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Educational Purpose Only !!! If you like the book, pls. buy it. NTP


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0if&yfMuonf/ apmapmu rl;,pfaeonft h oGirf sm; aysmufuG,foGm;Muonf/ ]]a[haumif... &Jruftpkw?f tdrfa&SUrif; tBuD;awmf&JU nDukd apmfum;wJhtwGuf rif; b,fvkd tjypf&r,fqdkwm odaphr,f/ tckcsufcsif;vnf; a[m'Dvkd... a[m'Dvkd}} xdkol uREfkyfxH ajy;0ifvmonf/ odkYaomf olyif 'kwd,tBudrf vGihfpifoGm;&avonf/ oH a,mufr udkix f m;olu uREkyf \ f rsuEf Smudk ckw&f ef BudK;pm;onf/ wpfa,mufu usnaf wmufjzifh ½dkuf &ef0ifvmonf/ uREkyf fudk 0dkif;csKyf&ef BudK;pm;&if; wJtwGi;f rSm 0½ke;f oke;f um; jzpfoGm;onf/ uREyfk \ f wHawmifESifh vufoD;qkyrf sm;u olwkdYudk xdonf vnf;&dSonf/ olwkYd xdk;Budwcf sufrsm; uREfkyu f kd xd onfvnf;&dSonf/ olwkdY av;a,mufpvkH; uREfkyf xuf oefpGrf;Muolrsm;jzpfaMumif; awGU&avonf/ av;a,muftv,fwiG f uREkyf t f m;ukef vIy&f Sm;ae& onf/ &Jrif;xifudkvnf; tm;rudk;om/ uREfkyf ajray:odkY vJusoGm;onf/ wpf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïê

a,mufu uREfkyt f ay:rS zdum acgif;ESihfajrBuD; aqmifh&ef BudK;pm;onf/ xdkYaemuf av;a,mufpvHk; uREfkyt f ay:odkY 0dki;f csKyfMuawmonf/ nOfhwpf0uf eD;yg; umvrQ csrf;at;aom &moDatmufrSm uif; apmifhcJh&aomaMumifh uREfkyrf Sm tm;tifukefcef;um rl;a0aemufusdaeonf/ uREfkyfta&;edrhaf wmhrnf[k odvmonf/ odkYaomf uREfkyu f kd,af y:rSm 0dkif;zdxm;Muol rsm; wpfa,mufNyD; wpfa,muf vGio hf mG ;MuaMumif; awGUvkduf&onf/ &Jrif;xif 0ifulonf[k xifrd aomfvnf; yef;ema&m*gonf &Jrif;xifonf þrQ roefpGrf;&m/ aemufqHk;wpfa,muf vGihfoGm;tNyD;wGif uREfkyf jyefxvdkufonf/ þtcsdefwGif ESi;f uGJpjyKNyD/ yg;pjyKNyDjzpf aom ESi;f xkatmuf wJwHpyfNrdwf tpyfwiG f vlwpf a,mufudkawGUvdku&f onf/ uREyfk u f kd avSmifajymifchJ aom? uREfky'f l;ESihf wdkufcJhaom vlonf xdkolY vuf½Hk;xJwGif rvIyo f m r½kef;om jzpfaeonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]Edkihx f ufpD;eif; vkycf siMf uwJhvlawG xGuf oGm;Muprf;}} xdkolu ajymajymqdkqdk olYvufxJrSvlukd usefvlrsm;xHokdY wGef;aqmifhí ypfay;vdkufonf/ tm;vHk; z½dkz&J jzpfoGm;Muonf/ ]]a[h... b,fuaumif}} wpfa,mufu atmf[pfBuHK;0g;&ef jyifvku d f aomfvnf; pum;rqHk;rDrSmyif vlprd ;f onf rD;w&J&J xif;pESpfckudk zswv f wfpGm qGJ,lum wpfbufpD udki&f if;... ]]rsuEf mS rD;ravmifcsi&f if xGuo f mG ;Muprf;}} cufxufaom toGiEf Sihf xif;pudk a0SU,rf; aeyHkrSm aMumufp&m aumif;vSonf/ trl;orm;rsm; aemufqkwfoGm;onfESiht f rQ vlprd f;u a&SUwk;d oGm; onf/ wa&GUa&GU qkwf&if; wJtjyifokYd a&mufoGm; NyD;aemuf uREkyf f 'l;ESihw f ku d yf pfcJhaomolu vufoD; vufarmif;wef;vsuf BuHK;0g;aejyefonf/ ]]a[haumif... ypöEÅ&pfu awmom;? tdrf a&SUrif;tBuD;awmf&JU nDukd apmfum;wJhtwGuf rif; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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xdyfwHk;eJY Budrf'Pfoifhapr,f? em;vnfvm;}} ]]rw&m; apmfum;armfum;wJhvq l k&d if tdrf a&SUrif;tBuD;awmfruvdkY tdraf &SUrif;udk,w f kid yf J jzpf aeyap? ig*½krpdkufbl;/ rif;wdkY tBuD;awmfudk ajymvdkuf? ig 'Dtr&yl&rSmyJ &dSaer,f/ ighemrnf i&pf? rHk&Gme,f yef;&if;ac: iy&if;&Gmom;? rif;wdkY a&TNrdKUawmfu wHcg;rSL;BuD; OD;atmifqdkwm ightbdk; yJ/ oGm; taMumif;Mum;vdkuf}} trl;orm;rsm; aejynfawmf vrf;rbufodkY xGuo f mG ;Muonf/ vlprd v f nf; wJxJodkY 0ifvmav onf/ olYvufxJu rD;&J&J xif;ESpfacsmif;udk rD;zdx k J jyefxnfhum z½dkz&J jzpfaeaom ypön;f rsm;udk odr;f onf/ ]]aus;Zl;ygyJ a&mif;&if;? oif;wdkYu av; a,muftm;eJY 0dkif;csKyfawmh usKyfvnf; ½kww f &uf rckcHEdkif jzpfoGm;wm}} vlprd ;f u uREkyf u f kd wpfcsuv f rS ;f Munfhonf/ bmrQ jyefrajym/ olYtMunfhrSm wpfrsdK;[k uREfkyf xifonf/ olYrsufpd apmif;a,mifa,mif &dS[efwl ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

onf/ ypönf;rsm;udk odrf;&if; wJaxmifhrSm xdkiaf e aom &Jrif;xifudk olawGUoGm;onf/ ]]olu bmjzpfaevdkYvJ}} &efyJw G iG f &Jrif;xif bmaMumifh 0ifrulonf udk olar;aMumif; uREfkyf em;vnfvdkufojzifh... ]]olu rusef;rmbl;? yef;emonf}} ]]yef;ema0'emonfudk &Jrufxm;&owJh vm;? r[kwv f ku d w f m/ wyfrSL;wd?kY Adv k w f kYd nHo h udk;}} olYpum;aMumifh uREkyf f wkev f yI o f mG ;rdonf/ wyfrLS ;wd?Yk Adkvw f kYd nHo h ud;k [laom pum;rSm &mZ0wf oifhEdkio f nfh pum;/ NyD;awmh &Jrufwpfa,mufa&SU wGif rqifrjcif ajymonfhpum;/ olurl yuwd at;aq;wnfNidrfpGmyif arSmufcHkvJaeaom pm;yGJ0kdi;f udk jyefaxmifaeonf/ ]]t&D;... usKyfc&D;a0;u wpfnOfhvHk; tjyif;ESifvmcJh&wm? usKyfvnf; qmvSNyD}} taMumf',fa&SUwGif wifysOfacG xdkicf sum Aef;udkjyifay;onf/ apmapmu &efyGJ\ taiGUtouf udkaomfrQ olYxHü rawGU&awmh/ bmrQ rjzpfcJhovdk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îð

yif/ taMumfpm;&efom ta&;BuD;qHk; oabmxm; [efrsdK;/ xdktcgrSyif olu Y kd uREykf t f uJcwfciG h&f awmh onf/ aoQmifukd tnmwbufjzifh ywfxm;onf/ zsiMf urf;cg;wdktusÐrSm ESi;f rsm; &TJpkdaeNyD; atmufyk;d usKd ufxm;onfh rJykqdk;rSmvnf; &THUpufrsm; ayusHae onf/ olYrSm bmypön;f ? bmtxkyrf Qvnf; yg[ef r&dS/ iSuBf uD;awmif "m;wpfpif;udka[mif;EGr;f vSaom "m;tdrjf zifh vG,x f m;onf/ yg;vTmvSaom EIwcf rf; rsm;rSm pum;wpfvHk;wpfav xkwaf zmf&ef cJ,Of; onfhtvm; wif;wif;aphaeonf/ xdkifaeaom aMumifh olYt&yftarmif;udk cefYrSef;&ef cJ,Of;aomf vnf; uspv f spv f Sonfh <uufom;rsm;udkrl olYvuf armif; vufzsHrsm;qDwGif txif;om;awGU&onf/ rnfo dkYjzpfap þvlpd rf;um; uREfkyf\ tcuftcJukd 0ifa&mufajz&Si;f ay;ol? tEdkiu f sihaf pmf um;jcif;udk rcHwwfo?l olYudk aus;Zl;pum; qdk&OD; rnf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]a&mif;&if; usKyfemrnfu iopfyg/ &Jruf wpfOD;ygyJ/ apmapmu ajymoHMum;vdkuw f muawmh a&mif;&if;emrnfu...}} ]]iopfwhv J m;? usKyef cYJ yfqifqify/J usKyef m rnfu i&pf? rHk&Gme,fu yef;&if;ac: iy&if; &Gm om;}} ]]qH&k wm 0rf;ajrmufygw,fAsm/ tck a&TNrdKU awmfukd vmcJhwmu...}} ]]&GmrSm ESr;f cif; vkyw f ,fav/tvkyt f udkif raumif;vSygbl;/ raumif;wmxuf usKyu f 0goem rygwm cufw,f/ usKyfu rif;rIxrf;NyD; ppfwdkuf csiw f m/ 'Dtr&yl&u wHcg;eDrSL;BuD; OD;atmifqkw d m usKyftbk;d yJ/ tbdk;qDvmcJhw,f}} ]][kwfuJh... [kwfuJh}} wHcg;eDrSL;BuD; OD;atmifukd usKyf aumif;pGm odonf/ wHcg;rSL;rsm;teufwGif tcufxef tMurf; wrf;qHk;? r[kwfrcHpdwf t&dSqHk; tbk;d BuD;yif/ ,ck olYajr;ESihf vmawGUae&aomaMumifh ydkí tHhMoaerd onf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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]]at;Asm? tultnDvk&d ifvnf; ajymaygh}} ]]tultnD}} ]][kwfuJh}} ]]usKyfqkw d Jhaumifu b,folUqu D rS tul tnD ,lwwfwmr[kwb f l;/ wpfckck vdkcsi&f if usKyf bmom usKyf&atmif ,lwmyJ/ a&mif;&if;qDvnf; awmif;cGifhBuHKrSm r[kwyf gbl;}} olpY um; olaY voH rmaMumjywfawmif;aom aMumifh uREkyf pf w d fxJ wpfrsKd ;jzpfoGm;onf/ NyD;awmh zswu f eJ uREkyf x f H vSr;f Munfhvku d af om rsuv f k;H tpHk udkvnf; owdxm;vdkufrdonf/ ol rsupf dapmif; oa,muf &dSonfum; trSeyf if/ odakY omf olYrsuv f Hk; rsm; pl;&SvGef;vSonf/ ]]'D tr&yl&rSm bmjzpfaeMuwmwkef;}} ]]Asm...}} olYtaMumif; awG;aerdojzifh olYtar;udk r&Sif;rvif; jzpfoGm;onf/ ]]a0'emonfukd &Jrufxm;w,f/ eef;wGi;f om;awGu tcsed rf Jh? pnf;rJh t&ufaopm rl;,pfNyD; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

tm;enf;oludk apmfum;w,f/ rif;aejynfawmfrSm 'Dvkd rzG,rf &mrsKd ; aemufxyf bmawGrsm; &dSao;vJ}} uREfkyf bmjyefajym&rSe;f rod/ ]]usKyo f m tBuD;trSL;qdk&if 'grsKd ;awG vHk;0 onf;rcHbl;}} taMumfrsm;udk aumuf0g;&if; olYbmomol ajymaeonf/ ]]aeyGihfawmhr,f? usKyfoGm;r,f/ 'DrSm taMumfzdk;}} ajymajymqdkqdk ol xxGufoGm;onf/ wJt jyifa&mufrS jyefvn S hu f m uREykf u f kd vSr;f Munfv h su-f ]]AsdKU... udk&ifiopf? qHkMuOD;pdkY}} ESif;xkxJodkY xdk;azmufvmaeMuNyDjzpfaom aejcnfwef;rsm;udk oljzwfavQmufoGm;onf/jrif uGi;f rS aysmufu, G o f nftxd rsupf w d qHk; Munfah erd onf/ olESiyhf wfoufaom uREkyf \ f cHpm;&rItwGuf pum;vHk;ESpv f Hk;udk uREfkyf csufcsi;f &vdkuaf yonf/ cifrifav;pm;zG,.f ..ol/ À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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¬½»ºå øî÷ rHk&Gme,f? yef;&if;ac: iy&if;&Gmom; i&pf qko d lESifh aqmif;&moD wpfeHeufwiG f xl;xl;jcm;jcm; awGUqkcH &hJ Ny;D aemufykid ;f wGio f u lY kd uREkyf f pdw0f ifwpm; owdw& &dSaecJhonf/ olajymoGm;ovdk olYtbk;d wHcg;rSL;BuD; OD;atmifxHokYd ola&mufrS a&mufygav rvm;/ ol 0goemygonfh rif;rIxrf;ppfonf jzpfrS jzpfygavrvm;[k uREfkyf awG;aerdonf/ olu Y kd trSw&f aeaomfvnf; olEiS hf rqHkjzpfc/hJ olYowif;udkvnf; rMum;&?? pifppf uREfkyrf Smvnf; tr&yl& a&TNrdKUawmf&dS ajrmufjrm;vSpGmaom wyf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

awmfom;wdkYteuf NrdKUapmifw h yf\ omref &Jrufi,f wpfOD;rQom jzpfaomaMumifh eef;wGi;f wGif uREfkyf \ vIy&f mS ;ESUH pyfEikd rf rI mS usO;f ajrmif;ao;i,fvaS yonf/ xdkYtjyif olYtaMumif;udk wckw& pHkprf; zdkY xm;bdO;D ? uREkyf f udk,w f kid yf ifvQif wyfrawmfom; wdkY\ rjywfrvyf avhusifh&aom qifpD;? jrif;pD;? "m;vSH tJarmif;ESihf rD;aygufaoewf avhusiahf &;rsm; jzifh rtm;rvyfEikd &f Scd h&J onf/ txl;ojzifrh l rdbr&dS? aqGrsdK;nmwumr&dS/ wpfaumif<uufomjzpfaom uREfkyftzdkY avmuwGif b,folYudkrQ cifwG,fp&m r&dSjzpfav&m rdr\ d ppfa&;twwf uRr;f usijf rifhrm; a&;ESihf trIawmfxrf; t&mtqifh wdk;wufa&;onf omt"du jzpfavonf/ a&TNrdKUawmf&dS qifwyf? jrif;wyfEiS hf ajcvsiw f yfwrYkd mS vnf; bdk;awmfrif;w&m; BuD;\ trdeYaf wmfjzifh w&Hrem; wdk;csJUavhusifhaeMu onfjzpfaomaMumif?h uREykf rf mS bmudkrQ txl;taxG pdwfysHUvGihf 0ifpm;csdefr&Edkif/ tm;vyfcsdefrsdK;rSmyif vQif uREfkyfBudKufwwfaom xef;vsut f &ufudk tvsiu f vdk rSerf Serf rS0D jJ zpf/ tm;vyfcGih&f csderf sm;wGif ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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&JrufaoG;aomufrsm;ESihftwl 0dki;f zGJU ao,pfrnfh tpm; qifjzL&Sif rif;w&m;Bu;D vufxufu rif;Bu;D vuf0o J kE´& pD&ifchaJ om ]aoe*FAsL[m ppfordik ;f ESihf AsL[puúdysdKU}udkom txyfxyf zwf½Iavhvmaerd onf/ omref &Jrufi,fb0jzifh uREkyf f rauseyfEkid /f trIawmfudk pGr;f pGr;f wrH xrf;&if; tMuyf? aoG; aomufponfjzifh wpfqifhxufwpfqifh t&mwdk; wuf jrifrh m;a&;onfom uREkyf \ f wpfckwnf;aom &nfrSef;csufjzpfonf/ rdrdudk,rf drd rtm;rvyfatmif armif;ESif apcdkif;aeonfh tcsdefwdki;f wGif aqmif;wpfeHeufrSm qHkcJh&aom yef;&if;ac: iy&if;&Gmom; i&pfqko d lukd owd&aerdonfuawmh qef;onf qdk&rnf/ olYudk bmaMumifh rSwrf Sw&f & &dSae&ovJ qdkjcif;udk rlvu oabmraygufaomfvnf; wjznf; jznf; oabmaygufem;vnfvmonf/ pifppf þodkY em;vnfvmjcif;rSmvnf; aoG;aomufBuD; &Jrif;xif aMumifhyifjzpfayonf/ &Jrif;xifonf vuf½Hk;t&m wGif nHzh si;f vSaom a&m*gonf &JrufBuD;wpfa,muf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

jzpfaomfvnf; vlwpfOD;wpfa,muf\ tZÑwåESihf ywfoufírlum; aphaphpyfpyfjrifwwfaom olay yif/ i&pfudk owd&ç&aeaMumif;uREfkyu f ajym aomtcg &Jrif;xifu rsufvHk;rsm;udk pOf;i,farS; a,mif jyKvsuf ajymavonf/ ]]tif;...'Dvu l dk rif; cPcP owd&&ae w,fqkw d m trSeaf wmh rqef;vSygbl;/ awGUBuHK qHk qnf;&yHkav;udku trSww f & jzpfp&mudk;...}} taMumfwJ tjzpfoepfudk ol&nf&G,af jym jcif;jzpfonf/ ]]awGUBuHKqHkqnf;&yHku trSww f & jzpfp&m rdkYvkYd [kwv f m;? xm;ygawmh/ 'gayr,fh tJ'Dwke;f u cif;Asm;vnf; &dSaewm r[kwfvm;/ cifAsm;usawmh i&pfudk owd&w,fvdkY wpfcgrS rajymzl;ygvm;}} ]]at;av? iguvnf; rif;vlukd owdrS r&bJ}} ]]usKyfu bmaMumifh owd&ae&ovJAsm}} ]][... aumifav;&? olawmfcsi;f csi;f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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owif;avGUavGU aygif;zufawGUqkdwJhpum; &dSom; r[kwfvm;/ i&pfudk rif; trSw&f aewJh taMumif; &if;u i&pfudk rif;pdw0f ifpm;vdkYaygh/ pdw0f ifpm;& atmifuvnf; i&pfeJYrif; wlwm&dSvkdYaygh}} ]]bmwlwmvJ? bmaMumifh cifAsm; 'Dvkad jym Edkio f vJ aoG;aomufBuD;}} ]]igajymr,f? vlvlcsi;f rSm raem"mwfcsif; qufo, G rf w d wfwm &Sw d ,fu/G "mwfccH si;f qifw&l if pdwf0ifpm;wmcsi;f qifwl&if wpfa,mufudk wpf a,muf owd&aewwfw,f...}} ]]cifAsm;ajymwm ½Iyv f ku d fwmAsm}} ]]r½Iyyf gbl;? rif;em;vnfatmif ajym&,if a,musfm;av;eJY rdef;uav;&Jpm;oemjzpfMua&m qdkygawmh? olwkYw d pfa,mufudkwpfa,muf pdwf0if pm;aeMuavawmh wpfa,mufukw d pfa,muf owd& &aewmrsKd ;aygh? cspaf &;? BudKufa&; "mwfcHcsif;u wlaew,fav}} em;vnf o vd kv d ka wmh&S d o nf / od kY aomf oabmraygufao;/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]&Jpm;oemtaMumif; Oyrmxnfhraeprf; ygeJY? usKyfrvJ &Jpm;r&Syd gbl;}} ]]em;a0;oudk;uG? udkif;... igar;r,f? wdkY tckNrdKUapmifhwyfrSm rif;vdkomref&Jrufi,faygif; b,favmuf&So d vJ}} ]]axmifcsD&Sdwmaygh? cifAsm;vJ odom;eJY}} ]]at;... tJ'Daxmifausmf&SdwJhtxJrSm rif;[mwjcm;&JrufawGeJYrwl ppfonftwwfudk bmaMumifh 'DavmuftywfwukwBf udK;pm;aeovJ}} ]]usKyu f &Jrufb0eJY auseyfr,ht f aumifrS r[kwb f ?J tMuyf? aoG;aomuf? wyfrSL;? Adkv?f tqifh qifh wufcsiw f m vuf½k;H pGr;f jycsiw f m? ppfonfawmf aumif; jzpfcsiw f m}} ]]rif;vl i&pfvJ 'Dvykd J&rdS mS yJaygh? pD;yGm;vuf ikwf ESr;f cif;udkypfNyD; tr&yl&wufvmwmMunhf awmh? rif;wdkYEpS af ,muf tJ'Dv"kd mwfcHcsif;wlaevdkY? NyD;awmh "mwfcHcsi;f wlaewmudkvJ rif;utvdkvdk od v d k u f v d k Y i&pf u d k rif ; pd w f 0 if p m;wmaygh ? 'gyJayghuG...}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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]]usKyf... olYukd tawmfoabmusaewm

]]oabmusp&mygyJ? vlykMH unf&h wmuawmh a[h? twmf&nf&, G fcsufBuD;NyD;? tawmfjywfom;r,fh yH?k 'gayr,hf oabmraemuawmh ajzmifph if;r,fyh ykH }J } ]]aeprf;ygtH;k ? cifAsm;ajymwm bmwJ?h "mwfcH csi;f wlw,fqakd wmh usKyu f owd&aeovd?k oluaum usKyfudkrsm; owd&aervm; rodbl;Asaemf}} ]]ightxifawmh olvJ tvm;wl &Srd SmyJ}} ]]'gayr,f.h .. 'Dvb l ,fa&mufaew,fqw kd m rod&wmu cufw,fAsm}} ]]wHcg;eDrSL;BuD;qD oGm;ar;ygvm;uG}} ]]tbdk;atmifvm;? 'DvBl uD;eJY pum;ajym&rSm awmh veYfw,fAsm}} ]]tif;av? rif; pHkprf;aep&mawmif vdkr,f rxifygbl;? wpfaeYaeYawmh rif;wdEkY pS af ,muf qHkMu tHk;rSmygyJ}} aoG;aomuf BuD; &Jrif ;xif\pum;rSef v S

