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The shadow of Light


light and shadow light box

research

05

domino sugar factory

04 my museum

03

02

01 thesis introduction


light and shadow museum

the rooms

museum spaces

detail

conclusion

11

12

museum map

10

09

08 design

07

06 concept


LIGHT & SHADOW is more than black and white

Light and shadow are inevitable in nature and they have impact on architecture in many ways. They influenced the architecture interior to exterior from floor plan to building proportion and orientation. They are also tectonic elements that architects and photographers love to work on. They also represent contrast and conflict, solid and void, positive and negative.

Louis Kahn said “The sun never knew how great it was until it hit the side of a building.”

When light gives object a shadow; the shadow brings it a form. The form changed respond to the light; shadows overlay and become SHADES.

Metaphysical Moments by Rupert Vandervell

Profile by Kumi Yamashita

The overlay of shades form a gradation of darkness


light, shadow and shades

Shade is shadow but more than shadow of darkness. Shades exist when shadows overlapped, however, shades can also be the shadow of light

“We find beauty not in the thing itself but in the patterns of shadows, the light and the darkness, that one thing against another creates.” -In Praise of Shadows

When sun shines directly into the courtyard, roofs and plants cast shadow on opened corridors. The light continues to shine through the shoji door and goes into the room. The progress contains

hierarchies of exposure, hence various quality of light and shadow created a poetic form of language in the interior. Jun’ichirō Tanizaki, the author of In Praise of Shadow mentioned Japanese loves to apply gold leaf on interior furniture and decoration. Its purpose is not to stand out the master’s wealthy but reflecting the light from shoji door to form a faint light in interior. The faint light in shade is the beauty that the Japanese admired in a room.


light, shadow, motion and narrative

point to South

point to North

Light and shadow are not only appear as static form. They can be used to represent the motion of time and movement.

Sundial is an instrument showing the time by the shadow of a pointer cast by the sun on to a plate marked with the hours of the day in the past as ancient clock.

Sun path

Shadow casts on the plate marked with numbers to tell time.

Shadows follow the sun path and move through time.

Finnish sculptor, Pia Männikkö, worked on a series of installation about human movement. The installation analysed a series of movement in few seconds by cutting it into pieces and printed out every different pose on transparent plastic. It showed the sequence of the body movement and the overlay of shadows highlighted the static part of the body during the action. On the other hand, it also set out a time frame and timeline for the motion. The timeline brought narrative to the installation. When layers stand together, they form the sequence of an action, and the action contains narrative. Those moving train in below image created a scenario of waiting train in platform. The scenario or narrative connected and interacted with audience.

Déjà Vu by Pia Männikkö

New York City by James Maher


light, shadow and texture

Narrative in light and shadow is not only limited in motion. A picture taken in a Japanese room looking at the shoji door exposed the narrative in static. Objects from different positions all projected on one face. Each object’s shadow becomes a layer to enrich the overall projection.

Light does not contain texture, but shadow can devoted the texture of object’s surface under the light. It can also carry colour, pattern (form) and reflection. Shadow still appeared when light goes through a transparent object. However shadow would behave differently depends on material’s characteristics and its transparent level.

Objects sequences (far to close): Light source (sun), tree, bamboo curtain, shoji door

Shoji door with wash paper

tree from courtyard

bamboo curtain as courtyard partition

Total internal reflection of light may occur when a ray (line of light) is traveling inside a glass block. In a simple way, light is trapped in the light block hence the shadow contains more than one reflections.

Ray entered with an angle multi reflections in shadow

Shoji Shadow by mrhayata

shadows on the object shows the material surface texture

glass block


LIGHT BOX RESEARCH EXPERIMENT let the light shine and let the shade grow


The layer series show all 15 layers in the box and the treatments that applied on every layer. The model contains different materials including leaves, tracing papers, maya paper, glossy paper and cottons.


light, shadow and precedents in photography

What to find in light and shadow black and white photographs?

Contrast and focus Strong contrast in photographs creates sharp edges to stand out the focal point and lead audience straight to the things that the photographer wants to show. Blurry contrast is refining the atmosphere of the space and more focusing on the overall image. The photographer wants the audience to observe and pay attention on details in the photo instead of direct them to a specific spot.

