, it is clear that the Church played an important role in the spread of education and founding of schools in the New World. As many groups sought religious freedom in this New World, they also started to set up their own schools for training their clergy and young people and for spreading the gospel. The first institution of higher education in America was New College, founded in 1636 by the Puritans in Newtown (later Cambridge), Massachusetts, with classes probably beginning in the summer of 1638. Then in 1639 the institution was renamed Harvard College in honor of one of its benefactors, the Rev. John Harvard, a Puritan minister who died in 1638 having left half of his estate and library to the new institution.17 America’s second college was established over fifty years after the founding of Harvard, this one with ties to the Church of England. Although a grant had been ratified to set aside land for a college at Henrico in the Virginia Colony in 1618 (almost twenty years before New College), an Indian massacre in the area in 1622 derailed the plans and the school’s charter was revoked in 1624.18 Therefore it wasn’t until 1693 that King William III and Queen Mary II of England signed the charter for a “perpetual College of Divinity, Philosophy, Languages, and other good Arts and Sciences” to be founded in Middle Plantation (later Williamsburg), Virginia, which was named The College of William and Mary in the monarchs’ honor. Founded by Anglican clergyman, the Rev. James Blair, he hoped to instruct both Indians and colonists, though it was mostly the latter who attended.19 This was followed by the founding of seven other collegiate institutions by various church bodies before the American Revolution in 1775, as shown in the table below.

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Institution

Pre-Revolutionary Colleges in the Thirteen American Colonies Present Name Year Colony (if different) Founded

New College

Harvard University

College of William and Mary

Religious Affiliation

Massachusetts Bay

1636

Puritan

Virginia

1693

Church of England

Collegiate School

Yale University

Connecticut

1701

Puritan

College of Philadelphia

University of Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

1740

Church of England

College of New Jersey

Princeton University

New Jersey

1746

Presbyterian

King’s College

Columbia University in the City of New York

New York

1754

Church of England

College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

Brown University

Rhode Island and Providence Plantations

1764

Baptist

Queen’s College

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

New Jersey

1766

Dutch Reformed

New Hampshire

1769

Puritan

Dartmouth College

These colleges were founded by religious institutions, initially with the intention of educating their own clergy and propagating their denomination’s teachings and traditions, and thus the principals and professors of many of these schools were ordained clergy. Yet once freedom of religion was established after the American Revolution, many of these institutions broadened their curricula and transitioned away from serving only clergy, opening schools of law and medicine. Today, as academies of scientific learning have sought to distance themselves from religion, many of these universities have even shed their religious affiliations either becoming totally secularized or retaining loose ties to their denominational history, and clergy presidents have been replaced by doctors, lawyers, businessmen, and academics in many fields.

Even before the establishment of freedom of religion with the First Amendment to the Bill of Rights in 1791 or the American emphasis on the separation of church and state, as in Europe individual states began to charter their own public universities (such as The University of

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Georgia incorporated by the Georgia General Assembly in 1785 and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1789),20 foreshadowing the diminished role religion would play in higher education during the 19th century. Many institutions still retained divinity schools and seminaries, and clergy still taught at these schools, but the church’s role in higher education continued to dwindle from this time forward. Following the Revolutionary War between the years 1782 and 1802, 19 colleges were established in America, more than twice the number chartered in the previous 150 years. Many of these new institutions were founded as a result of factors such as “denominational loyalties, state rivalries, increasing affluence, an expanding population, and the westward march of the frontier,” as individual denominations sought to establish their own schools and states sought to establish secular institutions.21 Colleges continued to be founded at a quick rate throughout the 19th century up until the Civil War when many schools in the South closed temporarily or for good. Following the Civil War, however, higher education blossomed in the North while schools in the South required many years of fundraising and rebuilding to become revived. During this period educational reform started to take place as well, with educators pushing for more practical and professional training for students and the incorporation of more science, technology, and non-classical languages.22

This new trend toward practical, occupational training soon led to the development of non-sectarian, secular, state land-grant colleges, a strong and cheaper alternative to those institutions established by the Church. The University of Virginia which opened in 1825 is often considered to be the first true state university, based upon “its original incorporation as a public

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enterprise, its secular and nondenominational orientation, and the provision made under Thomas Jefferson’s plan to allow students to elect from among alternative courses of study.”23 Many other institutions followed in Virginia’s footsteps, with their main funding coming from federal land grants rather than private or Church organizations. Unfortunately this funding source proved inadequate to keep these institutions running, requiring many to nevertheless seek sectarian support. It wasn’t until the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890 that the cause of public, state institutions was saved. By these acts, sales of public lands would go toward the funding of at least one college in each state “where the leading objects shall be, without excluding other scientific or classical studies, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts.”24 These acts led many states to create new colleges while others converted existing agricultural schools to “A & M” universities or turned private institutions into state ones, continuing to outpace and overrun the work being done by the Church in higher education. In addition to land grant institutions in small towns and rural areas, other forms of colleges and universities started to become established. In urban centers, free, public postsecondary education was begun in such places as New York City, Charleston, S.C., and Louisville, Ky. before the Civil War.25 Accelerating greatly after the war, these institutions were then joined by privately endowed universities in many areas. Women’s higher education also became a reality in the 19th century, beginning as glorified high schools which soon became true post-secondary colleges in the second half of the century.26 Women’s education was also supported at “coordinate” colleges which were separate but affiliated with established colleges (e.g., Radcliffe College for women affiliated with Harvard University). Along with women’s education, coeducation also arose during this period.27 As the Church became active in the

12


founding of its own women’s colleges during this time—such as Saint Mary’s College in Raleigh, N.C., begun by the Episcopal Church—it grounded this work in the belief that education was joined with piety and that religious principles supported educational advancement.28 Like women, African Americans also struggled to find quality higher education. The first black colleges were founded by church groups in the North, such as An Institute for Colored Youth created by the Quakers in Philadelphia in 1842, which later became Cheyney State College.29 Black higher education in the South after the Civil War was mostly a product of “northern white benevolent societies, denominational missionary bodies, and private black charitable organizations.”30 While as many as 200 private and denominational black colleges were established during the 1870s and 1880s, only a fraction survived to the turn of the century due to lack of support. The Morrill Act of 1890 also helped found new black colleges in its requirement that states establish a separate land-grant college for blacks if they were being excluded from a state’s already existing land-grant college. This resulted in the founding of black land-grant institutions in all of the southern and border states by 1900.31 Many of these institutions and others established before 1964 were later designated by the Higher Education Act of 1965 as “historically black colleges and universities” (HBCUs) which could receive direct federal aid.32 Today, Christian denominations continue to play an important role in the running and support of over 40 of these institutions.

Another movement the Church participated in was the founding of teaching institutions in the late 1800s, originally known as “normal schools.” While often originally begun by efforts and support of the Church, these institutions later became “state teachers’ colleges” in the early

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1900s.33 One example is St. Philip’s Normal and Industrial School, founded by the Episcopal Diocese of West Texas in San Antonio in 1888, which later relinquished its denominational ties and became a municipal junior college in 1942, and is today a member of the Alamo Community College District.34 These normal schools like other colleges later began to diversify their course offerings and added electives to their curricula. During the 20th century, many teachers’ colleges lost their teaching emphasis and attempted to become comprehensive, research-oriented institutions. Similarly many colleges started to strive for university status. While this distinction between college and university had been loosely defined for many years, a number of changes in American higher education clarified this distinction, such as the introduction of electives and a greater element of undergraduate curricular choice; marked reluctance on the part of a growing number of schools to serve in loco parentis, that is, as parental surrogates for students; the addition of undergraduate and graduate preparatory training for careers formerly excluded from academe; the emergence of large graduate institutions whose professed loyalties were to pure research and Wissenschaft, or investigation and writing in the broadest sense (as distinct from the diffusion of knowledge through teaching); allegiance to academic freedom; and increasingly specialized scholarship, together with the institutions’ reorganization of faculties within separate, discipline-based academic departments.35 As American institutions increasingly modeled themselves off the secular German universities with their graduate programs in advanced and varied disciplines and more students continued with post-baccalaureate studies, many colleges expanded and reorganized themselves into the complex universities we find today.36 At the same time, other institutions decided to remain colleges with simpler courses of study. In the early 20th century, “junior colleges” or “community colleges” also emerged as two-year institutions for those lacking the resources or desire to pursue a four-year course of study. These institutions also allowed students to pursue a relatively inexpensive education within commuting distance so that they could reside at home. As American life has continued to change and evolve through the 20th and 21st century, colleges

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and universities have also continued their evolution. Higher education now provides degrees and courses of studies of all kinds and lengths—with whole degree programs even offered online— catering to students of every background, and providing for the many and varied needs of the 21st century student. Certainly, all of these varied changes have provided many challenges for the Church, as it has tried to keep up with the evolution of higher education and continue to find new ways to spread the gospel and impact the lives of students at today’s modern university. From this history of the changing nature of higher education in the West and specifically America, it is clear that although the Church played a major role in education early on, its role has become greatly diminished through the centuries as theology has had to vie for significance amidst a myriad of disciplines and secularization has permeated many aspects of modern life. Especially in America, a country which has continued to pride itself on the separation of church and state, public institutions have arisen around the country offering many opportunities with low tuitions and viable competition for private and sectarian institutions. While the Church first led the way in the creation and expansion of higher education as a means of shaping the lives of its members, in the 19th century it began to cede this work to the efforts of secular, public colleges and other forms of higher education as its mission priorities changed. Although many denominational colleges still survive today albeit with lessened influence, the Church has tried to find new ways to continue to influence the lives of its young people. Denominational campus ministries and Christian parachurch organizations have arisen on campuses to support and evangelize Christian students through worship, fellowship, and Bible studies on campus. In the next section, the Episcopal Church’s work in establishing its own colleges for this purpose will be considered before moving on to campus ministry work at non-Episcopal colleges in the following section.

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III. Episcopal Higher Education The Anglican and later Episcopal Church in America paralleled many of the other Christian denominations in founding its own institutions for higher education. As noted above, three of the first of these Anglican institutions included the College of William and Mary founded in 1693, the College of Philadelphia founded in 1740, and King’s College founded in 1754. Since their founding, however, all three of these institutions have lost their Anglican/Episcopal identities. This happened for a number of reasons, most notably because America cut most of its ties with England (and thus Anglicanism) in declaring its independence from the monarchy and fighting the Revolutionary War. Yet even those schools which managed to retain their religious ties quickly fell prey to the rise of secularization and the overtaking of colleges by state legislatures. The College of William and Mary, along with the other two colleges mentioned, gradually lost its church affiliation as American patriots took steps to guarantee the university’s loyalty to America at the onset of the Revolution. As a result, the college became a university in 1779 under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia. The College’s chair of theology was eliminated and the divinity school was closed as part of this effort toward loyalty and secularization. Eventually in 1860 the school fully became a state institution.37 The College of Philadelphia began as a charity school founded by the Rev. George Whitefield in 1740, which ran out of funding and was later taken over by Benjamin Franklin in his vision for a public academy which would serve more than just clergy. Anglican clergyman, the Rev. William Smith, came to serve the school as provost, reorganizing it and securing a revised charter for the college in 1755. Morning and Evening Prayer along with Anglican

16


catechizing were introduced at the school during Smith’s tenure. Yet as happened to William and Mary, the state of Pennsylvania took over the school upon the Revolution in 1779 in order to limit the authority of its loyalist Anglicans. As a result, the institution split, the church disassociated itself from the college, and it was later reunited in 1791 as the University of Pennsylvania, free from sectarian influence.38 King’s College was begun in New York City in 1754 by Trinity Church, which saw a need for an Anglican school in the colony to provide sound education to refute what was seen as the errors of the growing Great Awakening. The college was named for King George II from whom it secured its charter that same year. Anglican clergyman, the Rev. Samuel Johnson, became its first president, and many other Anglican clergy dominated the school’s faculty. Also troubled by the Revolution, the college closed in 1776 to be reopened after the war in 1784 as Columbia College, now run by the state legislature. The school gradually lost all its connections with the Episcopal Church and eventually became Columbia University in the City of New York in 1896.39

Despite its loss of affiliation with these three institutions, the evolving Episcopal Church in America persevered in establishing more colleges after the Revolution to support and educate the new nation’s young people. The tenth college to be established in America, and the first after the revolution, became Washington College in Chestertown, Md., in 1782, named in honor of the Continental Army commander and soon-to-be first president of the new nation, George Washington. The Rev. William Smith who had been forced to leave Philadelphia became the head of this new college. Washington College retained Episcopal leadership and ties through the 1820s before succumbing to secularization and state influence.40

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In the following years up until the present time, the Episcopal Church has played a role in the founding, leadership, or supervision of over 50 American colleges and four international institutions.41 Various fates have befallen many of these colleges however. Most Episcopal colleges no longer remain because they ran out of financial resources or other church support, whether like Kemper College in St. Louis, Mo., which lasted less than ten years or the College of the Sisters of Bethany in Topeka, Kan., which survived over 60 years before closing.42 The Civil War also was a cause of many school closings, such as Jefferson College in Washington, Miss.43 Other schools started out or gradually became colleges over time but later lost their collegiate programs, like Saint Mary’s College in Raleigh, N.C., which today is Saint Mary’s School, a college preparatory school for girls.44 A number of colleges changed denominational hands numerous times during their life, like Buckner College in Witcherville, Ark., founded by the Missionary Baptists, transferred to the Episcopal Church for a couple years, then put under control of the Presbyterians, before going back to the Baptists and later closing.45 Still other colleges had superficial ties to the Episcopal Church through leadership among their trustees, which became severed when members resigned or retired from the board, as happened with Doane College in Crete, Neb.46 Finally, the fate of many other Episcopal colleges was one of secularization like Washington College or the eventual distancing from Episcopal connections, as in the case of Trinity College in Hartford, Conn., which was founded by the Episcopal Church in 1823, but decided to broaden its student base and mission, severing its ties in 1968.47

As a result, Episcopal colleges today number less than those operated under the auspices of any other mainline Christian denomination,48 with only nine currently active in the U.S. These include The University of the South, “the only university in the nation that is owned and

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governed by dioceses of the Episcopal Church,”49 as well as Bard College, Clarkson College, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Kenyon College, St. Augustine College, Saint Augustine’s College, Saint Paul’s College, and Voorhees College.50 Saint Augustine’s, Saint Paul’s, and Voorhees were founded in the late 19th century by southern dioceses hoping to reclaim a ministry to African Americans through an emphasis on education.51 These three institutions helped provide education to a population which the government was slow to help and for which other educational opportunities weren’t readily available. All three schools eventually became designated as historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). In a similar way to these colleges, St. Augustine in Chicago was begun as a bilingual institution in 1980 to educate the increasing number of Hispanics joining the Episcopal Church.52 A table listing the nine current Episcopal institutions is presented below.

