Page 1

23nd European Cosmic Rays Symposium

Moscow, 7/7/2012

NEUTRINO ASTROPHYSICS WITH THE

ANTARES ν TELESCOPE Tommaso Chiarusi INFN - Sezione Bologna

on behalf of the ANTARES Collaboration Saturday, July 7, 2012


Physics case : HE Cosmic rays + HE γ ➯ Hadronic interactions (should be a ! ... but a ? yet )

radiation field or matter

CR

? Knee 1 m-2 yr -1

p

HADRONIC Vs LEPTONIC models

ν

π± π0

γ γ

Inverse Compton (+Bremsstr.)

Hadr. Mod. leading channel:

EXTRAGALACTIC ORIGIN

Ankle 1km-2 yr -1

66.6 %

33.3 %

1 Saturday, July 7, 2012


AstroPhysics with High Energy Cosmic νs Dark Matter

?

SNR

Micro-Qausars

Exotics : Magnetic Monopoles Nuclearites

TeV-PeV

GeV-TeV

>EeV Fermi Bubbles

ν

HE γ (10 Mpc)

Extra Galactic

protons (50 Mpc) neutrons (unstables)

GRB

AGN

low energy particles Saturday, July 7, 2012

Galactic

PeV-EeV

2


Neutrino indirect measurements M. Markov: “We propose to install detectors deep in a lake or in the sea and to determine the direction of the charged particles with the help of Cherenkov radiation”

Che

ren ligh kov t

1960, Rochester Conference

PMTs lattice

transparent media charge current interaction νμ

μ

W N

incoming neutrino

X

νμ

42˚ Upgoing μ

cascades νx

dense neutrino target

track reconstruction from time and position of detected Cherenkov light assuming a θCherenkov = 42˚ in water Saturday, July 7, 2012

3


p

o m t a

sp

cosmic νµ

re e h

µ νµ

νµ

cosmic rays

µ

cosmic rays

Physics background: ↓ μatm ➯ looking for upgoing (↑)

↕ νatm ➯ energy cuts (E>10 TeV) ANTARES Eth ~ 20 GeV ...so background is exploited: μatm ➯ study of ystematics νatm ➯ neutrino oscillations Adds on:

Multi-messengers crosschecks: optical and Gravitational Waves follow-ups + satellite alerts Saturday, July 7, 2012

5


Sky Regions Observed by Neutrino Telescopes IceCube (South Pole)

ANTARES/KM3NeT (43° North)

Mkn 421 Mkn 501

Mkn 501 CRAB SS433

RX J1713.7-39 SS433

GX339-4

CRAB VELA

Galactic Centre

→ Emphasis on study of galactic sources Saturday, July 7, 2012

6 6


The ANTARES Collaboration Ø

NIKHEF, • v Amsterdam • v Utrecht v KVI Groningen v NIOZ Texel v

University of Erlangen Bamberg Observatory Univ. of Wurzeburg

IFIC, Valencia v UPV, Valencia v UPC, Barcelona

7

ITEP,Moscow v Moscow State Univ v

v

CPPM, Marseille v DSM/IRFU/CEA, Saclay v APC, Paris v LPC, Clermont-Ferrand v IPHC, Strasbourg v Univ. de H.-A., Mulhouse v LAM, Marseille vCOM, Marseille vGeoAzur Villefranche v INSU-Division Technique

v

8 countries 31 institutes ~150 scientists+engineers

v

Saturday, July 7, 2012

v

ISS, Bucarest

LPRM, Oujda Univ./INFN of Bari v Univ./INFN of Bologna v Univ./INFN of Catania v LNS–Catania v Univ./INFN of Pisa v Univ./INFN of Rome v Univ./INFN of Genova v

7


The ANTARES Site & Infrastructure

40 km submarine cable

-2475m

IFREMER Toulon Centre

Shore Station

FOSELEV Marine

optical fibers only Power Hut Saturday, July 7, 2012

8

electro-optic cable


9

The ANTARES Detector 2500m

• • • • •

885 10” active PMTs 12 lines 25 storeys / line 3 PMTs / storey ≤14 Gbps datastream

0.05 km3 instrum vol.

450 m

40 km to shore

Junction Box 70 m Saturday, July 7, 2012

Interlink cables


9

The ANTARES Detector 2500m

• • • • •

885 10” active PMTs 12 lines 25 storeys / line 3 PMTs / storey ≤14 Gbps datastream

0.05 km3 instrum vol.