Material and texture

The architecture of light by Serge Najjar

Fade to Black by Rupert Vandervell

Black and white photographs use shadow, shades and reflections to define material and texture. The darker of shadow and shades disclose the rough texture of material surface. The lighten shades may be shown on reflecting, smooth surface or even transparent material.

Hierarchy of shades Light and dark shown the depth of the image, the gradation of darkness expose the object distance from light. They also form the solid and void area in photo, labeling transparent and solid objects. The layer of shades enriches the spatial quality in space. ‘Ideal’ fish and chip shop by Edwin Smith

Fragile by Rupert Vandervell


light, shadow and precedents in architecture

Normal window opening

Habitat 15 by Predock Frane Architects skylight opening

Oculus of the Pantheon

focus lighting

opening with shades limited sunlight and solar gain

Case Study House 22 roof light opening with angle maximise roof light

opening with shades create an expression of light

Church of Light by Tadao Ando opening with filtered lighting exhibition lighting

opening with vertical louvres limited angles of sunlight

Kimbell Art Museum by Louis Kahn

Church of Light by Tadao Ando

opening with filtered lighting exhibition lighting

opening with screen facade shadow with patterns

Tanatorio Municipal by Salas Architecture + Design

3x10 House by DD Concept

Menil Collection by Renzo Piano

A collection of window openings applied on architecture. Each method obtained different forms of light, illuminate levels and quality of light to sharpen the interior spatial quality. Light and shadow can be working as an intangible decoration and designed to be shown in specific time and forms to delivery the architect’s thought.


light, shadow and precedents (lighting technology)

Lowline is a purposing underground park that located in the former trolley terminal by the end of Williamsburg Bridge in Manhattan. The idea is to provide a public space with green and to resolve the issue of the not pedestrian friendly on ground since heavy trafďŹ c. It is designed as a green park to plant edible plants and space for leisure purpose.

Lowline is promoting itself as a green park that relocated to underground, hence the natural veriďŹ cation and lighting have large impacts in design to redeďŹ ne what an underground park should be. Lowline designed its own natural lighting system to collect natural lighting from above ground level and transfer to lower ground lighting through special designed tubes.


2 ways to collect sunlight

Sunlight collecting process

1. Direct sunlight to the concentrators

1. Collect sunlight above ground.

2. Collectors placed on the surrounded buildings rooftop to capture sunlight and reect it to the concentrators.

2. Gather the underground.

sunlight

and

deliver

to

3. Sunlight would be directed to storage 4. Sunlight would follow the light tubes and diverse to the desire underground lightings. 5. The aluminium panel moved to adjust the suitable lighting for the plants depends on their required illumination.

concentrators

Sunlight collectors

One meter diameter parabolas condense the light into a super-intense beam thirty times the brightness of the sun.

Adjustable aluminium panel

The storage of light

Light tubes

They are proposing solar storage that store extra sunlight to light up the park after dark. And the stored sunlight will be deliver through the lighting tubes.

Precision lenses and mirrors in tubes send sunlight to a central distribution point. The tubes help protect the mirrors from dust but this light is essentially traveling through empty space.

A B C

A grid rack is installed on the beams and columns to support the lighting system and the hanging of the aluminium panels. The aluminium rope is used to hang and keep the panel in position.

A. Grid rack B. Aluminium rope C. Aluminium panel


LIGHT

SHADOW

Hand drawing of Domino Sugar Factory. Media: Pencil, Fine liners

MUSEUM The hand drawing of Domino Sugar Factory shows the entire sugar factory before partly demolished. The building by the left is the original sugar factory that built in 1856. It survived from sugar dust explosions, repair and expansions to follow the original design. The building on the right was part of the expansion that built in 1900s, however, it was demolished in 2014, since it is no longer exists, I draw the building more dramatic and blurry to make a contrast to my building. I outlined the factory with a thicker ďŹ ne liner and a thinner one to draw out the texture and patterns. With pencil slightly sketching on top to enrich the expression.


DOMINO SUGAR FACTORY Site Analysis

Williamsburg is an area that claimed to be an artistic and low income neighbourhood. It contained a rich layers of history and diversities. It was an agricultural area in 16’s century and turned into industrial district since 18’s century. The area is still consider as low to middle class neighbourhood since the rezoning progress is slow and behind other boroughs in Brooklyn. The area has developed its own character including local hipster culture, the indie music and local art. Its value is affected by the diversities of communities, such as Hispanics, Jews and Africa American etc.

