Miquel Alsina Valle Anna Fàbrega Hernández Eva Jané Izquierdo Biel Macià Peramiquel Research Project: New Zealand
INDEX 1. Introduction 2. Geography and Population a. Climate b. Demography c. Languages d. Religions Economy History Government and Politics Education Culture . Architecture a. Folklore b. Gastronomy c. Arts d. Literature National symbols Sports Conclusion Bibliography Webgraphy
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1.INTRODUCTION Our group has make the research project about New Zealand. We choose this country because we don't know so much about it and we think it will be interesting to know more things like its culture, its typical food, and all its characteristics.
2.GEOGRAPHY AND POPULATION New Zealand is made up of two main islands, the North and South Islands.The two main islands are separated by the Cook Strait, the five largest inhabited islands are Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands (Rekohu), Great Barrier Island (in the Hauraki Gulf), 127 D'Urville Island (in the Marlborough) 128 and Waiheke Island (the most populated of five) The South Island is the largest land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along the Alps of Sur.130 Within this range there are 18 peaks over 3,000 m, the highest of which is Mount Cook. South Island is forested, protected by national parks in the southwest corner of the South Island, is an area of high mountains cut by steep fjords.
The North Island is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The Taupo Volcanic Zdtyuone, a large volcanic plateau, is still very active. The north of the island is a flatter area, before the arrival of Europeans was covered with kauri trees. About 25 million years ago, a shift in plate tectonic movements began a process of terrain elevation and compression. Now this process is most evident in the Southern Alps, formed by compression of the crust right beside the Alpine Fault. Climate Its isolation from continental influences and exposure to cold winds from the south and ocean currents give the climate a more temperate.139 The climate throughout the country is mild, mostly oceanic, with mean annual temperatures ranging from 10 degrees in the south to 16 degrees in the north. Demography The population of New Zealand is approximately 4.40 million inhabitants. In the 2006 census, 67.6% of respondents identified ethnically as European and 14.6% as Maori. Other ethnic groups Highlights include Asians (9.2%) and Pacific peoples Most New Zealanders of European descent have British and Irish descent, although there are significant populations of native Dutch, Dalmatian, 220 Italian and German, along with European immigrants who travelled throughout North America, South America, Australia and South Africa.
The Maori were the first immigrants to reach New Zealand, followed by the first European settlers. The following settlers came in much of the United Kingdom, Ireland and Australia due to restrictive policies similar to those imposed in Australia. Language Until 1987, English was the only official language of New Zealand although today remains the predominant language in most regions, the Maori became an official language under the Maori Language Act you two official languages spoken are also the most used, English is spoken by 98% of the population and MÄ ori by 4.1%. Religion Christianity is the predominant religion in New Zealand, practiced by 55.65% of the population, 34.7% of said they did not practice any religion.
3.ECONOMY The New Zealand economy has changed in the last 20 years. He has gone from an agrarian economy dependent on the British market and a more industrialized economy that can compete globally. The tertiary sector is the largest in the economy, followed by secondary and primary. New Zealand is a country highly dependent on international trade, especially agricultural products, exports are very important. The exports come from agriculture, horticulture, fisheries and forests. Countries that buy in New Zealand are, Australia, the USA, Japan, China and the UK. Historically, New Zealand has always enjoyed a high standard of living thanks to exports to the UK, as they have always had a special trade agreement. In 1973 the United Kingdom joined the European Economic Community. This particularly broke this agreement and consequently exports fell. Since 1984, the governments of New Zealand have transformed its economy and now it is fully liberalized and consists of free trade.
4.NEW ZEALAND'S HISTORY The history of New Zealand dates lack one thousand years ago, when the first Maori (Polynesians) came to New Zealand. They installed the Maori culture. Later, the Dutch sailor Abel Janszon Tasman was the first European explorer to discover New Zealand in December 1642. And he gave it its name, from zeeland ('Sea Land') which is a part of the Netherlands. Captain James Cook sailed all the way round them and made the first map of the country. In 1840 Captain William Hobson wrote the Treaty of Waitangi. This said that the queen of Great Britain, the Queen Victoria, was now queen of New Zealand too. The European population of New Zealand grew explosively from fewer than 1,000 inhabitants in 1831 to 500,000 by 1881. Some 400,000 settlers came from Britain. Then the Maori and the British start fighting about the land. The fighting finally ended in 1870. In 1863 gold was fond in the South Island, and thousands of people hurried to New Zealand to look for gold in the mines of the island. In 1871 New Zealand became a kind of big British farm, sending meat, butter and cheese back to Britain by ship. In 1893 the New Zealandâ€™s government decided that women could vote and in 1930 the government decided that all schools and hospitals should be free for all its people. After this, New Zealand became a nuclear-free zone, but the country does not use nuclear power to make electricity. In the 1970s many immigrants came to New Zealand from the Pacific island like Tonga and Samoa, to work in factories. One decade later, New Zealand began to look first at the jobs that immigrants could do, instead of the country that they came from. This opened doors to many people who had not been able to move to New Zealand before.
5. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy, although its constitution is not codified. Elizabeth II is the Queen of New Zealand and the head of state. The Queen Is Represented by the Governor-General, whom she appoints on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Governor-General can exercise the Crown's prerogative powers, Such as reviewing cases of injustice and making appointments of Ministers, ambassadors and other key public Officials, and in rare Situations, the reserve. The powers of the Queen and the Governor-General are limited by constitutional constraints and they canâ€™t normally be exercised be without the advice of Cabinet.
The Governor-General can exercise the royal prerogative power and in rare cases, the reserve powers (the power to dismiss a Prime Minister, dissolve Parliament or refuse the royal Assent of a bill). the Governor-General also chairs, but without being a member, the Executive Council, an official commission composed of all the ministers of the Corona who advise the governor general. The Queen and the Governor-General usually canâ€™t exercise any power without the advice of Cabinet, except in circumstances where there is no cabinet or the cabinet has lost confidence parliament.
6. EDUCATION Education in New Zealand follows the three-tier model: primary schools, followed by secondary schools and tertiary education at universities and/or polytechs. New Zealand has the 7th best education in the world. The academic year in New Zealand varies between institutions, but generally runs from late January until mid-December for primary schools, secondary schools, and polytechnics, and from late February until mid-November for universities. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL In New Zealand the primary and secondary education is free and compulsory between the ages of 6 and 16. The children who are close to 16 have been experiencing some ongoing difficulty at school. Families wishing to home educate their children can apply for exemption. To get an exemption from enrollment at a registered school, they must satisfy the Secretary of Education that their child will be taught "as regularly and as well as in a registered school". TERTIARY EDUCATION Traditionally, the access to university didnâ€™t need an examination such as the Selectivity in Spain, but it was enough with the final examinations of the institute. Nevertheless, at present the majority of New Zealand universities demand some academic requirements. The habitual duration of a degree (Bachelor's degree) is three years, with the possibility of one year extra to obtain a Honours degree. Also there exist degrees of major duration. Universities in New Zealand: -Auckland University of Technology (Auckland) -Lincoly University (Lincoln, Canterbury) -Massey University (Palmerston North, Auckland, Wellington) -University of Auckland (Auckland) -University of Centerbury (Christchurch) -University of Otago (Dunedin) and (Invercargill) -University of Waikato (Hamilton) -Victoria University of Wellington (Wellington)
7. CULTURE The culture of New Zealand is largely inherited from the British and European one mixed with Maori and Polynesian tradition. New Zealand was recently settled by humans; now New Zealand is a cosmopolitan culture that reflects its changing demographics, it is conscious of the natural environment, and is an educated, developed Western society. -ARCHITECTURE The architecture of New Zealand is influenced by various cultures but it is predominantly of European style. Polynesian influence is also seen in some areas. -FOLKLORE Guy Fawkes Day is celebrated by burning an effigy of Guy Fawkes. In 1605 Fawkes was discovered in the cellar of the Parliament building in London with barrels of gunpowder, waiting to blow up the Parliament as it opened in the morning. In parts of New Zealand, children recite Guy Fawkes rhymes in a type of competition. Adults throw pennies to the children who recite the loudest or the best. Sometimes, certain adults heat pennies on a shovel held over a fire before throwing them. The anxious children pick up the hot pennies, regardless of the burns they receive. Some children carry painful reminders of Guy Fawkes Day for weeks. The Maori have a rich folklore tradition that is reflected in their native art, song, and dance. Some of their legends involve journeys containing highly detailed and accurate descriptions of New Zealand's terrain and of the surrounding waters. -GASTRONOMY The country's cuisine has been identified as “Pacific Rim”, taking inspiration from Asia, Europe and Polynesia. These influences have formed a delightful range of flavour and food in restaurants and cafés all over the country. Some food which has become popular part in New Zealand culinary culture are hangi, or earth-ovens food; fish and chips ; mutton and Vegemite. Popular desserts in New Zealand are pavlova; lolly cake; and Hokey pokey. There are areas in the country that produce wine like Gisborne, famous for its sauvignon White. For red wines, growers move towards Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir and even Syrah.