450 m

40 km to shore

Junction Box 70 m Saturday, July 7, 2012

Interlink cables


9

The ANTARES Detector 2500m

• • • • •

885 10” active PMTs 12 lines 25 storeys / line 3 PMTs / storey ≤14 Gbps datastream

0.05 km3 instrum vol.

450 m

40 km to shore

Junction Box 70 m Saturday, July 7, 2012

Interlink cables


9

The ANTARES Detector 2500m

• • • • •

885 10” active PMTs 12 lines 25 storeys / line 3 PMTs / storey ≤14 Gbps datastream

0.05 km3 instrum vol.

450 m

40 km to shore

Junction Box 70 m Saturday, July 7, 2012

40K

Interlink cables


2006 – 2008: Building phase of the Detector Junction Box (2001) ; Main cable (2002) Line 1, 2 (2006) Line 3, 4, 5 (1/2007) Line 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 (12/2007) Line 11, 12 (5/2008)

Saturday, July 7, 2012

~70 m

10


The ANTARES Infrastructure ANTARES Infrastructure

Connected 30 Oct 2010

DeepSeaNeT: optical fibre cable with seismographs

Saturday, July 7, 2012

11


Some Events reconstructed up-going neutrino: detected in 6/12 detector lines:

Saturday, July 7, 2012

reconstructed down-going muon: detected in all 12 detector lines:

12


Diffuse νµ flux    from  Southern  Sky (first  Antares’  Physics  result  )

E2Φ(E)90%= 5.3×10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

20 TeV<E<2.5 PeV

IC59 (Neutrino ’12)

Saturday, July 7, 2012

13


Point Source Search: 2007-2010 Max. likelihood fit to muon track hypothesis (β=1)

Good track fit quality

Poster: MN_392, Juan Pablo Gómez González

upgoing (3058 neutrino candidates)

⇐ estimated angular error <1 degree Saturday, July 7, 2012

14


Angular Resolution for Upgoing Neutrinos

15

µ ϴ

ν

Full 12  line  detector

ϴ ~ 0.7˚ / √(E/TeV)

cumulative distribution of the angle between the true neutrino track and the reconstructed muon event that passes the selection criteria (assuming E -2 spectrum). The median is 0.46° 83% of the events within 1°

Saturday, July 7, 2012


16

Full-Sky Search (2007-2010)

Most significant (most yellow = less probable w.r.t. H0) cluster at: RA= ‒46.5°, δ= ‒65.0°

Sky map in equatorial coordinates

pre-trial

NOT OBSERVED SKY

Nsig = 5 p-value (*) = 0.026 Significance = 2.2 σ

1⁰ 3⁰

Results compatible with the background hypothesis Saturday, July 7, 2012

(*) post-trial p-value


Source Candidate List Look in the direction of a list of 51 predefined candidate sources (selection of sources mostly based on γ-ray flux and visibility) First eleven sources sorted by Q-value (~ S/N LogLikl. ratio). Last column shows the 90% CL upper limit on the flux (E / GeV)-2 GeV-1 cm-2 s-1

HESS J1023‒575 most signal-like, p–value 40% (post trial)

Compatible with the background hypothesis 3C279, GX339-4, Cir X-1 are flaring sources.... Saturday, July 7, 2012

17


Candidate List Search â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 90%CL Flux Limits

18

E-2 flux assumed for signal ANTARES 2007-2010 813 days Ă&#x2014; 2.5 improvement w.r.t. previous analysis For most of the sources ANTARES gives the most stringent limits for the Southern Sky

With final dataset (2016), expect limits to improve by another factor ~2.5

Saturday, July 7, 2012


Candidate List Search â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 90%CL Flux Limits

18

E-2 flux assumed for signal ANTARES 2007-2010 813 days Ă&#x2014; 2.5 improvement w.r.t. previous analysis For most of the sources ANTARES gives the most stringent limits for the Southern Sky

With final dataset (2016), expect limits to improve by another factor ~2.5

Saturday, July 7, 2012


Search for  Neutrinos  from  Fermi  Bubbles

19

In 100% hadronic models: Fν ~1/2.5 Fγ (Vissani) E2dFν/dE=1.2*10-7 GeV cm-2s-1sr -1 E cutoff protons: 1PeV-10 PeV (Croker&Aharonian) E cutoff neutrinos = 1/20 cutoff protons