Institution Hobart & William Smith Colleges

Episcopal Colleges Original Name (if different)

Location

Year Founded

Geneva, NY

1822

Kenyon College

Gambier, OH

1828

Sewanee: The University of the South

Sewanee, TN

1857

Annandale-onHudson, NY

1860

Raleigh, NC

1867

Omaha, NE

1888

Lawrenceville, VA

1888

Denmark, SC

1897

Chicago, IL

1980

Geneva College

Bard College

St. Stephen’s College

Saint Augustine’s College

Saint Augustine’s Normal School and Collegiate Institute Bishop Clarkson School of Nursing Saint Paul’s Normal and Industrial School

Clarkson College Saint Paul’s College Vorhees College St. Augustine College

Denmark Industrial School

In an effort to better connect its remaining colleges and “to provide a framework for cooperative endeavor, to strengthen the member colleges and their programs, and to foster the

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intellectual and spiritual values implicit in their founding,” the Episcopal Church established the Fund of Episcopal Colleges at the Episcopal Church Center in New York in 1962.53 In 1966 the organization was renamed the Association of Episcopal Colleges (AEC). At a time when most colleges did not yet have development offices, the Association was able to help raise funds for scholarships and development of the Episcopal colleges, especially the three HBCUs and two foreign members, Cuttington University College in Liberia and Trinity College of Quezon City in the Philippines. It is worth noting that funding for Episcopal colleges has always been an important issue, and was surely a factor in the closing of many of the 50 colleges begun by the Episcopal Church in the 19th and early 20th centuries as other mission priorities arose. Certainly in the first decade of the 20th century as many denominations initiated college work at public institutions, there was a fear among many college leaders that the “benevolent interests and funds which hitherto had centered exclusively on the denominational colleges” would be greatly diminished in light of this other college work.54 The 1960s, however, brought new challenges for the Episcopal colleges (and many other ministries) as the national church reallocated much of its funds for social justice programs, leaving many budgets severely diminished. As many of these colleges started to establish their own development programs in the 1970s, however, they were better able to support themselves and the Association was able to create new priorities. Thus in the last quarter of the century, the AEC begin began to refocus its efforts on the work of community service learning. This initiative was begun in 1985, followed in the 1990s with new work in international education.55 In 1993, the AEC helped bring about the creation of the worldwide organization, Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion (CUAC), at a conference of Anglican college heads held in Canterbury, England. CUAC gives its purpose as providing “a collaborative network to its member institutions, for the exchange of ideas, for the

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mutual development of programs and courses, for cultural exchanges, and for both relational and material collegial support amongst members.”56 Today, the AEC’s membership includes the nine U.S.-based Episcopal colleges as well as Cuttington and Trinity, which have both had strong ties to the Episcopal Church since their founding. Meanwhile CUAC boasts over 120 member institutions from all parts of the Anglican Communion, with a majority residing in India.

In reviewing all the varied work that the Episcopal Church has done in establishing and supporting its own institutions of higher education, it may also be helpful to take a more in-depth look at how three such institutions—Kenyon College, the University of the South, and Saint Paul’s College—have changed since their founding. While being founded with the purpose of educating Episcopal students, some with the goal of ordained ministry, these colleges have managed to retain their Episcopal identities in small ways while making themselves relevant and attractive to today’s students and providing a high-quality collegiate education. Kenyon College Kenyon College was founded by Bishop Philander Chase of Ohio in 1824 as The Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Ohio. Located initially in Worthington, Ohio, it was to be “a school for the education of young men for the ministry.” After moving to Gambier, Ohio, in 1828, the school became Kenyon College and Bexley Hall Theological Seminary, with the seminary later moving to Rochester, N.Y. Kenyon’s focus soon shifted from educating clergymen to providing young men with a traditional classical education. Today Kenyon prides itself on its small and welcoming community, exceptional liberal-arts academic programs, and rewarding opportunities to

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collaborate with faculty.57 Kenyon’s transformation from a denominational seminary to a successful, highly ranked, liberal arts college with quiet but consistent ties to the Episcopal Church demonstrates one path for Episcopal collegiate education in the 21st century. Sewanee: The University of the South The University of the South was founded by Bishops James Hervey Otey of Tennessee, Leonidas Polk of Louisiana, and Stephen Elliott of Georgia in 1857 in Sewanee, Tennessee. Their intention was to provide clerical training and a quality education in the arts and sciences for youth in the South, a region that up to that point had lacked such resources.58 Bishop Polk envisioned the university as an institution that “would be declaredly out and out Episcopal, founded by the church for the especial benefit of her own children, for the advancement of learning generally, and for the propagation of the gospel as she (the church) understood it…but that it would be freely open to all who might desire to avail of its advantages.”59 The school officially opened after the Civil War in 1868, operating a College of Arts and Sciences, a School of Theology, and the Sewanee Grammar School (which later became separate). The school’s mission today centers on the “dedicated…pursuit of knowledge, understanding, and wisdom in close community and in full freedom of inquiry,…enlightened by Christian faith in the Anglican tradition” and preparing students “to search for truth, seek justice, preserve liberty under law, and serve God and humanity.”60 As a second example of Episcopal higher education, the University of the South has found a way to continue to boldly proclaim its Episcopal identity while also remaining a competitive, highly ranked, liberal arts institution. Saint Paul’s College Saint Paul’s College in Lawrenceville, Virginia, was founded as Saint Paul’s Normal and Industrial School in 1888 by the Rev. James Solomon Russell. The school grew out of a

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congregation of black communicants formerly at St. Andrew’s, Church in 1882. In 1906, the school became a part of the American Church Institute for Negroes. It was renamed Saint Paul’s Polytechnic Institute in 1941, and finally became Saint Paul’s College in 1957. As one of three Episcopal colleges founded in the late 1800s for the purpose of educating blacks in the South, Saint Paul’s has retained its mission of educating “all students, especially the underserved, with educational, cultural, spiritual, and life-long learning experiences that will enable them to lead in a technological and global society.”61 In this third example, the Episcopal Church has demonstrated a way to provide a quality, practical education to an underserved population while embracing its Episcopal identity and mission. In surveying the history of these three institutions, one is able to see how these colleges which started out to serve Episcopal students and populations have managed to thrive while broadening their student bodies and class offerings. Like many private liberal arts colleges, these institutions have been successful in attracting students because of their size, reputation, and in the case of Saint Paul’s, their affordability, while still retaining their Episcopal ties if simply in a nominal sense. Certainly as these institutions have evolved during the past century, the Episcopal Church’s focus on them has as well, both through the work of the AEC by its funding and initiatives, and the support of General Convention, especially through its continued funding for the Episcopal HBCUs.62 As the Episcopal Church gave more freedom to these colleges to provide quality education to students of varying background, it meanwhile increased its efforts to minister to its own students who were attending other private and public institutions of higher learning. In the next several sections, the church’s work with college students will be examined by looking at the national, provincial, and local organizations that the Episcopal Church has initiated over the 23


years as a means of supporting and following its students, many of whom have left their home congregations in pursuit of higher education.

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IV. The Beginnings of College Ministry As the nature of colleges and higher education started to change, the role of churches in running universities decreased and denominations started to find new ways to provide support and care for their members at college. While student work had been going on in many ways at denominational colleges, at other private and especially state institutions denominational groups started being organized by students (and less frequently clergy) for regular devotion and religious study. Some churches and dioceses founded dormitories and guilds as a means of ministering to students, while others began to build chapels or held weekly services on college campuses. In the first two decades of the 20th century, it became increasingly clear to denominations that a majority of their students were no longer attending denominational colleges but the larger, cheaper, public state universities. This led many denominations to begin looking for resources and personnel to provide religious instruction and pastoral care to these students. While this made sense to many, denominational colleges became worried amidst decreased enrollments that the interests and funds which had previously been exclusively theirs would now go to other programs. Yet in order to be effective in their ministry to their own students, many denominations went ahead with this initiative to strengthen their presence on state campuses.63 At the same time, a number of nondenominational student movements arose out of work by Christians in attempting to improve the morality and character of young adults in society.

Student Movements Intentional Christian ministry and fellowship at public universities first began among students and young adults. In England, the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was started in London by George Williams in 1844 to encourage Bible study and prayer for the

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young men working in the factories and living on the streets and later for those at university. The organization grew and chapters were started in North America in Montreal and Boston in 1852, eventually adopting a fourfold purpose for “the improvement of the spiritual, mental, social and physical condition of young men.�64 Similarly the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) came out of the combined work of Lady Mary Jane Kinnaird and Miss Emma Robarts in 1855 who sought to provide prayer, Bible study, housing, and support for the young women in London. Their work spread to Europe, India, and the United States, with the first association being formed in New York City in 1858.65 Both of these organizations were instrumental in supporting young adults and encouraging them in Christian practices, and they reflect a pattern of groups that arose to support Christian living among young adults in the 19th century. Between 1890 and World War I, chapters of these associations organized by students on college campuses played an important role in directing the religious and moral life of students, and by 1900 over 600 YMCA and YWCA chapters had enrolled over 32,000 students on campuses nationally.66 Similarly the World Christian Student Federation begun in 1895 also played a role in organizing college students around issues of faith, discipleship, and mission. Student Clubs At colleges and universities at this time, students also started to gather themselves together in denominational clubs for Bible study and prayer and to encourage Christian living among themselves. The idea that Catholic students attending public universities in England should have a place to gather to support and encourage one another in their faith was proposed by theologian and writer Cardinal John Henry Newman in his work The Idea of a University in 1852. As a former Oxford professor and fellow of Oriel College, Newman knew that Catholics

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were discouraged from and often forbidden to attend secular universities, yet he did not want young Catholic college students to be deprived of good educational opportunities.67 The influence of Newman’s ideas took hold first in Wisconsin. In order to meet their spiritual and intellectual needs, Catholic students at the University of Wisconsin in 1883 formed the Melvin Club after being invited by Mrs. Melvin to Thanksgiving dinner. When during the course of the dinner the students complained about a professor slandering the Catholic Church, it was suggested they begin a literary club to help them grow in their understanding of Catholicism, and thus began the first Catholic student group. Timothy Harrington, one of the members of the Melvin Club, later attended medical school at the University of Pennsylvania, where he helped to form the first Newman Club in 1893, named for Cardinal Newman. This group of young Catholics started gathering “to improve themselves socially, intellectually, and religiously” in the state university setting and were effective in “ministering one to another with very little ‘official’ support other than permission and tolerance.” By 1905, similar Catholic groups had been organized on fifteen other campuses, aiding in the assimilation of Catholic students into American society.68

College Chaplaincy As denominations and churches noticed the presence of religious groups like the Newman Clubs organized by students on college campuses and they began to receive requests for financial or clerical support, many denominations started forming chaplaincies at public colleges. College chaplaincies were not necessarily something new to denominations, as they had long existed at denominational colleges through the work of ordained presidents, professors, or specific clergy called chaplains taking on this role. For instance, the Rev. James Blair, who was rector of the Anglican parishes in Jamestown and Bruton, Virginia, was also the founding

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president of The College of William and Mary in 1693 and acted as a chaplain to the students of the College until his death in 1743.69 But it wasn’t until the early 20th century that similar chaplaincy work like this was initiated at state universities. In 1904 the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) noted the increase in young people studying at state universities and recommended “the appointment of special ministers who shall reside in and care for Presbyterian students in state universities, very much after the pattern of army and navy chaplains.” The board also noted that the Roman Catholic Church had been using a similar plan with success at the University of Minnesota.70 This pattern was soon picked up by numerous other denominations and became one of the main ways of providing religious instruction and pastoral care for the students of each denomination at state schools. At the same time, however, this led to increased competition among denominations for students, worship space, and recognition on campus. Episcopal Student Groups In the Episcopal Church, many dioceses and local groups also started to notice the need for a church presence at state schools in the late 19th century. Unlike the other denominations, however, the Episcopal Church initially preferred to run its student ministries with “student pastors” or out of parishes rather than chaplaincies on the campuses, sometimes requiring the need to create a new parish or chapel at a university. Both the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota were early served by “student pastors.”71 The University of Texas, on the other hand, worked along the lines of the parish model, establishing All Saints Chapel near the campus in 1898. This small congregation guaranteed to the 1909 diocesan council “the support of the chaplain to the university students and the local expenses of the chapel…believing that the work with students can be done better through the regular machinery of the parish than in any other

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way.”72 This parish model gained much support in the Episcopal Church, where some felt that “when by scholarship or temperament the local rector was unable to work successfully with a college constituency he was to be replaced with a fully qualified rector,”73 with the hope that the denomination would help provide university parishes “with strong men who know the truth and are made free thereby, and who understand the needs and aspirations and perplexities of youth.”74 Other opinions in the Church led to further means of supporting students through religious societies or chapel services organized by local clergy and the building of church dormitories, halls, and chapels on college campuses through diocesan work. A sample of other early initiatives by Episcopal dioceses is discussed below. A group called the Bishop Seabury Association was formed by Episcopal students at Brown University in Providence, R.I., in 1865. The members took up holding religious services, served as lay-readers, taught Sunday School in Providence, had an annual sermon preached in St. Stephen’s Church, and worked on organizing missions and chapels in the surrounding areas. The society appeared to become inactive in the late 1870s, was apparently revived in the 1890s, and then disbanded again in 1903, possibly as a result of varied student or church support.75

Christian work was established at the University of Michigan by the Episcopal diocese in 1885. Harris Hall was built near the university campus in 1887 by St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church in Ann Arbor, Mich., as a center of activities for the Hobart Guild of Episcopal students at the university.76 The Episcopal Diocese of Minnesota established “The University House” near the campus of the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis in the late 19th century, “with a clergyman in charge, as a center of influence and co-operation.” The Bishop Gilbert Society was

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later organized by the Episcopal students at the university in 1906 in order “to promote the interests of the Episcopal Church among the students of the University and to draw together in bonds of friendship and for mutual helpfulness, the students of the University who are connected with that church.” The society provided a lecture series and helped maintain a student pastor.77 At West Virginia University (WVU) in Morgantown, W.Va., when “the state legislature resisted funding a new dormitory…the university leased Episcopal Hall” near the campus in 1907 to house 42 students.78 Founded by Bishop George Peterkin of the Diocese of West Virginia, Episcopal Hall had originally been established as a dormitory for students at WVU, and the rector of Trinity, Morgantown also acted as the Hall’s warden. This concept of a denominational dormitory or hall for college students greatly appealed to Bishop Peterkin. He believed that the two best ways to provide a religious influence for college students were to build a separate church college or to build a church dormitory for students at a non-church college. He wrote that To build a separate church college, with an equipment equal of that of the State University, is impossible for the Church in any State; and, even if it were possible, it might not be wise, for experience has shown that students ordinarily prefer the more general institution, where extraordinary privileges are offered them free of charge….The Church Hall can provide all that the separate college could. It supplies the home, with its dormitory, under the care of a church clergyman, or other fit person, and it may, if desired, have its separate chapel services or family prayers, its special studies of a religious or voluntary character, and, in addition to all these, everything that the great university can give in either an intellectual or social way. It keeps the student under the influence of the Church, and it does it without depriving him of the inestimable advantages provided for him by the State. In fact, it seems an easy and sensible solution of the difficult question as to the proper relations of the Church and State in the field of higher education. It makes the one uphold and supplement the efforts of the other.79

