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George Orwell was an English novelist, essayist, journalist, and critic. His work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism, and commitment to democratic socialism. Commonly ranked as one of the most influential English writers of the twentieth century and as one of the most important chroniclers of English culture of his generation, Orwell wrote literary criticism, poetry, fiction, and polemical¹ journalism. He is best known for his dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) and the allegorical novella Animal Farm (1945). In 2008, The Times ranked him second on a list of “the fifty greatest British writers since 1945.” Orwell’s work continues to influence popular and political culture, and the term Orwellian — descriptive of totalitarianism and authoritarian social practices — has entered the language together with several of his neologisms,² including cold war, Big Brother, thought police, Room 101, doublethink, and thoughtcrime. ¹a controversial argument, as one against some opinion, doctrine, etc. ²a new word, meaning, usage, or phrase


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