Good visibility for ANTARES

1 “on source” FB region

Visibility fraction palette

Background estimated from average of three ‘OFF’ regions (time shifted in local coordinates)

3 “off source” FB regions

Saturday, July 7, 2012


Search for  Neutrinos  from  Fermi  Bubbles  II Live time = 588 days

ANTARES preliminary

Cuts optimised for best MRF and a cutoff at 100 TeV: • Nhits>44 • Est. ang. resolution < 1 degree • Track quality > -5.24 Nback (OFF) = 90 5(stat) 3(sys) Nsig (ON) = 75

ON ZONE <OFF ZONE>

ANTARES preliminary

50 TeV cutoff 100 TeV cutoff 500 TeV cutoff no cutoff

Under fluctuation in ON zone ⇒ exclude fully hadronic models with optimistic cutoffs (90%CL Rolke et al. prescription)

Future: full dataset and improved energy estimator Saturday, July 7, 2012

dotted: model prediction solid: 90% CL limits

20


Correlation with Gravitational Waves 2007 Dataset - ANTARES 5Ls - plausible common sources (microquasars, SGR, GRBs) - discovery potential for ‘hidden’ sources (e.g. failed GRBs) Joint publication ANTARES/LIGO/VIRGO arXiv:1205.3018v2

DONE

On Going PRELIMINARY

PRELIMINARY

Most Significant Excess (defined by Binomial Test)

Saturday, July 7, 2012

21


22 TaToO: Telescopes and ANTARES Target of Opportunity Optical follow up of neutrino alerts in order to search for transient sources (GRBs, choked GRBs, AGN flares,…) Reconstruction “on-line” (<10ms) Doublet:15mins, 3 degrees Singlet: Eν>5 TeV, any direction Singlet: Eν>1 TeV in direction of local galaxies ANTARES

ν Real time

alert <10s TAROT/ROTSE ZADKO/SkyMapper SWIFT (x-ray)

Large sky coverage (>2π sr) + high duty cycle Online neutrino resolution ~0.3 degrees Optical follow up: <1-7,9,15,16,27,28,45,60 days after alert Improved sensitivity (1 neutrino ⇒ 3 sigma) Saturday, July 7, 2012

1.9° x 1.9° (0.4° *0.4°)


23

TaToO: GRB Analysis 50 alerts with optical follow up since mid 2009 - Image subtraction methods - Automated source candidate detection - More than 80% signal detection efficiency up to ~17 mag Image from follow-up

Reference image

Residual image

ANTARES preliminary

2009 data: No optical counterpart brighter than 16.2 limiting magnitude associated to a high energy neutrino found within 75s from the neutrino alert. Also in progress: search for choked GRBs (images up to 1 month after alert)

Saturday, July 7, 2012


24 Oscillations with Atmospheric Neutrinos

L=2 REarth cosθ, from track fit

Eν from muon range Eν<100 GeV

MC truth

single-line

Oscillations maximal at 24 GeV for vertical neutrinos (~120m): Larger effect on single line (low energy) than multiline (higher energy) events Saturday, July 7, 2012

multi-line


Neutrino Oscillations: Track Selection Single-line

25

Multi-line

Special low energy fit for single line events (>7storeys, do not fit azimuth) Select pure sample of atmospheric neutrinos (<5% muon contamination)

zenith resolution: 0.8/3 degrees for multiline/single line events Saturday, July 7, 2012


Neutrino Oscillations: Result 2008-2010 data (863 days): No oscillation: χ2/NDF = 40/24 (2.1%) Best fit: χ2/NDF = 17.1/21 Δm2 = 3.1 10-3 eV2 sin22θ =1.00

Systematics: (Absolute normalization free) Absorption length: ±10% Detector efficiency: ±10% Spectral index of ν flux: ±0.03 OM angular acceptance 5% error on slope vs ER/cosθR

ANTARES preliminary

no osc

ANTARES preliminary

68%CL contours ANTARES K2K Super-K MINOS

best osc

Assuming maximal mixing: Δm2=(3.1±0.9) 10-3 eV2 arXiv: 1206.0645 Saturday, July 7, 2012