New York

Brooklyn

North Brooklyn/ Williamsburg


SITE MAP

Domino’s Sugar Factory, Williamsburg, Brooklyn


SITE LOCATION

My site is the former Domino Sugar ReďŹ nery which located in 314 Kent Avenue, Williamsburg, north Brooklyn. The factory was erected in 1856 and ran until 2004. The redevelopment project was started in 2014, part of the factory was demolished but the main building. It is considered as one of main redevelopment projects to repositioning Williamsburg. The site will be developed into ofďŹ ces, condo, affordable housing and public area. The site is sitting on next to the waterfront in the industrial area and Williamsburg Bridge in south.


BUILDING HISTORY

1856

2004

2014

2015

2020

1856: The factory was founded by William Frederick Havemeyerin 1856. In 1883, the factory produced 3 million pounds of sugar a day, 98% of America’s refined sugar until late 1950’s. 2004: After World War II, reaserchs claimed that refined sugar may not be as healthy as other sugar products. The sugar industry was slowly declined. The factory later closed down in 2004. 2014: The redevelopment proposal started officially. The demolished began, the oldest part of the factory was saved to renovate into condo. 2015: Current condition during site visit. The renovation of the factory is in progress. Part of the dmolished area turned into North Brooklyn farm as temporary use. 2020: The future look in the proposal. The site is a model of the modern Williamsburg will be.


WILLIAMSBURG NEIGHBOURHOOD AND TYPOLOGIES The neighbourhood building has a similar typology, which are planned on grid. And the size of openings are corresponding to the building function.

Residential

Residential

Factory regenerated Hotel 1901


Abandoned Factory 1849 (former Pfizer Factory)

Domino Sugar Refinery (remained) 1856

Domino Sugar Refinery (demolished)


The fall of the

3 4

industrial city

5

Williamsburg DURING THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, WILLIAMSBURG ATTRACTED MANY WEALTHY INDUSTRIALISTS IN 1850’S. WORLD CLASS AND TOP OF THE UNITED STATES FACTORIES WERE BUILT IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD. THE DE-INDUSTRIALIZATION BEGAN IN 1980, FACTORIES CONSECUTIVELY SHUT DOWN, DEMOLISHED OR RENOVATED. IT ALSO STATED THE BEGINNING OF GENTRIFICATION IN WILLIAMSBURG. IT PROVIDED AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ARTISTS AND YOUNG PROFESSIONALS TO MOVE IN. ABANDONED FACTORIES WERE EITHER DEMOLISHED TO REBUILD AS RESIDENTIAL, OR RENOVATED INTO FACTORY LOFTS AND LUXURY APARTMENTS.

6 7

8 9

10 11


1

1

TEXTILE FACTORY, REGENERATED TO HOTEL

2

2

3

WHOLESALE GROCERY TRADING WAREHOUSE, RENOVATED TO LUXURY APARTMENT

4

5

STEEL FACTORY, RENOVATED TO LOFT

6

7

SODA FACTORY, REGENERATED TO CONDO

8

9

11

BEER BREWING COMPANY, REBUILD TO COMPLEX APARTMENT

LOCAL BEER BREWERY, LAND REDEVELOPMENT. 2025 LEAVE NEIGHBOURHOOD

SOAP FACTORY, RENOVATED TO APARTMENT

SHOES POLISH BUILDING, REGENERATED TO LUXURY CONDO

MUSICAL INSTRUMENT FACTORY, RENOVATED TO CONDO

10 COLOUR

PRINTING FACTORY, RENOVATED TO APARTMENT

PASTA FACTORY, RENOVATED TO ARTIST LOFT

HENCE MY PROPOSAL IS TO PRESERVE THE BUILDING OF DOMINO SUGAR FACTORY AND ITS FACTORY CHARACTERISTICS AS AN PRECIOUS LANDMARK IN WILLIAMSBURG. INSTEAD OF PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL, PUBLIC SPACE SUCH AS MUSEUM IS MORE WELCOME FOR PEOPLE TO VISIT AND UNDERSTAND THE VALUE OF THE FACTORY AND ITS HISTORY IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD.


