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Level 2 Hairdressing

Cut Hair Using Basic Techniques

Candidates Name: ………………………………………………

Hair & Beauty


Cut Hair using Basic Techniques Introduction By working through this booklet and practicing your skills in the salon you will develop the knowledge and skills to be able to complete the cutting unit. The unit requires you to answer questions through test papers to evidence your underpinning knowledge. You are also required to demonstrate appropriate use of cutting tools, equipment and techniques to achieve a range of looks. The looks you will need to create are: One length below shoulder One length above shoulder Hair cut incorporating a fringe x2 Long graduated layer x2 Uniform layer x2 Short graduated layer Short graduated layer using scissors over comb Cutting both curly and straight hair You will need to carry out a consultation to determine style suitability and demonstrate safe working practice when providing services to clients.

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Preparation When you have prepared your work area ready to receive a client in accordance with your salon policies and following health and safety regulations you will need to prepare and consult with your client. To prepare your clients for the cutting service you will need to protect them. Your tutor will demonstrate for you how this procedure is carried out. Task

Practice the procedure on a friend and list below the items you can use describing their purpose.

Protective items

Purpose

How many faults can you see in this picture? Circle around the faults and discuss them with a colleague

FACT The importance of protecting clients from hair clippings is to maintain client comfort and to protect client clothing.

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Using and Maintaining Cutting Tools Discuss the meaning of each of the numbered statements below; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Ensure all tools are fit for purpose Use only for intended purpose Carry in a safe manner Clean and sterilise after use Oil cutting tools as required

Sterilising Tools Using notes from your health and safety training about the main 3 methods of sterilisation and with the help of your colleagues and your tutor identify the appropriate method of sterilisation for cutting tools giving reasons for your choice. Cutting tools Methods and reasons Scissors, razors and sharps Combs and sectioning clips

Salon Requirements for Preparing the Work Area Before you start a cutting service you should prepare your work station with the necessary tools and equipment required to carry out the service efficiently and maintain a professional image for yourself and the salon. Tools that are readily available throughout the service will enable you to provide an efficient method of working. Task Make a list of the tools required when offering a cutting service, then display them on your work area. You will now have been shown how to clean and maintain them.

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Hand Exercises Using Scissors It is important to handle your cutting tools correctly to ensure a safe, efficient method of working. Ask your tutor to demonstrate for you how to hold your scissors correctly. Try the hand exercises for your self and repeat the palming exercise until you can do it smoothly. Next introduce your comb and practice palming, combing, transferring and cutting. Repeat this process to ensure that the tools are held in the hands throughout the cutting service.

(a)

(b) Scissor - hold

Wrist action (b)

(c) Scissor exercises

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Parts of the Scissors Points

Edges

Blades

Heel Pivot

Cutting Comb

Shanks

Wide Tooth Comb

Handles

Tail Comb

Gents Cutting Comb

(a) Scissor - parts

Safe Working Practice when Cutting Hair The following list outlines some of the safety considerations that have to be taken into account when cutting hair. You must learn and adhere to them at all times. 1. Disposal of sharps in accordance with legal requirements and salon procedures 2. Avoid harm to self and others 3. Prompt removal of hair cuttings from the floor 4. Care when handling cutting tools

WET AND DRY

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Wet and Dry Hair has elastic properties; we check this by pulling a few strands of hair between our fingers and thumb to see how far it will stretch this test is known as the ‘elasticity test’. When hair is wet it stretches more than when it is dry. It is important to bear this in mind when you are deciding how much to cut off. Cutting hair dry will give a true result where as cutting hair when wet may result in a shorter finish than intended. Factors to check prior to cutting would be: Hair elasticity Hair growth patterns Hair type Hairstyle You must pay attention to the amount of tension applied when working with hair that has poor elasticity.

Tension When you are holding the hair between your fingers it is important that the correct degree of tension is applied to the hair when cutting. The hair should be held firmly to avoid slipping and to give your client a feel of confidence as a firm hold shows that you are in control of your method. If the hair is pulled too tight it will cause the hair to stretch and may result in a shorter result than intended, however if tension is inconsistent throughout the cut this will create an uneven result. If the tension is loose you will easily loose sectioning and your client will be aware that you have lost control of your method, a weak grip will produce an uneven result.

Timing When you are being assessed in the workshop your assessor will allow you 30 minutes to complete a haircut. This time will begin following the consultation period when you are ready to begin the cutting service and it will end when you have carried out your cross checking and are ready to begin styling the hair. You must inform your assessor of your intention to begin the cut and again when you have checked your cut and your assessor can then inspect your finished result prior to styling. When you are practicing your cutting techniques it is a good idea to take note of your time. If you keep a record of your time for each attempt you will be surprised how much you improve.