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íï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

aMumif; awGU&awmhonf/ olESifhuREkfyjf yefvnf qHkawGU&yHkrSmvnf; yxrtBudru f JhokYyd if trSwx f if xif &SdvSonf/ odkYaomf yxrtBudrfvkd aqmif; wpfeHeuf ESif;jzLawG ydwfqdkYaecsdef aejynfawmf vrf;axmifhu taMumfwJav;rSm trl;orm;rsm;ESihf &efyGJjzpfaepOf qHkyHkrsdK;ESihf vHk;0rqdki/f a&Teef;awmfBuD;\ nDvmcHobif? rSL;rwf y&dowfAdkvfyHktv,f/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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2

íî

bdk;awmfrif;w&m;BuD;\om;awmf oD&rd [m "r®bdZ,oD[ol& bGJUwHqdyfawmfcH tdrfa&SUpH ukd,fawmfBuD;onf (1170)jynfhESpw f Gif uHawmf ukefcJhavonf/ wefcl;vtwGi;f rSmjzpfonf[kom rSwrf o d nf/ aeY&ufudk uREfkyrf rSwrf ad wmh/ uHawmf ukef tdraf &SUuk, d af wmfBuD;\ t½dkut f &mudk bdk;awmf bk&m;u ajr;awmfppfudki;f rif;uav;tm; vTJtyf vdkufonf/ ppfukid ;f rif;onf a,musmf ;aumif; rif;jrwf wpfyg;jzpf aMumif ; awGU&í uREkfyf wd kYtm;vH k; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

0rf;ajrmuf 0rf;om&SdvSayonf/ ppfuikd ;f rif;uav;\ nDvmcHobifukd wuf a&mufciG h&f olrsm;teufwiG f uREyfk v f nf; tygt0if jzpfvmcJhonf/ &SpEf Spw f mumvtwGi;f wGif uREkyf f vnf; rem;raeBuKd ;pm;tm;xkwcf aJh om vHv kY Oó[ aMumifh &Jrufi,ftjzpfrSonftMuyf? aoG;aomufrS wqifh wyfom;ig;q,f? tMuyfig;OD;ESifh aoG;aomuf wpfO;D ? pkpkaygif;ig;q,fhajcmufOD;tay: tkycf sKyf &aom wyfrLS ;i,fb0odkY a&mufcNhJ yjD zpfonf/ wyfrLS ; i,fyifjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf\ wyfrAdkv fcsKyf a&TawmifpE´aemf&xm\ vuf½Hk;udk,&f Hawmftjzpf trIxrf;cGihf&onftxd tajcjrihrf m;vmcJhonf/ AdkvfcsKyfonf tdrfa&SUpH\nDvmcHobifodkY wuf a&muf&oljzpf&m ig;&ufwpfBudrf Adkvx f ktpHktvif nDvmcHobifaeYwkid ;f uREykf v f nf; uk, d &f aH wmftjzpf eef;awmfokYd 0ifciG fh&vmcJhonf/ þig;&ufwpfBudrfobif\ wpfckaom nDvmcHobifwGif olESix hf yfrH qHkawGUjzpfMujcif;ay ownf;/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íì

rPdyl&apmfbGm;? r[m&mZm a*sm*f spfqif; rcefYrnm;&Sdonhfta&;udk taMumif;jyKí bdk;awmf bk&m;\ trdeYjf zihf tdraf &SUpHppfukid ;f rif;uav; onf wyfrAdv k cf sKyfrsm;? Adv k frsm;? NrdKUpm;e,fpm;0efBuD;rsm; udk nDvmcHac:avonf/ ppfa&;nDvmcHjzpfaomf vnf; xdkaeYu eef;awmfcef;raqmifü tjcm;aom NrdKU0ef? trSL;trwf? trIxrf;rsm;vnf; wufa&muf Muojzifh cef;raqmifBuD;wpfckvHk; 'l;ra&TUo m avmufatmif jynfhusyfaeonf/ uREkfyfv nf; tdrfa&SUpH\ yv’ifESihf av;wdkiaf jrmuftcef;0,f Ad kv f csKyf a &T awmif pE´a emf &xm\ ukd , f &H a wmf wyfrª;i,ftjzpf AdkvfcsKyfaemufyg;rS 'l;wkyyf sy0f yf cpm;ae&onf/ obif c ef ; rtwG i f ; rS m td r f a &S UpH o nf rPdyl& ppfcsDwyfrrsm;\ tBuD;tcsKyfjzpfaom aersdK;rif;vS r[maemf&xmudk trª;jyKvsuf tjcm; Adkvcf sKyrf sm;? 0efBuD;rsm; ppfa&;aqG;aEG;aeMuonf/ ]]apmfbGm;ti,f rm*spfqif;u uREkyf fwdkY vufatmuf cdkvHIvmwmuawmh [kwNf yD? apmfbGm; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

tBuD;olYaemifawmf a*smf*spfqif;&JU ta&;udkyJ tm½HkpkdufMu&r,f? tck a*smf*spfqif; b,fa&muf aeovJ? olYaemufqHk;owif;udk odcsifw,f}} tdraf &SUpu H pum;tydktvdkroHk;bJ wku d ½f u kd f ar;avonf/ aersKd ;rif;vS r[maemf&xmu toH0gBuD; jzifh tpD&ifcHonf/ ]]aemufqHk; owif;t&awmh a*sm*f spfqif; [m ucsme,fuaewqifh uvuwåm;udk xGuaf jy; NyD; rsuEf SmjzLawGqDrSm cdkvo HI mG ;w,fvkYd od&ygw,f tdrfa&SUpHbk&m;}} ]]NAw d o d QawGqu D bmta&;qdo k H Mum;ovJ}} ]]NAdwo d QawG[m Oa&myrSm z&efppf jyifopf awGeJY ppfjyKae&vdkY avmavmq,frSmawmh a*smf*spf qif;udk tultnDray;Edkifao;ygbl;bk&m;}} ]]wyfrif;Bu;D ? avmavmq,fqw kd hJ pum;vH;k oifok;H oGm;w,f? 'Dpum;&JUwpfbuf teuft"dymÜ ,f u aemifwpfcsdeq f dk,ifawmhvdkY t"dyÜm,f&aew,f [kwfovm;}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íê

]]rsuEf mS jzL NAdwo d QawGukd bmtaMumif;eJrY S ,Hkpm;zdkYr&Syd g udk,faw,mfBuD;}} ]]rSeyf gw,fbk&m;? rPdy&l [m ppfaMumif; wpfckjzpfvmEdkifygw,f}} þwpfcg 0ifajymolum; uREykf f\AdkvfcsKyf a&TawmifpE´aemf&xmjzpfonf/ tdrfa&SUpHo nf wpf ckcku dk av;euf pGm awG;awm[efjzifh wdwfqdwfaeonf/ tdrfa&SUpHu wdwq f dwfaeaomaMumifh nDvmcHcef;raqmifBuD; wpf ckv Hk; wGif v nf ; yuwd N id rfo uf o Gm ;onf/ oufjyif;½dIuo f t H csKd Uudkom roJruGJMum;ae&onf/ xdkodkY obifwpfckvHk;wdwfqdwfNidrfouf aepOfrSmyif uREkyf x f kdiaf eonfhae&m\ aemufbuf usus 0Jaxmifhae&mqDrS... ]]atmifr,fav;... aoygNyDAs}}[laom pl;pl;0g;0g; atmf[pfow H pfcu k kd Mum;vku d &f awmhonf/ wdwfqdwjf cif;\tv,fA[dkwGif xGufay:vmaom atmfoHjzpfaomaMumifh cef;rBuD;wpfckvHk; [de;f ae atmif jrnf[nf;oGm;onf/ y&dwfowftm;vHk;&Sd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

&modkY udk,&f aH wmfwyfom;rsm; ajy;oGm;Muavonf/ wpfae&mqDwGif ½Iy½f Iyaf xG;axG; jzpfae onfukd awGU&onf/ Adv k cf sKyaf &TawmifpE´aemf&xm\ ud, k &f aH wmftjzpf uREkyf v f nf;Adkvcf sKy\ f tEÅ&m,fukd umuG,&f rnf[laom todcsucf si;f 0ifum ½kw½f kwf oJoJ jzpfae&mqDokYd wpf[kwx f k;d ajy;oGm;vdkuo f nf/ ppfa&;nDv mcHj zpfaomaMumifh "m;udkif aqmifcGih&f xm;aomfvnf; "m;tdrrf "S m;udk rcRwo f m? udk,f&Hawmfwyfrª;rsm; 0dki;f tHkaeMuonfhae&mqDodkY om ajy;0if,if; vltkyu f dk wGef;xdk;z,fxkwyf pf& awmhonf/ jcif;&mcyfodrf;udk awGUvkduf&onf/ eef;&ifjyifwGif vlwpfa,muf arSmufvsuf om; vJusaeonf/ aoG;paoG;e rawGU&aomfvnf; vJusaeolonf ryDro atmf[pfnnf;wGm;qJyif? vJusaeol\aemufwGif a&n§da&mif udk,fusy0f wf udk,f&Hawmftqifh&Sdol wpfa,mufonf olYudk 0dik ;f 0ef; csKyu f kid x f m;olrsm;vufxrJ mS ½ke;f uefaeav onf/ olyifvQif tEÅ&m,f&o dS [ l k csucf si;f odvku d Nf y;D ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íè

0dkif;csKyfolrsm;vufrS vGwx f Guo f Gm;aom olYvuf armif;udk uREkyf 0f ifí zrf;csKyv f ku d o f nf/ taxG;axG; t,Su, f SufjzpfaeaomaMumifh ½kef;uefaeol\ rsufESmudk aumif;pGmrawGU&/ tiftm;oefpGr;f pGm ½ke f ; uefa eaomaMumif h tm;pd kuf N yD ;csKyf &ef o m BudK;pm;ae&onf/ tem;wGiv f nf; wdk;a0SYvJNydKaeol rsm;jzifh ½IyfaxG;aeonf/ olYvufukd uREykf f rdr&d &zrf;csKyv f ku d cf sed rf Sm yif uREfky\ f wpfoufwGif aemufxyfrBuHKEdkifawmh aom tHhMop&m tjzpftysufudk awGUvkduf&awmh onf/ ]]usKyf b,frSrajy;ygbl;? csKyfraeprf;ygeJY iopf&,f}} toH&Siu f m; olrSol/ uREkyf \ f vl i&pf/ ]]tvdkav;... cifAsm;...}} twdkif;rodtHhMovGe;f aompdwfaMumifh uREkyf fbmrQ rajymEdkif/ i&pfu uREfkyu f dkrodrom NyHK;jyum... ]]usKyf vuf½Hk;udk zrf;udkiNf yD; tdrfa&SUpH ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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íç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

a&SUarSmuftxd ac:ayawmh}} ajymajymqdkqdk oluyifa&SUaqmifí xdwf vef Y tH hM oaeMuaom rsuf ES m rsm;a&S UrS j zwf u m tdraf &SUp\ H yv’iq f o D akYd vQmufomG ;onf/ uREykf v f nf; olYvufarmif;udk udkio f nfqk½d HkrQomudkií f vdkuyf g cJh&onf/ uREfkyfu zrf;qD;cJhjcif;r[kwb f J olu tzrf;cHcJhjcif;yif/ tdrfa&SUpHa&SUarSmufodkY ra&mufrD vrf;cGwf vyfwGif olu uREkyf fudk wD;wdk;ajymavonf/ ]]udk,af wmfBuD;a&SUa&muf&if &mZ0wfom;udk zrf;qD;&rdcyhJ gNyD bk&m;vdo kY mavQmuf iopfMum;vm;? usKyfajymwJhtwdki;f omvky}f } bmwpfckrQ em;rvnfaomfvnf; bmrQ rwwfEdki/f olajymovko d m vku d fem&awmhonf/ ]]&mZ0wfom;udk zrf;qD;&rdcJhygNyDbk&m;}} armhr Munh f & ojzif h rjrif & aomf v nf ; ppfukid ;f rif;\ rsuv f k;H tpHk rD;0if;0if;awmufaeonf udk odojzifh uREkyf af usmxJ pdrfhaerdonf/ i&pftzdkY um; rnfodkY&Sdavrnfrod/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ìð

]]nDvmcH eef;raqmiftwGi;f obiftcsed f tcgrS m b,f v d k rzG ,fr&mtrIrsd K; jzpfo vJ ajymprf;...}} uREykf u f kad r;aom ar;cGe;f jzpfonf/ bmjzpf rSef;rod&onfhtxJ tdrfa&SUpH\ cufxefaom toH aMumifh uREyfk w f pfuk, d v f ;kH wkeo f mG ;avonf/ odaYk omf uREkyf u f dk,pf m; 0ifajzvdkufolum; i&pfudk,w f kid /f ]]ud k , f a wmf B uD ; bk & m;? xm;,if v J &Si&f ygr,f/ owf&ifvnf; ao&ygr,f/ uReaf wmfrsKd ; emrnf i&pfjzpfygw,f? ewf&GmpHtrd fa&SUudk,af wmf BuD; vufxufuwnf;u t&Sifhvufxuftxd udk, f&Ha wmfw yf rª; i,ft jzpf trIx rf ; aeolyg bk&m;...}} ]]i&pf... aMomf... wHcg;eDrª;BuD;&JUajr; qdkwmvm;...}} tdrfa&SUpHu cufxefaeqJtoHjzifh ar;onf/ ]][kwfygw,fbk&m;}} xdktcd kufrSmyif wyfrª;i,fwpf a,muf uREkyf fwdkYab;odkY a&mufvmonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ìï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]i&pf[m olYa&SUu vlwpfa,mufudk jyif;jyif;xefxef axmif;Budwfvku d fygw,f bk&m;? taxmif;cH&ol[m owdvpfoGm;ygw,f}} cef;rwpfckvHk; toHwa0ga0gqloGm;avonf/ ]]taxmif ; cH& ol [m tBuD; awmf&J UnD iomNcHKygbk&m;}} olYudkvSr;f Munfhvkdufonf/ i&pfurl trl t&m wpfa&G;wpfaphr,Gi;f / ]]rif;... bmaMumifh 'Dvv dk ky&f wmvJ i&pf}} ]]rSefygbk&m;? trIawmfukd oufpeG YBf udK;yrf; NrJNrHckdifvHkpGm xrf;&Gucf Jhayr,fh uRefawmfrsdK; i&pf [m trnfemreJY vlyk*¾dKvfwGJNyD; todtrSwjf yKrcH&? a&SUawmfarSmufrSm rxifay:&wJhtwGuf t&Sihfem; t&Sihrf supf drmS aygufMum;atmif tckvkd jyKrv l ku d &f jcif; jzpfygw,fbk&m;}} toHrsm; qlnHoGm;jyefonf/ tdraf &SUpHum; b,fokY&d aSd vrnfrod/ pum;wpfvHk;pD wpfvHk;pDukd wkef,ifxpfaighjcif;uif;pGm ajymoGm;onfholYtoH tqHk;0,f uREykf Mf uufoD;arG;nif;xoGm;onf/ i&pf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½l;oGyfaeNyDavm/ tdrfa&SUpH\toH [def;íxGuv f mjyefonf/ ]]Adv k yf Hktv,f xifay:csiv f ?kYd ighem;ayguf Mum;csiv f dkY? i&pfqdkwm odapcsifvkdY 'Dvkv d kyw f ,f [kwv f m;}} ]][kwfygw,fbk&m;}} ]]wpf b ufo m;ud k temw&jzpf a tmif vkyw f m[m enf;rSefovm;}} ]]tjcm; ta&;t&mvJ ray:ygbk&m;? uReaf wmfrsKd ; i&pfjzpfaMumif; t&Sio f ad pzdkY 'Denf;om &Syd gawmhw,fbk&m;...}} ]]rPdy&l ta&; aqG;aEG;aewJn h v D mcHqkw d m rif;em;rvnfbl;vm;}} ]]rPdy&l ta&; aqG;aEG;wJh nDvmcHrv kYd J 'Dvkd vkyw f mygbk&m;}} ]]bm...}} ]]opöm azmufapmf b Gm;a*smf*spfqif ; t aMumif;Mum;vkduf&wJhtcgrSm aoG;ydkqlvmNyD; csuf csif; xaxmif;jzpfoGm;ygw,fbk&m;...}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ìí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wyfrif;BuD;rsm;qDrS cyftkyt f ky&f ,foHrsm; Mum;&ojzifh uREkyf fpdwfxJrSm tenf;i,foufom &m &oGm;onf/ ]]rif;... t½l;yJ}} ]]trIawmfukd onfhxufqwdk; xrf;&Gucf iG hf r&cJh,ifvJ uReaf wmfrsKd ;udk,w f iG ;f rSm ppfpw d pf pfaoG; awG aygufuGJNyD; ½l;oGyo f Gm;rSm trSefygyJbk&m;}} ]]rif ; ... b,f o l e JY pum;ajymaeovJ qdkwmaum od&JUvm;}} ]]rSefyg? xm;,ifae? owf,ifaoygr,f bk&m;}} ]]owfypf&r,fh tjypfrsKd ;rS r[kwaf ywmyJ}} uREkfyf&ifxJrSmyif oufjyif;csvkdurf donf/ i&pft&Judk; vGef;vScsnfh[laom pdk;&drfpdwfvnf; avsmhoGm;onf/ ]]'gayr,hf...}} tdrfa&SUrif;u pum;rqufao;bJ acwå&yfwefYNyD; rS... rif;xaxmif;cJw h hv J l[m owdarhaeNyD? xdkuf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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oifhwJh yPÖmeJYwuG olYukd rif;&Scd k;d awmif;yef&r,f}} ]]uReaf wmfrsKd ; ydkiq f ikd o f rQypön;f Opöm tm;vH;k udk ay;avsmyf gr,fbk&m;? 'gayr,fh &Scd dk;awmif;yef jcif;awmh rjyKyg&apeJYbk&m;}} ]]bm...}} ]]taxmif;cH&ol[m uReaf wmfrsKd ;&Sdc;kd xdkuf wJhvlr[kwyf gbk&m;...}} ]]a[h...rif;axmif;vku d fwJhvl[m tBuD; awmf&JU nDt&if;uG? em;vnfvm;...}} ]]rSefyg? iomNcHK[m aemif&if;jzpfwJhtBuD; awmf&JU t&Sdeft0gudk tm;jyKNyD; ao&nf rl;,pf aomufpm; tm;enf;olrsm;tay: aomhoGrf;qdk;&Gm; Edkifxufuvl jyKaeolygbk&m;...}} ]]a[h... vlru kd ?f igtrdeYaf wmf csaew,f}} i&pf wdwfqdwNf idrfoufaeonf/ jyif;xef aom oufjyif;½du I o f BH uD;wpfck olq Y DrS ay:xGuv f m onf/ ]]trdefYawmftwdki;f ygbk&m;...}} ]]oGm;EdkiNf yD}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ìë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wdk;wdk;oJhoJh pum;ajymoHrsm;? txl;tqef; rsuv f Hk;tMunfhrsm;udk jzwfvsuf uREykf w f akYd emufjyef qkwcf MJh uonf/ udk,&f Hawmf wyfr;ª rsm;u i&pfjzwf avQmufoGm;wdki;f uysmu&m &SJay;Muavonf/ olYtoGiu f m; ppfyGJjyef atmifEdkifolwpfOD; toGifrsdK;/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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]]aeprf;ygtHk; a&mif;&if;&m? a&SUrmS xdik af ewJh vl[m [dktaMumfwJrmS qHkcJh&wJhvlqdkwm a&mif;&if; tpuwnf;u odxm;vdkYvm;}} b,fu od&rSmvJ? usKyu f 'Dnv D mcHrSmawmh eD;wJv h l xaxmif;r[Jv h kYd tpuwnf;u qH;k jzwfxm; wm? uHaumif;csifawmh taxmif;cH&wJh vl[m usKyfwdkYrdwfaqGBuD;jzpfaewmudk;...}} ]]xm;ygawmhAsm? 'gayr,fh udk&ifv h yk yf kH t&J udk;vGe;f vSw,f}} ]]tdraf &SUpt H rsux f u G Nf y;D owfvJ aor,fvYkd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ìé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

qH;k jzwfNy;D om;[mudk;? toufupkd eG x Yf m;NyD;om;av}} ]]tJ'Dwkef;u usKyfjzifhtoufudk r½ª&Jbl;? udk&if[ h mu tdraf &SUpu H kd wpfceG ;f wifwpfceG ;f us ajym aeawmhwmuvm;}} ]]bmyJjzpfjzpf usKyftcktjypf jrLwrIefrS rwifb;l r[kwv f m;? 'Dy[ GJ m vl½l;vlrku d f qefayr,fh usKyt f zdaYk umif;aom tusKd ;&vm'fEpS cf k &vdkuw f ,f}} ]][kwfygw,f? udk&ifhukd a&Teef;awmfu odoGm;NyD}} ]]'guawmh usKyfcsdef&G,fypfvTwv f kdufwJh tJarmif;oGm;[m pufwkid fudk 0ifpGJwJhoabmrsKd ;yJ? rarQmfvifhbJ &vdkufwmuawmh iomcsHK}} ]]tif;... [dkvlawmh wpfcsufyJ atmfEdkif w,f}} ]]olrSe;f tpu rodcJhwm oluHaumif;oGm; w,f? EdkYrdkYqdk,if yGJausmif;wkef;u usKyfoifcJh&wJh teufwkefY enf;eJYaxmif;vdkuf&,if oif;ae&mrSm wif aoG;tefNyD;toufaysmufr,f? iomNcHK[m tifrwef,kwrf modrfzsi;f wJh vlYw&d pämefyJ? tdraf &SUpH ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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udk usKyfajymzdkY roifhvkdY oif;[m ol&mar&d,wif rubl; umarokorm;vJ jzpfw,f}} ]]'geJY... tdraf &SUpHu olu Y kd &Scd k;d awmif;yefzYkd trdefYawmf csvkdufwmaum...}} ]]iomNcHK 'Dw&d pämefvm; trdeafY wmfrkYd usKyf oif;udk awmif;yefzo kYd mG ;ygw,f/ usKyu f kd rawGU&b J ;l av? bDvl;o&JxifNyD; aMumufaMumufeJY oif;xGuf ajy;oGm;vdkuw f m tr&yl&rSmawmif r&Sad wmhb;l ... wJh}} ]]aumif;ygavAsm... aumif;ygavh}} xdkYaemuf olESihu f REfkyf tqifhqifh &mxl; wdk;wufcJhonft h aMumif;rsm;ESifh udk,&f Hawmf wyfrª; i,fb0txd a&mufcyhJ rkH sm;taMumif; toD;oD; vJv, S f ajymqdk jzpfMuonf/ ]]udk&if iopf&JU? udk&ifeJYusKyfeJYvJ taMumf wJrmS awGUNyD;uwnf;u vlcsi;f rqHkjzpf oGm;vdkuw f m wu,fhaeYusawmhrS &mZ0wfom;eJY zrf;qD;oltjzpf qHk&awmhwmudk;...}} olu &,f,if;ajymonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ìç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]rqHkjzpfayr,hf udk&ifu h kd usKyftNrJ owd& aeoAs}} ]]usKyv f J udk&ihv f ykd J taMumfwrJ mS awGUc&hJ wJh &Jrufi,fav;&JUtoGifudk jrifjrifaerdw,f...}} wpfaumif<uuf oHa,mZOfrJh uREkfyftzdkY wpfuk, d v f k;H aEG;axG;oGm;aponfh pum;yifjzpfawmh onf/ uREykf w f dkYum; emrnfcsi;f toHwl½HkrQomru &Jrif;xifajymovdk "mwfcHcsif;vnf; wlolrsm; jzpfaeMuNyDxifonf/ ]]usKyf wdkY aoG;aomufnDaemif&if;awG jzpfMuNyD udk&ifi&pf}} ]]toufxufqHk;ayghAsm}} ]]cifAsm; tck touf b,favmuf&SdNyDvJ ...? udk&if i&pf}} ]]usKyfvm;? av;q,fh av;ckzGm; av}}Ä ]][if... [kwv f m;? usKyfvJ av;q,fh av;ckzGm;yJ? b,fvvJ}} ]]wefaqmifrek ;f vqef; ESp&f uf? Ak'[ ¨ ;l aeY}} ]][m... usKyu f jymodv k qef;&Sp&f uf? Ak'[ ¨ ;l ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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aeY? Munfhprf; cifAsm;usKyfxuf ESpfvyJBuD;w,f? aeYcsi;f vJ twlwlyJAsKd U}} ]]aoG;aomufBuD;&Jrif;xifa&? cifAsm; ajymwmawG tm;vHk;rSeaf eNyD}}[kom uREkfyf&ifxJrS txyfxyftcgtcg a&&Gwrf davonf/ Ä