“In many plants (electrical) the power required for light production area, warehouses, offices, reduced significantly by installing skylight. Plants (electrical) power that are presently using skylights for building illumination have reported that electrical lighting is required only 20% of the time during daylight hours. ” -Handbook of Sugar Refinery


EXTERNAL SUNLIGHT ANALYSIS SPRING

4 pm. 3 pm.

2 pm.

AUTUMN 1 pm. 6 am,

7 am.

8 am.

9 am.

10 am.

11 am.

12 pm.

4 pm. 3 pm.

2 pm.

SUMMER

1 pm. 6 am,

7 am.

8 am.

9 am.

10 am.

11 am.

12 pm.

4 pm.

WINTER 3 pm.

2 pm.

1 pm. 6 am,

7 am.

8 am.

9 am.

10 am.

11 am.

12 pm. 4 pm. 3 pm.

2 pm.

1 pm. 6 am,

7 am.

8 am.

9 am.

10 am.

11 am.

12 pm.


INTERNAL DAYLIGHT ANALYSIS

Ground Floor

+2.0m

10th Floor

+44.6m

5th Floor

+28m

5th Floor

+28m

Hour >10 9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1 <1

DAYLIGHT ACCESS ON DIFFERENT LEVELS

DAYLIGHT ACCESS ON MID-LEVEL IN EVERY HOUR


INTERNAL DAYLIGHT ASSESSMENT SPRING

6 am, 6°

7 am, 16°

8 am, 28°

9 am, 38°

10 am, 48°

11 am, 55°

SUMMER

5 am, 6°

6 am, 16°

7 am, 28°

8 am, 38°

9 am, 48°

10 am, 55°

11 am, 68°

AUTUMN

7 am, 10°

8 am, 20°

9 am, 30°

10 am, 38°

11 am, 42°

WINTER

8 am, 6°

9 am, 16°

10 am, 22°

11 am, 26°


SPRING

3 pm, 38°

4 pm, 26°

5 pm, 16°

6 pm, 6°

2 pm, 55°

3 pm, 48°

4 pm, 38°

5 pm, 26°

6 pm, 15°

2 pm, 35°

3 pm, 25°

4 pm, 15°

5 pm, 5°

3 pm, 15°

4 pm, 6°

SUMMER

AUTUMN

WINTER

7 pm, 5°


CONCEPT DESIGN

A study of light and shadow through spaces that creates emotions


CHARCOAL DRAWING Internal corridor spaces showing the a dark corridor with lighting penetrating through door opening of rooms.


UPWARD JOURNEY Journey of Emotions

Entrance Corridor - Linear Side Strip Lighting

Self Reï¬&#x201A;ection Room - Top Single Point Lighting

Molasses Room

Corridor - Linear Top Strip Lighting

White Room


Corridor - Gradient Strip Lighting

Dark Room - Spillage of Light at Bottom of Rooms

Temptation Room

Existing Chimney For City View

Manhattan View


STUDY SKETCH


MODEL PHOTO


UPWARD JOURNEY Journey of Emotions


FOCUS A 5 level tall rectangular space with one small rectangle ceiling opening for lighting. The room express the loneliness of the Building since it abandoned in 2004.

FROM WHERE? TO WHERE?


SELF REFLECTION A Sense of Emptiness


SHADOW OF LIGHT Journey of Lights Through Existing Openings


MOLASSES

Recreating the sugar making process through glass boxes of molasses


DARKNESS

Spillage of light at base forms directional paths


DARK ROOM Collection of individual spaces in a dark room. The way ďŹ nding is through the strips of light that leaked through the spaces from the bottom of the room.


GRADIENT OF LIGHT Progression of light through the connection of spaces. From light graduating to darkness , it forms an element of surprise at the end of the space.

GRADIENT LIGHT

Lighting openings gradually becomes narrow, a sense of element of surprises at the entry of space.