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Practical Cutting There are 4 basic shapes that we use to create different styles in the hair, these are known as: One length Long graduation Uniform Layers Short graduation You will be assessed twice on each of these cuts. These 4 basic techniques can be combined to create a variety of different looks. When cutting the basic shapes in hair we refer to: Angles Weight distribution Balance Degree of graduation within the haircut. As you progress through your training you will need to complete cutting activities on your practice head and complete tasks set out in the booklet. Complete your diary sheets with your tutor when you have received your training.

Techniques With a range of techniques at your disposal you will be able to create a variety of shapes in hair. You will need to practice these techniques and take note of the effects they create for you. Technique Club cut

When

How

Freehand cut

Scissor over comb

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Guidelines For each haircut that you create you must always work to guidelines. Guidelines enable you to: Determine the finished length and shape of the haircut Ensure that you work methodically throughout the haircut Enable you to achieve an accurate haircut. Your trainer will demonstrate how to create and follow guidelines. Try them yourself on your practice block and record the procedure as you cover each method over the next few training sessions.

Cross Checking When a haircut is complete it must be cross checked. This will ensure accuracy of the cut and will highlight areas that may need correction. Your trainer will show you the best method to use for each cut, record this as you cover each one.

Position and Comfort The position of your client can have an adverse effect upon the outcome of the cut. Ensure that the client is seated comfortably with back against the chair and try to encourage your client not to slouch. This will minimise discomfort to the client and help the stylist to complete the service correctly. As you work around your client you need to avoid stretching or bending, this helps prevent long term injuries. In order to maintain the balance and even distribution of weight in the haircut you should move around the chair positioning yourself in line with your sectioning. Stand with feet slightly apart and keep your back straight. Adjust the height of the styling chair and if required use a cutting stool to prevent stooping and back strain.

Look at the picture on the right; discuss what position can improve the stylist’s health, the clients comfort and the accuracy of the haircut. What effect will posture have on the stylist’s health and the accuracy of the hair cut?

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Sustainability In control of economic development and energy sources Disposal of Waste Work areas should be kept clean and tidy at all times, this will: Minimise the risk of cross infection Maintain a professional image Reduce hazards Cutting hair creates waste and this must be dealt with during and immediately following the service. You have a duty to dispose of waste in accordance with legal requirements. Hair cutting requires the use of ‘sharps’ what are the legal requirements for the disposal of sharps?

Throughout the service hair should be removed from the client’s neck and shoulders. Explain below how and why this should be done

Following the hair cut, waste must be disposed of immediately and placed in a covered bin. Explain below the risks if you were to continue your styling services before you had swept up the hair around your feet

By keeping the salon clean and tidy you can avoid cross infection and infestation. Why do you think this is important?

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Hygiene In order to work safely and hygienically when cutting hair you must follow the following points: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Use clean protective materials Sterilise all tools Use tools with care Remove hair clippings from the floor immediately following service Remove hair clippings from your client throughout the service Keep work area clean throughout the service

Personal Hygiene Attention to personal hygiene minimizes offence to clients and colleagues and reduces the risk of cross infection and cross infestation. Q. How would you feel if a client with dirty hair, body odour and halitosis sat in your chair for 30 minutes having a dry trim? Discuss this probability with a colleague and share your findings with your tutor.

A. Probably the same as your client would feel if they were sat in your chair for 30 minutes having a trim when the stylist has dirty hair, body odour and halitosis.

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Before you begin to design and create a hair style you need to know and learn the parts of the head as illustrated in the diagram: Crown Forehead

INFLUENCING FACTORS Occipital area

Your tutor will discuss these factors with you. Task

Nape

Make notes in the table below:

Temple

Factor

Consideration

Head and face shape Piercing Hair growth patterns Hair texture Hair type Hair density Hair elasticity Scalp disorders Suspected infections Suspected infestations

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Consultation The purpose of a consultation is to identify any factors that may influence the cutting service and affect the end result. The hair should be examined before shampooing to identify hair growth patterns, density, texture, elasticity curl and fall of the hair and after shampooing in order to see how the client’s hair lies naturally and to expose hidden curl and elasticity.