This idea caught on in other dioceses as well. In Valley City, North Dakota, for example, the Church Hall, a home for girls attending the State Normal School, was established in the early

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1900s as an outreach ministry of the Missionary District of North Dakota. Like the Episcopal Hall at WVU, the rector of All Saints, Valley City was in charge of the Church Hall along with an appointed matron.80

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V. Episcopal National College Ministry As local parishes and dioceses started to take up the cause of ministry for college students, the national leadership of the Episcopal Church began to find ways to support this work on a larger, broader scale in the first decade of the 20th century. The church’s Board of Missions appointed the Rev. John Gravatt, as a traveling student secretary in 1909, becoming the church’s first national leader for student ministry, as well as Deaconess H. R. Goodwin who was appointed to work with women’s colleges in the East. In the following year, the Board of Religious Education was created and assigned with responsibility for college work.81 The National Student Council The National Student Council was organized in May, 1918, by the Conference of Episcopal College Workers “to provide for the democratic control of student work and for unity of the student work of the boards of Missions and Religious Education”82 and act as “a board of strategy in planning methods of work.”83 By linking the Presiding Bishop and National Council with the students and college workers, it functioned more as “an advisory and supporting council rather than as a student movement.”84 By the end of 1918 two church student societies at the University of Chicago and the University of Wisconsin had joined the Council, and a year late the Council contained 16 member groups or Units. (Appendix II provides a list of the Units that joined the National Student Council between 1918 and 1925.) The Council encouraged students to organize themselves in whatever way was useful to them, while setting the minimum standards for an Episcopal student group on a local campus, which included weekly worship, religious education, extension of the Church in the college and the world, service in the Church and community, and four meetings a year.85 The Units that were organized by the Council were the precursors to the Episcopal Canterbury Clubs which soon became a fixture on college campuses across the country and many of which remain today. The exact date of the emergence 32


of Canterbury Clubs is uncertain, although records show their organization into an Association of Canterbury Clubs by 1942, which held its member groups to “a definite program of worship, study, service, giving, evangelism, and unity.”86 In 1922 the National Student Council started publishing a regular student publication known as The National Student Council Bulletin, which gave reports on the Council’s meetings and other college work being done in the Church.87 One of the other projects of the Council became the Student Lenten Offerings, begun in 1928. The money raised from these offerings initially went to support college work but in later years was divided into foreign and domestic mission projects picked by the student representatives.88 Another related initiative included “The National Student Council of the American Church Institute for Negroes,” organized in 1923 to parallel the work of the Council in doing similar work among colored students.89

With the onset of the Great Depression in 1929, a number of these initiatives had to be diminished or reimagined. Due to financial stringency, the Student Council itself was unable to continue meeting and ceased to exist as a national organization in the late 1930s.90 In hopes of returning the Church’s college work to “a firm and stable basis,” the Church’s National Council set up the Episcopal Student Foundation in 1932 to create an endowment for college work, which would be administered by the National Council. The hope of this project was that “contributors would transfer their gifts to religion in higher education if the Church were seen to be alive and had a specific channel through which they could contribute.”91 With the waning of the National Student Council, other organizations continued the cause of college work for the Church. The Department of Religious Education’s Division of College Work focused its efforts on the placement of clergymen and women workers in college

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communities.92 College Commissions in the various provinces and dioceses provided opportunities to college clergy “for fruitful fellowship and for certain forms of corporate activity such as the college surveys” conducted by the Church.93 The Church Society for College Work The Church Society for College Work (CSCW) was later formed in 1935, organized separately from the National Council as a voluntary agency seeking to strengthen the work of the College Department particularly “through the raising of money for financing extensions of the college work and significant new projects.”94 Created from the Church’s previous plans for the Episcopal Student Foundation, the money that had been raised for the Foundation was given to the CSCW to begin its work.95 The mission of the Church Society for College Work was “to promote knowledge and acceptance of Christ’s religion and in other ways to foster and to strengthen the work of the P.E. Church in college and university centers; and to establish a Fund for this purpose,” with a focus on advocacy and fundraising for college work in the church.96 Leadership for the Society came from its Executive Secretary who was also the national church’s Secretary for College Work in the Division of College Work of the Department of Religious Education, as well as individuals outside the national church staff.

The stated objectives of the CSCW were summed up in eight points in 1936: (1) To assist in the placement of clergymen, laymen, and women workers who will minister to students in college and university centers; and to increase the number of such workers in places which were undermanned. (2) To develop an adequate and detailed file of clergy interested in and qualified for college work (in order to advise intelligently about placement). (3) To continue emphasizing

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the strategic importance of college work to the Church, by writing and speaking, by publishing pamphlets, etc. (4) To aid the movement for Christian conferences and retreats for college students. (5) To recruit for the ministry. (6) To gather together those committed to the cause of college work for prayer, inspiration, and exchange of ideas. (7) To raise money for the support of the work. (8) To unite in intercession all those who care about the college work of the Church.97 Part of this initial work of the Society thus involved organizing provincial conferences for college workers and students. The first college worker conference was held in Province IV in 1937 and summer student conferences were started soon after. In 1938, the Society was further charged by the National Council with the promotion and financing of college work in the church. Out of this initiative, money was raised to create a large endowment to support college clergy salaries, subsidize the provincial conferences, and underwrite publications on college ministry. The Society also continued to advocate for college ministry across the church, including the ongoing development of student clubs on college campuses.98

In 1940, the CSCW had almost 1200 members (compared to 256 in 1935) who had contributed money or taken an active interest in the church’s college ministry, highlighting the impact the Society had already made in its first few years. In 1941, a ten-year plan for college work was published by the Society. In this plan (included in Appendix III), the Society advocated for the National Commission and the Commission on College Work in each province and diocese to “assume responsibility and take full leadership� of college ministry being done in the church, including keeping track of where college ministry was being done and what personnel (both clergy and women workers) were available to do this work. The Society agreed to raise money for these initiatives. Work was also planned for educating the Church about

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college ministry through religious and secular media, for recruiting men for this ministry, and for an Annual Week of Prayer and Study to be held in every province. A plan was made for the gathering of college student clubs into a national organization of Canterbury Clubs to work “in collaboration with the Student Christian Movement and other ecumenical efforts” in the hope that “they will translate college solidarity into Church loyalty and provide a natural transition for continuing the religious interest of student days into one very active phase of adult Church life, namely, the college work.” Finally, the Society planned to take on a devotional nature, with its inner leadership living by “a Rule of Life which will be strictly administered and will foster retreats and conferences on personal religion,” with the Secretary for College Work acting as its spiritual head.99 As many of these initiatives were undertaken and expanded during the following decades, the CSCW started to look in new directions. In 1967, the Society started to shift its focus to encouraging ecumenical cooperative efforts in campus ministry. When the Lilly Endowment approached the Society’s executive director in 1973 with $3 million to expand the Society’s work to an ecumenical level over a 10-year period, its board agreed and placed its $120,000 endowment in escrow. Out of this effort was created the National Institute for Campus Ministry (NICM) which developed all of the Society’s programs on a national ecumenical level. Although the hope was for participating denominations to help support the work of NICM after the ten years were over, little progress was made in this direction. When it became clear that NICM would be unable to support itself, the CSCW board in 1983 used its endowment to create instead the Association for Religion and Intellectual Life, “a global network of people from various religious traditions who share a commitment to bringing into closer relationship the passions of the heart with the life of the mind.”100

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The Episcopal Society for Ministry in Higher Education The Episcopal Society for Ministry in Higher Education (ESMHE) was formed in 1968 at a meeting of Episcopal college chaplains in Evanston, Ill. The chaplains had been noticing that the work of the Church Society for College Work was moving in ecumenical directions, while at the same time the national church had limited its resources for funding and supporting college ministry. With the initiation of the General Convention Special Program (GCSP) in 1967, the Convention diverted much of its budgeted funds to support social justice projects, diminishing the national budget for many programs such as campus ministry and leaving them to mostly fend for themselves at local or regional levels. Thus the gathered chaplains sought to form a group to carry on the tasks of advocacy, training, support, and fellowship for those working in this ministry which had formerly been supported at the national level through the work of the CSCW and national officers. ESMHE began to take the lead along with the CSCW in identifying sites to develop new campus ministries and programs and in finding ways to increase student participation. In partnership with the Episcopal Church Foundation, ESMHE also helped provide funding for college ministers and the development of local campus ministries. On a national level, ESMHE started to create an awareness of campus ministry as an important mission of the Church. In 1973, ESMHE created a quarterly publication, Plumbline, to promote and support the work of college ministry as well as provide a place to encourage social activism. ESMHE was also instrumental in reviving annual national student gatherings and higher education ministries conferences, which had been active during the time of the National Student Council.101 In the 1980s ESMHE helped to reestablish partnerships between the national church’s Young Adult and Higher Education Ministries department and the laity and clergy doing campus

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ministry around the country. In the following decade, ESMHE worked closely with the Episcopal Church Foundation to create CampuSource to help local ministries with fundraising for their projects.102 Yet by 2004, ESMHE was deemed to have “run its course” and disbanded. Some have attributed this undoing to the Society’s structure, with a Steering Committee limited in its power which had “resisted formal by-laws or any formal incorporation” until the 1990s.103 Others have noted the Society’s financial unsustainability and the fact that its most important work of providing “continuing education and collegial nurture” through annual conferences was once again being supported by the national church. 104 As ESMHE’s last president, the Rev. Sam Portaro, noted in 2004, Today the work of ministry on campus is carried out by a diverse and loosely connected society of lay and ordained; male and female; young, middle and senior adult servants, some paid and some volunteer, of diverse races on diverse campuses in diverse communities each of whom is as stretched and stressed as the next...the leadership of ESMHE determined to see these realities not as a threat but as an opportunity...We chose to die in order that we might live.105

The national church office for Ministry in Higher Education had already begun rebuilding itself and its support in the 1980s, and thus as the work of ESMHE ended it was able to refocus its efforts. As General Convention continued to commend and renew its commitment to ministries in higher education in the 1990s, this national office was able to expand its support more broadly in an effort to serve to all young adults.106 Since that time, the national Church has helped to carry on the national student conferences, and its re-organization of a student leadership team and provincial coordinators for campus ministry has allowed for continued communication and collaboration between leaders and workers in college ministry across the Church.107

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VI. Episcopal Local College Ministry Now that the history and development of college ministry by the Episcopal Church has been explored on the regional and national level, it is important to focus briefly on the work that has been and is currently being done locally, through the support of dioceses and parishes. The beginnings of ministries at the state universities of Texas, Michigan, Minnesota, and West Virginia, as well as at Brown University and the State Normal School in Valley City, N.D. (today’s Valley City State University) were presented earlier. Yet since their beginnings, many of these ministries have changed, expanded, and been reimagined in varied ways, especially as they have been effected by changes in funding, personnel and other resources. Many other college ministries have also been started at other institutions since that time, including those which early on associated with the National Student Council as Units (with a partial list provided in Appendix II). As was noted previously and seen in the initial starts and visions for college ministry by various dioceses, not all Episcopal college ministries work the same. There are five main types of college ministry that one can observe active in the Episcopal Church today, with some ministries incorporating more than one type. These include the parish model, the center or house model, the chapel model, the chaplaincy model, and student group model.

The parish model is a campus ministry program that is run out of an Episcopal parish. In this model the parish functions like any other parish, except that one of its main outreach ministries is to students at the local college or university. The rector may spend part of their time organizing and leading this ministry, or leadership for the college ministry may come from a vocational deacon, assistant priest, or lay staff member. The majority of the campus ministry

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activities take place at the church, especially worship services for the students, while others may take place on the college campus. In this setting, students often attend the regular worship of the parish, though there may also be separate worship services, activities, and meals organized specifically for the students. One example of this type of model is the Episcopal Campus Ministry at The Ohio State University run out of St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church and University Center. This ministry’s worship and activities take place at the church, and the ministry is led by the church’s vocational deacon.108 Another model is the Canterbury Christian Fellowship at West Virginia University. This ministry has been led by a lay chaplain based out of Trinity Episcopal Church, and most of the activities take place at the church.109 A third model is the Georgetown University Campus Ministry run by a lay chaplain at Grace Episcopal Church. Some activities are held at the church while weekly worship takes place in one of the university’s chapels.110 The center or house model is a campus ministry program that is run out of a campus center or house that has been set up by the diocese. Sometimes these houses or centers are affiliated with a local parish but often they stand on their own. These types of ministries are usually run by an ordained chaplain who does college ministry part-time or full-time. The majority of the campus ministry activities take place at the center or the house, which may include a chapel or oratory, or worship services may take place a local parish. Often ministries run out of a house may also provide office space or housing for the chaplain. Sometimes the ministry may also include a residential program for students who live in community together in the house and help lead the college ministry activities. One example of this model is Brent House at the University of Chicago. This ministry is led by an ordained chaplain, with worship and activities take place at the House and on campus. The ministry also supports seven residents

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who live in the house and participate in community life.111 Another example is the Episcopal Student Center at the University of Texas in Austin. The Center is connected with All Saints Episcopal Church and led by a full-time ordained chaplain. Many weekly activities take place at the Center while worship takes place at the Church.112 A third example is the Canterbury House at the University of Mary Washington. Funded by the diocese, the House is managed by Trinity Episcopal Church, whose assistant spends part of their ministry at the church as a chaplain to students at the university. Most activities and worship for the college ministry take place at the House.113 The chapel model has similarities with both the parish model and the center or house model. Uniting the best of both models, the chapel acts as a full parish, although one that was begun with the purpose of being a campus church. The chapel is led by one or more clergy who split their time between running the parish and intentionally ministering to the college or university community. All activities and worship for this ministry take place at the chapel. One example of this type of model is the Chapel of St. John the Divine at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The rector of the Chapel is also the chaplain to the University. All campus ministry activities and worship take place at the Chapel.114 A second example is St. Dunstan’s, the Episcopal Church at Auburn University which has a full congregation. The rector of St. Dunstan’s is the Episcopal chaplain to Auburn, and there are also associate clergy on the church’s staff. Campus ministry activities and worship take place at St. Dunstan’s, and the program also has a student residency program as part of its ministry.115