26


Summary Ø ANTARES infrastructure completed: Ø Only operating deep sea neutrino telescope Ø Largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere Ø Operating smoothly, maintenance capability proven Ø Good understanding of detector Ø Important testbed for KM3NeT R&D and software Ø Exciting physics program in progress…. Ø Unexplored regions of sensitivity for galactic sources Ø Steady/transient sources, monopoles, DM, oscillations …… Ø Strong multi-messenger program (optical, satellite, GW) Ø Real-time readout and in-situ power capabilities facilitates a large program of synergetic multi-disciplinary activities: acoustics, biology, oceanography, seismology…… Ø Major step towards a multi-kilometre cube deep-sea NT: KM3NeT

Saturday, July 7, 2012

27


THANK YOU! Please, visit our posters: Exhotic particles

Poster: MN_543, Gabriela Pavalas

Dark Matter searches

Poster: MN_436, G. Lambard and J. P. Gómez González

Poster: MN_392, Juan Pablo Gómez González

Point Sources Searches

Essential Bibliography •J.A. Aguilar et al.,ANTARES: the first undersea neutrino telescope, Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research, A 656 (2011) 11; •J.A. Aguilar et al.,

Search for a diffuse flux of high energy νμ with the ANTARES neutrino telescope Phys. Letter B 696 (2011) 16-22

•Adrian-Martinez et al., First search for point sources of high energy cosmic neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope, Astrophys. J. Lett. 743 (2011) L14; •M. Ageron et al., The ANTARES telescope neutrino alert system (TATOO), Astropart. Phys. 35 (2012) 530; •S. Adrian-Martinez et al., Measurement of the group velocity of light in sea water at the ANTARES site, Astropart. Phys. 35 (2012) 552; •S. Adrian-Martinez et al., Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the ANTARES neutrino telescope, Astropart. Phys. 35 (2012) 634; •J. A. Aguilar et al., A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A675 (2012) 56 •S. Adrian-Martinez et al., Search for neutrino emission from gamma-ray flaring blazars with the ANTARES telescope, in press on Astropart. Phys., arXiv:1111.3473; •S. Adrian-Martinez et al., Search for a correlation between ANTARES neutrinos and Pierre Auger observatory UHECRs arrival directions, submitted to Astropart. Phys., arXiv:1202.6661.

•S. Adrian-Martinez et al., A first search for coincident gravitational waves and high energy neutrinos using Ligo, Virgo and Antares data from 2007 , submitted to Astropart. Phys., arXiv:1205.3018.

•S. Adrian-Martinez et al., Measurement of atmospheric neutrino oscillations with the ANTARES neutrino telescope, submitted to Phys.Lett., arXiv:1206.0645. •T. Chiarusi and M. Spurio, 2010,

Saturday, July 7, 2012

High-Energy Astrophysics with Neutrino Telescope, European Physics Journal C 65, nn. 3-4, 649


SPARES Saturday, July 7, 2012


Search for Dark Matter Annihilation in the Sun Poster: MN_436, G. Lambard and J. P. Gómez González

Sun visibility ν

2007-2008 multi-line data Muon Flux Limits 90%CL (2007-2008)

5

\µ (km-2.yr-1)

Nevents

ANTARES preliminary Data 2007-2008

4

Background (scrambled data)

10

5 Macro 1989-1998 Baksan 1978-1995 SuperK 1996-2008 (bb) SuperK 1996-2008 (W+W ) IC40/AMANDA 2001-2008 (b b) IC40/AMANDA 2001-2008 (W +W , o+o- for mr < mW ) ANTARES 2007-2008 b b ANTARES 2007-2008 W +W ANTARES 2007-2008 o+o-

104

3

2 10

3

1

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

20 ^ (°)

102

0

200

400

ANTARES preliminary

600

800

1000 MWIMP (GeV)

30 Saturday, July 7, 2012


Spin Dependent Cross Section Limits KIMS 2007 COUPP 2011 SuperK 2011 (bb) +

-

SuperK 2011 (W W ) IC40/AMANDA 2001-2008 (bb) +

-

IC40/AMANDA 2001-2008 (W W , o+o- for mr < mW )

Compare to SUSY models consistent with experimental constraints on sparticles masses, collider observables, dark matter relic density, direct detection cross-sections, … SuperBayes (arXiv:1101.3296)

ANTARES 2007-2008 bb +

ANTARES 2007-2008 W W

Minimal Universal Extra Dimensions

ANTARES 2007-2008 o+o-

1 0

-3

10

10

Log [mH,SD (pb)]

10

Log [mH,SD (pb)]

