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OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN

1868-1912

The Meiji JAPAN DEFEATS RUSSIA

Inside This Issue PG1: International JAPAN VICTORIOUS: RUSSIA SURRENDERS

Treaty of Portsmouth in New Hampshire ends war

PG1: Local EMPEROR MEIJI RISES TO THRONE, INITIATES MAJOR CHANGES PG2: Local EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH WAR HERO PG3: Editorial WHAT IS THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION DOING TO OUR COUNTRY? PG3: Lifestyle BALLROOM DANCING !om far le": !om Russia, Korostovetz, Novohoff, Witte, Rosen, Plancoff; !om Japan, Adachi, Ochiai, Komura, Takahira, Sato by Leon Zhang NEW HAMPSHIRE, USA-- Japan’s victory over Russia is now set in stone: Russia officially accepted and signed the Treaty of Portsmouth on September 5th, 1905. Due to the unique nature of the war (the Japanese army had killed an unsightly amount of Russian soldiers), the signing took place in the United States, whose president, Theodore Roosevelt, acted as peacekeeper for the two

previously waring nations. The Russo-Japanese War, as it is now being called, lasted a little more than a year after Russia’s refusal of Japan’s strategic requests regarding Korea precipitated into war for the two nations. Diplomats and ambassadors from Japan and Russia alike were present in the meeting, where details were negotiated, (cont. on pg. 2)

A LOOK BACK ON MEIJI’S REIGN by James Smith Since assuming the position of emperor at the tender age of 15, Emperor Meiji has put into effect several major changes that have altered the face of Japan. In 1868, he introduced shokusan koygo, which sponsored and promoted the country’s industry and economy. This was only the start, though-soon, Meiji implemented banking systems, land taxes, modern communications like the

railway and telegraph lines, and replaced government influence in the economy with the Zaibatsu, large businesses that greatly aided the non-industrialized country. However, none of this could have occurred without the Charter Oath: Emperor Meiji’s greatest accomplishment. This five article statement jump-started Japanese reform, (cont. on pg. 2)

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OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN

JAPAN DEFEATS RUSSIA (CONT. FROM PG. 1) ...the specifics of which are displayed in the following visual, as well as an overview of the war.

WAR HERO OPENS UP TO THE MEIJI by Question Asker THE MEIJI was given a special opportunity to interview the Fleet Admiral of the Japanese Army, and hero of the RussoJapanese War and Sino-Japanese War (to name a few), Tōgō Heihachirō. The Meiji (M): Many people, especially foreigners, are surprised that Japan defeated a European nation, especially one that is as developed as Russia. What do you think about this view? Tōgō (T): I am not at all surprised by the outcome of this battle; if we are strong enough to defeat the Chinese (Japan defeated China in the Sino-Japanese War), why can we not defeat the Russians?

1868-1912

The Treaty of Portsmouth Russia will recognize Japan’s interests in Korea Liaodong Peninsula, the South Manchurian Railway, and the southern half of Sakhalin will be given to Japan Russia and Japan will not interfere with Chinese developments of Manchuria Date

Event

February 10, 1904

Japan declares war on Russia

May, 1904

Japan defeats Russia at the Yalu River, takes control of all of Korea

January 2, 1905

After a fivemonth siege, Japan captures Port Arthur

March, 1905

M: With this victory, do you think that Japan has joined the elite ranks of the countries of the world?

Mukden is captured by Japan

March, 1906

T: Well, we have defeated China and Russia, two major powers, and those battles were one-sided, so I think we could challenge any country in the world. But as for political status, nothing is certain as of the time being.

Japan destroys the Russian fleet in Tsushima

March, 1907

The war is ended with the Portsmouth Treaty

M: Nations have been surprised, that is for sure, but I do not think that any of them could have predicted the magnitude of this victory for Japan. Did you, or anyone else, predict such a decisive victory at the start of the war? T: Russia has a strong naval fleet, but I believe that we have surpassed them. All the proof one needs can be found in the Battle of Tsushima: our fleet completely destroyed theirs, and the victory was both in strategy and power.