The chaplaincy model is the fourth type of college ministry, which involves a full-time chaplain who is employed by the university or organized as part of the university’s office of

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religious life. The chaplain usually has their office in a campus building where they meet with students. Campus ministry activities take place on the campus or the religious life building, and worship usually is led in a university chapel shared among the different ministries at the university or at a local parish. One example of this type of ministry is the Lutheran Episcopal Ministry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). In this ministry, the chaplain is a member of the MIT Religious Life office, has office space in the religious life building, and conducts worship in the MIT Chapel.116 A second example is the Episcopal chaplain at Harvard University. This chaplain is part of the Harvard Chaplains staff, but maintains his own office, and organizes student worship at a local parish.117 The final and fifth type of campus ministry model is that of the student group. Notable as one of the first and early models for campus ministry on college campuses, this model still persists today and is especially prominent at small colleges and in dioceses and local areas which are not able to support a more substantial ministry. The student group model is a fairly simple one which requires little to no funding or personnel support. Organized by students at the college or university, a student group is often officially recognized by the institution, lists student officers who run the group, and sometimes receives funding from the institution for its activities. All the group’s activities take place on the campus and worship may be done in the school’s chapel if there is one. Because there is often no regular chaplain or clergyperson associated with such a group, sacramental worship is frequently not possible, and most of the group’s activities may focus on Bible studies, fellowship, and community service. One example of this type of ministry is the Canterbury Club at Bucknell University, which “promotes spiritual growth and exploration among Episcopal students [at Bucknell] through worship, fellowship, and service.”118 Although the ministry has some connections with the local parish of St. Andrew’s,

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whose priest celebrates a weekly Eucharist for the group on campus, no official activities take place at the parish.119 A second example would be the Canterbury Club at Florida Atlantic University. The only listing for this club is on Facebook, but it appears that it may be supported by a priest from the local parish of St. Christopher’s. It is not clear what activities this group participates in.120 Another special model worth noting is the ecumenical model. Often these types of ministries are organized as a student group or through a center model. The most typical ecumenical model with the Episcopal Church is a joint Episcopal-Lutheran campus ministry, such as the one at MIT mentioned above. This type of model may have both an Episcopal and a Lutheran chaplain or one chaplain that acts for both denominations and organizes shared worship and activities for the participating students. There are over forty such Episcopal-Lutheran college ministries active today. Ecumenical models also exist with other denominations, such as the joint Episcopal-Presbyterian Westminster Canterbury Fellowship at Appalachian State University121 and the joint Episcopal-United Methodist Wesley/Canterbury Fellowship at Vanderbilt University.122 Many other colleges and universities have Protestant chaplaincies or ministries that cater to students from a range of Protestant denominations, such as Georgetown University, which has a university-supported Protestant Ministry and chaplains (unrelated to local denominational work, like that being done by Grace Episcopal Church mentioned above);123 or San Francisco State University, which has the Ecumenical House (“EcHouse Campus Ministry�), a ministry of the Episcopal Church, the United Methodist Church, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), and the United Church of Christ.124

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Overall, the Episcopal Church reports almost 575 clergy and staff involved in as many ministries to colleges and universities125 and currently lists weblinks to 161 active campus ministries for 188 institutions on its website.126 The schools represented in this list are almost all 4-year institutions, and the ministries available for the few that are 2-year colleges is that done by the local 4-year institutions nearby. Yet out of a total of almost 4400 4-year colleges in the United States today, these ministries affect barely over 4% of them. Of the college ministries listed, however, comparing them to the schools in the major Division I athletic conferences, the ACC, Big 10, Big 12, Conference USA, Ivy League, Pac-10, and SEC conference schools are well represented by Episcopal campus ministries, while the Big East, MAC, Mountain West, Sun Belt, and WAC conference schools are not being as well ministered to by Episcopal ministries. Concerning the 75 land-grant institutions, this list only reports Episcopal campus ministries on 55% of these campuses (although independent research into active Episcopal college ministries indicates it may be closer to 73%). While these lists and figures make it clear that the Episcopal Church is active in this ministry to college students, it is also clear that there is much work that can still be done in this important mission field.

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VII. Non-Episcopal College Ministry As the development of college ministry in America has been explored and followed, one has seen the working out of college ministry plans resulting in a variety of ministries with varied foci and with varied support from national groups. Many other denominations and Christian groups have been working parallel to the Episcopal Church in supporting students and young adults during their college years through such work and with the ultimate goal of the spread of the gospel and the formation of mature Christians. Therefore, before taking a look at the current state of college ministry in the Episcopal Church today or a prognosis for its future, it seems worthwhile to mention briefly how college and campus ministry work has been (and still is being) done by these other denominational and parachurch organizations in America. The Roman Catholic Church Taking a look at the Roman Catholic Church in America first, it is important to note the success of its college ministry programs, both at its own institutions of higher education as well as other private and public colleges and universities. As mentioned above, the first Newman Club was begun at the University of Pennsylvania in 1893 to minister to Catholic students. Then in 1905 Pope Pius X in his encyclical on education, Acerbo Nimis, stated that religious formation must be made available to students in secular institutions of higher learning. Out of this call, the first full-time Catholic chaplain at a state university was assigned to the University of Wisconsin in 1906, soon followed by others at Cornell University, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Texas.127 Yet this also caused Catholic colleges to fear that they would eventually lose out entirely to the secular universities if Catholic students were allowed to attend the latter. Newman Clubs, in an effect to counter such arguments, worked hard to succeed at their work, and their influence and effectiveness in promoting Catholic faith in a secular

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atmosphere grew steadily. Eventually in 1962 the National Newman Apostolate was mandated by the United States Catholic bishops to promote “the intellectual and moral development,… religious education,…apostolic formation…and responsible participation…in the Academic and Civic Community” of Catholic students on secular campuses.128 Since that time, Newman Centers and other Catholic fellowships have been well established on most college campuses across the country. Aided by a large population of Catholic students and strong support from the church’s hierarchy, Catholic campus ministry has thrived over the decades and continues to prosper today. One resource lists Catholic campus ministries on 270 American college campuses, while another reports 1700 Catholic campus ministers working in the U.S.129 The Orthodox Churches The Orthodox churches in America have similarly done successful work on college campuses, though for not as long or as widely distributed as the Roman Catholic Church. Orthodox college ministries started appearing individually on college campuses after World War II. It was not until 1965 that the Standing Conference of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas (SCOBA) created its first national ministry, the Campus Commission, to oversee and develop the local ministries. In the 1970s, however, leadership and funding changed, causing the Commission to close its ministry. Then in 1997 new efforts began to create a pan-Orthodox campus ministry organization. Finally in 2002, the Orthodox Christian Fellowship (OCF) was organized with staff, funding, and resources provided by SCOBA. Today, the OCF supports 270 local university chapters across the U.S. and Canada.130 The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America Among the Protestant churches, success in campus ministry has been varied. Lutheran college ministry in America, under the auspices of the predecessors of today’s Evangelical

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Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), began with a college pastor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, in 1907. Individual Lutheran college ministries were organized into a network called the Lutheran Student Association of America in 1922, which later became the Lutheran Student Movement, USA, in 1969. With the formation of the ELCA in 1988, campus ministry activities became located in its former Division for Higher Education and Schools, with national staff responsible for assisting its programs. Since that time, however, funding has become tighter for campus ministry, resulting in decreases in staff and resources at the national level and its restructuring under the Vocation and Education program unit. In 2004, established Lutheran campus ministries were active on more than 180 campuses and on more than other 600 campuses through cooperative campus ministries with local congregations, reaching out to over 44,000 students.131 The United Methodist Church The United Methodist Church (UMC) traces its roots back to a college ministry of sorts, the Holy Club begun by John Wesley on the campus of Kings College at Oxford University in 1729. In the United Methodist Church in America, college ministry began with the establishment of the first Wesley Foundation at the University of Illinois in 1913. Since that time, Wesley Foundations have been established on many public and private campuses to extend the work of the UMC in higher education. The Methodist Student Movement operated conferences for Methodist students from 1937 to 1965. In 1989, the Student Forum was established by the denomination as an annual student-led conference for leadership development and to provide connection to the national church. The United Methodist Student Movement was then formed out of the Student Forum in 1996 to act as a network, linking Methodist students across the country and the world. The Student Forum and United Methodist Student Movement

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are both organized by the Division of Higher Education of the General Board of Higher Education and Ministry, which coordinates and enlivens the denomination’s mission in higher education nationally and internationally.132 The denomination also supports the United Methodist Campus Ministry Association, a national professional association of campus ministers serving college campuses on behalf of the UMC, which was begun in 2005 taking over the work of the previous United Methodists in Campus Ministry organization.133 On a local level, the UMC encourages each congregation to select a person to coordinate a program in ministry in higher education. Similarly on the regional level, each annual conference also has a Board of Higher Education and Campus Ministry or an equivalent which supports local churches in this work as well as works directly with schools, colleges, and campus ministries.134 The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), or PC(USA), had around 825 campus ministries and college chaplaincies at institutions of higher education around the country as well as 1,880 congregations with programs of ministry to college students other than their own members in 1999.135 PC(USA) has also established national groups to support higher education ministry, such as the Higher Education Ministry Fund, to assist higher education ministry “with projects and programs that cannot be financed in the regular operating budget of the denomination’s office responsible for this area of the Church’s mission.” The Presbyterian Collegiate Connection “provides a national forum for collegiates to voice their views about and to the church, conducts its national leadership conferences, [and] works with ecumenical partners to conduct periodic national student conferences,” among other initiatives. PC(USA) also supports the Presbyterian College Chaplains Association and the Presbyterian Ministers in Higher Education, which are both professional associations for those working in college ministries.136

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Judaism Outside of Christianity, the Jewish faith has also been successful in organizing ministry for its students in higher education. The roots of the Hillel Foundation were planted at the University of Illinois in 1923 by a rabbi concerned with the plight of Jewish students in secular universities. Through the gathering support and funding from B’nai B’rith International, Hillel Foundations were established at numerous public universities during the following decades. Post-World War II, Hillel continued to grow and expand its efforts at college campuses throughout the 1950s and ’60s. The ’70s and ’80s, however, brought cutbacks to Hillel’s budget and some programs and financial aid to students fell by the wayside, to the point that the future of the national organization was uncertain in 1988. With the hiring of a new director to revitalize the organization, Hillel became strengthened and renewed. In 1994, an independent, non-profit organization, Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, was created along with a Board of Directors to oversee its work. The Jewish Campus Service Corps was also launched to put recent college graduates as Fellows on campuses “to engage uninvolved Jewish students.” Today there are more than 600 Hillel professionals working with Jewish students at more than 550 colleges and universities.137 Outside of denominational bodies, a number of parachurch organizations have also been successful in ministering to college students. While in some ways following in the footsteps of organizations like the YMCA, YWCA, and the World Student Christian Federation, these ministries grew out of evangelical movements in the Church. The three main parachurch organizations that will be considered include InterVarsity Christian Fellowship, Navigators, and Campus Crusade for Christ.

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InterVarsity Christian Fellowship The InterVarsity Christian Fellowship (IVCF) started at the University of Cambridge, England, in 1877, growing out of a group of students who were meeting to pray, study the Bible, and witness to other students. The organization expanded to Canada in 1928. As students began organizing independent evangelical student groups at colleges in the United States, the Canadian director then helped to found the first American chapter of InterVarsity at the University of Michigan in 1938. In the May of 1941 InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA became an official organization.138 IVCF has continued to expand its programs and outreach across the nation’s colleges and universities ever since. The vision of IVCF is “to see students and faculty transformed, campuses renewed, and world changers developed.”139 In 2009, IVCF reported 870 field staff working with almost 860 chapters on more than 560 college campuses with over 35,000 students and faculty.140

The Navigators The Navigators’ organization was started by Dawson Trotman as a ministry to sailors and soldiers in 1933. As the organization grew and expanded its ministry from the military to other sectors of American life and abroad, it started a ministry to college students. The first collegiate chapter of Navigators was begun at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1958 by LeRoy Eims.141 Navigators college ministry works to be “a dynamic place where college students from all walks of life can grow deeper in Christ, study and learn from the Bible, and communicate their faith to others” in an effort “to know Christ and to make Him known.” This work is done primarily “through Bible study and personal mentoring and discipleship,” as well as weekly meetings, conferences, and summer training programs. Navigators reports almost 600 staff working on 100 college and university campuses across the United States. There is also a college volunteer ministry, NavFusion, of almost 100 staff who serve an additional 62 campuses,

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and a group of recent college graduates developed for ministry to students called the EDGE Corps.142 Campus Crusade for Christ Campus Crusade for Christ (CCC) was established by Bill and Vonette Bright on the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) campus in 1951. CCC gives its mission as turning “lost students into Christ centered laborers” through “sharing the gospel with others, going on a short-term missions trip, or joining a ministry full-time to help reach others for Christ.”143 The ministry continued to expand to 40 campuses during the 1960s as well as internationally.144 Today, CCC reports over 25,000 staff working in 191 countries. In the United State, there are over 3,400 staff serving over 1,430 movements on over 1,060 campuses with more than 50,000 students involved in its programs.145 By 2010, Campus Crusade for Christ, International had planned to “increase evangelistic exposures to 25 million worldwide annually; equip 200,000 involved students each year to share their faith and disciple others on campus, in the community and around the world; and plant 3,770 new ministries.”146 It is important to note that even amidst all of these programs and initiatives by these various Christian denominations and parachurch organizations, there is still plenty of work to be done by the Church in ministering to and supporting students and young adults during their college years. As one report has noted, “all the efforts the campus ministries, chaplaincies, and campus ministry congregations of our church and its primary ecumenical partners plus the additional numbers of students served by Campus Crusade for Christ, International and InterVarsity Christian Fellowship still involve less than .009% of the nearly 12,500,000 undergraduate students in our nation’s colleges and universities. The fields are ripe unto

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harvest. (John 4:35)�147 Thus it seems appropriate in considering all the work that has been and is currently being done to discern how future progress can be made in the project of campus ministry.