The consulting procedure is followed prior to cutting in order to establish the client’s requirements and during the cutting service so that accurate information is communicated to the client about the progress of the hair cut and to ensure that the haircut meets with the clients expectations. When you have consulted with your client and clarified which style your client requires you must take into consideration the natural fall of the hair and consider the weight distribution within the haircut. Not all desired styles are possible if the client has strong growth patterns or the hair falls in a particular way, it is best to advise your client about this and offer an alternative or similar version of the required style to ensure that the expected shape of the haircut can be achieved. E.g. If your client requires a full fringe after wearing a centre parting for years the hair may naturally split in the middle and the full fringe would then stick out causing disappointment to the client.

Can you think of another example where growth patterns and natural fall of the hair might have an effect upon the required style?

Can you name the growth patterns shown below?

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Face Shapes The perfect face shape is oval. When creating a hair style you should try to give the illusion of an oval face shape.

Oval

Square

Long

Heart-shaped

Round

Pear-shaped

Rectangular

Here are some examples of style which suit or do not suit various face shapes.

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Hair Growth The average hair growth rate is about 15cm (or 6 inch) per year; this means that hair will grow on average 1.25 cm (or 1/2 inch) per month. It is important to ask your client how often they have their hair cut as this will give you an indication as to how much it has grown since their last hair cut and how much you may need to cut off. Label the diagram explaining the function of each stage of growth.

Phases of hair growth

After Care All clients should receive aftercare advice following any service. This is your opportunity to show off your knowledge and professionalism which increases your client’s confidence in you and encourages them to make return visits to your salon. Advice following a hair cut would be to return for a haircut whenever the client experiences difficulties in maintaining the look of the haircut or when the original cut begins to loose its shape. You might book a return appointment according to the rate of hair growth say 6 to 8 weeks.

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ONE LENGTH CUT Your tutor will demonstrate to you, or play a video demonstration for you showing how a one length cut is achieved. See the procedure for a one length cut.

The weight distribution is around the perimeter. The balance is even. The degree of graduation is 0 degrees.

On completion of each cut your tutor will sign and date it before you progress to the next cut. Creating

Following

Cross checking

Note: you will be assessed on a one length cut above the shoulder and one below shoulder.

Variations to a one length cut:

Hair Growth Horizontal (straight across)

Inverted or concave

Convex (rounded)

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One Length Variations You will be required to cut one length hair both: Below the shoulder Above the shoulder These techniques differ slightly ask your tutor to explain the differences to you. Some clients may require a variation on the one length look for example: Looks without a fringe (as shown previously) Looks with a forward graduation Looks including a fringe

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Procedure for a One Length Cut Gown client using gown, cape and towel or cutting collar. Part the hair in its natural parting (either side or centre). Section the hair from crown to nape. Take two slightly diagonal sections from behind the ear approximately 5 cms deep from the hair line. Start in the centre at the back with clients head slightly inclined forward, comb the mesh smooth and hold flat to the neck or shoulders (fig 1). Keeping an even tension cut across the section following the guide line (fig 2&3). Check balance visually, and by drawing finger and thumb down either side from outer edge to centre. The next sections are taken working up the back of the head from the centre to the top of the ear (fig 4). Starting in the middle and working out to both sides, the hair is combed down and cut to the guide line underneath. Check balance. The next sections are taken from the centre, forward to the front hairline on both sides (fig 5). Returning to the middle back, the hair is combed straight down and cut to the guide line underneath, the side areas are combed slightly back and the line continued across. Check balance. Continue to take sections from the centre forwards to the front hair line, combing straight down and following the guideline underneath until the crown area is reached. At the crown area comb hair to its natural fall & cut following the guideline (fig 6). Check balance (fig 7). Remove all hair clippings and sweep up.

Fig 1

Fig 5

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 6

Fig 4

Fig 7

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Long Graduated Layer Your tutor will demonstrate to you, or play a video demonstration for you showing how a long graduated layer cut is achieved. See the procedure for a long layer. The weight distribution is around the neck. The balance is even. The degree of graduation is around 135 degrees. This can vary depending upon the finished length required. The top box is usually cut around 90˚ and the rest of the hair is overdirected. 90˚ Overdirected

Using this information explain in your own words how a long graduated layer cut is achieved.