EXHIBITION JOURNEY Journey of History


TANK ROOM

Remembrance of the sugar making process


TANKS

Industrial experience

Re-using Existing sugar tanks for memorial experience

Single source of light


BUILDING MATERIALS Spaces/Rooms

Entrance Corridor

Self Reflection Room:

Ramp:

Molasses Room:

- Textured concrete wall panels

- Dark Concrete floor and wall for light absorption

- Re-use of existing brick wall

- Molasses liquid contained in glass box

White Room: - Rough white blocks wall. White polish concrete flooring

Dark Room: - Dark wall in general space with dark ceiling

Temptation Room:

Tank Room:

- Perforated wall in front of windows for lighting shadows and reflections

- Existing Steel work


BUILDING FLOOR PLAN Plan of upward & Downward Journey


Level

00

Level

01

Cafe

Self Reflection/ Emptiness

Entrance

Restaurant

Self Reflection Room

Loading Area Storage Exhibition Area Entrance

White/ Pure


Level

02

Auditorium

Exhibition

Molasses

Workshops

White

White Room

Void

Shop/ Cafe

White Room Mezzanine

OfďŹ ce

Auditorium

Technical Rooms

Workshops

Molasses Room


Level

03

Level Memory/ Existing Tank Room

04 Memory/ Existing Tank Room

Darkness

Event Hall Tank Room Void

Dark Rooms Dark Rooms


Level

05 Existing Tank Room

Dark room/ Darkness

External Garden

Tank Room Tank Room Void

Workshop

Workshop

Dark Rooms

External Garden


Level

06

Level

07

Views to Manhattan through Chimney

Mezzanine

Workshop

Tempta


Level

08 Exhibition Area

ation

Temptation

Viewing platform Mezzanine Exhibition Room Temptation Room Temptation Room

Solar Collector


Level

09 Level

10 Exhibition Area

Puzzle

Plan

Puzzle Room Void


JOURNEY EXPERIENCE OF EMOTIONS

Williamsburg Exhibition Area Roof Level- Solar Collector


SECTIONAL PERSPECTIVE Hierarchy of Spaces

SEQUENCE OF SPACES

Linear Lighting

Top Direct Lighting

Molasses Room

Dark Room

Gradient Lighting

Top Linear Lighting


Preservation of Existing External Facade: - The 1880s sugar factory external facade were made from tradition brick laying method with framed punched window - The envelope remains as the memory of the industrial period of New York. - All ďŹ&#x201A;oor level are retained for less disruption to the overall building structure.

East Elevation

South Elevation

West Elevation

North Elevation


Journey of Spaces: - The upward journey of the museum triggers the human emotions through light and shadow that the spaces creates. - The downward journey of the museum gives an insight of the sugar factoryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history.

Sectional Cut


Journey of Spaces: - Preservation of external facade together with emotions spaces creates the journey that interact with the history of the sugar factory. -The light and shadow from the existing factory creates the journey of emotions and a museum of light and shadow.

Portion of roof level has been demolished for sun collector


TYPICAL DETAIL

Molasses Connections Laminated Glazing

Spider Connection Molasses Liquid Laminated Glazing box

Laminated Glazing box

Universal I Beam

Steel Bracket for Column Connection

Existing Concrete Column

Glass Bridge

Welded Steel I Beam Frame Glass Balustrade


TYPICAL DETAIL

Metal Walkway Connection

Galvanized Steel Balustrade

Galvanized Steel Grating Decking

Steel Space Frame to Support Walkway Over existing Beam

Existing Tank, Transformed into Exhibition Spaces Metal Walkway

Existing Steel Beam


SOLAR COLLECTION Fibre Tubes Lighting System

- The factory has divided into 2 sections of the building. Sun collectors are installed in each part of the roof to collection solar lighting for the building. - There are 2 main sources of lighting in the building which are the daylight from window openings and the solar collector at roof level. - The solar collector, collects the lighting and store in a centralised storage which located in the building. The storage will then distribute the required lightings into each required rooms.

The solar ďŹ bre tubes enters the tank room through the single source at the top of the tank to give lighting for the space


Solar Collector

Solar Transfer Fibre Tubes

The was similarly used in the Lowline development

The carries light into each required room from the solar storage.

Light & Shadow Museum  

Strong contrast in photographs creates sharp edges to stand out the focal point and lead audience straight to the things that the photograph...

Light & Shadow Museum  

Strong contrast in photographs creates sharp edges to stand out the focal point and lead audience straight to the things that the photograph...

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