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VIII. The Role of Funding in College Ministry As we return now to the work of the Episcopal Church in continuing in this important and much-needed work, it is worth reflecting on how this ministry has changed in many ways over the years, and how funding has effected and led many of those changes. College ministry has moved since its beginning from being primarily in the context of denominational colleges to now being mostly focused at public and private, non-Episcopal institutions. Like the original Episcopal colleges, this college ministry is still mostly organized and supported by diocesan and local church groups, although the national Church office has continued to try to find ways to support and fund aspects of this ministry, encourage connections and communication between students and leaders working in college ministry, and provide help with advocacy and oversight at the national level. One determinant of the success of college ministry in the Episcopal Church (as well as all the other denominations) has always been financial support. Another has been personnel support. These two factors have been the most important in determining the uniformity and constancy of college ministry across the Church. Programs that have been supported by generous diocesan resources and funding, as well as experienced, full-time staff have consistently been able to succeed well beyond those of programs without these types of diocesan or local support. For example, Brent House at the University of Chicago has thrived with consistent diocesan financial support and full-time leadership experienced at growing and nurturing a successful ministry to a campus of 15,000 students and expanded financial support from varied sources, including alumni/ae and congregations; while St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church in Columbus, Ohio, has struggled to secure diocesan funding and support its priest and

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deacon in college ministry work at The Ohio State University, which has consistently been the nation’s largest campus for three of the past five years, with over 55,000 students.148 One possible reason for this inconsistent support for college ministry across the Church may be because the Church views its primary ministry as one focused on the parish. Certainly parish ministry is the place where churches have traditionally placed much of their money, resources, and personnel. Parish ministry tends to pay for and sustain itself through its members’ financial contributions, financing its leaders and the work it is doing as well as contributing money to its larger regional and national bodies. Because of parishes’ finances, they are then able to provide ministry in many ways locally and internationally, as well as raise up and support leaders among their ranks, who are then able to have an important impact in the community at large as well as the church at large. This situation is different for college ministries. These ministries are often not able to support themselves financially. Like other non-parochial ministries, those being served by these types of ministries are less able to financially support or autonomously sustain them.149 This is mostly due to the fact that the majority of their members (i.e., college students) are not in a place in their lives where they are able to make substantial financial contributions to the work of the ministry. Because college students tend to be young adults right out of high school, they have not had the time or opportunity yet to earn substantial money to support outside endeavors that are important to them. As well, whatever money they have saved or may be earning is being directed toward their education. For this reason, college ministries tend to require funding by their local, regional, or national bodies that they are not able to pay back. In the Episcopal Church, this has meant that most college ministries are founded and funded by local parishes or dioceses. Some of these ministries, like Procter House, the headquarters for the Episcopal

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ministry at Princeton University, are supported by endowments that have been established for this purpose,150 while others receive regular (or irregular) funding and support from local parishes or the diocesan budget, and still others rely on the contributions of alumni to keep the ministry going. Ideally, college ministries are supported by a combination of these sources. As noted above, because college ministries often rely on external funding from local and regional bodies, the quality and quantity of their support can change based on other issues that are affecting the local, regional, or even national church bodies. In the Episcopal Church, if the national church or the diocese or even individual parishes themselves decide to change their priorities for ministry—and often these are top-down changes—this will often affect their budgets. This can have an immediate and drastic effect on the ministries that they support, such as college ministry. An example of this happening is the change that took place in the Episcopal Church after the General Convention of 1967, mentioned above, when Presiding Bishop John Hines initiated a Special Program (GCSP) to help respond to issues of American social injustice and lack of civil rights. As a result of this new initiative, the Executive Council of the Episcopal Church redirected much of its funding “to community organizations and grassroots efforts aimed at the urban underclass throughout the United States.”151 Dioceses and local churches soon followed suit in this new program. This then resulted in funding across the church being shifted away from mission work—part of which included college ministry—and instead put toward social justice and civil rights projects. This was the point at which the Church Society for College Work (CSCW) lost much of its financial support and had to reimagine itself, and all of the provincial college ministry coordinator positions were eliminated.152 This also led to the formation of the Episcopal Society for Ministry in Higher Education (ESMHE) by college chaplains to find new ways of carrying on their work, although not as an official body of the

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national Church. Unfortunately, ESMHE was unable to support the same type of work as the CSCW, and as a result many funding sources and national connections were weakened or lost. Rice University chaplain John Worrell has referred to this period of cutting campus ministry as the Church “eating the seed corn,” as it took away support from a ministry that was working to sustain the Church’s future.153 Similar patterns of diminished funding and cut programs can be seen in the Lutheran, Methodist, and Presbyterian Churches, whether as a result of changing funding priorities or restructuring of national bodies and leadership. After the GCSP had progressed for a number of years and leaders realized that other ministries were suffering as a result of its narrow financial focus, the Episcopal Church decided to rethink its strategy for mission and social justice ministries. At the 1976 General Convention, the Venture in Mission campaign was proposed, which would act as an elective fund-raising program for dioceses to seek proposals for ministry and then raise the money to fund them. By the end of 1985, results showed that “the 85 participating dioceses had raised more than $170 million” through this new initiative.154 This program helped the Church understand the importance and viability of grassroots fundraising and was successful in raising money for several local college ministry-related projects.155

Funding for college ministry today has also been helped by projects through the Episcopal Church Foundation (ECF), its temporary offshoot CampuSource, and especially the Lilly Endowment program. The “Ministry on the Frontier” pamphlet, published by ECF and ESMHE in 1999, reports the work done by ECF and Lilly in funding and supporting twenty chaplaincies through chaplain training conferences and the use of professional fundraising consultants, as well as providing basic training for ten other ministries.156

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Conclusion Considering the varied history of college ministry in the Episcopal and other Christian denominations, it is clear that there have been many factors which have helped and hindered the growth of this ministry. From the beginning, secularization has tested the work of the Church in creating and supporting institutions of higher education. Today secularization remains a challenge for the Church as it tries to minister to students raised in a culture more secular than that of their parents, with religion vying for their time along with many other extra-curricular pursuits and activities. As student involvement in religious services has decreased and many students have begun to identify as spiritual rather than religious (i.e., participating in “disorganized religion”157 rather than “organized religion”), the Church faces many new challenges in being relevant and effective in its work with college students. Funding and personnel have also been important aspects in the success of college ministry during its life. Funding, whether through endowments, parish or diocesan support, or other forms of annual giving, tends to have such an important effect on the quantity and quality of work that can be done on college campuses. The quality and availability of personnel is also deeply important to the quality of ministry that is able to be provided. The generous use of these forms of support in the future will more than likely dictate whether college ministry is able to survive.

Support from the national church can also play an important role in the effectiveness of college ministry and college ministers. Through the work of national staff in oversight, advocacy, communication, training, and continuing education, college ministers are able to feel personally supported in their work and connected to one another across the church. And the

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presence of an advocate at the national level helps to ensure that ministry to one of “the most important domestic mission fields” remains a priority for the Church. Lastly there is a significant role that vision has to play in determining the success of a campus ministry and the support provided for it. Certainly many denominations’ visions for college ministry have changed over the years since such ministry was begun, and denominations have not necessarily come to a general consensus about how or why such ministries should be run. This has more than likely also been responsible for inconsistent support across all levels of the Church for college ministry. As campus ministry continues in all denominations and especially in the Episcopal Church, a unified and consistent vision for this ministry needs to be carefully developed that can guide campus ministers and chaplains across the Church. As all denominations including the Episcopal Church move forward in their ministry to students and higher education, these many challenges must be met in an effort for leaders at all levels of the Church to be able to support, encourage, and advocate for this ministry. In reviewing college ministry’s history in the Episcopal Church and identifying areas for improvement, it is hoped that religious ministry in higher education can continue to thrive in the Episcopal Church throughout the 21st century.

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Appendix I: Timeline of College Ministry | 1088 Birth of the first university in Bologna, Italy. | … | 1618 Land was set aside at Henrico, Va., by the London Company to establish a university, but after an Indian massacre in 1622 the charter for the school was revoked in 1624. | 1636 New College was founded in Newtown, Mass., by the Puritans, which soon was renamed Harvard College in 1639 and became known as Harvard University in 1780. | 1693 The College of William and Mary was founded by the Rev. James Blair in Middle Plantation, Va. | 1701 The Collegiate School was chartered in Saybrook, Conn., by the Puritans, which was later renamed Yale College in 1718 and Yale University in 1887. | 1740 The Rev. George Whitefield established a charity school in Philadelphia, Penn., which later became the College of Philadelphia in 1779 and then the University of Pennsylvania in 1791. | 1746 The College of New Jersey was founded by the Presbyterians in Elizabeth, N.J., which was later moved to Princeton in 1756 and renamed Princeton University in 1896. | 1754 King’s College was granted a charter by King George II of England in New York City. It later became Columbia College in 1784 and then Columbia University in 1896. | 1764 The College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations was founded by the Baptists in Providence, R.I., and later was renamed Brown University in 1804. | 1766 Queen’s College was founded by the Dutch Reformed Church in New Brunswick, N.J., which was later renamed Rutgers College in 1825 and Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey in 1924. | 1769 Dartmouth College was founded in Hanover, N.H., by the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister.

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| 1785 The University of Georgia was incorporated by the Georgia General Assembly in Athens, Ga., one of the first state public universities. | 1789 The University of North Carolina was chartered by the North Carolina General Assembly in Chapel Hill, N.C., another of the first state public universities. | 1822 Geneva College was founded by Episcopal Bishop John Henry Hobart of New York in Geneva, N.Y., later being renamed Hobart College in 1852 and then became Hobart & William Smith Colleges in 1943. | 1823 Washington College was founded by Episcopal Bishop Thomas Church Bronwell of Connecticut in Hartford, Conn. It was later renamed Trinity College in 1845. | 1824 The Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Ohio was founded by Episcopal Bishop Philander Chase in Worthington, Ohio. It later moved to Gambier in 1828 and became Kenyon College and Bexley Hall Theological Seminary. | 1842 Saint Mary’s School is founded in Raleigh, N.C., on the site of the former North Carolina Episcopal School for Boys. The school becomes a junior college in 1927, is renamed Saint Mary’s College in 1972, and reverts back to being a high school in 1998. | 1844 The Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was formed in London, England, by George Williams. | 1851 The YMCA was established in the United States in Boston, Mass. St. John’s University began in Shanghai, China, as an institution for boys, founded by Episcopal Missionary Bishop Samuel Isaac Schereschewsky. St. John’s College opened in 1879 and became a university in 1905. It was later broken up into other institutions by the Communist government in 1952.

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| 1855 The Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) was begun by Lady Mary Jane Kinnaird and Miss Emma Robarts in London, England. | 1857 The University of the South was founded by Episcopal Bishops James Hervey Otey of Tennessee, Leonidas Polk of Louisiana, and Stephen Elliott of Georgia in Sewanee, Tenn. | 1858 The YWCA USA was founded in New York City. | 1860 St. Stephen’s College was chartered in Annandale-on-Hudson, N.Y., by Episcopal Bishop Horatio Potter of New York as a church school to prepare young men for entrance to the General Theological Seminary. It was later renamed Bard College in 1934. | 1865 The Bishop Seabury Association was founded at Brown University. | 1867 Saint Augustine’s Normal School and Collegiate Institute in Raleigh, N.C., was founded by Joseph Brinton Smith, executive director of the Freedman’s Commission of the Episcopal Church, as a teaching and ethical school for freed blacks. It was later renamed Saint Augustine’s College in 1921. The Rector of Trinity Church in Princeton, N.J., began an active campus ministry to Princeton University out of the parish, which later established the St. Paul’s Society in 1875. | 1869 The Berkeley Association at Yale University was established as a chaplaincy for Episcopal students. | 1871 Bishop Boone Memorial School opened in September 1871 in Wuchang, China, named after Bishop William Jones Boone, the first Episcopal bishop of China. It became Boone College in 1905. | 1874 Professor Charles Babcock, an Episcopal priest, holds services in Sage Chapel and Barnes Hall on the Cornell University campus for a group of Episcopal students known as St. Paul’s. | 1877 InterVarsity Christian Fellowship began at the University of Cambridge, England. A student department of the YMCA was formed to direct efforts more specifically toward Christian work on college and university campuses.

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| 1883 Catholic students at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wis., began meeting as the Melvin Club. | 1885 The Hobart Guild of the University of Michigan and Hobart Hall were established by Bishop Samuel Smith Harris of Michigan to minister to students at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Mich. | 1886 The Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions was formed by Robert Wilder out of a Bible conference at Mt. Hermon School in Massachusetts. | 1888 Bishop Clarkson School of Nursing was founded in Omaha, Neb., later being renamed Clarkson College in 1992. | 1888 Saint Paul’s Normal and Industrial School was founded by the Rev. James Solomon Russell in Lawrenceville, Va., as a teaching college for blacks. It later became Saint Paul’s College in 1957. | 1889 The Hoffman Institute was founded in Harper, Liberia, by Bishop Samuel David Ferguson. In 1897 it added a divinity school and changed its name to Cuttington Collegiate and Divinity School in honor of its first donor, R. Fulton Cutting. It became Cuttington University College in 1976. | 1890 The first Newman Club was begun at the University of Pennsylvania by a graduate of the Melvin Club. | 1894 Students from the Maryland Agricultural College self-organized and attended church services sponsored by the new faith community at St. Andrew’s Church in College Park, Md. | 1895 The World Student Christian Federation was formed at a meeting of student leaders from ten North American and European countries at Vadstena Castle in Sweden. | 1897 The Denmark Industrial School is founded by Miss Elizabeth Evelyn Wright in Denmark, S.C., as a school for blacks. The Dioceses of South Carolina and Upper South Carolina began supporting the school in 1924. It was later renamed Vorhees College in 1963 after one of its benefactors. | 1900s The Church Hall girls home is established at the State Normal School in Valley City, N.D.

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| 1900 St. Mary’s Chapel was dedicated by Bishop Joseph Blount Cheshire of North Carolina as an outreach project of St. Andrew’s, Greensboro, N.C., for students on the campuses of State Normal and Greensboro Colleges. | 1906 The Bishop Gilbert Society was organized at the University of Minnesota, later being renamed as “The University House.” | 1907 The Episcopal Hall dormitory was established at West Virginia University in Morgantown, W.Va., by the Diocese of West Virginia. The first church-based campus center or student foundation was organized by the Methodist Church at the University of Illinois in Champaign, Ill. The first Lutheran campus ministry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison was established by the Rev. Howard Gold. | 1907 Bishop Robert Gibson of Virginia established the Episcopal Church at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Va. | 1908 The Leonard Hall dormitory was established at Lehigh University in Bethlehem, Penn., by the Diocese of Central Pennsylvania. | 1909 The Episcopal Church’s Board of Missions appointed the Rev. John J. Gravatt, Jr. as traveling student secretary and Deaconess H. R. Goodwin for student work at women’s colleges in the East. Gravatt served in his position till 1911 and Goodwin served till 1920. | 1910 The Episcopal Church created a General Board of Religious Education, assigned with responsibility for work in the colleges. The “Sunday Club” was established at the University of Texas in Austin, Tex. | 1913 The Episcopal Church’s General Convention created a Department of Collegiate Education, initially directed by the Rev. Stanley S. Kilbourne. The first Wesley Foundation was established at the University of Illinois in Champaign, Ill., by the Methodist Episcopal Church.