Creating

Following

Cross checking

Remember! Anything over 90˚ is a long layer

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Procedure for a Long Graduation Cut (Long Layers) Gown client using gown, cape and towel or cutting collar. A centre parting is taken from forehead down to nape, and two slightly diagonal sections from the centre out to the bottom of the ear. Combing the hair downwards, cut the base line to the desired length (fig 1). Check balance visually & by drawing finger & thumb down either side from outer edge to centre. Continue to bring sections down and cut to the underneath guide line, checking each section for balance (fig 2 & 3). An inch wide section is then taken from the forehead down to the nape. Starting at front, and holding the hair at a 90 degree angle, the graduation line is cut to desired length (fig 4). Continuing from the crown to the occipital bone area the hair is over-directed up to the crown and cut squarely (fig 5). A section is now taken across the top of the head from ear to ear. Starting with centre guide, Pie shaped sections are worked around the back using the crown as a pivot (fig 6). Each section is pulled up to the crown and cut squarely following previous guide (fig 7). The next section is taken moving forward over the ear and pulling the hair upright, cutting squarely and blending into the back (fig 8). The side section is then lifted to the same angle and cut (fig 9). Exactly the same sectioning pattern is now used on the other side of the head. The entire cut is now cross checked by taking horizontal sections and pulling everything up to the square layering point (fig 10).

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

Fig5

Fig 6

Fig 7

Fig 8

Fig 9

Fig 10

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Procedure for a Uniform Layer Cut Gown client using gown, cape and towel or cutting collar. Part the hair across the head from ear to ear. Take a 1 inch section from the front hair line to the crown (fig 1). Starting at the crown, this section is pulled up at a 90 degree angle and cut to the desired length (fig 2). This section is continued to the front hair line. A central vertical section is now taken from the crown down to the nape (fig 3). Using, a guide from the front, the crown section if lifted up at 90 degrees and cut. Continue down this central section to the nape, pulling the hair out to a 90 degree angle and cutting, following the shape of the head (fig 4). Continue around the back of the head taking pie shaped sections using the crown as a pivot. Lifting out at a 90 degree angle cut each section following the guide line (fig 5). Still using the crown as pivot, work towards the front using the same 90 degree angle and cut following the shape of the head (fig 6). Continue this technique at both sides following guide line. Cross check the cut by taking horizontal sections and checking balance (fig 7). The perimeter of the cut is now checked and shaped to clients requirements (fig 8)

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

Fig 5

Fig 6

Fig 7

Fig 8

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Short Graduation Your tutor will demonstrate to you, or play a video demonstration for you showing how a short graduated layer cut is achieved. See the step by step guide in the salon. The weight distribution is eye level. The balance is even. The degree of graduation is 45 degrees

Using this information explain in your own words how a short graduated layer cut is achieved.

Creating

Following

Cross checking

This cut can be achieved using a scissor over comb technique. This technique allows you to cut the hair shorter and closer to the head than your fingers will allow. Ask your tutor for a demonstration and have a go yourself.

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Procedure for Cutting A Graduation The hair is parted from forehead to nape, and diagonal sections are taken from the occipital bone down to the bottom of the ear (fig 1). A section is taken parallel to the parting, combed out to 45 degrees, and cut (fig 2). This is repeated on the other side of the nape section. The next section is taken working up the back, diagonally from the top of the occipital bone, down to the ear (fig 3). This section is combed down and out to the same level of graduation as the previous section and cut to follow the guideline (fig 4). Diagonal sections are continued up the back until the crown is reached. The next section incorporates the side area by parting diagonally from the crown to the front hairline (fig 5). Starting at the back, this section is combed down and out, and cut to the graduation guideline (fig 6). Working forward on this section, the hair is combed down and cut, so that the angle of the graduation decreases in front of the ear (fig 7). The next section incorporates the fringe area. The section is combed to its natural fall and cut to blend with the guideline (fig 8). The top section is again combed to its natural fall and cut to blend.

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

Fig 5

Fig 6

Fig 7

Fig 8

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Cutting Techniques Taper Cutting (Texturising) Feathering: use scissors on dry hair. This is done by slithering the scissors backwards and forwards along the hairs length without fully closing the scissors. This creates varying lengths of hair within a section, and increases the hairs tendency to curl (fig 1). Point Cutting or Chipping In: use scissors on wet or dry hair. This achieves a tapered effect by using the scissors points to remove hair. This can be done to reduce weight & so allow more movement within a style. Or to define or texture a style (fig 2 & 3). Razor Tapering: use razor or shaper on wet hair. The razor is placed at a slight angle on the section. Then hair is cut in a series of slicing actions. The length may be reduced at the same time. Do not razor cut near to the scalp (fig 4). THINNING: use thinning scissors on dry hair. Thinning scissors are used to reduce bulk from hair. Cut diagonally across the section of hair, open and close the scissors two or three times to remove the thickness (fig 5).