À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

¬½»ºå øí÷ rwnfrNrJ a&GUavsm ajymif;vJwwfaom tedpöw&m;udk uREkfyo f nf toufi,fi,f&G,&f G,f rSmyif oabmaygufem;vnfvmcJhavonf/ ajymif;vJrIrsm;uvnf; t&Sed t f [kef vsijf ref vSonf/ rsufESmjzL NAdwdoQrsm;ESihfywfoufaom ta&;t&monf a&Teef;awmftwGi;f wpfaeYrjywf ay:aygufaeonf/ wpfcsdefcsdefwGif NAdwdoQwdkYESihf ppfqufjzpfyGm;vdrfhrnf[kvnf; jynfa&;jynf&mudk em;vnfMuaom eef;wGi;f tBuD;tuJrsm;u BudKwif edrdwfzwfaeMuonf/ uREkyf rf Sm aoe*FAsL[m ppfynmrSty EdkifiH ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëî

awmf ta&;t&mrsm;ü uRrf;0ifESHYpyfol r[kwaf om aMumifh olwpfyg;ajymqdak eMuorQuo kd m em;axmif& avonf/ qifusKH ;? vSpH ufypfuiG ;f ? jrif;aZmif;? "m;a&; avhusihu f Gif;ESifh rD;aygufaoewfavhusihu f Gi;f rsm; wGifom 0ifpm;ESHpyfcJhaom uREkyf t f zdkY ½Iyaf xG;vS aom Edik if t H a&;rsm;udk vdkurf rDEikd /f pdwv f nf; r0if pm;vS/ uREkyf o f donfrSm rdrd\txuf tqifhqifh aom wyfrif;AdkvfcsKyfrsm;\ trdeYu f dk waoGrwdrf; emcHjcif;ESifh rdrdatmuftqifhqifhaom aoG;aomuf tMuyf&rJ ufrsm;udk wduspmG tkycf sKyjf cif;yif jzpfonf/ ,cktcg aoG;aomufBuD;&Jrif;xifvnf; &Jrufb0udkpeG u Yf m bke;f awmfBuD;ausmif;wpfausmif; ü uyÜd,0ifvkyaf eNyDjzpfonf/ uREkyf rf Sm tr&yl& a&Teef;awmfBuD;wpfckv Hk;ü pum;ajymqdkESD;aESm wkdifyifbufqkí d udk&if i&pfwpfa,mufom &Sad v onf/ odkYaomf oluvnf; olYwm0efESifo h l/ udk&ifi&pfonf vltrsm;pkEiS hf tusdK;ay;ol yif jzpfavonf/ nDvmcHobifü iomNcHKudk xaxmif;NyD; tdrfa&SUpHtm; wpfcGef;wifwpfcGef;us ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

&J0hpH mG pum;qdkchNJ y;D aemufyikd ;f wGif olt Y rnf owif; rSm eef;awmfwyfrwdki;f wGif arT;ysHUvmcJo h nf/ olonf vnf; tdrfa&SUpHudk,af wmf\ tdrfawmf0if;rª;tjzpf t&mwdk;jr§ihv f mcJhNyDjzpfonf/ ]tdrfa&SUeef;awmfrSm bDvl;apmifhaew,f}[k eef;wGi;f om;rsm;u wifpm; qdkMuonftxd olYt&Sed ft0g BuD;rm;vmonf/ olEiS u hf REyfk f Oykow f pfywfwGif wpf&ufom awGUqHkMu&onf/ awGUqMHk uonfhae&mrSmvnf; tdraf &SUpu H k, d f awmfBuD;\ pHtrd af wmf0if;twGi;f &Sd olt Y wGuf oD;oefY ay;xm;aom taqmifwGijf zpfonf/ olYtaqmif um; eef;awmf\tjcm;wyfrª;i,frsm;\ taqmifvkd ao&nfwaumif;rsm;? ydk;y0g cgomtkyrf sm;? a&Ta&;cs taqmifta,mifrsm;r&S/d wpfcef;vHk; vufeuf aygif;pHkjzifh jynfEh u S af eonf/ odakY omf vufeufrsm;udk csdwfqGJxm;odkyHkrSm oyf&yf &Si;f vif;onfESihftrQ odkuNf rdKufcrf;em;vSonf/ udk&ifi&pfonf vufeuf rsKd ;pHkukd tudkit f wG,f typftcwf txdk;tckwf uRr;f usi½f HkrQru vufeufrsm;tay: w½dkwaoxde;f odr;f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëì

apmifha&Smufolvnf; jzpfayonf/ xdkYxufrl uREkyf ftHhMo&onfh jrifuGi;f um; wu,fhppfa&; cef;raqmifBuD;twGi;f rSmom awGUEkid f aom ppfajrjyifppfaMumif;jhy ajryHkum;csyrf sm;udk pHkvifpmG csw d q f x JG m;jcif;yif jzpfonf/ rPdy&l tmoH? ucsma'o ppfajrjyifjyajryHkrsm;? tr&yl& a&TNrdKU awmf\ tao;pdwfajryHk? EdkifiHawmfajryHkponfh om;a&um;csyfrsm;onf eH&Hxufü tpDtpOfwus &Sad eMuonf/ xdjkY yif xl;jcm;aom ½kyyf ku H m;csyrf sm;udk awGU&ao;onfrmS AsL[puúyd sKd UwiG f uREkyf pf mtm;jzifh zwf½IcJhaom ppfcsD? ppfcH? ppfwuf? ppfjyef? ppfEdk;? ppfveS Yjf cif;? aoe*Frsm;udk wpfckpw D pfckpD o½kyaf zmf ½kyfyHkrsm;jzifh a&;qGJxm;jcif;yifjzpfavonf/ ]][m... udk&ift h aqmifu wu,fw h yfrif; AdkvfcsKyfBuD;&JU ppfa&;aqmifBuD;vdkygyJvm;}} [k uREkyf fu wtHhwMo a&&Gwaf omtcg olu... ]]ppfonfwpfa,muftzkdY qifpD;? jrif;pD;? "m;ckwf vSHxk;d aoe*FrSm uRrf;usi½f HkeJYwif rjynfhpHk ao;bl; udk&if? ajryHkum;csyaf y:rSm aoe*FAsL[mudk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

pDpOfa&;qGJNyD;awmhvJ ppfwdkufEdkif&r,f}} [k &ihfusufaom £ajE´jzifh jyefajzwwfonf/ xdakY emuf pm;yG&J n S af y:wGif ppfwk&if ½kyaf v; rsm;udk wyfrcif;jzefYovdkcsí ppfxdk;? ppfcsDyHkrsm;udk EIwu f ajymvku d ?f t½kyrf sm;udk a&TUvdkufjzifh pdw0f if wpm; vkyjf yonf/ ]][m ud&k if[ h mu wyfrif;Adkvcf sKyBf u;D awG&UJ t&myJ}} uREkyf f\ tHhMorIum; rukefqHk;Edki/f ]][kwfw,fav? ppfjyKMuw,fqdk&mrSm qifjrif; "m;vSHaoewfpGr;f &nf? ajymifajrmufwJh ppfonfawmfawG&JU wpfOD;csif; vuf½Hk;&nfvkdtyf ovdk? trdeeYf mcHjcif;? ,HkMunfr&I jSd cif;qdkwhJ ESvk;H &nf vdktyfovdk tck usKyfajymwJh ppftpDtrH tcif; tusi;f [mvJ t"duvdktyfwmyJ...}} ppfESiyhf wfoufaom olYc, H cl surf Sm jrifhrm; vSaMumif; uREkyf fawGUvm&onf/ udk&ifi&pfum; wu,fh ppfom;BuD;ayyif/ ]]udk&ifiopfuawmh usKyfukd twGif;od ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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tpif;odrkYd ajym&tHk;r,f? ppfeYyJ wfouf,if usKyfu awmh usKyu f k, d u f sKyf acgif;aqmifae&muyJ xm;NyD; pOfpm;w,f? &efolYtiftm;? ppfajrjyif taetxm;? c&D;vrf;tajctae? NyD;awmh ppfrsufESm? 'gawGukd NcHKiHkoHk;oyfNyD; b,fvkd aoe*Fcs&rvJ? 'gudkusKyu f t"du pdw0f ifpm;w,f? aoe*FtpDtrHaumif;,if aumif;oavmuf atmifyGJ[m aocsmw,f}} xl;jcm;aom ppfonfwpfa,mufjzpfaMumif; odvm&jyefonf/ ]]tck usKyw f kYrd mS rPdy&l apmfbmG ;ta&;u avmavmq,f ylaEG;aew,fr[kwv f m;? rPdyl&? tmoHe,fjcm;a'oawG&JU ajryHktao;pdwfudk usKyf tck um;csyrf Munf&h bJ tvGwf&aeNyD? awmawmif acsmif;ajrmif;a&wHcGeaf wG b,fem;rSm b,favmuf &Sw d ,fqw kd mutp usKyaf cgif;xJrmS xnfx h m;w,f}} olajymaeyHkrSm *kP, f l0ifh<um;[efrsKd ; vHk;0 r&S/d uREkyf fuk&d nfñeT f;ajymaeyHkrsKd ;vnf;r[kw/f olY bmomol wpfukd ,fwnf; pdwftm;xufoefpGm a&&Gwaf eyHkrsdK; jzpfonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]usKyf w d k Y tr&yl & ppf o nf a wmf a wG ? tif;... usKyfwdkY Armjynfom;awGrSm udk,yf dkif wpfO;D pD&UJ vuf½k;H &nf ESv;kH &nfeYJ ywfoufvu kYd awmh ajymp&mr&Sad ybl;? xdkufonfhtm;avsmpf Gm aoG; aumif;MuwJhoal wGcsn;f yJ? odakY omf aoe*FtpDtrHukd ppfynm&JU eufeJwJhtESpfom&wpf&yftaeeJY avhvm vdu k pf m;oluawmh tifrwef&mS ;w,f xifwmyJ? usKyf u 'Dynm&yfukd txl;0goemygwm? 0goemygonf ESiht f rQ tywfwukwv f J vufvSrf;rDoavmuf avhvmvdkufpm;cJhw,f? tif;... 'Dynm&yfuvJ vdkufpm;avav us,fjyefYeuf½dIif;avavygyJ}} olYtoGirf mS wyfr;ª tqif&h dS udk,&f aH wmf Adkvf wpfa,mufESihfrwlbJ wu,fhwyfrif;Adkvcf sKyfBuD; wpfa,mufvkd &ifu h suw f nfNidraf eonf/ tenf;i,f apmif;apGoa,mif&daS om rsufvHk;tpHkwkdYrSm pl;&S awmufyaom rsuf0ef;rsm;jzifh wpfrsdK;Munhfí aumif;aeoa,mifyif/ olu vSHvsiw f pfacsmif;udk eH&HrSjzKw, f lum ajryHkom;a&csyw f pfcktay:odkY vSHoGm;jzihf axmuf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëè

vdu k o f nf/ vSo H mG ;usa&mufonfah e&mrSm ]tr&yl&}/ vSHoGm;onf wdusaooyfpmG wa&GUa&GU vIy&f Sm;vm onf/ olYEw I rf S &Si;f vif;jywfom;aom pum;oHrsm; vnf; vSHoGm;a&GUvsm;onfhtwdki;f xGufay:vm onf/ ]]'g usKyfwdkY&JUaejynfawmf}} ajryHk\0JbufodkY vHSoGm;a&GUonf/ ]]'DrmS {&m0wD? taemufbuft&yfukd jzwf? csi;f wGi;f jrpfukd jzwf? a[m'g csi;f awmifwef;Bu;D awG}} pdwf0ifpm;rIrsm;jzifh uREfkyf NidrfoufoGm;avonf/ ]]teDpufjc,fxm;wJh ae&mawGukyd J Munfh? 'gppfwaumif;? a[m'gu wrl;yJ? 'Dt0ef;u rPdy&l ? ajrmufbuf... tJ... taemufajrmufbufu[m u tmoH? e,fpyfcsi;f xdpyfaeMuwJh a'oawG? awm awmif? tif;tdkif? acsmif;ajrmif;xlxyfNyD; tifrwef awmeufwJhae&mawG}} vSHoGm;udk ajryHkcsyfay:rS jyef½kyv f kdufNyD; aemufxyfajryHkvyd w f pfckukd BudK;pjznfcsvdkuo f nf/ ]]'DajryHku rPdyl&a'oudkyJ tqcsJUyGm;jy ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ëç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

xm;wJh ajryHk}} ajryHkcsyaf y:wGif tpdrf;a&mifrsOaf Mumif; rsm;udk awGU&avonf/ ]]udk&if tckawGUae&wJh tpdrf;a&mifrsOf; aMumif;awGu ppfcsDvrf;aMumif;awGyJ? wu,fvkYd rPdyl&udk ppfcsD&NyDqdk,if tcsed ftwdkqHk;? c&Dvrf; toifhqHk;eJY ppfcsDppfxdk;vrf;aMumif; tajyqHk;vrf; awGukd usKyaf &G;cs,o f wfrw S x f m;wm? 'gudk ud&k ifwYkd wyfrif;BuD; pdwf0ifpm;vdrfhr,fxifw,f}} olYpum;\ qdkv dk&if;teuf udk uREkfyf oabmraygufao;/ olu uREkfyfxHodkY zswu f eJ vSr;f MunfhvkdufNyD;... ]]apmfbGm;rm*spfqif;eJYywfoufNyD; ta&; awmfwpfck ay:vdrrhf ,fvYkd usKyw f u G x f m;w,f? rm*spf qif;[m olYtpfudk a*sm*f spfqif;&JU erlemtwdki;f vdkuv f rd hrf ,fvkYd usKyx f ifw,f? a&Teef;awmfeYJ a0;uGm vGe;f wJh e,fpyfa'ovufatmufcH jzpfaeavawmh olwkdYrSm ykefpm;zDqefzdkY tcGihfta&;awG&aew,f? MuHpnfEdkizf dkY tajctaeay;aew,f}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êð

olonf omrmefwyfrª;wpfa,mufr[kwf [laom todu uREyfk \ f &ifxrJ mS ydkíckid v f ko H mG ;onf/ olum; EdkifiHawmf ta&;t&mESihf ppfa&;ppf&mudk wGJzufoHk;oyfEdkio f l jzpfaeavonf/ ]]aemufNyD;awmh...}} olYtoH tenf;i,fwkd;oGm;onf/ odkYaomf rsufvHk;rsm;u ydkíawmufyvmMuonf/ wpfckckudk rke;f wD;&G&H mS onfh toGirf sKd ;jzihf rsuv f Hk;rsm; rodrom usOf;oGm;Muonf/ ]]usKyfawG;xm;wm rvGeb f l;xifwmyJ? 'D rPdy&l apmfbmG ;awG&JU aemufu, G rf mS NAw d o d QawG[m vufonf;0Sufxm;wJh aMumifwpfaumifvkd ykef; atmif;aew,f? usKyw f kY&d JU wu,f&h efo[ l m rPdyl& apmfbmG ;awG r[kwb f ;l ? aemufu, G u f NAdwo d QawG}} rsuf ES m jzLwd kYt a&;onf &if rat;p&m jzpfaMumif; uREykf o f x d m;aomfvnf; ]wu,fh&efo}l [k olajymoavmuftxd uREkyf f jrif rxm;aom aMumifh tHhtm;oifhrdavonf/ olu wuf<upGm qufajymonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]vlpGrf;vlpeJY ppft&nftaoG;udkawmh olwkdYukd usKyfwdkYu rIavmufp&mr&Syd gbl;? odkYaomf ppfeJYywfoufNyD; &efoltaMumif;udk awG;q&mrSm rkef;wD;rI? txifao;rIpwJh twåaemrwdawGukd twwfEdkifqHk; csKyfwnf;rsdKodyfxm;&r,f? yuwd tjzpfobm0udk jrifwwfatmifMunfhwwfzkYd vdkw,f? udk&ifodrSmyg? NAdwdoQawG&JU a&aMumif; ppftiftm; [m awmifhwif;cdkifrmw,f? NyD;awmh olwdkY&JU tajrmufpdefajymif;awG[m tjcm;EdkifiH&JU ppfwyf awGxuf ydkaumif;w,f? 'Dtcsuu f kd usKyfwkYd raygh ravsmh qifjcif;ESvHk;oGi;f tyfw,f}} oludk Munhfae,if;rSmyif olonf &Sd&if;pGJ xuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm BuD;rm;xGm;usKd i;f vmonf[k uREykf x f ifrad wmhonf/ xdkcPrSmyif olonf uREykf f ESihf t&mtqifhcsif; wlnDaomfvnf; uREkyf fxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm omvGeaf om yk*dK¾ vfwpfa,muf jzpfaMumif; em;vnfrad vonf/ aoe*FESifh ywfouf í olYtawG;t,lrsm; us,jf yefYeuf½dIif;yHkudkvnf; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êî

uREkyf f ajymrjywwfatmif av;pm;rdawmhonf/ olum; wu,f jynfh0xufjrufaom ppfonfawmf aumif;BuD;jzpf&ef vlYavmuodkY a&muf&Sdvmol jzpfonf[kvnf; uREyf k w f xpfcs ,HMk unfrad wmhonf/ wyfrª;tqifhcsif; twlwljzpfapumrl ol onf uREyfk x f ufvnf;aumif;? a&Teef;awmf wyfrrsm; &Sd tjcm;wyfrª;rsm;tm;vHk;wdkYxufvnf;aumif;? t&nftaoG; ydkrdkjynhf0pHkvifaomol jzpfonf[k uREkyf f t<uif;rJh0efcHrad vonf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

2

olYpum;rSefcJhayNyD/ bdk;awmfbk&m; uHawmfukefonf/ tdraf &SUpH ppfudki;f rif;onf bBuD;awmfbk&m;tjzpf tr&yl& xD ;eef ; ykv ’i fxuf o d kY pdk; pHt ky fcsKyf N yDj zpf o nf/ a&Teef;awmfwGif jynh&f Sib f k&iftopf ajymif;vJovdk yif EdkifiHawmf\ta&;t&mrsm;vnf; ajymif;vJvm cJhayNyD/ bBu;D awmfbk&m;\ bdou d o f eG ;f yGw J iG f vuf atmufcH ya'o&mZfrif;i,frsm;pHknD wufa&muf opömawmfcHMuonf/ odkYaomf ysufuGufol wpf a,muf&Sdonf/ rif;w&m;\ bdaouobifokYd rvma&muf [lonfh t"dyÜm,frSm? rif;w&m;\ tmPmawmfudk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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rodusKd ;uRefjyKjcif;? raxrJhjrifjyKjcif;? todtrSwf rjyKjcif;? wenf;qdkaomf ykefpm; zDqefjcif;yif jzpfonf/ xdkolum; tjcm;r[kw/f rPdyl&apmfbGm; rm*spq f if;aywnf;/ rzG,fr&maom trIyif/ rm*spfqif;onf ewf&GmpHbkd;awmfbk&m;\ aus;Zl;aMumihf apmfbGm;t½dkuft&mudk &cJhol/ olY tpfudk a*smf*spq f if;ESihf roifhrwifhjzpfMupOfu bdk;awmfb&k m;xHokYd olck0d ifum toem;cHtultnD awmif;cJhonf/ aemufqHk;wyfrif;BuD; aersdK;rif;vS r[maemf&xmudk tBuD;tcsKyfcefYí jrif;wpfaxmifh ig;&m? ol&JESpaf omif;? wyfrESpfq,fwkYjd zifh rPdy&l odkY csDwufodrf;,lum rm*spq f if;udk rPdyl&xD;eef; jyef&atmif vkyaf y;cJo h nf/ olYtpfukd a*sm*f spq f if;u umvuwåm;odkY xGuaf jy;oGm;onf/ ,ck ajr;awmf ppfuikd ;f rif; ]bBu;D awmfb&k m;} jzpfvmonfh bdaou obifokYd olrvm? opömawmfrcH/ bBuD;awmfb k&m;onf aejynf awmfud k ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

tr&ylrS tif;0odkY jyefvnfa&TUajymif;um eef;NrdKU wnfí pHcJhonf/ eef;NrdKUtopf wnfaqmufa&;jzifh rtm;rvyf &SMd uonfhtwGuf tif;0bdaouobif odkY rm*spfqif; rvma&mufonfudk apmapmydki;f u rnfodkYrQ ta&;t&m rxm;cJhMu/ odkYaomf rPdyl& apmfbGm;onf rif;w&m;\ opömawmfukd zDqefNyD[k wdwdvif;vif; jyvmawmhonf/ vufaqmifyPÖm tcGefb@m rqufoGi;f awmh/ uREykf \ f udk&ifi&pf BudKwifa[mude;f xkwcf hJ onf rSm rSe fcJhN yD/ wyfawmfrsm; tm;vHk;qDo dkY trdeYaf wmf wpfcsdew f nf;a&mufvmonf/ rPdyl&odkY ppfcsD&eftrdefY/ uREkfyf&if xJrSm 0rf ;ajrmufjcif;rsm;jzifh wuf<u vIycf keaf eonf/ taMumif;rl þppfyGJü uREkyf Ef Sihf uREkyf f\ udk&ifi&pf ESpOf D;pvHk; ]wrl;ppfaMumif;}rSm twlyg 0ifcGifh&cJhjcif;aMumifhaywnf;/ À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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uREkyf f\wpfoufwmwGif xl;xl;jcm;jcm; 0rf;ajrmufjcif;BuD;pGm jzpf&aomaeY wpfaeY&cSd Jhonf qdkygvQif xdkaeYum; tjcm;aeYrjzpfEdki/f rPdyl&odkY wyfawmfrsm;rcsDrD? oHk;&uf tvdkus a&mufaomaeYom jzpfcsdrfhrnf/ bBuD;awmf ppfudki;f rif;onf ppfcsDrnfh wyfawmfrsm;rS ppfonfawmfrsm;udk BuD;pGmaom taqmifta,mifjzifh t½dkuft&mrsm; cs;D jr§iht f yfESi;f vdu k o f nf/ bd;k awmfb&k m;vufxufwiG f tcguwnf; u trIawmfukd rjywfrvyf xrf;&Gucf o Jh nfh tMuyf? ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

aoG;aomuf? wyfrª;? Adkvrf ª;rsm;? tm;vHk;vky&f nf udki&f nfESifh vlpGr;f vlptay:wnfí jrifhrm;aom tqifhrsm;udk &&Scd JhMuonf/ þppfonfawmfrsm; teufwGif uREkyf fiopfonfvnf; ]aersdK;&Jacgif ausm}f [laom bGUJ trnfjzifh ]oajyig;&Gmpm;} jzpfvm avonf/ uREkyf o f nf wyfrª;r[kwaf wmh/ wyfrª; ig;a,muftay: tkyfcsKyf&aom ]ig;&mAdkvf} jzpfcJh ayNyD/ uREkyf v f ufatmufwGif wyfrª;ig;a,muf? aoG;aomufq,fa,muf? tMuyfig;q,f &Sv d monf/ nDvmcHeef;raqmifwGif wpfa,mufpD\ wd;k jr§iahf om t&mtqifEh iS fh bGUJ trnfukd oHawmfqifu h zwfMum;wdki;f zwfMum;wdki;f aumif;csD;ay;oHrsm; wtHk;tHk;xGuaf y:vmonf/ ]]wyfrª;iopftm; aersdK;&Jacgifausmf bGJU rnfjzifh ig;&mAdkvt f qifh jr§ihaf wmfrlonf/ oajy ig;&GmudkvJ pm;ap...}} teD;&Sw d yfr;ª rsm;u uREykf \ f vufukd zspn f §pf qkyu f kid u f m *kPjf yKpum; qdkMuonf/ uREkyf f&ifxJ wGif 0rf;ajrmufjcif; yDwrd sm;jzihf jynfhvQHomG ;onf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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odkYaomf... rdrd\ 0rf;omrIukd rdrdjyefvnfcHpm;aezdkY owdr&Edkifao;/ Ad k v f t qif h r sm;ud k aMujimoG m ;onf / wpfa,mufNyD; wpfa,muf/ ]]wyfrª;ijynfhtm; a&Tawmiftmum}} ]]wyfrª;ioefpGr;f tm; bk&ifpuú}} ]]wyfrª;iMueftm; aZ,saemf&xm}} ]]................................}} Adv k t f qifhrsm; NyD;qHk;oGm;onf/ uREykf &f ifxJ vIid f;xvmonf/ 0rf;ajrmufyDwrd sm;jzifh jynhfvQH aecJhaom &ifrSm csufcsif;[moGm;onf/ olrygvm/ uREkyf f\ udk&ifi&pf rygvm/ olYtrnfrMum;&/ bke;f awmf BuD;jrwfaom rif;w&m;\ trdeYf awmft& qufvufí wyfaygif;Adkvft&mtqifh csD;jr§ifh oem;awmfrlonfh trdefYawmfobifonf wdwfqdwfoGm;jyefonf/ uEéDNrdKU0ef aersdK;&Jacgifausmfxif? pav ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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êç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

