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LONDON

Sara Jiménez Marta Fernández C–4


INDEX 1.Introduction 2.Geography and Population Clima Demography Languages Religion 3.History 4.Economy 5.Government and Politics 6.Education 7.Culture Architecture Folklore Gastronomy Arts Literature Performing Arts 8.National Symbols 9.Curiosities


1. INTRODUCTION In this project we speak about England: its cities, its climate, its monuments, its styles of food and curiosities.

2. GEOGRAPHY

AND POPULATION

England is on the island of Great Britain. Scotland is also part of Great Britain, joining the north of England, and Wales on the west. To the east and south, and part of the west, England is bordered by sea. France is in the south-east, separated by the English Channel. The Channel Tunnel under the sea links England and mainland Europe. Ireland is a large island on the west, divided into Northern Ireland which is part of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland. Other countries of Europe that are near England are France and Iceland. London is the largest city and the capital. Other large cities are Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Nottingham and Liverpool. The longest river in England is the River Severn. Other large rivers are the Thames (which runs through London), the Trent and the Humber. England is not an island, because it does not have water all around it. It is a part of the island of Great Britain.


2.1. CLIMATE England's climate is mild. The temperature is below 0 ยบ C in winter and it has higher temperatures in summer (32ยบC). The climate is very wet, in autumn and winter. It rains very often, specially in the Lakes Region. The coldest months are usually January and February and the warmest month is July. May, June, September and October are the months with the most rainfall throughout the year.

2.2. DEMOGRAPHY According to the 2001 census, England is the most populous country of the United Kingdom with over 51 million inhabitants, which represents 84% of the total population. There are about 395 people per km2. 82,8% -> White British 3,6% -> White Other 2,7% -> Indian 1,9% -> Pakistani 1,5% -> African


2.3. LANGUAGE English is the official language and 95% of the population speak it. Near the border with Wales, people speak Welsh. Welsh speakers are also very funny.

ENGLISH

WALES

Apple

Afal

Need

Angen

Company

Cwmni

Love

Wrth eu bodd

Wonderful

gwych

Home

cartref

Anything

Unrhyw beth

2.4. RELIGION There are about 10 religions in England. They are Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, Wicca, Druid


3. HISTORY The name “England” comes from “Angle-land”. The Angle and Saxon people came from Europe in the fifth and sixth centuries, and they called it Angle-land. After them, the Romans lived in England for about four hundred years. They made houses and roads. And they made a town next to the River Thames. And called it Londinium. Today its name is London. The Angles and Saxons came from the Northern Sea and Germany and Denmark. Later, the Vikings came from Denmark and Norway. In 1066, England had a new king. He was William of Normandy, the famous William the Conqueror. When he came to England, many French people came with him. In the nineteenth century, thousands of Irish people came to England and stayed there, and many Jewish families came from Europe and Russia. In the twentieth century, people came to England and made a new life. After the Second World War, many people came from the West Indies, Africa, and Asia. In the 1980s, people from Vietnam came because they wanted to get away from the war in their country. Today, nearly fifty million people live in England, and thousands more come from Pakistan, and Iraq, from Australia, Canada and India, and many other countries. Some are looking for work; some want to be with their families; others are looking for a better life. They brought with them their theatre, food, music, and art.


4. ECONOMY

Agriculture and fishing Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. It contributes around 2% of GDP. Around two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, and one third to arable crops. Agriculture is subsidised by the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy.The main crops that are grown are wheat, barley, oats, potatoes and sugar beets. England is one of the world's leading fishing nations. Its fleets bring home fish of every kind, from sole to herring. Kingston upon Hull, Grimsby, Fleetwood, Great Yarmouth, and Lowestoft are the coastal towns that have big fishing industries.

Finances The City of London is England's major financial district, and one of the world's leading financial centres. Service industries, particularly banking, insurance, and business services, account for the largest proportion of GDP and employ around 80% of the working population. Leeds is England's second largest financial centre, with over 30 national and international banks based in the city. Over 124,000 people are employed in banking and financial services in Leeds, and in the wider Leeds City Region. Manchester is the largest financial and professional services sector outside of London and it is the mid tier private equity capital of Europe.


5. Government and Politics England itself does not have a formal government or constitution, and a specifically English role in contemporary government and politics is hard to identify in any formal sense. Historically, the English may be credited with the evolution of Parliament, which, in its medieval form, was related to the Anglo-Saxon practice of regular gatherings of notables. The English may also be credited with the glory of the Revolution of 1688, which affirmed the rule of law, parliamentary control of taxation and of the army, freedom of speech...

6. Education Full- time education is compulsory for all children between 5 and 16 across England. This can be provided by state schools, independent schools or homeschooling. About 94 per cant of pupils in England, and the rest of UK, receive free education, while 6 per cent attend fee paying schools or homeschooling. There is O-level that pupils get when they finish school at the age of 16. A-level is got at the age of 18. They study different subjects: English, Maths, Science, IT, RE, History, Geography, Art, Music, PE. at key stage 3 they begin to study Foreing languages, too. Classes begin at 8.55 more or less and finish at 3.15. Students have lunch between 12,35 to 1.15 p.m. Schools provided the lunch or there are some students who prefer packed lunch taken from home. Pupils usually wear uniforms. Boys are dressed in grey or black trousers and a white shirt, while girls wear skirts. School holidays 2 weeks at Christmas 2 weeks at spring 6 weeks in summer

7. Culture


7.1. Literature Despite the variety of authors of English literature, the works of William Shakespeare are known in the English-speaking world. Until the early 19th century, the United Kingdom started to produce major writers and works in literature. After World War II writers from the former British Empire also began to challenge writers from Britain. Robert Burns, James Joyce, Joseph Conrad, Dylan Thomas, Thomas Pynchon, V.S. Naipaul and Vladimir Nabokov are considered important writers in the history of English literature.

7.2.Performing Arts Theatre is probably the performing art for which England is best known. Theatrical performance as such includes entertainers, tradicional and ancient folk agricultural ritulas, and dances such as the Morris dance(with its set character parts). Under the influence of Christianity, mumming plays gradully were absorbed by mystery plays (centred on the Psmerged during the Middle Ages in the form of mumming plays, wich borrowed sing of Christ). Inthe 16th century, when England’s King Henry VIII rejected Rome and formed a national church, Latin theatrical traditions were also rejected.


8. National Symbols The Union Flag is the symbol of the whole UK, not England alone. The three national symbols of England are as follows. St George’s Cross.

Three lions Emblem.

The oak is the national tree of England.

Oak

The red rose.


9. Curiosities – – – – –

English people consume more tea per capita than anybody else in the wold. Bristish police don’t carry guns except in emergencies. The highest temperature recorded in England was 38.5 ºC in August 2003. The telephone booths are a big curiosity for tourists. French was the official language in England from 1066 to 1362.


London