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 4

Fig 3

Fig 5

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Cutting Techniques Cutting Freehand This is when the hair is cut without being held in place. The hair is combed and allowed to fall into its own natural movement before being cut. This is ideal when cutting a fringe, which you would section off before cutting (fig 1). Scissor/Clipper Over Comb: use clippers on dry hair only, scissors on wet or dry hair. This technique is used for blending, or to give a short graduated effect in the nape and sides. Use the cutting comb in an upward direction, lifting the hair so that the hair sticking through the comb can be cut off using scissors (fig 2), or clippers (fig 3). Club Cutting: done on wet or dry hair. This is a method of cutting hair bluntly, straight across. It is a way of retaining the hairs bulk (fig 4). Clipper Cutting: done on dry hair only. Clipper cutting is a method of club cutting which creates a short cut. Detachable numbered guards are available so that the closeness of the cut can be altered. The larger the number, the longer the length; the smaller the number the shorter the length. The guard on the clippers is placed on the scalp at the area to be cut and the clippers are moved slowly in an upward direction. If a graduated effect is required, the clippers must be lifted away from the scalp at the point of graduation to leave the hair longer at that point.

Fig 1

Fig 2

Fig 3

Fig 4

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Asymmetric An asymmetric cut is when the hair is unevenly balanced over both sides, for instance, if the hair has a side parting and more hair is distributed to one side of the head, see examples below:

Using this description, create an asymmetric shape on the model’s head. Remember! The weight distribution is heavier on one side. The balance is uneven. The degree of graduation is varied

Think about how you would create this look, which cutting methods and angles would you use?

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Additional Cutting Techniques You may find that a client will request additional cutting methods during the cutting service. These techniques are not a requirement for your qualification at level 2 however you may wish to be able to offer these additional techniques to your client. The following techniques are an example of what a client may ask of you and it is your choice if you feel confident enough to offer the service. Clipper work Razor work Thinning Texturising

Ask your tutor for a demonstration and practice the techniques on your head block. Thinning Scissors

Razor

Clippers Clippers are generally used for short, graduated styles. They are used on dry hair only. They can give the effect of a scissorover-comb cut and are used in both men’s and ladies hairdressing.

Clipper attachments, also known as grades, are added to your clippers to allow you to cut the hair at different lengths. They are available in different sizes ranging from a grade 0.5 (the smallest) up to a grade 8 (the largest). Your tutor will demonstrate how these are fitted to your clippers. Production of this material is attributed to Rotherham College of Arts and Technology Revision 1 Creative Studies/Hair & Beauty/2010-2011 9169 cutting hair using basic techniques

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Task: Use the model heads on the following pages to illustrate the cutting angles and sectioning methods used to create the 5 cuts, and give a written description in your own words for each one. One length cut

Notes

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Long graduation

Notes

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Uniform layer

Notes

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Short graduation

Notes

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Asymmetric

Notes

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Glossary Anagen The active stage of hair growth. Asymmetric Irregular, unevenly balanced. Autoclave A device for sterilizing tools in high temperature steam. Catagen The stage of hair growth during which the hair stops growing, but the hair papilla is still active. Club-Cutting Cutting straight across to produce level ends and retains the hairs bulk. Consultation The process of a client to establish their wishes and to examine the hair and scalp. Contra-indication Sign that some treatment or service is not advisable or could be harmful. Cross-Checking Checking the balance of a hair cut. Cutting Angle The angle at which hair is held and cut. Cutting Method The sequence of cutting techniques. Cutting Technique The special cutting skill used to produce a specific result. Degrees The extent to which the hair is lifted away from the head before cutting. Feathering Tapering action using scissors. Fragilitas Crinium Split ends. Freehand Cutting Cutting hair at it’s natural fall without holding. Graduation The sloping line produced by layers in the hair. Guide Line A section of hair used to indicate where the next cut should be made. Horizontal Across, level, e.g. horizon, side to side. Layering Cutting hair at various angles to produce a graduation. Inverted Curves inwards e.g. inverted bob. Reverse/Long Graduation A cut in which the top/inner layers are shorter than the underneath/outer layers.

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Sectioning Hair Dividing hair into manageable sections. Short Graduation A cut in which the top/inner layers are longer than the underneath/outer layers. Sub Sections Smaller sections of hair taken from another larger section. Sterilisation Killing all micro-organisms that may be present. Symmetrical Evenly balanced, the same at both sides. Telogen The period during which a hair ceases to grow, before it is shed. Texturising Removing small amounts of hair without reducing the overall length. Thinning Reducing the bulk of hair without reducing its length. Vertical Straight up or down.

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Notes

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Cut Hair Using Basic Techniques