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| 1918 The National Student Council and the first Canterbury Clubs were formed. 16 campus ministries initially joined the National Student Council. | 1919 General Convention reorganized the national Episcopal Church and established the National Council. The Rev. William McDowell began his ministry as a Student Inquirer at Auburn University in Auburn, Ala., and started the St. Paul’s Club for students. | 1920s The Commission on College and University Work oversaw the training and appointment of the first “Student Inquirers” (priests who served as chaplains). Women’s campus ministry was funded by the Women’s Auxiliary. | 1920 The Department of Religious Education was established by National Council, which then established the Commission on College and University Work. | 1922 St. Hilda’s women’s dormitory at The Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, was created by the Diocese of Southern Ohio for Episcopal Church girls attending the university. The Lutheran Student Association of America was formed. | 1923 The Rev. Ronald Woods Taylor, vicar of St. Andrew’s College Park, was appointed as the first chaplain on the campus of the University of Maryland by the University President, and is given a desk at the college so he might be in closer contact with students. | 1923 Hillel is founded by Rabbi Benjamin Frankel in Champaign, Ill., to support Jewish students at the University of Illinois. | 1924 The Commission on Student Work was established by the National Council. The Canterbury Club network had grown to 73 units. | 1928 Gamma Delta was formed and sponsored by the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. | 1930 Friendly Hall, a fellowship hall, was established at St. Paul’s Episcopal Church in Greenville, N.C., and furnished by the Diocese of East Carolina to expand the work among students of East Carolina College.

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| 1933 The Navigators organization is started by Dawson Trotman as a ministry to sailors and soldiers. | 1935 The Church Society for College Work was formed by the National Council. | 1937 The first provincial conferences were held for church workers with the Division of College Work staff in Province IV. | 1938 The Division of College Work became the Division of College Work and Youth, separate from the Department of Religious Education, which was renamed the Department of Christian Education. The first American chapter of InterVarsity Christian Fellowship is started at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Mich. | Early 1940s Student leaders of the Canterbury Clubs began to press for a more organized national association, with 175 units joining the National Association of Canterbury Clubs. There were 65,000 Episcopal students active in clubs across the country. | 1941 InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA became an official organization. | 1947 The International Fellowship of Evangelical Students was founded in a meeting at Harvard University. | 1948 The National Association of College and University Chaplains was founded in 1948 at a conference convened by Clarence Shedd and Sidney Lovett at Yale University. | 1951 Campus Crusade for Christ was established by Bill and Vonette Bright on the UCLA campus. | 1953 The first Chi Alpha campus group is formed by Calvin Holsinger as a ministry of the Assemblies of God Church at Southwest Missouri State University in Springfield, Mo. | 1954 The Fellowship of Christian Athletes is founded by Don McClanen, the athletic director and basketball coach at Eastern A&M College in Wilburton, Okla.

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| 1958 The first collegiate chapter of the Navigators was founded at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln by LeRoy Eims. | 1959 The Episcopal Center at the University of Georgia was established as an outreach arm of Emmanuel, Athens, Ga.. | 1962 The Fund for Episcopal Colleges was established at the Episcopal Church Center “to provide a framework for cooperative endeavor, to strengthen the member colleges and their programs, and to foster the intellectual and spiritual values implicit in their founding.� | 1963 Trinity College of Quezon City was founded in the Philippines by the Philippine Episcopal Church and the Philippine Independent Church, named after Trinity College in Hartford, Conn. In 2006 it became a university and changed its name to Trinity University of Asia. | The Muslim Student Association was established by a conference of Muslim students meeting at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Ill. | 1964 The National Campus Ministry Association is founded at St. Louis, Mo., formed by a merger of the Association of Presbyterian University Pastors, the Campus Ministry Association, the Fellowship of Campus Ministry, and the National Association of College and University Ministers. | 1965 The Standing Conference of Canonical Orthodox Bishops in the Americas created its first national ministry, the Campus Commission, to oversee and coordinate developing local Orthodox student fellowships. When funding was discontinued, the Campus Commission closed in 1973. The Intercollegiate Pentecostal Conference International was founded as the United Pentecostal Association at Howard University in Washington, D.C., becoming a national campus ministry in 1969, and a national information research center for Pentecostal campus ministers in 1975. | 1966 The Fund for Episcopal Colleges was renamed the Association of Episcopal Colleges. Students from several religious bodies voted to form the University Christian Movement which united students from Catholic, Quaker, Orthodox, YMCA, Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, and United Campus Christian Federation organizations.

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| 1967 Presiding Bishop John Hines and the General Convention created the General Convention Special Program which caused most national funding for campus ministry (and many other programs) to be diverted to social interventions in racial and economic injustice. | 1968 The Department of Christian Education was closed by the National Council. The Episcopal Society for Ministry in Higher Education was formed by Episcopal college ministers at a meeting at Northwestern University and Seabury-Western Theological Seminary in Evanston, Ill. | 1969 The Lutheran Student Movement-USA was formed out of the Lutheran Student Association of America. | 1973 The Church Society for College Work was disbanded. In its place was created the ecumenical National Institute for Campus Ministry (NICM), which developed on a national ecumenical level all the programs that CSCW had been doing on a denominational level. Plumbline, the journal of ministry in higher education was started by ESMHE. | 1976 The Venture in Mission campaign was initiated by General Convention to raise money for mission and ministry projects, and had raised over $170 million by 1985. | 1980 St. Augustine College was founded by the Rev. Carlos Alberto Plazas in Chicago, Ill., for students of Hispanic descent. | 1983 The Association for Religion and Intellectual Life was born by the CSCW Board because NICM had failed after a 10-year try. | 1987 The Lutheran Student Fellowship was established by the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod. | 1992 The United Methodists in Campus Ministry organization was started. | 1991 General Convention affirmed the importance of young adults in the life of the Church and commended the work of ministers in higher education.

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| 1993 The Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion (CUAC) was inaugurated in Canterbury, England, as conceived by the Association of Episcopal Colleges. | 1997 General Convention renewed its commitment to ministry in higher education. | 2002 The Orthodox Christian Fellowship was established to support Orthodox campus ministry. | 2003 CampuSource was established as a separate entity from the Episcopal Church Foundation (ECF), but later reincorporated under ECF in 2006. General Convention affirmed the work of campus ministry. | 2004 The Episcopal Society for Ministry in Higher Education (ESMHE) was disbanded. The Presbyterian Association for Collegiate and Higher Education Ministries was founded by The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). | 2005 The United Methodist Campus Ministry Association was founded in Baltimore, Md., from United Methodists in Campus Ministry. | 2006 General Convention affirmed the importance of college and university ministries. | 2009 General Convention commended the current work of the Church in young adult ministry. | ?

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Appendix II: Units of the National Student Council158 1. St. Mark’s Society of the University of Chicago (1918) 2. St. Francis Society of the University of Wisconsin (1918) 3. Smith College Unit (1919) 4. Episcopal Club at Syracuse University (1919) 5. Unit of Hunter College (1919) 6. S. Hilda’s Guild of Ohio State University (1919) 7. Abbess Hilda Guild/St. Hilda’s Guild of Cornell University (1919)159 8. Chapel Club of the University of Illinois (1919) 9. Church Students of Iowa State College (1919) 10. Morrison Club of the University of Iowa (1919) 11. St. Paul’s Society of Princeton University (1919) 12. Brotherhood of St. Andrew’s of the University of Virginia (1919) 13. St. Mark’s Society of the University of California (1919) 14. Episcopal Church Committee of the Christian Association of the University of Pennsylvania (1919) 15. Berkeley Association of Yale University (1919) 16. Churchmen’s Club of the University of North Carolina (1919) 17. Chinese Episcopal Club of New York City (1920) 18. St. Paul’s Union, University of South Dakota (1920) 19. St. Paul’s Society, Lehigh University (1920) 20. Patton Club, State University of Washington (1920) 21. Sunday Club, University of Texas (1920) 22. Cranmer Club, Rice Institute (1920) 23. College Woman’s Auxiliary, Florida State College for Women (1920) 24. St. Paul’s Club, Auburn Polytechnic Institute (1920) 25. St. Hilda’s Guild, University of Vermont (1920) 26. Episcopalian Club, University of Nebraska (1920) 27. Altar Guild/Advisory Council, Wells College (1920)159 28. Episcopal Student Organization, Goucher College (1920) 29. Associated Episcopalian Students, University of Idaho (1920) 30. St. Paul’s Society, South Dakota State College (1920) 31. St. Hilda’s Guild, Wellesley College (1921) 32. St. Catherine’s Club, Mississippi State College for women (1921) 33. St. Andrew’s Club, Kansas State Teachers’ College, and Emporia College (1921) 34. Thurston Club, University of Oklahoma (1921) 35. Episcopal Club, University of Maryland (1921) 36. St. Andrew’s Club, Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College (1921) 37. Episcopal Normal Study Club, St. Cloud Normal School (1921) 38. Daughters of the Holy Name, Baylor Female College (1921) 39. Episcopal Students’ Club, Southwestern University (1921) 40. Episcopal Club, Texas College of Industrial Arts (1921) 41. Episcopal Club, Georgia School of Technology (1921) 42. Canterbury Club, New York State College (1921) 43. Trinity Club, Oxford, Ohio, Miami University, Oxford College, and Western College (1921) 44. Episcopal Club, University of Southern California (1921)

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45. St. Agnes’ Guild, Agnes Scott College (1921) 46. St. James’ Club, Louisiana State University (1921) 47. Bishop Greer Club, University of West Virginia (1921) 48. The Episcopal Club, State University of Montana (1922) 49. Nevada Trinity Club, University of Nevada (1922) 50. St. Mary’s Guild, North Carolina College for Women (1922)159 51. Episcopal Club, University of Wyoming (1922) 52. St. Augustine’s Club, St. John’s College and the Colorado State Teachers’ College (1922) 53. Episcopal Club, Shorter College (1922) 54. Stevens Club, Southern Branch of the University of California (1922) 55. Episcopal Student’s Club, Whitman College (1922) 56. Episcopal Club, Geneseo Normal School (1922) 57. The University of Arkansas (1923) 58. The Women’s College of Brown University (1923) 59. Elmira College (1923) 60. Geneseo Normal School (1923) [see 56] 61. St. Paul’s Society, Harvard University (1923) 62. Middlebury College (1923) 63. University of Michigan (1923) 64. Oregon Agricultural College (1923) 65. Virginia Military Institute (1923) 66. Virginia Polytechnic Institute (1923) 67. Washington and Lee University (1923) 68. Washington State College (1923) 69. Whitman College (1923) [see 55] 70. North Carolina State College (1923) 71. The University of Oregon (1923) 72. Holy Trinity Social Club, Clemson College (1924) 73. Episcopal Students’ Club, Mississippi A&M College (1924) 74. Winthrop Episcopal Sunday School Class, Winthrop College (1924) 75. The Trinity Club, State Teachers’ College, San Jose, Calif. (1924) 76. The Wise Club, Kansas State Agricultural College (1924) 77. Episcopal Committee, Huron College (1924) 78. Johns Hopkins Episcopal Club, Johns Hopkins University (1925) 79. Episcopal Club, George Washington University (1925) 80. Kemper Club, Northwestern University (1925) 81. The University of the South (1925) 82. Bishop Morrison Society, Minnesota State Teachers College161

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Appendix III: The Church Society for College Work Ten-Year Plan for College Work162 This 13-point plan was developed by the Church Society for College Work in 1941. I. The National Commission and the Commission in each Province and Diocese on College Work should gradually assume responsibility and take full leadership. In this, the Church Society for College Work will help. II. A comprehensive picture must be gathered and kept current of the posts from which, in each college town, the work can be done. III. An adequate personnel file must be developed and made available to vestries in order to make Bishops and others responsible for filling vacancies in college towns. IV. The same thing will be done for women workers. Here the problem differs slightly because there are many losses due to marriage, and because a shift must be made in college towns from women trained in Religious Education and Social Service to those trained in Theology and Pastoral Care. V. The Church Society for College Work will raise current expenses and endowment for college work. VI. Local workers on a campus must have financial resources apart from what the nearby parishioners can give. VII. Behind all these practical results and preceding them, there must be a steady education of the Church through every avenue of publicity from The Review through all the Church journals, up to the Sunday newspapers' Magazine Section and the secular press generally. VIII. One essential factor in any advance will be more young men offering themselves for the ministry. Spiritual leadership requires spiritual leaders and someone must work directly at the task of enlisting them. IX. No advance is possible for the Church in the colleges without the seminaries. X. There will be an Annual Week of Prayer and Study held in every Province so as to be convenient to every interested clergyman and layman. Fellowship and interchange of ideas is essential for scattered college workers. Attending one conference is better than reading ten pamphlets. Above all, meetings must be rooted in prayer. A retreat will usually be part of each such week. XI. The details of how to do the work and an understanding of its organizational problems must be taught to a wider group.

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XII. The hundreds of Episcopal student clubs in the colleges of the country quite generally want to be gathered into a national organization. These will be called Canterbury Clubs and will be the undergraduate section of the Church Society for College Work working in collaboration with the Student Christian Movement and other ecumenical efforts. They will translate college solidarity into Church loyalty and provide a natural transition for continuing the religious interest of student days into one very active phase of adult Church life, namely, the college work. XIII. We have always believed that the heart of the college work was prayer and have been feeling our way toward some kind of devotional society within the larger framework of the total effort. This inner group will live by a Rule of Life which will be strictly administered and will foster retreats and conferences on personal religion. The Secretary for College Work under the Presiding Bishop will be the spiritual head of the Society. Though mentioned last in this list, its fostering is really our chief concern, for the ten years forward in service to which we are called by the Presiding Bishop.