NrdKUpm;aersdK;rif;vSausmfol? rwå&mNrdKUpm; rif;vS a&Tawmifausmf? 'vNrdKU0ef aersdK;rif;acgif.../ trnfwpfckNyD;wpfckom zwfMum;aMujim oGm;onf/ olYrnfudk rMum;&ao;/ uREkyf frSm rdrd oajyig;&Gmpm;jzpf&jcif;? aersKd ;&Jacgifausmf bGUJ trnf cH,l&jcif;wdkYtwGuf 0rf;ajrmufjcif;udk vHk;0rcHpm; &awmh/ apmapmu &&Sad omyDwdrsm; aysmufqHk; oGm;onf/ xdkpOfrSmyif... ]]bke;f awmfBuD;bk&m; tdraf &SUeef;pHpOfumv rSonf udk,f&Hawmftjzpf trIawmfudk &Gy&f Gycf RHcRH xrf;&Gucf Jhaom wyfrª;i&pftm;...}} oHawmfqifhu acwå&yfí touf½Iae onf/ uREykf u f k, d w f iG ;f üum; vSnhyf wfaeaom aoG; rsm;u w'dkif;'dkif;wdk;aqmifhaeMuayNyD/ ]]i&pf bmjzpfovJ? i&pfukd bmay;rvJ}} [k toHukeaf tmfar;vdkucf sio f nfh qE´ukd renf;csdK;ESrd f xm;&onf/ ]]rif;BuD;r[mAE¨KvbGJUrnfjzifh tvHkNrdKUudk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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pm;ap..}} uREkfy\ f ESvHk;tdrfeH&HokYd ½ku d cf wfomG ;onf/ [pfatmfa<u;aMumfvkdufaomtoHu txktxnf BuD;rm;vGe;f aomaMumifh EIwrf rS xGu/f vnfrmS wpfqYkd aeonf/ odkYaomf aumif;csD;ay;oHrsm;tm;vHk;xuf uREkfyf&ifxJrSm &SdaomtoHuydkí us,favmif jrnf[nf;vdrfhrnf xifonf/ ]]r[mAE¨Kv? ol[m r[mAE¨Kv... r[m AE¨Kv...}} À ÀÀ

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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

4

&r®m0wDNrdKUpm; owdk;rif;&Jausmpf Gm Adkvcf sKyf tjzpf OD;pD;aom wyfrsm;u ]rvdeaf cG;yl ppfaMumif;}/ 0efodkNrdKUpm; owdk;rif;&JoD[ol AdkvfcsKyf tjzpf OD;pD;aom wyfrsm;u ]ql;yHkppfaMumif;}/ rif;w&m;\ nDawmf 'Gm&m0wDrif;om; owdk;rif;&Jausmfxif AdkvfcsKyftjzpf OD;pD;aom wyfrsm;u ]wrl;ppfaMumif;}/ uREkfyw f dkY rPdyl&odkY ppfcsDcJhonf/ uREykf \ f r[mAE¨Kvonf wrl;ppfaMumif;wGif Adkvcf sKyNf yD;vQif ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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'kw, d tBuD;tcsKyjf zpfaom ]vuf0JppfuJBuD;}tjzpf tkyfcsKyfvkdufygvmonf/ uREkyf \ f wyfum; tjcm; wyfEpS q f ,fh oHk;xyfEiS t fh wl olYvufatmufrS yg0if vdkuyf gvmcJo h nf/ olonf uREykf x f uf t&mBuD;jrifh ol jzpfomG ;ayNy/D þodkY xdkuw f efavsmufywfpGm ol ppfuJBuD; jzpfoGm;onfhtwGuf uREkyf yf Gm;rsm;cHpm;& aom rk'w d m pdwftvsOfum; csKd NrdefvSybdjcif;/ a&mif;&if;aoG;aomufcsif jzpfvifhupm; uREkyf fxuf tqaygif;rsm;pGm t&nftaoG;jynfh0 uHkvHkayaom olYvufatmufü uREkyf f ig;&mAdkvf jzpfvm&jcif;udk uREkyf Bf uD;pGm auseyfrdawmhonf/ tif;0aejynfawmfrS xGucf JhNyD; ajcmuf&uf ajrmufaomaeYwGif olonfwyfOD;rS jyefvn S v hf mum uREkfyw f dkY\ wyfrsm;udk vma&mufppfaq;avonf/ tjcm;Adkvf ESpq f ,fhoHk;a,mufESihf twl uREyfk v f nf; ]rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kv}tm; wyftajctae udk tpD&ifcH&ef toifhjyifxm;&onf/ aeYv,favmufrS ola&mufvmrnf[k uREykf f wdkY xifxm;aomfvnf; olonf aet½kPw f ufprSm ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]rif ; BuD ; r[mAE¨ K va&muf v mNyD } [k aemufuif;wm0efus &JrufrSwpfqifh wyfrª;wpf a,mufu vmajymonf/ armufvludkaqmif;í aqmif"m;udkvG,fum uREkyf fwyfa&SUokYd xGuv f mcJh onf/ tjcm;Adkvrf sm;vnf; a&mufvmMu\/ rarQmf vifhaomtcsed fwiG f a&mufvmonfhtwGuf uREyfk w f kYd tm;vHk; tHhtm;oifhaeMuonf/ odkYaomf uREkyf u f usefAdkvrf sm;xuf 0rf;omjcif;wpfck ydkvrd hrf nf xif onf/ ol ]r[mAE¨Kv} jzpfuwnf;u uREkyf fwdkY rqHkjzpfMuao;/ wifhw,fcefYnm;aom olYtoGiu f dk jrif& ayNyD/ jrif;ay:rS olqifhvku d fonf/ r,HkEkdipf &m aumif;avmufatmif olBuHhckid x f mG ;usKd i;f vmonf[k uREykf x f ifro d nf/ uREyfk w f akYd &SUoYkd olavQmufvmonf/ wpfbuftpGefrS Adkvfrsm;udk olppfaq;onf/ wpf a,mufNyD;wpfa,muf/ xdakY emufuREykf Ef iS hf oHk;a,muf jcm;odkY ola&mufvmonf/ olu Y kd uREykf if haJ pmif;Munfh vdu k o f nf/ uREyfk &f adS ernfukd oloNd y;D jzpfonf/ uREykf f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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udkawGUNyD; olwpfckck aemufajymifusDp,fvmvQif r,kwrf vGejf zpf&atmif jyefí uspD ,f&rnfhpum;udk pOf;pm;aevdkufonf/ ol uREkyf fa&SUodkY a&mufvmonf/ olYudk uREkyf f pdkufMunfhvku d fonf/ uREkyf f rsuv f k;H rsm; NyHK;&dyo f rf;aeonfrSm aocsmonf/ ol uvnf; uREyfk u f kd pl;pl;&J&J Munfo h nf/ olrY suEf mS xm; yuwdwnfNidrfrmausmpGm/ ]]AdkvfaersdK;&Jacgifausmf}} ]][kwfygw,f... rif;BuD;}} tajzpum;wGif NyHK;&,f[ef taiGUt&dyf rygatmif BudK;pm;&onf/ ]]wyfr;ª ? aoG;aomuf? tMuyf? &Jruf tzsm; tem taotaysmuf&Sdovm;}} ]]r&Sdygbl;... ppfuJBuD;}} ]]ppfcsDvrf;aMumif;rSm a&SUwyf? aemufxyf tquftoG,f rjywf&Sdovm;}} ]]tqufo, G f rjywf&ydS gw,f... rif;BuD;}} ]]ppfcsD vrf;aMumif;udk em;rvnfwm&Sad o; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

vm;...}} ]]r&Sdygbl;... rif;BuD;}} ]]&du©m rQw&JUvm;}} ]]rQwygw,f... rif;BuD;}} ]]qif? jrif;? "m;? vSH? aoewf tysut f pD; tcRwft,Gif;}} ]]r&Sdyg... rif;BuD;}} ]]a&S U quf r ,f h ppf c sD v rf ; aMumif ; rS m Adkvf&efEdkifol&ausmfxifudk a&SUwyf? Adkvfrif;vS rif;i,fausmfxifudk aemufwyfxm;NyD; csD&r,f? wyfOD;wyfqG,f wyfNrD;rjywfrvyf qufoG,&f r,f? &du©mwpfqNcdK;NcH&r,f? awmeufxJrSm om;aumif awGU,if rypfcwf&bl;? 'Dua&SUukd qifoH? jrif;oH? vloH? txl;vHkap&r,f em;vnfvm;...}} ]]em;vnfygw,f.. rif;BuD;}} ]]ar;p&m&So d vm;}} ]]r... r&Sdygbl; rif;BuD;}} uREkyf af &SUrScGmum aemufAdkvw f pfa,muf qDodkY avQmufoGm;onf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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0rf;enf;tm;i,fpw d rf sm; zdpD;vmonf/ ol uREkyf fudk rSwrf dEkid fp&mr&Sd/ uREkfyo f nf ol\a&mif; &if;iopfjzpfaMumif;.../ odkYaomf olwpfcsufuav;aomfrS NyHK;&,f [efrjy/ ]iopf}[k olrac:/ ]Adkvaf ersKd ;&Jacgifausm}f [k ac:NyD ; jywf o m;wd u saomar;cG e f ; ES i h f trdeYrf sm;om qdkomG ;onf/ olYtay: b,fvkrd S pdwf ruGufrdaomfvnf; pdwfraumif;jcif;BuD;pGm jzpf& onfum; trSefyif/ ]]aMomf... cifAsm;u tvHkNrdKU0efrif;BuD; r[mAE¨Kv? usKyfu oajyig;&Gmpm; aersdK;&Jacgif ausmfr[kwfvm;? udk&if i&pf&,f...}} usKyf... em;vnfEdkifygw,fAsm/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

5

]]rif;BuD;u? Adv k t f m;vHk; olYet JY wl eHeufpm pm;zdkY zdwfac:w,f}} [k wyfr;ª wpfa,muf vmajymaomaMumifh uREyfk v f m omvmcJh&onf/ olESihx f yfí rsufESmcsif;rqdkicf sif awmh/ odkYaomf ppfuJBuD;\trdefYjzpfonf/ uREkyf f ysufuGuí f rjzpf/ eHeufpmtwlpm;&ef qihaf c:aomf vnf; ppfa&;aqG;aEG;onfhyGJ jzpfayrnf/ awmifZvyfyGihfrsm; &J&JeDaeaom awmpyf jrufcif;jyifwGif ol&daS eonf/ tjcm;Adkvfrsm;vnf; a&mufaeMuNyD/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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av;vHaom ajcvSr;f rsm;jzifh uREykf jf rufcif; xJodkY acgif;idkufpdkufcsvsuf 0ifvmcJhonf/ ]]udk&if iopf}} uREkfyfajcaxmufrsm;rSm a&GUvsm;ír&/ ae&mwGif tpGJtNrJ&yfaeonf/ olxikd &f mrS xvsuf uREykf q f o D Ykd avQmufvm onf/ uREkfyaf &SUwGif &yfonf/ uREykf f\vufarmif; udk qkyu f dkifí olxkdifae&modkY qGJac:onf/ ]]aoG;aomufwdkY rodMuao;bl;? usKyf tr&yludk pça&mufvmwJh aqmif;wpfreufrSm aejynfawmfu ppfonftjzpf yxrqHk; pawGU&wJh vl[m a[m'D... Adkvaf ersdK;&Jacgifausmaf c: udk&if iopfaygh? NyD;awmh.. iomNcHKukd usKyf xçaxmif;wke;f u usKyfudk udk,fawmfBuD;a&SUta&muf zrf;NyD; ac:oGm;wmvJ olyJ? AdkvfaersdK;&Jacgifausmf[m usKyfa&mif;&if;}} Adkvrf sm;tm;vHk; wtHw h Mo jzpfaeMuonf/ rif;BuD;ESihf uREkfyf a&mif;&if;jzpfcJhaMumif; uREkfyu f vnf; b,fou Yl rkd Q rajymzl;ojzihf b,folrSrodMu/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]udki;f ... udk&ifiopf? a&mh... cifAsm;u BudKufwwfygw,f}} 0g;qpfAl;wpfck olvSr;f ay;onf/ uREkyf rf Sm tHhMojcif;? 0rf;omjcif;? rdrd\odrfi,fpdwftwGuf &Su&f UjGH cif;? olt Y ay: txifrmS ;cJrh jd cif;twGuf ,lusKH ; r&jzpfjcif; paom axGjym;onfh xdcu kd fcHpm;&rIrsm; udk z,f&Sm;&Si;f vif;ypf&ef olurf;aom 0g;qpfAl;udk uref;uwef; vSr;f ,lí armhcsvkduf&avonf/ ]]a&mhAsm... trJajcmuf}} pum;wpfvHk;rSrqdkrdbJ olYtrdeYt f wdki;f om vIyf&Sm;aerdonf/ ]]b,fE, S v fh u J k&d if... pum;vJ rajymrqdk ygvm;}} uREkyf fbmajym&rSe;f rod/ olYudkawmif;yef &rnf[laom owd0ifvmNyD; ajym&ef EIwjf yifvkduf csdefrSmyif... ]]usKyo f yd gw,f? udk&if bmrSrajymeJYawmh? ½kwfw&ufawmh udk&ifpdwfxdcdkurf SmyJ? odkYaomf... apmapmu wyfAdkvfawGukd ppfaq;pOfrSm udk&ifhudk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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usKyf udk&ifiopf&,fvkdYudk rjrifbl;? Adkvaf ersdK;&J acgifausmfyJ? ig;&mAdkvw f pfOD;yJ? usKyfudk,fwkdiv f J vuf0JppfuJBuD;yJ? ppfumvtwGif;rSm i&pfr&Sb d ;l / iopfr&Sdbl;? trIawmfxrf;csdeftwGi;f rSm a&mif;&if; r&Sb d ;l ? trde?Yf wm0ef? owdw&m; 'gyJ&w d S ,f/ ppf onfawmfqdkwm[m ppfa&;eJYywfoufaewJh w'*F wdki;f rSm rdrd&JU0n d mOfa&m? ESvHk;om;udkyg ppf&JUcE¨m xJukd t<uif;rJh jrK§ yEf x HS m;&r,f? ppfuu J ppfuJ tvkyf udv k yk ?f Adv k u f Adv k t f vkyu f v kd yk ?f wyfr;ª ? aoG;aomuf? tMuyf? &JrufawGvJ 'Dtwdik ;f yJ? ppfwm0efqw kd hJ tod uaeNy;D qHjcnfwpfrQi?f a&G;wpfaph rvGaJ csmaf p&bl;? wdusjywfom;rI &S&d r,f? {aum raem wpfckwnf; aompdwo f m xm;&r,f? 'g[m ol&aJ umif;&JU orm"d w&m;vdkYvJ qdkEkdiw f ,f}} MuufoD;arG;nif; jzef;jzef;xoGm;onf/ uREkyf ftay: xGi;f azmufodjrifwwfaom olYpw d fudk vnf; oabmaygufomG ;onf/ uREyf k b f mrS ajymp&m rvdak wmh/ ]]uJ... usKyfukd udk&ifi&pfvkdY t&ifuvdk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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èï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

ac:NyD; pum;av;bmav; ajymprf;ygtHk;av}} olu &,f&,farmarmjzifh uREkfyf\ ycHk;udk zufonf/ olYvufarmifatmufwGif uREyfk af o;i,f oG m ;um ajrxJ j rKyf 0 if a wmh r nf v m;[k xif r d onf / ]udk&ifi&pf}[k uREkfy\ f EIwfrSrxGuf&J/ olonf uREkfyf\i&pfjzpfaomfvnf; xdktwdkif; ac:a0:oH;k EIe;f vQif olt Y ay: raxrJjh rifjyK&m a&muf onf[k ,HkMunfaerdonf/ pl;&Saom tNyHK;&dyw f pfcu k kd olrsuv f k;H rsm;xJ wGif jrifae&onf/ uREyf k \ f EIwrf S toHwpfoH xGuu f somG ;av onf/ ]]rif;BuD; r[mAE¨Kv...} olYrsufESmu tNyHK;aysmufuG,foGm;onf/ yg;vTmaom EIwcf rf;rsm; wif;wif;aphoGm;onf/ odkYaomf csucf si;f yif olYrsuEf Sm ajyavsmhomG ;um... ]]usKyu f kd i&pfvkYd ac:r,ho f [ l m rif;w&m; BuD; wpfyg;wnf;yJ useaf wmhr,feYJ wlyg&JU? Adv k rf if; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

èî

wdkYa&...[m;...[m;...[m;}} olY&,foHukd Mum;vdku&f awmhrSyif ½Iyaf xG; jynf h usyf a eaom uREk f yf \ tpd kif t cJ a 0'emwd kY ysufaus avsmhyg;oGm;&avonf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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èí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

6

uREkyf w f kY\ d wrl;aMumif;wGif wyfoHk;q,f? qifcEk pS q f ,f?jrif; wpfaxmifih g;&m? ol&w J pfaomif; ig;axmiftiftm; yg0ifonf/ c&D;um; xifonf xuf ydí k Murf;wrf;vGe;f vSonf/ c&D;um; xifonf xuf ydí k Murf;wrf;vGe;f vSonf/ acsmif;pG,?f ajrmif; pG,?f a&wHcGef? ausmufawmif xlxyfvSonfjzpf&m qifwyfrsm;rSm cufcufcJcJcsD&avonf/ wrl;odkY a&mufaomtcg uREkyf w f dkY\ wyf aygif;pktxJrS wyfig;wyf? jrif;ig;&mESihf ol&Jig; axmifukd ql;yHak Mumif;odYk cGaJ 0csw D ufc&hJ onf/ odjYkzifh rif;BuD; r[mAE¨KvESihf uREkyf v f nf; wrl;aMumif;rS ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

èì

ql;yHkaMumif;udk ajymif;a&TUcJhavonf/ AdkvfcsKyfBuD; aersdK;rif;vS r[maemf&xmrSm wrl;aMumif;rSmyif ae&pfcJhonf/ wrl;ppfaMumif;rS ql;yHkaMumif;odkY uREkyf w f kYd wyf ig;wyfajymif;cJhonfrSmvnf; olYtpDtrHjzpf onf/ ql;yHkaMumif;onf &efow lY yfrsm;ESihf yxrqHk; &ifqdki&f rnfh ppfvrf;aMumif; jzpfEdkio f nf[k olu wGucf suí f olu Y kd ql;yHak Mumif;odYk cGaJ y;yg&ef Adv k cf sKyf xH oluyif awmif;qdkcJhjcif;jzpfonf/ 'Gm&0wDrif;om; owdk;rif;&Jausmfxifu olu Y kd ,HMk unfpw d cf spmG wyfcaJG y;vdu k o f nf/ odjYkzihyf if uREyfk w f w kYd yfig;wyfonf olOY ;D pD;rIjzifh ]tdik rf eG af csmif; &Gm}teD;&Sd awmpyfodkY csOf;uyfrdcJhMuonf/ ol\aoe*F uRr;f usirf Ionf xif&mS ;ayNyD/ tdkirf eG af csmif;&GmawmpyfokYd uREykf w f akYd &muf&Sd wyfpcef;csNyD; wpfnOfhtvGerf Smyif &efolYwyfESihf &ifqkdiaf wGU&awmhonf/ rPdyl&wyfrsm;\ AdkvfcsKyf um; apmfbmG ;rm*spq f if;\ vuf½Hk;trwfppfolBuD; [mapm&Djzpfonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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èë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

rPdyl&wyfrsm;wGif tiftm;taumif;qHk; um; jrif;wyfjzpfonf/ olwYkd ppfjrif;Bu;D rsm; oefprG ;f xGm;usKid ;f ovkd jrif;pD;ol&rJ sm;vnf; uRr;f usiv f aS Mumif; awGU&onf/ olwkYo d nf wpf[kex f k;d ppfcsDí? wpf[kex f k;d ppfwuf um? wpf[kefxdk; ppfxdk;onfhaoe*Fukd toHk;jyKMu onf/ ½kww f &ufrl a'ouRr;f aom &efojl rif;wyf rsm;onf uREykf fwkY\ d ppfOD;uif;udk z½dkz&JjzpfomG ;ap onf/ uREyfk w f kY\ d ppfwyfaoe*FrmS ybuF&AsL[m jzpfonf/ rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvu wyf\a&SUwnfhwnfh wGif OD;pD;vdu k yf gvsuf wyfrsm;u aemufrt S xyfxyf vdu k u f m ppfuyfcJhMuonf/ &efolYjrif;wyf ppftxdk; aumif;vSaomaMumifh uREkyf fwdkY\aerif;o@mef ppfuyfaom ybuF&AsL[m yHo k @mefonf ysu, f iG ;f oGm;onf/ odkYaomf... ppfOD;uif;qDrSaeí &efoljrif;pD;ol&Jrsm;udk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