-ARTS New Zealand includes traditional Māori art, which was developed in New Zealand from Polynesian art forms, and more recent forms which take their inspiration from Māori, European and other traditions. -Māori art Māori visual art consists primarily of four forms: carving, tattooing , weaving and painting. It was rare for any of these to be purely decorative; traditional Māori art was highly spiritual and in a pre-literate society conveyed information about spiritual matters, ancestry, and other culturally important topics. -LITERATURE New Zealand literature is either written by New Zealanders or migrants, dealing with New Zealand themes or places. It is primarily a 20th century creation. New Zealand literature is almost exclusively in the English language and as such a sub-type of English literature. -Māori literature The Māori were a pre-literate culture until, they had contact with Europeans in the early 19th Century. New Zealand acknowledges the presence of its indigenous Māori and the special place they have in New Zealand culture. Oratory and recitation of quasi historical / hagiographical ancestral blood lines have a special place in Māori culture; eurocentric notions of 'literature' may fail to describe the Māori cultural forms of the oral tradition. -Poetry The first colonial Pakeha poetry was also predominantly sung poetry. Initially colonial poetry had a preoccupation with British themes. New Zealand poetry developed a strong local voice from the 1950s, and has now become a "polyphony" of traditionally marginalized voices. -Important novelists Novelists Patricia Grace, Albert Wendt, Maurice Gee and children’s author Margaret Mahy, are prominent in New Zealand.
8. NATIONAL SYMBOLS OF NEW ZEALAND -THE COAT OF ARMS: The Coat of Arms of New Zealand is regarded as the official symbol of New Zealand and was initially granted by King George V on 26th August 1911. Since 1911, the central shield has not been changed: there is a shield of four stars representing the Southern Cross constellation, witch is also seen in the national flag of the country. The Golden Fleece stands for the farming industry, while a wheat sheaf representing agriculture and the two hammers correspond to the mining activities and industrial development. A recent addition to it is that the shield is supported by two women on both sides holding the flag of New Zealand, and a warrior of the Maori tribe having a spear.
-THE FLAG: The Flag of New Zealand is similar to the Union Flag. It has four red stars with a white border. The stars represent the configuration of Crux, referred to as the Southern Cross, in New Zealand.
-GOD DEFEND NEW ZEALAND: Regarded as one of the national anthems of New Zealand, it has great significance in the lives of the citizens living in New Zealand. "God Defend New Zealand" was written in 1870 by Thomas Bracken, and its music was composed by John Joseph Woods. Due to its increasing popularity in the 19th and 20th century, it was finally adapted as one of the national anthems of the countries through a legal procedure. -KIWI: The small species of flightless birds form an invariable part of New Zealand's identity known as kiwi. Different scientific variations have been observed on the behavior of this species of birds after lots of research work. They also form an important part of rich traditional customs of New Zealand where nature is worshipped and apprehended as a great gift of God. Thus, these national symbols of New Zealand are a true representation of the lifestyle of the people living there. 12
9. SPORT Playing (and watching) sport is a very important part of life in countries. Water sports are especially popular because so many people live near the sea . If you like football, you will found four different kinds of football to play or watch in Australia. There is soccer – the game know as “football” in many countries – and rugby league, which is also played in England and some European countries. In New Zealand the most popular kind of football is rugby. The New Zealand team is called the All Blacks. Before a rugby match, the All Blacks do a haka- a Maori dance that makes them feel strong and tries to frighten the other team. It must work, because they are the most successful team in history. Many others sports are popular – tennis, running, netball, and golf are some of them. Thousands of people like to go to watch horse races, and many of them hope to win some money too. Thousands of New Zealanders watch the race as well – and sometimes the winning horse is from New Zealand.
10.CONCLUSIONS In these long days at doing the research project, we were very interested in the research of New Zealand and all the things that it country has. We could see that in New Zealand many things are different from here in Spain, such as the gastronomy, culture, politics, the economy and its great history. Now we can see the work that we made, it's really good to know more things about other sites of the world. It was hard work, but the result will be good.