CMSSM

-

-1

1 IceCube 22 2007

0

ANTARES 2007-2008 IceCube 40+22 2007-2008

-1 -2

-2 10-4 -3

-4

-4

-5 10

-5 -6

ANTARES preliminary

-3

102

10

3

104 MWIMP (GeV)

-5

1m

-6 -7

2m

0

200

400

600

ANTARES preliminary

With 2007-2010 dataset will gain factor ~3 → large fraction of focus point region can be addressed Saturday, July 7, 2012

800

1000 MWIMP (GeV)

31


Search for Magnetic Monopoles •Required in many models of spontaneous symmetry breaking (‘t Hooft, Polyakov)

Poster: MN_543, Gabriela Pavalas

upgoing ⇒ masses less than ~1014 GeV • High photon yield (8.5x103 times µ) Cherenkov threshold β > 0.74 secondary δ-rays β ≥ 0.5 modified track reconstruction with β a free parameter

Δβ/β ~ 0.2%

Saturday, July 7, 2012

32


Connection with Earth-Sea Science Research: oceanography, sea biology, seismology, environmental monitoring Connected 30 Oct 2010

Secondary Junction Box

O2, CTD, P

Seismograph Turbidity

40 20 0 -20 -40

BioCam

Currentmeter Saturday, July 7, 2012

Instrumentation module 33


2 min

CONTINUOUS BASELINE Radioactivity in the sea (40K) + bioluminescent bacteria

40K

Saturday, July 7, 2012

BURSTS bioluminescence from Macroscopic organisms


Z(m)

Acoustic Positioning

Example for Sea current v= 25 cm/s rmax = 22m

• Acoustic system • 1 emitter (+ receiver) at each line socket • 5 receivers along each line • Compass and Accelerometer • 1 Compass at each storey • 1 Accelerometer at each storey • Measure every 2 min • Acoustics: distance sockets - receivers • Compass: Heading • Accelerometer: tilt Tommaso Chiarusi Saturday, July 7, 2012

PCC 2010 - Torino 13/07/2010

r(m)

mostly coherent movement of lines


Absolute Pointing: Moon Shadow 884 livetime days (2007-2010) 2.7 sigma significance

Agrees with Monte Carlo expectations Encouraging, but due to lack of statistics, can not put useful constraints on ANTARES pointing capabilities Saturday, July 7, 2012

36


Absolute Pointing: Surface Array Atmospheric shower Array of scintillators (0.8 m2 each)

Atmospheric Muon (s) 180 m

350 m

Reconstructed track 100 m

1st campaign 17-23 Oct 11 15 Detection units

Saturday, July 7, 2012

37


Absolute Pointing: Surface Array II

Zenith Phi ANTARES (0,0) Boat (x,y)

10ms 10µs

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Constraints Zenith: -0.5±0.5° Azimuth: 0.9±2.2°

R>400m

2nd campaign planned in 2012

38


SNRs: RXJ1713.7-3946, Vela-X Dedicated study for RXJ1713 and Vela-X taking into account the cutoff in the energy spectra and source extension

ANTARES preliminary

RXJ1713.7-3946

ANTARES preliminary

Vela-X

39 Saturday, July 7, 2012


Galactic Sources: ANTARES vs IceCube Full: ANTARES (2007-2008)

RXJ1713.7-3946

Dashed: IceCube (IC22)

(From J. Brunner)

IceCube energy threshold >1 PeV for Southern Sky sources

4 Saturday, July 7, 2012


Point Source Search: Track Reconstruction Max. likelihood fit to muon track hypothesis (β=1)

Good track fit quality

estimated angular error <1 degree

upgoing

New: Use number of hits used by track fit as discriminator of muon (~neutrino) energy

Saturday, July 7, 2012

41


Search for Neutrinos from Micro-Quasars Micro-quasars: galactic sources binary systems Many are flaring

H1743–322 livetime= 5.1 days

hadronic models Identified six microquasars with x-ray or γ-ray outbursts in the 2007-2010 FERMI/LAT data: Circinus X-1, GX339-4, H 1743-322, IGRJ17091-3624, Cygnus X-1, Cygnus X-3

ANTARES preliminary

Compare with model of Distefano & Waxman. Introduce an energy cut-off at 100 TeV on the E-2 flux. More data and including energy information→ sensitivity will improve by at least factor 2: models for GX339-4 and CygX-3 can be excluded

4 Saturday, July 7, 2012

ANTARES_ECRS_2012  

Talk given In Moscow 7/7/2012

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you