èê

&ifqdkiw f kduf&if;jzifh wyfrsm;tm;vHk;udk trdefYwpfck NyD; wpfck ay;aeaom ]olY}tpGrf;um; tHhbeef;yg ayyif/ ]]aZ,sa&Tawmifausmw f yf 0Jbufuku d yf}} ]]vif;Zif;Adv k w f yf nmbufukd 0du k Nf y;D qkw}f } ]]rif;vSa&Tawmifausmw f yf ppfcsv D rf;twdik ;f awmtkyt f pGefxd qkwo f Gm;}} ]]aersKd ;&Jacgifausmw f yf tv,fawmifaMum rSmwyfjzefYNyD;cif;}} &efolukd xdk;&if;ckw&f if; wyfig;wyf tESHY tjym;olYjrif;udk wpf[kefxkd;pdki;f um trdefYwpfckNyD; wpfckay;oGm;onf/ olYtrdefYtwdkif; uREkfyfwdkY vdu k ef m½Hu k vGNJ y;D bmaMumifh wyfawGukd wpfpw k pf½;kH rxm;bJ cGJjzefYaeaMumif; em;rvnfMu/ ausmuf awmifpG,frsm;? jrufcif;rsm;? awmpyfrsm;wGif ol trdefYay;onfhtwdki;f uREkyf fwdkYwyfrsm; csufcsif; ae&m,lvdkufMuonf/ &efolrsm;um; t&yfav;rsufESmodkY uGJjym; oGm;onfh uREyfk w f Ykd wyfrsm;udk awGU&aomtcg wyfNyKd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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èé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

NyDtxifjzifh wuf<uvmMuum eD;&mwyfaemufokYd vdkufwdkufMuavonf/ olurl wyfrsm;tm;vHk; ae&mjzefYNyD;onfESihf ausmufawmifpG,f ESpcf ktMum;odkY jrif;udkESiu f m "m;udk tay:odkY ajr§mufí wpfcJeufaom toHBuD; jzifh [pfatmfa<u;aMumfvku d o f nf/ olYxHrS xGuaf y:vmaom toHum;... ]]bkZ*}} tv,fawmifaMumwGif wyfjzefYcif;xm; aom uREkyf faumif;pGm oabmaygufvkdufNyD/ wpfrk[kwfcsif; ppfxdk;tpDtrH ajymif; vdu k Ef id k af om olaY oe*FynmpGr;f um; xufjrufaypG/ ]bkZ*}\ t"dyÜm,fum; ppfxkd;jcif; t*Fg ajcmufyg;teuf a>rwGm;oGm;ouJo h Ykd auGUaumuf azmuf xGi;f 0iftyfaom ppfxdk;jcif;aywnf;/ wpfxyfpDukd olvSnhv f nftrdeYaf y; ae&mcs ay;vdu k af omtcg uREyfk w f \ Ykd wyfig;wyfonf bkZ* aoe*Fac: a>rwGm; ppfxdk;yHko@meftwdki;f wnfrd MuNyD/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

rSm/

èè

olu a>re*g;\tarmufae&m ppfOD;uif;

a>rOD;acgif;jzpfaom wyfO;D rS olvyI &f mS ;onfh twdik ;f a>r\ wGefYvrd af om udk,yf dki;f ae&m&Sd uREkfyf wdkY\ wyfrsm;u vIyf&Sm;ppfxdk;Muonf/ a&SUwuf? aemufqw k ?f ab;odzYk x hJ u G ?f 0JbufoaYkd uGU? ,mbuf odaYk umuf? a>rwpfaumif\ vIy&f Sm;rIrsKd ;/ uREkyf fwdkY\wyfrsm; wpfxyfpD wpfae&mpD upOfhuvsm;uGJjym;oGm;MuNyDtxifESihf eD;&mwyf aemufoYkd zdvu kd cf MhJuaom &eforl sm;rSm olwu Yk d , kd w f ikd f upOfu h vsm; jzpfoGm;&avonf/ uREkyf fwdkYwyfrsm;rSm wpfae&mpD &Sdaeaomf vnf; twGeYt f vdr?f t&pftacGrysuaf om a>ruJhokYd qufpyfpkpnf;aeMuonfjzpfav&m olwkdYomvQif a>r\ 0ef;0dku&f pfacGxm;aom udk,v f k;H xJwGif ydwrf d vsufom; jzpfoGm;Muonf/ xGufajy;wdr;f a&SmifEdkipf &m vrf;&Sdonfh awmifMum;vrf;rsm;twdki;f olwdkYtjyif;qkwfMu aomfvnf; xdak e&mwGif ]a>rud, k v f ;kH }&Sad eonfom/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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èç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

&efol rPdyl& jrif;wyfajy;vrf;r&Sad wmh/ a>r\OD;acgif;rS ]ol}ud, k w f ikd u f vnf; tqufrjywf wpfcsuNf yD;wpfcsuf aygufaom a>ruJhokdYyif/ bk Z *aoe*F w G i f a>rvnf y if ; ae&mü yg0if&aom uREykf \ f wyfonf olEiS w fh pfqufwnf; jzpfonfhtwGuf olYudkwpfcsdefvHk; jrifae&onf/ aemufqHk;rPdyl&trwfppfolBuD; [mp&D\ udk,x f J odkY olY"m;epfjr§KyfoGm;onftxd/ &efolYwyfOD; NydKavNyD/ t"ducHppfaMumif; ysufavNyD/ eHeufcif;rSpcJhaom wdkuyf GJonf rGe;f twrf; wGif tNyD;owfomG ;onf/ausmufawmifxlxyfaom ppfwvif;0,fppfajrjyif\ obm0tcif;tusi;f udk csucf si;f wGucf suí f bkZ*Faoe*F ppfxkd;tpDtrHjzifh e,fuRrf;aom &efolwkdYtay: atmifyGJcHvkdufEdkif onfh t"dutaMumif;&if;um;... ol... rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvaywnf;/ À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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çð

¬½»ºå øì÷ 1

rPdy&l ppfyw J G iG f olonf olyg0if&aom ppf aMumif;rSmvnf; ppfcsD? ppfwyf? ppfxdk;tpDtrHrsm; jzifh uREkyf w f x kYd ufykí d tiftm;BuD;aom e,fajruRr;f aom &efow Yl yfrsm;udk wpfyNJGy;D wpfyJG tEdik , f cl o hJ nf/ xdrk Qomru tjcm;wyfrsm;odv kY nf; ppfxk;d tpDtrHukd ay;ydkYulnDcJhonf/ apmfbGm;rm*spq f if; udk,v f Gw½f ke;f í xGuf ajy;oGm;onf/ ycef;BuD; NrdKU0efrif;BuD; rif;acgifausmf uvnf; vusfmppfuJBuD;tjzpf olESihftwl ppfyGJ tajctaeudk rjywfaxmuf v Srf;quf o G,f um rPdyl&udk taemufbufrSvkyBf uHonf/ uREkfyfwdkY wyfrsm;wGif qifwyftustqHk;rsm;vSaomfvnf; BuD;pGmaom atmifyGJukd &Sv d kdufavonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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çï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

rPdyl&NrdKUawmf\ausmufwHk;jzifh NyD;onfh jrifhrm;vSaom NrdKU½k;d wHwkid ;f BuD;a&SUwGif uREykf fwdkY\ wyfrrsm;tm;vHk; qHkMuonf/ atmifyGJcHwyfrrsm; ppfaMumif;toD;oD;rS csw D ufvyk Bf uNH y;D ,ckvkd jyefqkH Mu&aomtcg uREkyf w f kY\ d wuf<urIrSm tqHk;tprJh yif jzpfawmhonf/ wyfrrsm; pHknDMuNyD;aemuf oufqkid &f m wyfrif;rsm; Adv k cf sKypf pfuJrsm; csucf si;f pHknDaqG;aEG;Muonf/ olu Y kd uREykf af t;at;aq;aq; awGUcGihrf &cJh/ odkYaomf a&mufav&m wyfpcef;wdki;f wGif ]rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kv} [laom trnfukd wvIid f vdiI Mf um;ae&avonf/ tcsKd UaomAdv k rf sm;u olt Y pGr;f udk wtHhwMojzpfaeMuaomfvnf; uREkyf frlum; wyfrª; i,f b0uwnf;u rPdy&l a'o\ ajryHu k kd tvGwf &aecJhaom olYaMumif;odNyD; jzpfo jzihf xl;í rtHhMordawmhay/ ql;yHk ppfaMumif;\ OD;pD;Adkvcf sKyf jzpfaom owdk;rif;&JoD[olurl... ]]rif;BuD;AE¨Kv[m rPdyl&rSm tBudraf ygif; rsm;pGm ppfvmwdkufzl;cJhwJhtwdkif;yJ? olYaoe*F tpDtrHawG[m tydktvdkr&Sdbl;}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

çî

[k xkwfazmfcsD;usL;avonf/ olwYkd wyfrif;? Adv k cf sKy?f ppfurJ sm;\ aqG;aEG; rINyD;oGm;NyD;aemuf nnfhv,favmufwGif wyfaygif; Adkvrf sm;udk qifhac:ojzihf uREykf t f yd &f mxJrS xvdkuf oGm;&onf/ uREkf yf w d kY t m;vH k ; pH kn D a &muf o nf E Si h f rif;w&m;BuD;\ nDawmf'Gm&m0wDrif;om; Adkvcf sKyf owdk;rif;&Jausmx f ifu trdew Yf pfckukd xkwq f ihv f ku d f onf/ ]]rPdy&l rSm igwdYk tapmifw h yfxm;cJNh y;D usef wyfrawGaejynfawmfudk jyefr,f? tapmifhwyfu tckncsif; wm0ef,l? usef wyfrawG csucf sif; toifhjyif? eufjzefeHeuf ½kyo f rd f;r,f? 'DrSm usefcJh &r,fh wyfawGtwGuf uEéDNrdKU0efu Adkvrf ª;? aersdK; aZ,soBuFeef YJ &Jxiftaemf&xmausmaf cgifu ppfu?J NrdKUapmifhwyf&JU tBuD;tuJAkdvt f jzpf aersdK;&Jacgif ausmf ae&pfaer,f}} trdefYtwkdif; uREkyf frPdyl&wGif NrdKUapmifh wyftBu;D tuJ Adv k t f jzpf ae&pfum wm0ef,&l awmh ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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çí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

rnf jzpfonf/ olESit hf wl aejynfawmfjyefwyfwGif rvdkuf ygEdkifawmh/ tm;i,foa,mif jzpfoGm;aomfvnf; olY rsufuG,fü wm0efBuD;wpfckudk ,l&rnfjzpfojzifh *kPf,lrdavonf/ wyfaygif;Adkvfrsm; pHknDaqG;aEG;yGJtNyD;wGif ol uREkfyx f Ha&mufvmonf/ olYrsuEf Smay:wGif awGUjrifaeus wnfNidrfrIrsdK;/ ]]NrKd Uapmifw h yf Adv k t f jzpf ud&k ifu h kd a&G;vdu k f wm usKyfyJ}} uREkfyfuvnf; þtwdki;f yif awG;rdNyD;jzpf onf/ ]]rif;BuD; r[mAE¨Kv&JU a&mif;&if;wpf a,muf[m r[mAE¨Kv&JU tkycf sKyfuGyfuJrIrygbJ? olYbmomol tpGr;f tp jyKEkid w f ,fqkw d mudk xif&Sm; apcsiv f dkYyJ}} uREkyf facgif;ndwfjyvdkufonf/ ]]wpfckawmh rSmcJhr,fukd&if? wyfrBuD;awG ½kyo f rd ;f NyD; jyefoGm;aMumif;? 'DrSm NrdKUapmifhwyfxm;cJh ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

çì

aMumif;? &efoo l w d t hJ cgrSm olwv Ykd mNy;D wdu k Ef ikd w f ,f/ 'DrSm wyfav;wyfxm;cJhr,f? &efolY tvHk;t&if;[m udk&ifwx kYd uf ydkNyD;tiftm;BuD;rSmyJ? udk&ifwkYd yGBJ urf; awGU&vdrfhr,f}} ]]arQmfvifhxm;ygw,f... rif;BuD;}} ]rif;BuD;} [laom toHk;aMumifh oluREykf u f kd &dyfueJ Munfhonf/ odkYaomf olYudk uREkyf f,cifvdk ]udk&ifi&pf}[k rac:Edkiaf wmhaMumif; uREyfk frsufvHk; rsm;u azmfjyaeMuayrnf/ ,if;udv k nf; ol em;vnf oGm;[efwlonf/ tac:ta0: toHk;tEIef;rsm;udk oluvnf; pdwrf 0ifpmawmh[efjzifh qufajymonf/ ]]NrdKUapmifhwyfAkv d ftjzpf udk&if vlpGr;f vlp jyyg/ rMumcifrSm udk&ifeJYusKyf eD;eD;uyfuyfaecGihf &ygvdrfhr,f}} ol vSnx hf u G o f mG ;onftxd uREyf k af e&mwGif &yfaerdonf/ olYxHrS cGeftm;rsm; uREkfyw f Giu f sef&pf cJhovdk cHpm;&rdonf/ À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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çë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

2

olajymoGm;onfhtwdki;f yif wyfrBuD;rsm; ½kyo f rd ;f oGm;NyD;aemuf av;&ufajrmufaomaeYrSmyif rm*spq f if;onf vufatmufcH apmfbmG ;trsm;tjym; \ wyfrsm;udk pk½Hk;vmum xdkppfqifcJhonf/ NrdKU½kd;ESiahf 0;uGmaomae&mrSaeí olwkYo d nf tajrmuf? pdeaf jymif;rsm;jzifh ypfMuavonf/ uREykf f \ NrdKUapmifhwyftygt0if usef&SdcJhaom tiftm;rSm oHk;axmifom&Sday&m aomif;csDí wufvmaom rPdyl&wyfrsm;udk tjyif;txef ckcHMu&onf/ tajrmuf q ef t vS r f ; tuG m oif h v S a om wyfav;wyf NrdKUtjyifxGufí qkw&f awmhonf/ wyfqkwv f rf;aMumif;rSmyif jyif;xefaom wdkuyf JrG sm; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

çê

jzpfyGm;av&m Adkvfom&puúESifh Adkvef &mausmfacgif wdkY usqHk;&onf/ uREykf \ f NrdKUapmifhwyfum; yGMJ urf;tawGU&qHk; yif/ &efolwkYo d nf olwkYNd rdKUukd olwjkYd yeford f;jcif; jzpfojzifh wdkufcif;wdkuu f Guf? txdk;tazmuf uRr;f usiNf y;D jzpfaeMuonf/ uREyfk \ f wyfom;trsm; qH;k udk csxm;aomawmifbufNrdKU½k;d rkcu f kd olwkYd tvHk; t&if; tBuD;qHk;oHk;í tjyif;txef wdkuMf uonf/ NrdKU½k;d udk tvHkyw d í f BuHUBuHUc½H HkrQty tjcm;enf;vrf; r&Sdawmh/ uREkyf fwdkYxHwGif tajrmufpdeaf jymif;tcsdKU &Sdaeaomfvnf; NrdKU½k;d tjyif tvSr;f a0;vGe;f vSaom ausmufawmifrsm;udk tumtuG,f,lxm;onfh &efol&Sd&modkY ypfcwf&efrSm tcsnf;tESD;jzpfaom aMumifh tajrmufwyfom;rsm;udk toHk;rjyKawmh/ cHppf\ t"dutjzpf NrdKU½k;d rkcf0 wHwkid ;f udk om tcdkiftrmae&m,lvdkufonf/ rPdyl&wdkYonf rdkurf JvSpmG jzihf NrdKU½k;d udk avScg;axmifwufMuonf/ NrdKU½k;d xdyfrS uREkyf \ f &Jrufrsm;tzdkYum; olwkYad vSum; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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çé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wpfpif;NyD;wpfpif; uyfvmavav aoG;<uavav yif/ NrdKU½dk;xdyfrS i½kwf&nfrsm;? qDylrsm;jzihf avmif;csum uRHí a&mufvmwwfaom &efoludk vSHvsifjzifh y,f&Sm;ypfwwfMuonfh uREkyf w f dkY\ uRrf;usifrIudk olwkdYrodMu/ Nrd KUapmif h wyf zG JU&Sd &mod kY wpf ck N yD; wpf ck vSnhfvnf ppfaq;trdefYay;&if;jzifh ]ighae&mwGif r[mAE¨KvqdkvQif b,fodkYpDrHtrdefYay;rnfenf;}[k ESvHk;oGi;f pOf;pm;cJhaMumif;udkum; 0efcH&ayrnf/ NrdKU½dk;xdyrf S uREkyf f rqif;awmh/ &efolrsm; wpfwyfNyD;wpfwyf csO;f uyfvmonfudk NrdKUapmifh wyftaejzifh tiftm;ESpx f yfjzihf ckcHwGef;vSeyf pf&ef uREkfyfpDpOfvkdufonf/ yxrwpfxyfrSm rD;aygufaoewfukdiw f yf jzpfonf/ rPdyl&NrdKUusHK;onf uREkfyfwdkYtif;0 tr&yl& NrdKUusHK;rsm;avmuf rus,faomaMumifh usHK;udk olwdkYjzwfuloGm;csed fwGif NrdKU½dk;ay:rSaeí aoewfjzifh ypfcGihfomonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

çè

odaYk omf uREyfk w f \ Ykd aoewfrsm;rSm ,rf;xd;k ? ,rf;xdef;um ywfxnfh? xdk;wefESihaf qmifhíodyf? em;cGuw f iG f ,rf;udyk ?kH tay:u pdik af y:tky?f rD;armif; wif? rD;armif;usNyD;rS pdkifaygifvuf0g;u oHjyifESihf ½dkucf wfNyD; rD;yGi?fh rD;yGihpf JrG S em;cGuu f rD;awmufu usnq f efxGuf&aom ausmufrD;aoewfrsm; jzpf onf/ wpfcgwpf&H tcefrY oifo h nft h cg rD;ryGijh fcif;? rD;yGihaf omfvnf; em;cGuv f rf;udk rD;rpGJbJ vGaJ csmjf cif; wdkYaMumifh usnx f Guf&ef cJ,Of;vSay&m wpfcsuEf Sihf wpfcsuftMum; ypfcwf&ef jyifqifaecsdefrSmyif &efolrsm;u usHK;udkjzwful; a&muf&SdvmMuonf/ eD;uyfvmNyDjzpfaom &efoludk aoewfjzifh ypf&ef rjzpfEikd af wmhaomaMumifh aoewfukdif &Jruf rsm;\ aemufwGicf sxm;aom 'kw, d txyfukd toHk; jyK&onf/ 'kwd,txyfum; 'l;av;wyfaywnf;/ uRrf;usifv Saom vufrsm;u jrm;wH wpfacsmif;NyD;wpfacsmif;udk n§Kd UwGifqifum taumif; qHk; tuGmta0;&Sd &efol\xHokdY twnhfrwfqHk; ypfvTwEf dkifMuonf/ uREkfyfudk,w f kdirf lum; vSHvsif ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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çç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

rsm;udk tpnf;vdkuf csxm;NyD;? wpfacsmif;NyD; wpfacsmif; qJG,lum &efoludk vSHwpfcsufvQif wpfa,muf csdef&G,yf pfpdkuf&avonf/ &efolYtavmif;rsm;onf NrdKU½dk;tjyifbuf atmufajcwGif tpkvdkuf tyHkvkduf jzpfvmonf/ uREkyf w f dkYbufrSvnf; olwkdY\ aoewfusnq f ef aMumifh trsm;tjym; usqHk;&onf/ uREkyf f\nmbufvufarmif;rS tom;wpf wpfckvnf; &efou lY snq f efwiG f ygoGm;onf/ ezl;p wGiv f nf; wdkuf½kdurf rSefapumrl ,rf;aiGUoifhaom aMumifh avmifuRr;f ndKrnf;oGm;onf/ olwYkd aoewf rsm;rSm uREkfyw f dkYxuf ydkíaumif;rGefaMumif; awGU& onf/ toHvnf; ydí k us,o f nf/ ypfcwfrIwpfcsuf ESihfwpfcsuv f nf; uREkyf w f kY\ d ausmufrD;aoewfvkd tcsdefrMumvS/ rnfoq kYd kad p/ olwkYd tustqHk;rsm;onfurl taotcsmyif/ teD;uyf &ifqkid w f ku d cf ku d yf GJwiG f ta&;rom onfudk olwdkYoo d Gm;NyD; ta0;rSom tajrmufjzifh ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïðð

ypfMuonf/ tajrmuforH sm; tqufjywfawmhonf r&Sdojzifh uREkfyfwdkYtm;vHk;em;yif;oGm;Muawmhrnf avm[kyif xifrdonf/ wdkufyGJwGif 'kw, d aeY/ &efolwkdY NrdKU½dk;udk wuf&ef BudK;pm;onfhtBudrfaygif; &SpBf udraf jrmuf wGifum;/ Adkvrf ª; uEéDNrdKU0ef? ppfuJrsm;jzpfMuaom aersdK;aZ,soBuFe?f &Jxifaemf&xmausmfacgifESihf uREykf af v;OD;om; tjyif;txef aqG;aEG;&awmhonf/ uREkf yfw dkY\ aqG;aEG; wdkifyif yGJrSmvnf; tajrmufqefrsm;w0ke;f 0kef; aygufuGJaeonfhMum;rS yif a&Smif&if;wdrf;&if; jyKvkyMf u&avonf/ aemufqHk;wGif aejynfawmfrS ppfulawmif; &ef qHk;jzwfvkdufMuonf/ ,if;twGucf &D;vrf;qdk;&Gm;vSaom csif; wGif;a'oudk tjrefqHk;ESiEf dkirf nfh jrif;onfausmf wyfzGJUwpfzGJU a&G;cs,v f dkufonf/ jrif;onfausmf wyfom;wdkYonf &efolwyftaeusJonfh ta&SUbuf rsuEf mS rS azmufxu G Nf y;D ajr'l;NrKd UokYd OD;wnfomG ;&rnf jzpfonf/ ajr'l;rS wyfudkwpfqifh apvTw&f efpDpOf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïðï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