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Endnotes * The Latin phrase of the title means “for Christ through the Church,” and was the motto of the Church Society for College Work. 1. Home Department, Division of College, Journal of the General Convention (Hammond: W.B. Conkey Company, 1949), 460; quoted in Sam Portaro & Gary Peluso, Inquiring and Discerning Hearts (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993), 14. The Rt. Rev. Roger Blanchard, former Bishop of Southern Ohio, has also been quoted as saying that “the college campus is the most important domestic field in the church,” from a statement he made at a regional conference of chaplains at Amherst, Mass., in November, 1978. This quote appears on the inside cover of Gurdon Brewster, Ministry on the Frontier: The Contribution of Episcopal Campus Ministry to the Present and Future Church (New York: Episcopal Church Foundation, 1999); it was originally quoted in David A. Ames & Scott I. Paradise, “The Episcopal Church in Higher Education” Plumbline (May 1981): 8, and explained in footnote 16 on page 10. 2. All Biblical quotations are taken from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible. 3. Christopher J. Lucas, American Higher Education: A History (New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1996), 37. 4. University of Bologna, “Our History,” http://www.eng.unibo.it/PortaleEn/University/ Our+History/default.htm (accessed April 19, 2010). 5. Lucas, 38. 6. Lucas, 90. 7. Conrad Cherry, Betty A. DeBerg & Amanda Porterfield. Religion on Campus (Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 1. 8. Cherry et al., 1. 9. Cherry et al., 1. 10. Mrs. Augustus Trowbridge discusses the lack of morals in youth along with their pursuit of truth and feelings of spirituality in Church Congress in the United States. The Influence of the Church on Modern Problems: Papers by Various Writers Read at the Church Congress in 1922 (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1922), 10. 11. 30 years of data from the annual Freshman Survey are analyzed in Cassandra E. Harper, Jennifer R. Keup & Beth Brewer. “Using 30 Years of Institutional Data to Discover Critical Trends Among Freshmen.” The Journal of College Orientation and Transition. Vol. 15, No. 1 (Fall 2007): 49. (Accessed online at http://www.sairo.ucla.edu/data/NODA Article.pdf on May 14, 2010.); see also the analysis of the 2004 Freshman Survey in Shaena Engle, “Freshman survey shows rise in political interest” (01-26-2004) from UC Newsroom. (Accessed online at http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/6065 on May 14, 2010.) 12. Shaena Engle, “Freshman survey shows rise in political interest.” 13. George M. Marsden, “The Soul of the University,” in George M. Marsden & Bradley J. Longfield, eds., The Secularization of the Academy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 16, 21, 25, 33, 37; quoted in Cherry et al., 3. 14. Douglas Sloan, Faith and Knowledge: Mainline Protestantism and American Higher Education (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 19-22; quoted in Cherry et al., 3. 15. James T. Burtchaell, The Dying of the Light: The Disengagement of Colleges and Universities from Their Christian Churches (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1998), xi, 842; quoted in Cherry et al., 4.

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16. Cherry et al., 294-295. 17. Lucas, 104; The Harvard Guide, “The Early History of Harvard University,” http://www.news.harvard.edu/guide/intro/index.html (accessed April 19, 2010). 18. The Henrico settlement was established by the London Company as a suitable place to found a university in the Virginia Colony, and they set aside 10,000 acres for the “Colledge of Henricus.” George Thorpe was sent from England to supervise the construction, and the rector of the Henrico parish, the Rev. Thomas Bargrave, donated his library for the school. As the settlement prospered, its relations with the Native Americans grew more strained. On March 22, 1622, Chief Openchancanough and his Indians killed Thorpe and about 400 colonists, destroying the city. The Virginia Company sent directives for work to resume on the college, but after several efforts and lack of public support in Virginia these attempts failed. As a result, the charter for the university was revoked on June 16, 1624. More information can be found in Thomas Hunt & James C. Carper, eds., Religious Higher Education in the United States: A Source Book (New York: Garland Publishing, 1996), 254; or at Henricus Historical Park, “Henricus Colledge 1619,” http://www.henricus.org/aboutus/henricus-colledge.asp (accessed April 19, 2010). 19. Hunt & Carper, 269; The College of William & Mary, “History & Traditions,” http://www.wm.edu/about/history/index.php (accessed April 19, 2010); Robert W. Prichard, A History of the Episcopal Church (Revised Edition) (Harrisburg, Pa.: Morehouse Publishing, 1999), 28. 20. Lucas, 117. 21. Lucas, 117. 22. Lucas, 146. 23. Lucas, 146 24. Lucas, 148. 25. Lucas, 119. 26. Lucas, 154. 27. Coeducation began at land-grant colleges and state universities in the Midwest such as Iowa in 1855 and Wisconsin in 1863. By 1880 almost a third of America’s colleges and universities had some form of coeducation, increasing to almost three-quarters by the end of the 19th century. See Lucas, 156. 28. St. Mary’s College began as a school for young women “designed to furnish a thorough and excellent education equal to the best that can be obtained in the city of New York;” it became a junior college in 1954, and later reverted back to a college-preparatory school in 1998 when it closed its college program. For more information see Hunt & Carper, 265; and St. Mary’s School, “History,” http://www.sms.edu/about_sms/saint_marys_school_at_a_glance/ history/index.aspx (accessed April 19, 2010). For the church’s beliefs, see Cherry et al., 2. 29. Lucas, 158. 30. Lucas, 160. 31. Lucas, 164. 32. U.S. Department of Education, “White House Initiative on Historically Black Colleges and Universities,” http://www2.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whhbcu/edlite-index.html (accessed April 21, 2010); United Negro College Fund, “Who We Are,” http://www.uncf.org/aboutus/hbcus.asp (accessed April 19, 2010). 33. Lucas, 187.

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34. For more information see Hunt & Carper, 267; and St. Philip’s College, “St. Philip’s College History,” http://www.alamo.edu/spc/main/history.aspx (accessed April 19, 2010). 35. Lucas, 174-175. 36. Lucas, 171. 37. Prichard, 80-81; Hunt & Carper, 269-270; George M. Marsden, The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 70. 38. Hunt & Carper, 259-260; Prichard, 81. 39. Hunt & Carper, 249-250; Marsden, The Soul of the American University, 70; Prichard, 81. 40. Hunt & Carper, 268-269; The Revolutionary College Project, “First College in a New Nation,” http://revcollege.washcoll.edu/firstcollege/index.html (accessed April 19, 2010). 41. Hunt & Carper, 244-270. 42. Hunt & Carper, 256-257 and 246. 43. Hunt & Carper, 255. 44. Hunt & Carper, 265. 45. Hunt & Carper, 247; Old Schools of Sebastian County, Arkansas, “Buckner College,” http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~arsebast/schools/buckner.html (accessed April 19, 2010). 46. Hunt & Carper, 251. 47. Hunt & Carper, 268; The Rev. Dr. Donald F. Thompson, General Secretary of the Association of Episcopal Colleges, Inc., email correspondence with the author, March 3, 2010. 48. There are currently 9 Episcopal colleges compared to 27 colleges run by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America, 10 colleges run by the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, 122 colleges related to the United Methodist Church, 63 colleges run by the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 48 Southern Baptist colleges, 17 colleges of the American Baptist Church, 18 colleges run by the United Church of Christ, and 17 colleges run by the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). 49. Sewanee: The University of the South, “An Episcopal University,” http://about.sewanee.edu/episcopal (accessed April 19, 2010). 50. Don S. Armentrout & Robert Boak Slocum, eds., An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User-Friendly Reference for Episcopalians (New York: Church Publishing Incorporated, 2000), 31; Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion, “AEC Member Profiles,” http://www.cuac.org/53810_53913_ENG_HTM.htm?menupage=53912 (accessed April 19, 2010). 51. Prichard, 181. 52. Prichard, 299. 53. Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion, “AEC History and Mission,” http://www.cuac.org/53810_53914_ENG_HTM.htm?menupage=53912 (accessed April 19, 2010). 54. Clarence P. Shedd, The Church Follows Its Students (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1938), 13. 55. Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion, “AEC History and Mission,” http://www.cuac.org/53810_53914_ENG_HTM.htm?menupage=53912 (accessed April 19, 2010); The Rev. Dr. Donald F. Thompson, General Secretary of the Association of Episcopal Colleges, Inc., email correspondence with the author, March 3, 2010. 56. Colleges and Universities of the Anglican Communion, “CUAC History,” http://www.cuac.org/53810_53931_ENG_HTM.htm?menupage=53927 (accessed April 19, 2010). 57. Hunt & Carper, 257; Kenyon College, “History & Traditions,” http://www.kenyon.edu/x712.xml (accessed April 19, 2010).

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58. Hunt & Carper, 261. 59. George R. Fairbanks, History of the University of the South, at Sewanee, Tennessee, from its founding by the southern bishops, clergy and laity of the Episcopal church in 1857 to the year 1905 (Jacksonville, Fla.: The H. & W. B. Drew Company, 1905), 4 and 16. 60. Sewanee: The University of the South, “University Purpose,” http://about.sewanee.edu/purpose (accessed April 19, 2010). 61. Hunt & Carper, 266; Saint Paul’s College, “Mission of the College,” http://www.saintpauls.edu/College_History/Mission_of_the_College.html (accessed April 19, 2010). 62. In Resolution 2006-C045, it was resolved “that the 75th General Convention request the Joint Committee on Program, Budget, and Finance to restore $300,000 to the current budget to bring the funding to its original 2003 approved level, in the amount of $3,807,000” to help support the work of “the three Historically Black Colleges of The Episcopal Church: St. Augustine’s, St. Paul’s, and Voorhees.” The full resolution is accessible online at http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=2006-C045. 63. Shedd, 7-9. 64. Nina Mjagkij & Margaret Spratt, eds., Men and Women Adrift: The YMCA and the YWCA in the City. (New York: New York University Press, 1997), 3; Richard Cary Morse, History of the North American Young Men’s Christian Associations (New York: Association Press, 1913), 79. 65. Mjagkij & Spratt, 6. 66. John Whitney Evans, The Newman Movement: Roman Catholics in American Higher Education, 1883-1971 (Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1980), 9. 67. Shedd, 56-57. 68. Michael Galligan-Stierle, ed., The Gospel on Campus: A Handbook of Campus Ministry Programs and Resources (Washington, D.C.: United States Catholic Conference, 1991), 7; Evans, 18-19. 69. Armentrout & Slocum, 50. 70. The minutes of the Presbyterian General Assembly are quoted in Shedd, 14. 71. Shedd, 24. 72. From the editorial “Church Work at the University of Texas” in The Churchman, C (Sept. 18, 1909), 410, quoted in Shedd, 24. 73. Shedd, 24 74. From the editorial “The Religious Life in the Colleges” in The Churchman, XCIV (Aug. 4 , 1906), 171, quoted in Shedd, 25. 75. From the article “Religious Societies” in Martha Mitchell’s Encyclopedia Brunoniana (Providence, R.I.: Brown University Library, 1993), accessible online at http://www.brown.edu/ Administration/News_Bureau/Databases/Encyclopedia/search.php?serial=R0070. 76. Shedd, 11. 77. Internet Archive, “University Addresses”, http://www.archive.org/stream/ universityaddres00folwrich/universityaddres00folwrich_djvu.txt (accessed April 21, 2010); Internet Archive, “Dictionary of the University of Minnesota,” http://www.archive.org/stream/ dictionaryofuniv00john/dictionaryofuniv00john_djvu.txt (accessed April 21, 2010). 78. From the National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form for West Virginia University’s Neo-Classical Revival Buildings, page 11 of the PDF file found online at http://www.wvculture.org/shpo/nr/pdf/monongalia/64000968.pdf (accessed on April 21, 2010); West Virginia State Department of Education, The History of Education in West Virginia (Charleston, W.V.: The Tribune Printing Company, 1907), 60

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79. George W. Peterkin, A History and Record of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of West Virginia, and, Before the Formation of the Diocese in 1878, in the Territory Now Known as the State of West Virginia (Charleston, WV: The Tribune Company, Printers, 1902), 691-692. 80. The Living Church Annual and Whittaker’s Churchman’s Almanac: A Church Cyclopedia and Almanac, 1913 (Milwaukee, Wis.: The Young Churchman Co., 1913), 270, 358. 81. Shedd, 41. 82. Shedd, 42. 83. The Living Church Annual and Churchman’s Almanac: A Church Cyclopedia and Almanac, 1919 (Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1919), 81. 84. Shedd, 112. 85. The Living Church Annual and Churchman’s Almanac, 1919, 81. 86. The Living Church Annual: The Year Book of the Episcopal Church, 1942 (Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1942), 80. 87. The Living Church Annual: The Churchman’s Year Book and American Church Almanac, 1924 (Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1924), 109. 88. The Living Church Annual: The Year Book of the Episcopal Church, 1933 (Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1933), 77. 89. The Living Church Annual, 1924, 109. 90. Shedd, 112. 91. The Living Church Annual, 1933, 76. 92. The Living Church Annual, 1933, 77. 93. Shedd, 112. 94. Shedd, 113. 95. From the article “College Work as a Mission and Institutional Priority” by Jackie Schmitt, published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_51324_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 96. From the article “College Work as a Mission and Institutional Priority” by Jackie Schmitt, published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_51324_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 97. The eight points are listed in The Living Church Annual: The Year Book of the Episcopal Church, 1936 (Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1936), 80. In later years, however, points 7 and 8 were inexplicably no longer included in the list, perhaps because the vision of the CSCW had changed. At the same time, in later versions point 2 has become expanded with the words that appear in parentheses; cf. The Living Church Annual, 1942, 80. 98. From the article “College Work as a Mission and Institutional Priority” by Jackie Schmitt, published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_51324_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 99. This list appears in the article “Plans for College Work During the Next Ten Years,” originally published in The Church Review, and published online by Jackie Schmitt at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_51343_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 100. From the article “Church Society for Social Work Becomes National Institute for Campus Ministry,” by David Ames, published online by Jackie Schmitt at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/ 49065_48823_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010); ARIL’s description comes from the website for its magazine, Cross Currents, http://www.crosscurrents.org/Default.htm (accessed April 20, 2010).