M: Thank you for your time, and congratulations on your victory! T: It has been a pleasure..

The Potsdam Declaration

Map of major battles

Japanese troops prepare for battle

A LOOK BACK ON MEIJI’S REIGN (CONT. FROM PG. 1) ...encouraging modernization while emulating Western approaches to economy. Shortly after, the Constitution of 1868 shook up the government (though it was replaced later), and feudalism was abolished, as shoguns gave up their land to the government and Emperor Meiji. Under Meiji, education was greatly improved (universities and the Rescript on Education), while a cultural revolution ensued after modernization along Western lines--Western thought, fashion, and food were all greatly sought after. Not all changes made were greeted with popular support, though. The land tax, in particular, was angered many people, and the banking system nearly collapsed. Samurais had many of their privileges taken away, as civilians took their positions as soldiers and wearing swords was banned in public. The Satsuma Rebellion was the result of the samurais’ collective angst, as 30,000 ex-samurai took up their swords and fought for their rights for six months. They were eventually defeated, and the Japanese cultural revolution and Western liberal thought swept most of the remaining samurai into irrelevancy.

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OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN

1868-1912 Advertisement

EDITORIAL What is the cultural revolution doing to our country?

Rokumeikan

by John Editorial As I walked the streets one day, I blinked. Then again. Everyone I saw had Teriyaki in hand, cutaway on one arm, liberal ideas on tongue. And for a split second, I wondered, is this Ja p a n ? A n y m o m e n t n o w, t h e government will announce that we will rename our country with some Western name, our fla g with a Western flag, our country with a Western one...wait. Is our country being replaced? Western thought, Western food, Western clothing, Western hairstyles, Western dancing...the invasion of Western customs has engulfed our nation. Where has our culture, Japanese culture, gone? Where are the samurai topknots, the silks, hemp, satins, the Buddhist beliefs, the Japanese values and ideas? In the midst of our cultural revolution, we have thrown our culture out the window, and have forgotten who we are--the Japanese. The Charter Oath stated that Ja p a n would seek “knowledge...throughout the world”. If I am not mistaken, it does not urge us to become Westerners, does

COMIC

“Westerners are more advanced in many areas, but we are not without virtues.” not promote copying ever y aspect of Western idealism, habits and customs, does not allow us to ignore our culture. The Westerners are more advanced in many areas, but we are not without virtues. Do you want honor and loyalty? Ask a samurai. Are you looking for a r e f i n e d c u l t u r e ? Re s e a r c h o u r dynasties. Is a religion you can believe in what you want? Find our Buddhist monks, and ask them to teach you about Zen. So, don’t be ashamed if you don’t have the latest hairstyle-- topknots are fashionable too. Behind on the latest liberal thinking system? The Buddha was an extremely wise man too. Teriyaki just doesn’t agree with your appetite? Eat sushi. Honestly, this Western craze has gone way out of proportion--take a step back, and reclaim your inner Japanese: it’s not doing you any good while being hidden.

Come and dance with us! open on sunday evenings

Listyle Ballroom Dancing by Ballroom Dancer Are you bored out with your current life? Have nothing to do at home other than listening to the radio? Well, you are in luck-the latest Western craze to hit Japan is a panacea for all your problems. Ballroom dancing, a Western import, is becoming more and more popular as a pastime. The reason it has exploded in popularity recently stems from many factors, but perhaps the most important one, as a dancer told me, was that “it relaxes you, and is very simple”, while another said that “you will completely forget yourself, but will get to know so many other people”. As I walked the floor, I saw many d i f f e r e n t f a c e s - -We s t e r n diplomats, Ja p a n e s e businessmen, and politicians of every kind were all gyrating to the music. Don’t get left behind! If you want to join the bal lroom dancing bandwagon, come to the Rokumeiken on Sunday night, and dance your troubles away!

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Leon Zhang  

Leon Zhang