vdkufonf/ þtpDtpOfukd uREykf u f csrw S v f ku d o f nfwiG f aersdK;aZ,soBuFefu ]][m..cifAsm;rif;BuD; r[m AE¨Kv&JU a&mif;&if;rdkYvkdY? olYvkd tpDtrHrsKd ; csrSwf wwfwmeJY wlw,f}}[k ajymao;onf/ odjkY zifhyif jrif;onfawmf wyfzGJUukd apvTwf cJhNyD;aemuf ig;&ufajrmufnodkY a&mufcJhavonf/ &ufowåwpfywfvHk;vHk; aeYaeYnn &efolwyfrsm;u tvSnjhf zifh 0ifwku d Mf uonf/ uREykf w f kYrd Sm &So d rQ tif tm;jzifh tvSnu hf svmorQ &efou l kd 'dkicf í H wku d cf ku d f ckcHae&onfjzpfí wyfom;rsm; tm;tifqkw, f kwf vmonf/ uREkfyfvnf; aoewf'Pf&mrS tem&Sdef aMumifh tzsm;0ifvmonf/ &Jxifaemf&xmausmfacgifvnf; aygifwGif 'Pf&m&oGm;onf/ uREkyf fwdkYacgif;aqmifav;OD;rSm 'Pf&mudk vnf;aumif;? zsm;emjcif;udkvnf;aumif; arhazsmuf ypf&um wpfaeYwmudk tcsed fav;ydki;f cGJí OD;pD; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïðî

uGyfuJMu&avonf/ tqrwef rrQwaom tiftm;csif; ,SOf& onfjzpfí &efolwo kYd nf NrdKU½k;d udk av;bufav;wef ydwq f kYrd o d Gm;Muonf/ uREykf \ f tcsed yf ikd ;f jzpfaom nOfhoef;acgifrS eHeuft½kPfwuftxd umvtwGuf wdkufyGJudk uGyu f &J ef NrKd U½;dk ay:odYk wufco hJ nf/ NrKd U½;kd xdyo f Ykd uREykf f a&mufoGm;aomtcg 'Pf&mtxyfxyf &aeMuNyD jzpfaom &Jrufrsm;rSm tm;wufoGm;[efjzifh 'l;av; udk pGJukid fvkdufMuonf/ &Jrufi,fwpfOD;u uREyfk u f kd vSHvsit f pnf; vdkufvmay;onf/ olYudk vufumjyvdkufNyD; uREkyf af jymvdkuf onf/ ]]ighukd 'l;av;eJjY rm;usnaf wmufyJ ay;awmh uGm? 'l;av;n§dKUudkawmh BudK;pm;NyD; iifEdkirf ,fxif wmyJ? vSHvsiu f kad wmh igt&Sed jf yif;jyif; rypfEkid af wmh bl;}} &Jrufu a,mifukid ;f aeaom uREykf \ f vuf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïðí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

armif;udk Munfhí 'l;av;ESihf jrm;usnfawmufudk xkwfay;onf/ jrm;wpfpif;xkwfí nd§KUwGifwyfum iifMunfo h nf/ b,fvufuo kd ;kH í &ao;aMumif; awGU &í uREkyf ftm;wufrdonf/ &Jrufi,fonf uREfkyf 'l;av;n§dKU BudK;iifyHkukd Munfhí NyHK;ae&Smonf/ xdktcsderf Smyif aoewfow H pfcsuf ay:vmNyD; &Jruf i,fcrsmrSm tNyHK;yifrjy,fwwfao;aom rsufESm av;ESihf usno f ifhum acGusoGm;avonf/ vufarmif;'Pf&mudk uREkfyo f wdr&awmh/ wyfqifxm;NyD;om; jrm;wHukd ypfvTwv f ku d fonf/ NrdKU½dk;atmufrS aoewfukid &f efol\ vnfrsKd odkY xkwf csif;ayguf/ aemufxyfjrm;wpfpif; 'l;av;n§dKUwGiw f yf? n§dKUukid if? aemufxyf &efolwpfa,muf? aemufjrm; wpfpif;? aemuf&efolwpfa,muf/ vIyf&Sm;&vGe;f ojzifh uREkyf \ f vufarmif;rSm aoG;rsm; &TJepfaeonf/ n§dKUudkqGJí armif;cvkyu f dk n§pv f ku d w f kid f; 'Pf&ma[mif;rS aoG;rsm;,dkpD;usvm onf/ Mumvmaomtcg emusirf o I nf txGwt f xyfoYkd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïðì

a&mufoGm;[ef&Sdonf/ uREyfk rf mS vufwpfbufr&Sad wmhovdk cHpm;& onf/ xdkcPü uREyfk f ½l;oGyo f mG ;Ny[ D k &Jrufrsm;u xifMuaMumif; aemufydkif;wGif ajymjyavonf/ jrm;usnfawmufoHk;ckukd toHk;jyKcJhonf/ wwd,usnaf wmufrS jrm;wHrukefrDrSmyif uREkyf f acgif;xJrSm rl;a0vmonf/ aoG ; xG u f v G e f a omaMumif h jzpf o nf / rsufvHk;xJwGiv f nf; teDa&mifuko d m jrifae&onf/ 'l;av;u vufxrJ mS tqrwef av;yifvmonf/ n§Kd U udv k nf; rwifEkid af wmh/ odkYaomfvnf; jrm;wpfpif;udk BudK;pm; wyfqifvdkufonf/ 'l;av;tdrf&d&S m n§Kd Ura&mufcifrSmyif uREkyf f ü &Sd&SdorQtm;tifwdkY ukefcef;oGm;NyDjzpfaMumif; odvdkufonf/ NrdKU½dk;xdyfrS OD;pdkufuRrf;jyefusvktHh jzpfomG ;í 'l;av;udk vTwcf sNyD; ol&cJ u kd kd zufw, G x f m; vku d f&onf/ rsucf rHG sm;udk tm;,lízGiMhf unf, h if; avSum; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïðë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

axmifwufvmaom &efo lrsm;\taetxm;udk oHk;oyfvdkuo f nf/ &efol\aoewfusnq f efudk apmifh½HkrSty bmrQ rwwfEdkiaf wmh/ aemufqHk;tcsed o f nf eD;uyfvmaeNyD/ rPdyl &udk &efolrsm; jyefodr;f EdkiMf uawmhrnf/ ½kwfw&uf rsupf dxJwGif wpfcJeuf trdkuw f kduf jzpfxGe;f oGm;NyD; aemuf csucf si;f yif NydK;jyufvif;xdef oGm;jyefonf/ aemufqHk;xGuo f uf\ edrw d v f u©Pmyif jzpfacsrnf [k awG;rd&if; jrifvku d &f aom rD;a&mifBuD;udk ai;idik f Munfhrdonf/ tvif;a&mifonf aysmufjy,fíroGm;/ tqufrjywf vif;aeNrJ/ xdktcdkufrSmyif NrdKUapmifhwyf&JrufwdkY\ [pfa<u;oHukd Mum;vdkuf&avonf/ ]]aejynfawmf wyfrawG a&mufvmNy?D ppful vmNy.D ..}} apmapmu jrifvku d &f aom rD;a&mifrsm;um; aejynfawmfwyfrrsm;\ tajrmufped af jymif;rsm;qDrS ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïðê

jzpf&rnf/ tNyD;wdkif jyKwfa<utHhqJqJ arQmfvifhcsuf i,fav;onf ½kwjf cnf;yif qyGm;us,jf yefYvmawmh onf/ wpfuk, d v f k;H odkY cGet f m;opfrsm; pD;jyefv Y movdk cHpm;vku d &f Ny;D uREykf o f &l cJ akd b;rS ckeí f xvdkuo f nf/ odYak omf xdkw'*Fonfom owdEiS u hf k, d fNrJchJ aom aemufqHk;tcsed f/ uREkyf fbmudkrQ rodawmh/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïðé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

3

owd&vmí rsupf zd GihMf unfhvdu k af omtcg tvif;a&mifESift h aEG;"mwf aumif;pGm&&Sdaom wJ wpfwJtwGif; a&mufaeaMumif; awGUvdu k f&onf/ tajrmufped af jymif;oHrsm;udk rMum;&awmh/ tiftm; jynfh0pGm Edk;xvmcJhonfjzpfí jrifuGif;onf &Si;f vif; Munfvifaeonf/ wJtwGi;f vufeufrsKd ;pHk udk csdwfqGJxm;onf/ xdkrQomru eH&HxufwGif ppfaMumif;csD ajryHkrsm;? rPdyl& tmoH? ucsme,fpyf a'ojyajryHk rsm;? tif;0NrdKUawmf\ ajryHkum;csyrf sm;.../ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïðè

tHhMojcif; BuD;pGmjzifh tdy&f mxufrS xvku d f onf/ ½kww f &uf rl;a0oGm;ojzifh tdy&f may:wGif jyefvJS vdku&f onf/ ppftcif;tusi;f jy ajryHkum;csyrf sm; onfrQ pHkvifpmG csw d x f m;aom wJonf ]ol}Y wJrSty tjcm;rjzpfEdkif/ odkYqkv d Qif olonf rPdyl&odkY a&mufvmNyD avm? ppfulwyfrwGif olygvmonfavm? tawG; rsm; ½Iyaf xG;aecdkufwGi.f .. A[dkpnfoHwpfcsuf Mum;vdkuf&onf/ ]][if...}} EIwrf S a,mif,rf;í toHxGufoGm;&av onf/ þtoHukd rPdy&l ü rMum;&Edik /f uonf;wdYk onf A[dkpnfukd roHk;/ A[dkpnfukd tif;0NrdKUawmfu om toHk;jyKonf/ odkYqdkvQif uREkyf af &mufae&m onf... uREkfky\ f ½Iyaf xG;vSaom tawG;rsm;udk ajz&Si;f ay;rnfh o@mefwpfck wJxo J kYd 0ifvmonfukd awGUvkduf&avonf/ 0rf;omvGe;f ojzihf tdyf&mrS x&ef BudK;pm;vdkufonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïðç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

olu zswfvwfayghyg;pGm uREkyf fteD;odkY a&mufvmNyD; uREkyf f\&ifbwfudk qD;umí tdyf&m ay: jyefvSJaponf/ ]]rxeJY... udk&ifh 'Pf&m jyif;w,f? tem&Sed f BuD;vGef;wm&,f? aoG;txGuv f Gefwm&,f aMumihf udk&ifNrdKU½k;d xdyrf Sm vJusoGm;w,f? ig;&uf vHk;vHk; owdvpfaecJhw,f? tjyefwpfvrf;vHk;vJ ud&k if tjyif;zsm;cJw h ,f? vHk;0 owdr&bl;? tckawmh pdwcf soGm;ygNyD? aejynfawmfudkvJ jyefa&mufaeNyD av}} uREkyf ftaMumif;ESihfywfoufí ar;p&m rusefawmhavmufatmif rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvu tusOf;csKyfpHkvifpGm ajymjyavonf/ odkYaomf... ]]rPdyl&aum rif;BuD;... [if rPdyl& aum}} ]]udk&iht f rdeYef YJ vTwv f ku d w f Jh jrif;onfausmf ajr'l;udk a&mufcJhw,f/ tqifhtqifh jrif;wrefawG a&mufvmwmaMumifh? 'Duae ppfulvdkucf Jhw,f? ycef;rif;BuD;rif;acgif udk,w f kid f Adv k cf sKyt f jzpf OD;pD; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïïð

csDcJhMuwmyJ? qifig;q,f? jrif;wpfaxmif? ol&JESpf aomif;? wyfrq,fu h k;d ckcsDchw J ,f? rm*spq f if; ucsm e,fxu J kd xGuaf jy;oGm;NyD; ta&;awmfvcS w hJ ,f qdkMu ygpdkY}} atmifyGJowif;udk ajymaeaomfvnf; olY rsuEf SmrSm wpfpHkwpf&m xl;jcm;aysm&f iT [ f efrsKd ; r&S[ d k uREkyf fxifrdonf/ ]]udk&ifh NrdKUapmifhwyfaum udk&ifuk, d w f kid yf g &Tyf&TyfcRHcRH &SdcJhMuw,f/ NrdKUusvkqJqJrSm tcsed frD jyefpD;vdkuEf dkifw,f}} ]]rif;BuD;u b,fppfaMumif;eJY csDovJ}} ]]usKyf... vdkufroGm;ygbl;? tif;0rSmyJ ae&pfchw J ,f/ uonf;apmfbGm;xufukd ta&;BuD;wJh ppfa&;awGtwGuf 'DrSmaeYnOfhrjywf wyfrif;awG tm;vHk; rif;w&m;eJY wdkiyf ifaeMu&w,f}} ]][kwv f m;... b,fvkt d a&;BuD;wJh ppfa&; awGvJ}} twefMum olww d q f w d af eNyD;rS qufajym onf/ ]]rm*spq f if; ajy;0ifckv d Hw I hJ ucsme,f[m.. ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

NAdwdoQydkif qDv[ufe,feJY ausmcdkif; e,fpyf a'oyJ? usKyfwkYw d yfawGu apmfbmG ;udk zrf;zdkY ucsm e,fxt J xd vdkucf MJh uw,f/ NAdwo d QawGu e,fusL; w,fqkdNyD; usKyfwdkYeJY pum;rsm;Muw,fav}} uonf;apmfbGm;rsm;\ aemufuG,fwGif NAdwo d Qrsm;&SdaeaMumif;? NAdwdoQonf wu,fh&efol jzpfaMumif;? vufonf;0Sufxm;aom aMumifESifh tvm;wlonfh NAdwdoQwdkYta&;udk rarhravsm&h Sdtyf aMumif;? olwpfcgu ajymzl;onfrsm;udk uREykf t f rSwf &vmonf/ ppfrIta&;t&mESifh ywf o ufaom olY BudKwifwu G u f ed ;f rsm;tm;vHk; rSeu f efvmMuavonf/ ]]udk&if tckawmh 'DavmufyJ odxm;tHk; aygh? udk&ifhtem tawmfonf;cJhwmyJ? 'Pf&muae xGufoGm;wJh aoG;awGtwGufa&m? tzsm;a&m*gBuD; vGe;f cJhwt Jh wGuaf &m? udk&if tm;jyefarG;zdkY? rlvtajc a&mufzdkY &uftawmfMum tem;,l&vdrfhtHk;r,f? tif;.. udk&if tdyf&mxufrSmyJ ae&vdrfhr,f}} ta&;awmfrsm; ylaEG;aeonfhumvrsKd ;wGirf S ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïïî

uREkyf frSm a0'emonfjzpfae&onf/ BuHKvm&onfh tajctaeudk rauseyfEdki/f ]]usKy.f .. tcsed af wGtrsm;BuD;udk tcsn;f ESD; uke&f awmhrSmvm;Asm}} pdwv f ufrcsrf;om jzpfvmojzifh nnf;oH EIwfrSxGuo f Gm;onf/ olu euf½Idif;pGm Munfhvsu.f .. ]]udk&if... bmvkycf sio f vJ? tdyf&may:u awmh rqif;&bl;}} ]]rif;BuD;&JU wJxJrSmyJ... qufaecGifh&r,f qdk,ifawmh...}} 'DrSmyJ ae&rSmaygh? usKyfqDrSmyJ ae&r,f}} ]]'gjzifh&if...}} olYukd uREykf t f m;udk;wBuD; Munfhvdkurf ad v onf/ ]]td yf&may:rSm ae&r,hf t csd ef awGwpf avQmufvHk;rSm rif;BuD;cGifhjyKEkid rf ,fqdk&if rif;BuD;&JU ajryHkum;csyaf wG? aoe*FtpDtrH wGucf sux f m;yHak wG udk avhvmcsiw f ,f}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

ESpEf pS Nf cKd uNf cKd uf &Sv d aS om tNyKH ;wpfcu k kd awGU vdku&f onf/ acgif;udk jznf;jznf;ndwv f suf uREykf \ f 'Pf&mr&aom 0Jvufukd ol qkyu f kid fzspn f §po f nf/ Murf;&Saom olYvufz0g;jyifus,Bf uD;xHrS ylaEG;&Sio f efonfh taiGUudk &&Sv d ku d fonf/ wif;usyf NrJNrHaom vufacsmif;rsm;\ qkyfudkirf IrSwqifh ol\wefcdk;rsm; uREfyk fxHodkY pD;0ifvmonf[k xif& avonf/ ]r[mAE¨Kv\ a&mif;&if;jzpf&jcif;}qdkonfh wpfckwnf;aom taMumif;tcsut f m;jzifhyif uREyfk f vljzpfusdK;eyfNyD;[k ,HkMunfrdacsonfwum;/ À ÀÀ

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ïïì

¬½»ºå øë÷ 1

arQmfvifhxm;cJhonfxuf ydkíMumjrifhpGm uREkyf f tdy&f may:wGif aecJh&onf/ rPdyl&ppfyGJwGif &cJhaom iSufzsm;a&m*grSm oufomp jyKvmaomf vnf; aoG;txGuv f eG cf jhJ cif;aMumifh uREykf rf mS yuwd vlaumif;jzpfzkYd tpGr;f xufaom aq;0g;rsKd ;pHkukd rjywf rSD0Jae&onf/ odkYaomf... xkd ]a0'emonf umv} onf uREkfyfb0twGuf tcsKd ;tauGUwpfqpfajymif;umv yifjzpfawmhonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

ol Yñ T e f M um;jyorIrsm;jzifh uREkf y fo nf ppfwdkY\ oabmrsm;pGmudk wqifhNyD;wqifh avhvm cGi&fh cJhavonf/ vuf0JokE´&\ eE´DaoeysKd U? om"de ysdKU? aoe*FAsL[mysdKU? AsL[puúyd sdKUrsm;udk tacguf acguftjyefjyef zwfcJhonf/ Edik if aH wmf ajryHkESihf e,fpyfa'o ajryHkaygif; rsm;pGmwdkYukdvnf; avhvm½HkrQru ul;,l a&;qGJ& onf/ xdkrw S pfqifh ppfcs?D ppfcH?ppfuyf?ppfveS ?Yf ppfxk;d ? ppfqkwfqdkif&m aoe*FAsL[mrsm;udkvnf; teuf azmfyHkcsyfrsm;jzifh qnf;yl;cGihf&cJhonf/ wpfcgwpfcg olu uke;f aMumif;? a&aMumif; wdkuyf rJG sm;qdki&f m ar;cGe;f ykpämrsm;udk ajryHkcsyEf Siw hf uG ppfaq;ar;jref;wwfonf/ uREkyf fu rdrdwyfrsm; atmifjrifa&;twGuf rnfokYad om aoe*Fukd rnfodkY rnfyHk toHk;jyKrnfjzpfaMumif; ajryHkum;csyEf Sihw f uG jyefvnfajzMum;&onf/ uREykf w f \ kYd tar;tajz ykpämwdki;f wGif &efoYl jy,k*rf Sm ]NAdwdoQwyfrsm;}yif jzpfavonf/ xdjkY yif rPdy&l ppfyu JG mvu &&Scd o hJ nfh &efoYl ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïê

tajrmufped af jymif; vufeufrsm; taMumif;udkvnf; avhvm&ao;onf/ vufeufrsm; jyKvkyx f m;yHk? tpGr;f xufyHk ponfrsm;omru ,rf;jyKvkyef nf;? tajrmufpdef ajymif; ae&m,lenf;? ypfcwfenf;? csed &f , G ef nf;rsm;yg rusef usufrw S &f avonf/ tdy&f may:u rqif;&aom vlrrmtjzpf ppfraI &;&mrsm;udk avhvmoifMum;aeonfh tcsed rf sm; onf avmuopfwpfckodkY rsuaf rSmufjyK&aom umvyif jzpfawmhonf/ uREykf f oufomaysmufuif; jyKvmcsed rf Smyif ]tmoHta&;} ay:aygufchaJ vonf/ tmoHta&;ESihf ywfoufí olu xH;k pHtwdki;f uREykf u f kd wdkwk&d iS ;f &Si;f jzifh wduspGm ajymjycJhonf/ ]]tmoHapmfbmG ;? csE&´ muEÅqif;eJY rif;NydKif yl&ef'gqif;wdkYcsif; xD;eef;a&; ½Iyaf xG;cJhMuwm? tjyeftvSef wdkucf MhJ uwmawGukd udk&ifoNd yD;NyD? csE´ uEÅqif;[m usKyfw&kYd UJ vufatmufcHy?J olYukd tmoH xD;eef;jyef&zdkY usKyfwkYd ESpBf udrfwdkiw f kid f tultnD ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

ay;cJw h ,f/ 'gayr,fh tck ol[m opömazmufjzpfomG ; NyD/ aiGaMu;? vufeufeJY aMu;pm;ppfonfawGukd wpfjcm; Edkiif w H pfckqu D ol&,lNyD; usKyw f u kYd kd axmif xm; jcm;em;vmw,f}} ]]NAdwdoQawGqDu ol&wm r[kwv f m;}} ]][kww f ,f? NAdwdoQwyfawGudk,fwkdif "l& [wfNrdKUem;rSm wyftcdkiftrm csaeMuw,f}} ]]"l&[wf...[kwv f m; rif;BuD;? tmoHxu J "l&[wfvm;}} olYaus;Zl;aMumifh e,fpyfajryHkrsm;&Sd a'o rsm;udk uREkyf f aumif;pGm &if;ESD;aeNyD jzpfonf/ ]][kww f ,f? tmoHAv kd rf ;ª r[moDv0 vGecf hJ wJh oHk;&ufuyJ aejynfawmfukd a&mufaew,f/ tmoHapmfbGm;eJYNAdwo d Qta&;udk Adkvrf ª;r[moDv0 u tjynfhtpHk avQmufwifcJhw,f}} tmoHokdY ESpBf udrfppfcsDcJhzl;aMumif; uREkyf f rSwrf v d ku d o f nf/ xdpk pfaMumif;rsm;ü uREykf f ryg0ifchJ ay/ ewf&mG pHb;kd awmfbk&m;vufxufu jzpfayonf/ ]]tmoHppfay:zdkY &Sdovm;rif;BuD;}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïè

olbmrS jyefrajzbJ cg;pnf;BudK;\ txuf ud, k u f syt f wGi;f bufoYkd vufEu Id o f nf/ jyefxw k v f u kd f aom olv Y ufxw J Gif awGU&onfum; [oFjy'g;a&mif awmufaeaom pmcRefAl;wpfck/ pmcRefAl;udk uREkfyx f HvSrf;ay;onf/ ]]rif;w&m;&JU trdeYaf wmfpmygw,f}} pmcReAf ;l udkziG hí f txJrS pmcRefvyd u f kd uREykf f jzefYMunfhvkdufonf/ ]]bke;f awmfBuD;jrwfawmfrlaom bBu;D awmf bk&m; trdeaYf wmfoufa&mufvku d o f nfrmS tvHkNrdKU0ef rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvtm; Adkvcf sKyftjzpfOD;pD;apvsuf tmoHokdY ppfjyKcsDwuf? ta&;awmfukefpifatmif xrf;&Guf&rnf}} o0Pfudk jzefYudki&f if; uREfkyx f ufoefpGm ar;vdkufrdonf/ ]]rif;BuD;...usKyfaum[if... usKyf...}} ]]Adv k af ersKd ;&Jacgifausm[ f m usKy&f JUppfueJ m; cHtjzpf tmoHukd vdkufyg&r,f}} À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïïç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