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101. From the article “The Past is Prologue: Episcopal Ministry in Higher Education” by Jackie Schmitt, published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_48499_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 102. From the article “The Church Disinvests in Campus Ministry” by Jackie Schmitt, published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_49630_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 103. From the article “ESMHE” by Jackie Schmitt, published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_49560_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010). 104. The Rev. Sam A. Portaro, email correspondence with the author, May 4, 2010. 105. Quoted in “Campus ministers gather in Kentucky” by Nicole Seiferth from the Episcopal News Service (07/06/2004), accessible online at http://ecusa.anglican.org/3577_42111_ENG_ HTM.htm (accessed on April 21, 2010). 106. General Convention Resolution 1991-D116 “recognize[d] and affirm[ed] the importance of young adults, those aged 18-35, in the life and ministry of the Episcopal Church” and encouraged the “Education for Mission and Ministry Unit of the Church Center Staff…in its continuing work with young adult ministry” (accessible online at http://www.episcopalarchives.org/ cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1991-D116). Resolution 1997-B025 resolved that the General Convention “renew its historical commitment to higher education; by urging Dioceses to strengthen budgets for college chaplaincies; by working, where possible, in ecumenical relationships for chaplaincies; [and] by encouraging participation in Learning Through Service, whereby college and university students volunteer in Church-related agencies” (accessible online at http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1997-B025). 107. For more information on the current national Church’s initiatives in college ministry, visit its “Campus Ministries” website at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/109540_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed April 21, 2010) and the subpages for “Student Leadership” (http://www.episcopalchurch.org/109540_43865_ENG_HTM.htm) and “Provincial Coordinators” (http://www.episcopalchurch.org/109540_43866_ENG_HTM.htm). 108. St. Stephen’s Episcopal Church, “Episcopal Campus Ministry at The Ohio State University,” http://www.ststephens-columbus.org/campus.html (accessed April 23, 2010) 109. Trinity Episcopal Church, “College Ministry,” http://www.trinitymorgantown.org/id4.html (accessed April 23, 2010) 110. Grace Episcopal Church, “Georgetown University Campus Ministry,” http://www.gracedc.org/outreach/gucampusministry.php (accessed April 23, 2010) 111. Brent House, “Brent House,” http://brenthouse.org/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 112. Episcopal Student Center, “Episcopal Student Center,” http://www.utepiscopal.org/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 113. UMW Canterbury Club, “UMW Canterbury Club,” http://www.umwcanterbury.com/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 114. The Chapel of St. John the Divine, “The Chapel of St. John the Divine,” http://www.chapelsjd.org/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 115. St. Dunstan’s, The Episcopal Church at Auburn University, “St. Dunstan’s,” http://saintdunstans.net/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 116. Lutheran Episcopal Ministry MIT, “Lutheran Episcopal Ministry @ MIT,” http://web.mit.edu/lem/www/index.html (accessed April 23, 2010) 117. Harvard Chaplains, “Episcopal Chaplain at Harvard,” http://chaplains.harvard.edu/ chaplains/profile.php?id=1002 (accessed April 23, 2010)

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118. Bucknell University, “Canterbury Club,” http://www.bucknell.edu/x37323.xml (accessed April 23, 2010) 119. St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church, “St. Andrew’s Ministries,” http://www.standrewslbg.com/Ministries.html (accessed April 23, 2010) 120. Facebook, “Canterbury Club FAU,” http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid= 6041174514 (accessed April 23, 2010) 121. Westminster Canterbury Fellowship, “Westminster Canterbury Fellowship,” http://www.asuwcf.org/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 122. Wesley/Canterbury Fellowship, “Wesley/Canterbury Fellowship,” http://studentorgs.vanderbilt.edu/wesley/home.php (accessed April 23, 2010) 123. Protestant Ministry, “Protestant Ministry,” http://campusministry.georgetown.edu/ traditions/protestant/ (accessed April 23, 2010) 124. Ecumenical House at San Francisco State University, “Ecumenical House,” http://www.echouse.org/echouse.org/Welcome.html (accessed April 23, 2010) 125. The Episcopal Church Annual, 2009 (Harrisburg, Penn.: Morehouse Church Supplies, 2009), 55-68. 126. The Episcopal Church, “University Chaplaincies,” http://www.episcopalchurch.org/ 8020_53813_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed April 23, 2010); also see The Episcopal Church, “Find a Campus Ministry,” http://ecusa.anglican.org/109540_118178_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed April 23, 2010) (Unfortunately, at least 30 the links are currently broken.) 127. Evans, The Newman Movement, 29-30. 128. Evans, The Newman Movement, 129, quoted in Galligan-Stierle, The Gospel on Campus, 8. 129. Caltech Catholic Newman Center, “Newman Centers/Catholic Chaplaincies,” http://www.its.caltech.edu/~nmcenter/OtherNC.html (accessed on April 14, 2010); Catholic Campus Ministry Association, “About Us,” http://www.ccmanet.org/ccma.nsf/aboutus (accessed on April 14, 2010) 130. Orthodox Christian Fellowship, “About OCF,” http://www.ocf.net/about.aspx (accessed on April 21, 2010). 131. Brent Christianson, “For the Sake of Students” in Lutheran Partners March/April 2006, Vol. 22, No. 2. (Accessible online at http://www2.elca.org/lutheranpartners/archives/060304_04.html) 132. General Board of Higher Education & Ministry, “A New Generation of Christian Leaders,” http://www.gbhem.org/site/c.lsKSL3POLvF/b.3779937/k.8DDC/ A_New_Generation_of_Christian_Leaders.htm (accessed on April 21, 2010); General Board of Higher Education and Ministry, Higher Education & Campus Ministry: Connecting with Students in Schools, Colleges, and Campus Ministries (Guidelines for Leading Your Congregation 2009-2011 Series) (Nashville, TN: Cokesbury, 2008), 12, 16. 133. The United Methodist Campus Ministry Association, “About,” http://umcma.org/home/about/ (accessed on April 21, 2010). 134. General Board of Higher Education and Ministry, Higher Education & Campus Ministry, 12. 135. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) General Assembly, Renewing the Commitment: A Churchwide Mission Strategy for Ministry in Higher Education by the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) (Louisville, Ky.: Higher Education Program Area, Higher Education Ministries’/Students’ Ministries Office, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 2001), 14. (Accessible online at http://www.pcusa.org/collegiate/pdf/renew.pdf) 136. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) General Assembly, Renewing the Commitment, 16.

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137. Jeff Rubin, The Road to Renaissance: Hillel 1923-2003 (Washington, DC: Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, 2003). (Accessible online at http://www.hillel.org/NR/ rdonlyres/C5146418-3638-435A-8BB9-24592F5500F9/0/hillel_history.pdf); Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, “Hillel: Who, What, Where, Why,” http://www.hillel.org/ about/facts/who_what/default.htm (accessed on April 21, 2010). 138. InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA, “InterVarsity’s History,” http://www.intervarsity.org/about/#/our/history (accessed on April 21, 2010). 139. InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA, “Vision Statement,” http://www.intervarsity.org/about/#/our/vision-statement (accessed on April 21, 2010). 140. InterVarsity Christian Fellowship/USA, “Vital Statistics,” http://www.intervarsity.org/about/#/our/vital-statistics (accessed on April 21, 2010). 141. The Navigators, “Around the Ministry,” http://www.navigators.org/us/view/one-toone_mr/2008/April%202008/items/Around%20the%20Ministry (accessed on April 21, 2010). 142. The Navigators, “About Us,” http://www.navigators.org/us/ministries/college/faq (accessed on April 21, 2010). 143. Campus Crusade for Christ, “Our Mission and Goals,” http://campuscrusadeforchrist.com/ about-us/our-mission-and-goals (accessed on April 21, 2010). 144. Campus Crusade for Christ, “History,” http://campuscrusadeforchrist.com/aboutus/history (accessed on April 21, 2010). 145. Campus Crusade for Christ, “Facts and Statistics,” http://campuscrusadeforchrist.com/ about-us/facts-and-statistics (accessed on April 21, 2010). 146. Campus Crusade for Christ, “Our Mission and Goals,” http://campuscrusadeforchrist.com/ about-us/our-mission-and-goals (accessed on April 21, 2010). 147. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) General Assembly, Renewing the Commitment, 1. 148. See “ASU’s Tempe campus now nation’s largest” from The Arizona Republic, October 20, 2009 (accessed online at http://www.azcentral.com/community/tempe/articles/2009/10/20/ 20091020tr-asuenrollment1021.html on April 21, 2010). 149. This same issue applies to other forms of chaplaincy, such as chaplains in hospitals, hospice, and schools. The Episcopal Church does, however, maintain a Bishop Suffragan for Federal Ministries who supports the work of chaplains in federal agencies such as the military, veterans affairs, and prisons. This model might be a worthwhile one to consider for educational (or healthcare) chaplaincy to help increase support and advocacy for these types of ministries. 150. Stephen L. White, The College Chaplain: A Practical Guide to Campus Ministry (Cleveland, Ohio: The Pilgrim Press, 2005), 17-18. See also Trinity Church, “About Trinity Church,” http://www.trinityprinceton.org/about.cfm (accessed April 21, 2010). 151. The Archives of the Episcopal Church, “General Convention Special Program,” http://www.episcopalarchives.org/Afro-Anglican_history/exhibit/specialgc/index.php (accessed on April 21, 2010). 152. The Rev. G. Douglas Fenton, Program Officer for Young Adult & Campus Ministries at the Episcopal Church Center, email correspondence with the author, May 14, 2010. 153. Quoted by Tim Hallett in his article “Eating the Seed Corn: The Abandonment of Campus Ministry” in Sheryl A. Kujawa, ed., Disorganized Religion: The Evangelization of Youth and Young Adults (Boston, Mass.: Cowley Publications, 1998), 167. 154. Portaro & Peluso, 107. 155. Portaro & Peluso, 107-108. 156. Brewster, 15-16, 18.

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157. For more thoughts on the state of “disorganized religion” among young adults in American and specifically in the Episcopal Church, I would recommend looking at the collection of articles and essays in Sheryl Kujawa’s Disorganized Organized: The Evangelization of Youth and Young Adults. 158. This list was compiled from the reports of the National Student Council found in The Living Church Annual for years 1920-1926. Clarence Shedd in The Church Follows Its Students, 112, reports that there were 140 Units affiliated with the work of the National Student Council by 1930. 159. The Abbess Hilda Guild/St. Hilda’s Guild of Cornell University, the Altar Guild/Advisory Council of Wells College, and the St. Mary’s Guild of North Carolina College for Women were dropped from the National Student Council in 1924. 160. The Churchmen’s Club of the University of North Carolina was dropped from the National Student Council in 1920. 161. It is unclear when the Bishop Morrison Society at Minnesota State Teachers College joined the National Student Council, but it was dropped from the Council in 1925 along with the St. Paul’s Society at Harvard University. 162. This plan appears in the article “Plans for College Work During the Next Ten Years,” originally published in The Church Review in 1941, and published online by Jackie Schmitt at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/49065_51343_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010).

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Bibliography Books & Articles Ames, David A. & Scott I. Paradise, “The Episcopal Church in Higher Education,” Plumbline (May 1981): 5-11. Armentrout, Don S. & Robert Boak Slocum, eds. An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User-Friendly Reference for Episcopalians. New York: Church Publishing Incorporated, 2000. Brewster, Gurdon. Ministry on the Frontier: The Contribution of Episcopal Campus Ministry to the Present and Future Church. New York: Episcopal Church Foundation, 1999. Burtchaell, James T. The Dying of the Light: The Disengagement of Colleges and Universities from Their Christian Churches. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1998. Cherry, Conrad, Betty A. DeBerg & Amanda Porterfield. Religion on Campus. Chapel Hill, N.C.: The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Christianson, Brent. “For the Sake of Students” in Lutheran Partners March/April 2006, Vol. 22, No. 2. (Accessible online at http://www2.elca.org/lutheranpartners/archives/060304_04.html) Church Congress in the United States. The Influence of the Church on Modern Problems: Papers by Various Writers Read at the Church Congress in 1922. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1922. Engle, Shaena. “Freshman survey shows rise in political interest.” UC Newsroom. (01-26-2004) Accessed online at http://www.universityofcalifornia.edu/news/article/6065 on May 14, 2010. The Episcopal Church Annual, 2009. Harrisburg, Penn.: Morehouse Church Supplies, 2009. Evans, John Whitney. The Newman Movement: Roman Catholics in American Higher Education, 1883-1971. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1980.

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Fairbanks, George R. History of the University of the South, at Sewanee, Tennessee, from its founding by the southern bishops, clergy and laity of the Episcopal church in 1857 to the year 1905. Jacksonville, Fla.: The H. & W. B. Drew Company, 1905. Galligan-Stierle, Michael, ed. The Gospel on Campus: A Handbook of Campus Ministry Programs and Resources. Washington, D.C.: United States Catholic Conference, 1991. General Board of Higher Education and Ministry. Higher Education & Campus Ministry: Connecting with Students in Schools, Colleges, and Campus Ministries (Guidelines for Leading Your Congregation 2009-2011 Series). Nashville, TN: Cokesbury, 2008. Harper, Cassandra E., Jennifer R. Keup & Beth Brewer. “Using 30 Years of Institutional Data to Discover Critical Trends Among Freshmen.” The Journal of College Orientation and Transition. Vol. 15, No. 1 (Fall 2007): 43-61. Accessed online at http://www.sairo.ucla.edu/ data/NODA Article.pdf on May 14, 2010. Home Department, Division of College. Journal of the General Convention. Hammond: W.B. Conkey Company, 1949. Hunt, Thomas & James C. Carper, eds. Religious Higher Education in the United States: A Source Book. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. Kujawa, Sheryl A., ed. Disorganized Religion: The Evangelization of Youth and Young Adults. Boston, Mass.: Cowley Publications, 1998. The Living Church Annual: The Churchman’s Year Book and American Church Almanac, 1924. Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1924. The Living Church Annual: The Year Book of the Episcopal Church, 1933. Milwaukee, Wis.: Morehouse Publishing Co., 1933. The Living Church Annual: The Year Book of the Episcopal Church, 1936. Milwaukee, Wis.:

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Portaro, Sam & Gary Peluso. Inquiring and Discerning Hearts: Vocation and Ministry with Young Adults on Campus. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1993. Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) General Assembly. Renewing the Commitment: A Church-wide Mission Strategy for Ministry in Higher Education by the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). Louisville, Ky.: Higher Education Program Area, Higher Education Ministries’/Students’ Ministries Office, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), 2001. (Accessible online at http://www.pcusa.org/collegiate/pdf/renew.pdf) Prichard, Robert W. A History of the Episcopal Church (Revised Edition). Harrisburg, Pa.: Morehouse Publishing, 1999. Rubin, Jeff. The Road to Renaissance: Hillel 1923-2003. Washington, DC: Hillel: The Foundation for Jewish Campus Life, 2003. (Accessible online at http://www.hillel.org/ NR/rdonlyres/C5146418-3638-435A-8BB9-24592F5500F9/0/hillel_history.pdf) Schmitt, Jackie. Various articles under the heading “History of Episcopal Ministry in Higher Education Resources,” published online at http://www.episcopalchurch.org/ 49065_49546_ENG_HTM.htm (accessed on January 21, 2010) Seifert, Nicole. “Campus ministers gather in Kentucky.” Episcopal News Service. (07/06/2004) Accessed online at http://ecusa.anglican.org/3577_42111_ENG_HTM.htm on April 23, 2010. Shedd, Clarence P. The Church Follows Its Students. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1938. Shockley, Donald G. Campus Ministry: The Church Beyond Itself. Louisville, Ky.: The Westminster/John Knox Press, 1989. Sloan, Douglas. Faith and Knowledge: Mainline Protestantism and American Higher Education.

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Louisville, Ky.: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994. Underwood, Kenneth. The Church, The University, and Social Policy: The Danforth Study of Campus Ministries. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1969. West Virginia. State Department of Education. The History of Education in West Virginia. Charleston, W.V.: The Tribune Printing Company, 1907. White, Stephen L. The College Chaplain: A Practical Guide to Campus Ministry. Cleveland, OH: The Pilgrim Press, 2005. Correspondence Email correspondence with the Rev. G. Douglas Fenton, Program Officer for Young Adult & Campus Ministries at the Episcopal Church Center, on May 14, 2010. Email correspondence with the Rev. Sam A. Portaro, on May 4, 2010. Email correspondence with the Rev. Dr. Donald F. Thompson, General Secretary of the Association of Episcopal Colleges, Inc., on March 3, 2010.

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Pro Christo Per Ecclesiam: A History of College Ministry in the Episcopal Church