2

ppfuJem;cHawmfAkv d ftjzpf uREkyf fwpfcsed fvkH; olESihfeD;uyfpGm &Scd Jh&onf/ yxrqHk; olYtrdefYt& uREkyf v f kyf&aom wm0efum; ppfcsDtrdefYawmfqifhpmudk olYEIwrf S&Gwf onfhtwdkif; yk&ydkufay:wGif unpfESifv h kdufa&;& onfhtvkyf jzpfavonf/ rsufpdtpHkudk rSdwfvsuftxpftaighr&Sd yuwd acsmajypGm ola&&Gwfavonf/ ]]wyfygAdv k ?f ppfu?J emcH? wyfr;ª wdt kY rdeYaf wmf ESihf tmoHaMumif; csDrnf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîð

vdkuyf gxrf;&Guo f ifh &JrufwYrkd mS rsupf rd Ierf ?GJ wdrfrsufcrf;pyf? yef;em'lvmtm;BuD;? Muuf0uf rSiw f ufa&m*g?tdy&f ma,mif,rf;? OD;qH½yI af xG;?udk,f xuf'l;&Sn?f aygif&Sn?f ajcodrf?vufodrf?toufESpf q,f rjynfhol?toufig;q,fausmfol?xdkolwkdYudk wyfyg&Jrufqdkí tcefYtxm;r&Sad pESifh? qdkcJhonf vlukd csefvSy/f wyfawmfygoifhaom vlwpfudk,v f Qif ESpf jynf0ifqefpvG,fwpf?vTmzdeyf?ql;xGit f yf udk,fpD ygap/ toD;oD;vufeufukid u f sonfh NrdKUaus;&GmwdkY odkY pmwdkpm&SnEf Sifq h ifh/ vufeufudkifolwdkY a&Tz0g;awmfatmuf a&mufí wyfpnf;Muyfonfhumv? ig;a,mufudk wpftk;d pm;tzGJU? wpft;kd pm;vQif rdk;umwpf?r,feav;? aMu;tdk;wpf? "m;rwpf? ykqed fwpf? wl;&Gi;f apmuf wpf? tjym;wpf?apmufcHk;wpf?pl;vGew f pf? vuf½ku d f wpfygapNyD;vQif &JrufaoewfwpfvufvQif befaY yG; BudK;oHk;vGe;f wif t&Sncf kESpaf xmif? em;cGufaq;csed f wpfq,fom;? usnf,rf;wpfydóm? usnv f Hk;a& ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wpf&m? ,rf;awmifhig;q,f? rD;ausmufjym;ig;? 'kef;ukvm; ausmufqwfwpf? tkef;qHumywfrsm; ygap........................................... ................................................ ..............................................}} onfrQ wdusaphpyfvSaom ppfa&;jyifqifrI tpDt&ifrsm;udk olb,fwkef;u b,fodkY b,fvkd pOf;pm;pdwful;cJhonfvnf;rod/ odkYaomf uREkyf rf Sm ol&Gw fo Gm;orQudk rDatmifv dkufa&;ae&ojzifh tHhMocsdef r&vdkufay/ wyfpw k yfzUJGtiftm;? csw D ufpOfumv wyfO;D wyfzsm; tquftoG,?f uif;wdkuif;&Snf tapmifh taetvHk;pHkudk t<uif;tusefr&Sd axmifhapHthHap ol awG;awmwwfygayonf/ ]]................... wyfygt&m&Sw d kYd "m;pGJ udkiNf yD;Adv k cf sKyx f H nOfh,rH tdyrf 0D ifxu G cf pm;? ta&; awmf?wdkufa&;?vSeaf &;? vkyBf uHa&;wdkYudk? apmapm vsifvsif aq;aq;av;av; vkyfBuHo ifhroifh oabm xifjriforQwdkifyifMuap? onftwdki;f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîî

wyfyg t&m&Sw d kYu d kq d ifh? Adkvcf sKyrf if;BuD; r[mAE¨Kv trdefYawmfqifhqdkvkdufonf/}} yk&ydkufay:wGif uREkyf f\unpfaemufqHk; pmvHk;udk a&;NyD;NyD;csif; olutrdefYay;onf/ ]]qdki&f m em;cHawmfawGqD trdeYaf wmfqifph m ydkYvdkufyg Adkvf&Jacgifausmf}} uREkyf \ f bGJUrnf aersKd ;&Jacgifausmu f dk olu ]Adv k &f aJ cgifausm}f [k ac:vdkuo f nf/ em;xJwiG q f ef; ovdkvkd&Sdaomfvnf; þtac:ta0:xJü trdefYESihf oHa,mZOfESpfckpvHk; ygaeonf[kxifNyD; uREkfyf auseyf&avonf/ ]]'DaeY vqkw&f Sp&f uf? Oykoaf eY/ uREkfyfwdkY vjynfhausmf q,fhwpf&ufaeYcsDwufr,f? wydkYwGJv qdkawmh tmoHjynf "l&[wftxdta&muf c&D;wpf avQmufvHk; &moDMurf;eJY awGU&vdrfhr,f}} vjynfhausmf q,fhwpf&ufaeYwGif uREfyk w f kYd wyfrsm;aejynfawmfrS pwifxGufcGmcJhMuonf/ vuf0JppfuJtjzpf Adkvf&mZrif;acgif? vusmf ppfuJ tjzpf Adv k af ersKd ;vSo&l ed ?f wyfa&;tjzpf vuf0JoD[ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

aemf&xmESihf aersdK;ausmfwif tmoHAdkv frª;BuD; rif;BuD; r[moDv0? em;cHrif;BuD;eE´ausmfxif? wyfa&; aersKd ;ol&oHwkdiw f dkYu 0rf;vdIifaMumif;jzifh csDcJhMuavonf/ uREkyf fwdkYwyfrsm;tm;vHk;rS tiftm; av; axmifom&So d nf/ qifESpq f ,fomygonf/ jrif;u ig;&m? wpfckaom taMumif;jcif;&mudk uREkfyaf wG;rd aeonf/ tmoHokYEd SpBf udrcf scD hzJ l;onf/ xdkpOfutvHk; t&if;ESihf ,cktvHk;t&if;uGmjcm;vSacsonf/ yxr tBudru f tiftm;wpfaomif;ckESpaf xmif? jrif;wpf axmifhckESp&f m[k rSwo f m;&zl;onf/ 'kw, d tBudrf wke;f uvnf; xdek nf;ESiEf iS /f ,ckru l m; xdktBudrrf sm; xuf tiftm;av;qrQ avsmhenf;aeonf/ odkYaomf... ppfcsDonfhaeYu olajymcJhaom ppfcsDred fYcGef;udk em;axmifvkdu&f aomtcg uREfky\ f oHo,rsm; &Si;f oGm;cJhavonf/ ]]yxrESpBf urd w f ke;f u igwd[ kY m tmoHb&k if csE´&muEÅqif;udk wGe;f vSezf dkYjzpfw,f/ 'DuGmjcm;rI rSmyJ igwdkYpw d "f mwf[m av;qru wdk;jrifhwuf<u ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîì

aeNyDvkdY ,HkMunf&r,f}} rSeaf yonf/ uREykf fwkYt d m;vHk; ]a&G;vl}csn;f jzpfonf/ tbufbufwiG jf ynfph HkuHkvHkaom ppfonf awmfaumif;csnf;jzpfonf/ xdkYtjyifvnf; tk;d pm; &Jrufi,frStp? wyfrª;tv,f?Adkvrf ª;tqHk;tvHk;pHk aom ol&Jaumif;wdkYonf olYtkycf sKyfrIatmufwGif emcHMurnf[laom pdwf"mwft&mü qHcsnw f pfrQif tpGe;f ta&GUrxGu/f wnDwñGww f nf; rdk;aumif;odkY uREkyf fwdkY a&mufcJhMuayNyD/ rd;k aumif;wGif tHhMop&maumif;aom jzpf&yf wpfckudk BuHK&avonf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

3

rdk;aumif;wGif wpfnOfhtdyw f yfcsNyD; aemuf wpfaeYeHeufapmapm qufcsD&rnfjzpfonf/ olYwJ twGif; wyfrif;?em;cH?ppfuJrsm; pHknDpka0;wdkiyf if aeMucsd efrSmyif uif;apmifh&Jruf wpfa,mufu uREkyf fteD;odkYuyfí ajymvmonf/ ]]Ad kv f rif ; ... awmif pm;apmf b G m ;Adkv f wpfa,mufu Adkvcf sKyfukd awGUvkad Mumif;cGihaf wmif; aeygw,f}} ]]b,fol...}} ]]ucsio f def;ayg awmifpm;apmfbGm; Adkvf wpfa,mufyg}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîê

uREkf yf w Jt jyif xGu fcJh o nf / wyfpcef ; wpfbufwiG f awGUvku d &f onfum; &Jrufwpfaxmif cefY wyfBuD;wpfwyf/ wyfa&SUwGif AdkvfwpfOD;/ uREkyf f avQmufvmcJhonf/ toufav;q,fcef?Y tom;vwfvwf? EIwf crf;arT;usifpG,fESifh NyHK;&Tiaf omrsufESm&So d nfh xdkvl u uREkfyfudk vufqefYwef;í EIwfqufonf/ ]]usKy.f .. rdk;aumif;txuf? ucsio f ed ;f ayg a'ou awmifpm;apmfbGm;jzpfygw,f/ Adkvaf ersdK; odefy&mZmvdkY ac:ygw,f}} ]][kw f u Jh... Adkv f rif ; taMumif ; udkv J rPdyl& ppfyGJeYJywfoufNyD; odxm;ygw,f}} ]]Adkvfrif;udpöu}} ]]rif;BuD;r[mAE¨KvOD;pD;NyD; tmoHukd ppfcsD Mur,fvkdY odxm;ygw,f/ 'DaeYrkd;aumif;udka&muf r,fvkYd owif;&wJhtwGuf qif;awGUygw,f/udpöu rif;BuD;&JU tkycf sKyrf IatmufrSm vdkuyf gNyD;tmoHppfyJG rSm trIawmfxrf;csifvdkYygyJ Adkvfrif;? usKyfrSm tiftm;wpfaxmifygygw,f}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

pdwftm;xufoefpGm ajymaeaomaMumifh uREykf t f pOf;pm;&usyfoGm;onf/ uREykf w f kYw d yfrsm;rSm trdefYawmfqifhpmxkwjf yefí ]a&G;vl}zGJUcJhNyD;om; jzpfonf/ ppfcsDaMumif;wpfae&m vrf;cGwv f yfwGif awGUvm&aomwyfwpfwyfukd vufcH&efrSmrvG,u f l aomudpö/ ]]Adkvfrif;... usKyf&JU taoG;tom;eYJwuG a[m'Du csif;awmifwef;BuD;awGukd opömjyKNyD;ajym ygw,f/ usKyw f kYt d moHppfrSm 0ifcsiv f ykYd g? Adkvrf if;&JU rif;BuD;udk ajymprf;yg}} olYavoH? olYtoGirf sm;ü yuwd½dk;om;yGihf vif;aom t"dyÜm,fukd twdki;f om;awGUae&jyefonf/ uREfkyfwpfOD;wnf;tzdkYrl xdkawmifpm; apmfbGm;udk ESpfvkdonf trSefyif/odkYaomf... wdusjywfom;pGm uGyn f §ypf DrHvmcJhaom uREkyf w f kYw d yfwGif aemufxyf tiftm;wpfaxmifudk jznfhoGi;f zdkY ta&;rSm... uREykf pf Of;pm;aecdkuw f Gif awmifpm;apmfbGm; onf olYwyfrª;wpfa,mufukd ac:vdkuo f nf/wyfrª; a&mufvmNyD;olYvufxo J kYd wpfpkw H pfckvrS ;f ay;onf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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rsm;/

ïîè

a&Tcu G w f pfck/ cGux f JwGif &J&JeDaom t&nf

]]Adkvrf if;... 'Dcu G x f Ju aoG;awG[m usKyf wdkYtm;vHk;&JU vufarmifaoG;awG jzpf ygw,f/ tckvJ...}} olYpum; tqHk;rowf/ vsifjrefvGef;aom vIyf&Sm;rIwpfck &dyu f eJolYxHrS ay:vmonf/ cg;csyf rS "m;ajrm§ ifukx d kwí f olv Y ufz0g; vufoef;atmuf ajcudk "m;OD;jzifh xd;k pdu k fum xGufusvmaom aoG; pufrsm;udk a&TcGufwGif cHvkdufjcif;aywnf;/ xdkYaemuf apmfbGm;onf aMumufrufbG,f used pf mrsm;udk &Gwq f ku d m a&Tcu G x f JrS aoG;udkaomuf csvdkufavonf/ uREykf t f vHk;pHkukd &Si;f vif;oabmaygufomG ; cJah yNy/D vufarmif;aoG;ru? vuf0g;aoG;udkaomuf aom aoG;aomufum; omrnr[kwaf cswum;../ ]]usKyfeJY vkdufcJhyg.. Adkvrf if;}} olYukd wJxJokdYac:cJhonf/ rif;BuD;a&SUokdY csufcsif;0ifí uREkyf frqdki;f rwG ajymvdkufonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïîç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]rdk;aumif;txuf? ucsio f ed ;f ayga'ou? awmifpm;apmfbGm; Adkvaf ersdK;odef;y&mZmyg? olY tiftm; wpfaxmifeJY rif;BuD;&JUtkycf sKyfrIatmufrSm vdkufygNyD;? tmoHppfyGJtrIawmfxrf;vdkaMumif; awmif;qdkvmygw,f/ aoG;aomuf opömqdkcJhyg w,f...}} rif;BuD;u uREyfk u f kd rsuaf rSmifMuKwí f vSr;f Munfhonf/ xdkYaemuf awmifpm;apmfbGm;udk Munfh onf/ xdkYaemuf olYrsuv f Hk;rsm; uREkfyq f Djyefa&muf vmonf/ olESihfuREkyf ftMunfhcsif; xGi;f azmuf rwwf qHkaeMuonf/ olrY suv f k;H rsm;qDrS ar;cGe;f rsm; udk uREykf u f vnf; wdwq f w d ef uf½iId ;f pGmjyefajzonf/ uREfkyfajymvdkaom pum;teuft½dIi;f udkol em;vnf&rnf[k uREykf , f kMH unfxm;onf/ taMumif; rl olrY su0f ef;&dyrf sm;qDu oabmxm;udkvnf;uREykf f em;vnfaomaMumifhyif/ MumjrifhpGmaom tMunfhcsif;qHkaerIudkolu rsufawmifwpfcsuf ykwfítqHk;owfonf/ olY EIwcf rf;rsm; vIy&f Sm;vmonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíï

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4

rdk;aumif;rSwpfqifh ucsifawmifwef;rsm;? csif;awmifwef;rsm;? em*awmifwef;rsm;.../ jrifhrm;vSaom awmifwef;BuD;rsm;? xlxyf vSaom awmeufBuD;rsm;um; wpfckukjd zwfausmNf yD; wdkif; aemufwpfcku qD;BudKaeonf/ &du©mtzdkYrl uREkfyfwdkYwGif ygvmcJhaom taMumf?trJ?xrif;ajcmuftjyif awmxJwGiaf wGU& orQaom pm;aumif;onfh opfOopfzkESihf awm aumifrsm;udkyg &SmazGypfcwfpm;aomufEikd Mf uojzifh raxmif;omvS/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíî

c&D;rSm a&SUwkd;avav? awmeufavav? awmifjrifhavav jzpfvmonf/ txl;ojzihu f m; vufoef;cefY&Sd awmjcifBuD;rsm;ESifh p&nf;tdk;cefY BuD;rm;aom ysm;tHkxufrS awmBuD;ysm;rsm;\ tEÅ&m,fum; tqdk;&Gm;qHk; jzpfavonf/ xdktcgrSmyif trdeYaf wmfqifhpmü MuyfMuyf rwfrwf zdzdpD;pD;trdefYay;um ol vla&G;cJhonhf t"dyÜm,f udkykdí oabmaygufrdonf/ uREkyf w f dkYvltm;vHk;rSm qefcgwifvufa&G; trmcHrsm;csnf;jzpfay&m tEÅ&m,frSeo f rQukd BuHhBuHh cHEikd Mf uonf/oluk, d w f ikd rf mS vnf; taoG;tom;ESihf r[kwfrlbJ oHawGoHcJjzifh zGJUpnf;xm;onfhtvm; temtzsm; txdtcdkuf wpfcsufuav;rQ r&Sd/ yuwd rmausmoefpGr;f vSacsonf/ ppfcsDaMumif;wGif uREkfyfwdkY tyifyef;? tqif;&JqHk;um; olYtrdeYjf zifh ]azmifyefavSwuf}rsm; aqmufvkyMf u&jcif;aywnf;/ azmifyefavSwufrsm; udk wyfzUJt G vSnu h f s aqmufvyk Mf u&onf/opfv;kH azmif wpfbufwpfcsupf &D Honfh wdkuaf vStoGiaf vSrsm;udk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

aqmuf&modkY oluk, d w f ikd f vSnhv f nfBuD;Muyfonf/ xdkavSrsm;udk qifrsm;ay:wifjcif;? azmifyef avS w uf o ,f v maom qif r sm;ud k awmBuD; awmifBuD;xJwGif armif;ESicf Ref;udki&f jcif;rsm;rSm uREykf u f k, d w f ikd yf g0ifch?J uREykf u f k, d w f idk o f ,faqmifch?J uREkf yf udk,f wkdif azmif yefavSwufrsm;ESihf twl "l&[wfodkY a&muf&SdcJhaomaMumifhom trSew f u,f jzpf&yfaywnf;[k ,HkMunfEdkijf cif; jzpfonf/ tjcm;olwpfa,mufu þrQjrihrf m;oDacgif aom awmifwef;txyfxyf? awmiftxyfxyfudk azmifyefavSwufwifonfh qifhrsm;jzifh jzwfausmf ul;a&mufcyhJ gonf[kqv kd mvQif xko d aYkd jymvmolonf rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvyif jzpfapOD;awmh uREkyf , f Hkrnf r[kwf/ odkYESiht f rQyif cufcJMurf;wrf;aom ppfcsD vrf;aMumif;BuD;udkcsDí "l&[wfNrdKUtpGefawmtkyf ]aemfa*gif;}jrpfteD;odkY uREkyf fwdkYwyfrsm; a&muf&Sd wyfpGJcJhMuonf/ wyfpGJpcef;csonfhaeYrSm waygif;vjynfh ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíì

ausmf oHk;&ufaeYjzpfonf/ uREkyf fwdkY aejynfawmfrS xGufcGmcJhonfhaeYrSm wydkYwGJvjynfhausmf q,fhwpf &uf/ ppfcsDumvrSm wpfvyifrjynfh/ vuf,mppfuJBuD;? ewfpkvuf0JAkdvfaersdK; rif;vSo&l ed u f aemfa*gif;jrpfurf;ajcodkY ajcwifrv d Qif wifrdcsif;rSmyif wtHhwMo a&&Gwaf vonf/ ]]tvdak v;? usKyw f "Ykd &l [wfukd a&mufvmMu NyD/ awmawmiftxyfxyf? &moDMurf;? c&D;Murf; tEÅ&m,ftoG,o f , G jf zwfNyD; usKyw f akYd &mufvmMuyg yaum?Munfhprf;?wyfcsDcsdef[m wpfvawmif rjynfh ygvm;? r,HkEikd pf &mygvm;a[h?NyD;cJhwEJh pS Bf udrw f ke;f u av;v...av;v MumcJhw,f? tckMunfhprf;?wpfv wnf;eJYa&mufvmMuNyD? rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kv[m wef awmh vla,mifaqmifxm;wJh ewfbDvl;ppfonfyJ jzpf&r,f}} aemfa*gif;jrpfurf;ajcwGif uREyfk w f kYw d yfpNGJ yD; aemufwpfaeYrSmyif ppfxk;d onf/ &efoltmoHbk&if onf tiftm;oHk;aomif;ausmjf zifh qD;íckcaH vonf/ odkYaomf olYtpDt&ifjzifh ppfaMumif;oHk; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

aMumif;jzefYí uREkyf fwdkY wdkufMuonfjzpfí wku d fyGJ umvrSm bmrSrMumvdku/f csE&´ muEÅqif;\ukvm; ppfAm&DESpaf omif;ausmf twHk;t½Hl; usqHk;avonf/ &moDOwk qdk;&Gm;aecsed w f iG f uREykf w f w kYd yfrsm; a&mufvmjcif;uyif &efolYtay: pdwf"mwft&m uREkyf fwdkYu BudKwifatmifyGJcHEkdifcJhNyD; jzpfonf/ ppfAm&Daoewform;wdkYonf uREfkyw f dkYudk ypfcwfaeMuaomfvnf;olw\ kYd &efolrS [kwyf gavp [k xifaeMu[ef&Sdonf/ wdkufyGJoHk;&uftNyD;wGif csE´&muEÅqif;ESifh olYwyfrsm;onf aemfa*gif;jrpfaMumif;? ,rHkemjrpf aMumif;twdki;f avSrsm;jzifh pkeq f if;xGuaf jyMuonf/ odkYaomf uREkyf fwdkYu vufOD;rI&,lxm;cJhMuNyD/ qifrsm;jzihf cufcufcJcJ wifaqmifvmcJh aom azmifyefavSwufrsm;\ toHk;0ifyHkudk ,ckrS odMu&awmhonf/ jrpfnmjrpfatmufrsm;wGif olY trdefYtwdki;f olñTefjyonfh ae&mrsm;twGif;toifh qifxm;NyD;jzpfonfh uREkyf w f dkY\ azmifyefavSwuf rsm;udk &efolwkdY rvGeaf jrmufEdkif/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíê

upOhu f vsm; pkeaf jyMuaom &efolYavSrsm; udk uREkyf fwkdYu wdkufcdkufESpjf r§KyfypfvdkufMuonf/ þavSwdkufyJw G Gif xl;xl;jcm;jcm;tpGr;f jycJh olum; r,HkEikd pf &m awmifwef;om;ppfonfjzpfaom awmif p m;apmf b Gm ; Ad k v f c sKyf a ersd K ;od e f y &mZm jzpfonf/ Adkvaf ersKd ;odeyf &mZmonf BuD;rm;vSaom olY'lav;BuD;udk tqufrjywfypfcwfum &efolYavS aemufodkY xufMuyfvu kd w f ku d o f nf/ olYavSOD;onf wpfcgwpf&H &efolYavSyJhay:odkY ar;wifvkeD;txdol teD;uyfwdkufonf/ aemufqHk; use&f pfcaJh om &efolYavSaemufokYd ol jrpfurf;ay:rS jrif;ESifh trDvkduNf yD;&efolrsm;udk acsrIef;cJhonf/ 'l;av;BuD;udkxrf;í jyefvmaom olu ppfaoG;wdkYjzifh &J&JeDaeaom rsuv f k;H BuD;rsm;udkwzsyf zsyf ykwfcwfum ajymavonf/ ]]azmif y ef a vS w uf a wG v k yf N yD ; qif e J Y cufcufcJcJ wifvmuwnf;u Adkvcf sKyfrif;BuD; r[mAE¨Kv&JU aoe*Fudk usKyf&yd fpm;rdcJhw,fAs? ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíé

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NyD;cJhwJh tmoHppfyGJESpfBudrfwke;f u oif;wdkY[m aemfa*gif;eJY ,rHkemjrpfaMumif;twdki;f avSvsiaf wGeJY tcsderf Dpkefqif; xGuaf jycJhMuw,fvkYd usKyfodxm;cJh w,fav/ tckawmh 'DtaumifawG vGwv f rf;r&Sd awmhbl;/ awmuf...'gayr,fh [dk opömazmuf apmfbGm; vGwo f Gm;wmawmh qdk;oAsm}} csE&´ muEÅqif;onf *sKd [wfNrdKUokYd xGuaf jy; oGm;cJhayonf/ *sKd [wfonf ucsme,fxJwGi&f daS om NrdKUwpfNrdKUjzpfonf/ ucsme,fum;&efvdkolNAdwo d Q\ Edkiif HcsJUa&; vufwH&Snu f dkqefYí zrf;qkyf&efBudK;pm; aeonfhe,f/ csE´&muEÅqif;udk ucsme,ftxJ vdkuzf rf; aomuREykf w f kYb d ufrS Adkvrf SL;vuf0Jo[ D aemf&xm\ wyfrsm;ESihf NAdwo d QwyfwkYd roifhrwifh jzpfchMJ uao; onf/ odkYaomf wku d fyGJrjzpfcJh/ csE´ &muEÅ qif ; ud k uREk f yf w d kY xH t yf&ef awmif;qdv k u kd af omfvnf; NAw d o d Qwu kYd jiif;qefonf/ NAw d o d QwdkYtay: uREkfyw f dkYtm;vHk;\ rke;f wD;rIrSmydkí om BuD;xGm;vmawmhonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïíè

rnfodkYqdkap/ tmoHü Aef;armfNrdKUpm; oD&d twkv&wema'0D\ armift&if;jzpfaom oD&pd E´& oD[aZmf&[defbGJUrnf& *sdK*suf0gqif;udk eef;wif EdkifcJhonf/ tmoHjynfat;csr;f ydjym;a&;twGurf l Adkvfrª; r[moDv0udk tapmifhtaetjzpf aecJh&ef rif;Bu;D u trdeYcf svku d o f nf/ rPdy&l wke;f uvdkuREkyf f ae&pfcJhp&mrvdkawmh/ tmoH r S w yf o d r f ; í uREkf y f w d k Y w yf r sm; Edkiif HawmfokYd jyefcJhMuonf/ rd;k aumif;odkYa&mufaom tcg awmifpm;apmfbGm; Adkvaf ersdK;odefy&mZmESihf vlcsif;wyfcsif; cGJcGmMu&avonf/ awmifpm;apmfbGm;ESihf uREfkyrf Sm nDtpfudk wrQ oHa,mZOfjzpfaeMuayNyD/ oluuREfkyu f dk ayGU zufvsuf 0rf;acgif;oHBuD;ESihf ajym&Smonf/ ]]ta&;awmfwpfckck ay:NyDqkw d kid ;f usKyfudk qifhac:zdkY cifAsm;&JUAkdvcf sKyfudk ajymay;ygAsm?trdefY awmfpm &&csif; usKyfaejynfawmfudk tjrefqHk; vmcJhygr,f}} rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvuvnf; olYukd vuf½Hk; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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pGrf;xufol/ taMumuft&GHU tvQif;uif;oltjzpf oabmwus&adS eaMumif;udk uREkyf u f ajymqdkazsmif;zs &avonf/ ]]aoG;aomufa&... ta&;BuHK&if rdk; aumif;udkom wufcJhayawmh}} [k wkew f ke, f if,if EIwq f ufavaomolu Y kd Munfh&if; uREkyf v f nf; &ifxJrSm qdkYvmavonf/ uREykf w f kYEd SpOf D; EIwq f ufaeonfhae&modkY ol a&mufvmonf/ apmfbGm;u 'l;axmuf&ef [efjyifvku d af omf vnf; olu ycHk;udkqJx G u l m olxHk;pHtwdki;f at;aq; wnfNidrfpGm ajymavonf/ ]]Adkvaf ersdK;odeyf &mZm? tmoHppfrSmcifAsm; yGJaumif;&cJhaMumif; rif;w&m;udk usKyf oHawmfOD; wifay;r,f}} awmifpm;apmfbGm;u a0oDaom rsuv f Hk; rsm;jzifh ai;Munfhum jyefajymonf/ ]]Adkvcf sKyfrif;BuD;&JU tkyfcsKyfrIeJYaemufxyfyGJ awG &zdkYtwGufudk uRefawmfydkNyD;arQmfvifhyg&ap}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìï

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wpfck.../ cspfcifav;pm;zG,af umif;aom þucsif odef;ayga'o&Sad wmifpm;apmfbGm; aersKd ;odefy&mZm &Sd&m rkd;aumif;odkY wpfzefjyefvmcsifonfhqE´/ bmaMumifhrSe f ;rod/ wpf aeYaeYrSm awmh rdk;aumif;odkY a&muf&OD;rnf[k pdwfxJrSm xifae rdavonf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvonf olZY eD;&Sirf if;bl;ESihf wpfOD;wnf;aomom; armifusefBuD;wdkYudk aejynf awmfokYd ac:,lvku d o f nf/ wpfaumif<uufjzpfaom uREkyf rf Smrl olYro d m;pkESihftwl olYqDrSmom tdrfom; tjzpfaevdkufonf/ tmoHppfrS jyefvmNyD;onfhaemufwGif ol onf bBu;D awmfbk&m;u cs;D ajr§mifo h em;awmfral om bGJUtaqmifta,mifopfwpfckudk xdkufwefpGm&&Sd cJhonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìí

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t*¾r[maoemywdbGJUjzifh olonf]0efBuD;} t&mudk &cJhayNyD/ a&Teef;awmfudk 0ef;&Hvsuf&SdMuukeaf om 0efBuD;pHtdrfawmfrsm;teuf acgifig;quf&So d nfh wpfckaompHtdrfawmfxufwGif olonftaqmif ta,mif? tcrf;tem;jynfhpHkpGm pHjrefEdkicf JhayNyD/ 0efBuD;wpfyg;tjzpf rif;w&m;\twGi;f awmfo0kYd ifí ppfrIa&;&mrsm;udk wdku½f ku d t f BuHay;Edkifaom tcGihf tmPmudkvnf; &&SdcJhayNyD/ uREyfk v f nf; Adkvrf ;ª tqifo h kYd a&muf&cSd ho J nf/ odkYaomf vufawGUtrIawmfxrf;&onfrSm ]0efBuD; t*¾r[maoemywd r[mAE¨Kv}\ vuf½Hk;vl,Hk awmf ppfrª;jzpfavonf/ olESiu hf REykf o f nf b,faomtcgrS ruGJuGm Edkifawmhaom tajcodkY a&muf&Scd JhNyDjzpfonf/ udk,f&Hawmfwyfrª;i,frsm;b0u t½dkuf t&m tqifhcsif; twlwl&cSd Jhaomfvnf; ol\jynfh0 aom t&nftaoG;rsm;aMumifh olonf tqifhqifh &mxlwkd;wufcJhonfjzpfNyD; uREkyf v f nf; uREkyf \ f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìì

t&nftaoG;ay:wnfrSDí xdkufoifhaom&mxl;udk &cJhonf jzpfayonf/ xdkYjyif olonf tNrJwap uREkyf fxuft&m cyford ;f wGif ]cRe}f aomoljzpfaMumif; uREyfk t f <uif;rJh ,HkMunfNyD; jzpfonf/ xkdYaMumihf oluJhodkYaom yk*K¾d vfrsdK;\vuf atmufwGif trIxrf;jzpf&jcif;udk uREykf v f Hk;0ESpo f uf oabmusrad vonf/ uREykf \ f rif;BuD;onf wpfcsed f wnf;rSmyif uREkyf f\a&mif;&if;jzpfaeonfhtwGuf vnf; twdkif;rodMunfEl;rd\/ 0efBuD;t&mudk &onfhaeYrSpí olYrSm udk,f ydkif tm;csed f[lí r&Sad wmhoavmufyif BuD;rm;aom trIawmfudk xrf;cJh&onf/ a&Teef;awmfrS ppfa&; twGuf aqG;aEG;wdkiyf if&ef nDvmcHqihaf c:csdefrSm vnf; tcsdefowfowfrSwrf Swf r&Sdawmh/ olYrSm a&SUawmfarSmufodkY 0if&? nDvmcHwuf&? wyfrrsm; twGuf pDrHcefYcGJ&ESihf tem;,lcsdefyif r&awmhay/ odkYaomf olYtoGirf Smrl r[mork'´&mwdkYrnfonf rnfrQyif cyf,laomfjim;vnf; avsmhenf;,dk,Gif; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

oGm;onf[k r&Sdovdk EGr;f e,fyifyef;jcif; tvQif; rawGU&/ tNrJwap wuf<uEdk;Mum;aeacsonf/ uREyfk u f , kd w f kid rf mS vnf; olEiS v fh ufyeG ;f wwD; aevm&onfESihftrQ wjznf;jznf; t&nftaoG; wdk;jrifhv mayonf/ ae\tvif; ESif ht yla iGUud k aomufo Hk;í aumif ;pGm cdkifzD;BuD;xGm;vmaom yef;yGifhwpfyGifhESifh tvm;wlonf[k qdk&awmhrnf/ olYwefcdk;owådrsm;u uREkyf \ f ESvHk;tdrf twGif;odkY ulysHUpD;qif;vmMuonf/ ae&mrsm;pGmwGif olYtawG;? olYt,ltq\ xuf0ufrQaom tpdwftydki;f txd uREkyf fvnf; awG;awm qifjcifwwfvmonf/ jr0wD0efBuD;r[moD[ol&u olYukd vjynfh 0ef;[k wifpm;í uREkyf fukd "l0HMu,f[k yrmwifpm; ajymqdkzl;\/ aw;uAsmvuFmüuRr;f usiv f aS om 0efBuD; r[moD[ol&\ yrmyHkckid ;f EdIi;f ,SOjf ycsuu f kd uREkfyf rsm;pGm oabmusrdavonf/ odkYaomf...vjynhf0ef;? "l0HMu,fESifh tjcm; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìê

Mu,feu©wrf sm;onf tajymus,af om aumif;uif wpfcGiüf vGwv f yfjrL;aysmpf mG rvif;csi;f Edkiaf Mumif;? xdkvjynh0f ef;ESifh Mu,feu©wfwdkYtay:odkY rnf;npf aom wdrfpdkifwdrfcJwkdYu txyfxyf? tvTmvTm qdkYqdkif;tkyrf dk;vmMuaMumif;udk uEfkyBf uHKcJh&awmh onf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

2

xdknOfhonf uREkyf f\todÚmPfA[kokw wHcg;wpfcsyfudk zGihv f Spv f dkufaom nOfhjzpfonf/ pHtrd fawmfokYd olnOfheufrS jyefa&mufonf/ olYZeD; &Sifrif;bl;rSm bk&m;aqmif0ifí t"dXmef ykwDpdyfaeNyDjzpfonf/ olYom;i,f armif use;f BuD;udkvnf; uREyfk u f k, d w f kid af csmo h yd í f puf&m odkY ydkYcJhNyD;jzpfonf/ a&Teef;awmifrS tac:&Sdo nfqd kNyD; ol naeapmif;uwnf;u pHtdrrf SxGuo f Gm;cJhonf/ ol jyefa&mufcsdefwGif aejynfawmfonf tdyfarmus aeayNyD/ 0if;rª;ESihf tdyzf efrª;wdkY vmajymojzifhuREkyf f pHtdrfawmf 0if;wHcg;txdxGufí olYukdBudKonf/ rD;a&mifatmufwGif olESiht f jcm;vlESpOf D;udk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïìè

yg awGUvkduf&onf/ wpfa,mufrSm uREkyf &f if;ESD;NyD;om; jr0wD 0efBuD; r[moD[ol&jzpfonf/ usew f pfa,mufudk rl uREfkyw f pfcgrQ rjrifbl;acs/ odkYaomf taqmif ta,mifrSm NrdKU0efwpfa,mufjzpfaMumif; odvkduf avonf/ {nfhonfESpaf ,mufudk olu...pHtdrfawmf twGif;xdac:vmcJhonf/ olwt kYd m;vHk; wdwq f w d pf mG &SMd uojzifh ta&; BuD;aom udpöwpf&yf&yfudk wdkiyf ifaqG;aEG;Murnf jzpfaMumif; uREkyf ef m;vnfvkdufonf/ unif q Dr D; wd ki f r sm;tm;vH k; ud k uREkf y f udk,fwdkif xGef;n§v d dkufaomaMumihf cefraqmif twGif; tvif;a&mifaumif;pGm &&SdomG ;onf/ olwdkY oHk;OD;pvHk; a&Ta&;cspm;yGJwGif oHk;yGihfqdkif 0ifxdkif vdkufMuonf/ ]]udk&ifvJxkdiyf g}} oluajymojzif h olESifhrsufESm csif ;qdkif wpfbufxyd cf kw H iG f uREykf 0f ifxikd v f ku d o f nf/ tm;vHk; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïìç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

xdkirf Md utNyD;wGif olu euf½Iid ;f aomtoHjzifph ajym vmonf/ ]]rif;BuD; r[mausmpf mG u pajymyg? rif;Bu;D aemufq;kH ydv Yk ku d w f hJ o0Pfukd tjynft h pHkocd siw f ,f}} NrdKU0ef taqmifta,mifjzifh yk*Kd¾ vu f kd uREykf f vSr;f Munfhvkduo f nf/ rif;BuD;r[mausmpf Gm[laom bGJU&NrdKU0ef\trnfukd uREkyf Mf um;zl;aeonf/ndKaom tom;ta&mif&SdNyD; t&yftarmif; jrifhrm;vSol jzpfonf/ xdkolu... ]]usKyf pmESpaf pmifydkYcJhw,f/ 'kw, d pmudkyJ ajyawmhr,f? 'kwd,pmu tdE´d, bk&ifcHcsKyfqD wdkuf½dkufydkYcJhwmyJ...}} olYpum;oHrSm 0Jaeonf/ 0JaomtoHudk Mum;vdkuf&rSyif olonf tvGew f dusjywfom; wif;rmol[k emrnfBuD;aom "n0wDNrd KU0ef jzpfaMumif; uREkf yftajz&oGm; avonf/ "n0wDNrdKU0ef? jr0wD0efBuD;wdkYESihf nOfheuf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïëð

oef;acgif aqG;aEG;wdkifyifonf qdkuwnf;u onfta&;onf &ckdit f a&;/ odkYqdkvQif onfta&; onf NAdwdoQta&; jzpfaMumif;? uREkyf f csufcsif; qufpyf em;vnfvkdufayawmhonf/ "n0wDNrdKU0efu tHBudwv f suq f kad vonf/ ]]&Sirf jzLuRe;f udk cHwyfjyifaqmuf&if 'uúm; NrdKU? rl&SD'gbwfNrdKUawGudk usKyfwkYd wdku, f l&vdrhrf ,f jzpfwt hJ aMumif; 'DNrKd UawG[m a&S;rlvuwnf;u &cdik f bk&ifawGykid fqkid cf haJ Mumif; 'Da'oawGrSm &ckdiaf pwD ykxdk;awG &Sad eaMumif; bk&ifcHcsKyfqDudk usKyfpmydkY vdkuw f ,f}} ]]olYqDu taMumif;jyefcsufu...}} jr0wD0efBuD;u ar;onf/ ]]olwYkd qwfqwfcg emoGm;Muwmaygh0efBu;D ? avmh'[ f rf;[wfu &ef*yleJYpDv[wfrSm&Sw d hJ ppfwyf awGukd tiftm;xyfjznhfNyD; wyfvSefYxm;apvdkuf w,fav}} ]]oif;wdkY rsuEf SmjzLAdkvrf ª;BuD; rufc&DOD;pD; vmwJh wyfrBuD;qdkwmuaum}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïëï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

jr0wD0efBuD;\ar;cGef;udk "n0wDNrdKU0efu acgif;,rf;í ajzjyefonf/ ]]bk&ifccH sKyq f D usKyo f 0Pfyv Yk d u kd w f ,fqw kd m od&awmh wyfrBuD;csDzkdYtrdefYukd olwdkYbmomolwkdY jyef½kwfodrf;NyD; ppfwaumif;rSmyJ ppfAm&DwyfpG,f wpfck csxm;vdkufMuw,f}} ]]&SifrjzLuRef;ay:rSmaum NrdKU0efrif;}} ]]usKyfwdkYwyfawGpGJxm;wke;f yJ? wyfqufpGJ xm;&rvm;? jyefEkwrf vm; odcsifvkdY rif;w&m;qD trdeYaf wmf,lzkYd usKyfvmwm? 'Dn nDvmcHrSm'Dta&; rjywfom;ao;awmh usKyfpw d x f J rwifrus jzpfae w,f}} "n0wDNrdKU0efum; yGihfyGihfvif;vif;orm; jzpf[ef wlayonf/ olYudkMunf&h onfrSm tu,fí a&Teef;awmfu olYtm; ta&;t&mukefom vTJtyf ygu tdE, d´ txd csw D ufwku d cf ku d rf nfo h rl sKd ;jzpfonf/ ]]avmh't f rf;[wfuaum ,HkMunfEkid fp&m &SdwJh t&m&Sdwpfa,muf vd kY cifAsm;xif o vm; NrdKU0efrif;}} NrdKU0efrif;u pm;yGJukv d uf0g;jzifch yfjyif; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïëî

jyif;ykwfí... ]][m... 'DrsufESmjzLawGukd wpfa,mufrS usKyrf ,Hkb;l rif;BuD;? olw[ kYd m trdet Yf rsKd ;rsKd ; xkwNf yD; vkycf sio f vdk vkyaf eMuwmyJ? olw[ Ykd m ½l;oGyaf eMuwJh ppfrdpämaumifawG}} þwGif wpfcsdefvHk; NidrfoufaecJhaom rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kv\toHu wnfNidrfat;aq;pGm 0ifajymvdkuaf vonf/ ]]NAdwo d QawG[m ½l;oGyaf eolawG r[kwb f ;l / y&rf;ywm trdeaYf wGukd wpfrsKd ;NyD;wpfrsKd ;xkwaf ewm vJr[kwb f ;l / olw[ Ykd m wpfcw k nf;aom &nf&, G cf suf vrf;twdkif; wa&GUa&GUavQmufvm&if;eJY 'Dvrf;ay: rSm usKyfwdkYpdwfuoduatmufjzpfatmif y&d,m,f trsdK;rsKd ;udk xkwo f Hk;aeMuwm}} ]]'Dvkq d k&d if avmh't f rf;[wfu olYvw l uf cewfNrdKU wm0efcHAkv d fukd bmaMumifh&mxl;u xkwf ypfvdkuo f vJ rif;BuD;/ NyD;awmh ppfwaumif;ta&; ydkiu f dkvJ usKyfwdkYtaMumif; raumif;owif; wrif vkyBf uHNyD; ydw kY ,fqNkd yD;? owday;wmuaumolw[ kYd m ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïëí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

txufatmuf t&m&St d csif;csi;f awGMum;rSmyJ rnD rñGwfeJY ½IyfaxG;aeMuwm r[kwb f l;vm;}} "n0wDNrdKU0efu rausrcsr;f a&&Gwaf e avonf/ rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvu pm;yGJay:odkY vuf ESpfzufukd wifNyD; ]]usKyw f Ykd 'D&iS rf jzLuRe;f ta&;udk rlvueD;u pNyD; jyefoHk;oyfMu&atmif}} &SifrjzLuRef;ta&;ESifh ywfoufí uREkyf f odxm;NyD;om;jzpfaomfvnf; ,ckvdk olYxHrStao; pdwf rMum;&ao;ojzihf pdw0f ifpm;rdonf/ a'go? wuf<ujcif;? rcHr&yfEdkifjzpfjcif; paom a0'em cHpm;rIrsm; rygonfhavoHjzihf ol at;aq;pGm pwif ajymqdkavonf/ ]]&Sirf jzLuRe;f [m ppfwaumif;eJeY wfjr0Mum; rSm&Sdw,fqkdwm usKyfwkYt d m;vHk; odNyD;om;/ajryHkcsyf udkjyefMunfhr,fqk&d ifawmh &Sirf jzLuRe;f [m ewfjrpf 0e,frSm wnfw,f/ odkYaomf ewfjrpf0[m ppfw aumif;e,fxJrSmygw,f/ ppfwaumif;e,fu olwkYd ydkief ufjzpfvdkY &Sirf jzLuRef;udkvnf; olwkYyd kid w f ,fvkYd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïëì

NAdwdoQawGu aumufcsufqGJjyw,f? [kwv f m;}} olYpum;ü oabmnD[efjzifh tm;vHk; Nidrf oufaeMuonf/ ]]pifppfrawmh a&S;twDawuwnf;u&Sif rjzLuRe;f [m &cdkib f k&ifawG&UJ tmPmpufatmufrSm &SdwJh ydkifeufa'oyJ/ &cdkijf ynf[m ArmjynfeJY ESpf jynfhwpfjynf a&Tvrf;aiGvrf;azmuf? xD;jzLbke;f &dyf wpfckwnf;atmufrSm twlwuG&MSd uwmrdkY? &Sirf jzL uRe;f [m usKyfwkY&d JUa'oqdkwm xif&mS ;NyD;jzpfw,f/ 'gudkov d suef JY olwdkYu olwdkYydkifw,fvkYd ZGwt f "r® 0ifajymwmyJ}} ]][kww f ,fav/ vGecf w hJ t hJ ESpf ESpq f ,fwek ;f uqdkvm;? &Sirf jzLuRef;udk olwkdYu *&efajrtjzpf tiSm;csay;zl;owJh}} jr0wD0efBuD;u 0ifaxmufavonf/olu acgif;ndwfí... ]]'g[m&rnf&Sm ,dk;rnfzJUG wJh pum;tao; tzGJyJukpd ? bmyJjzpfjzpf olwkYt d aMumif;jycsuef JYolwkYd wydkYwGJvxJrSm uRef;ay: wuford f;vdkufw,f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïëë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

r[kwfvm;}} ]]rif;w&m;trdeYaf wmft& tdE, ´d bk&ifcHcsKyf qDudk olwdkYwyfawG uRef;ay:uz,fay;zdkY usKyf uefYuGu fj iif ;qdkpmwpfapmif a&;ydkYcJhw ,fav? 'gayr,fh uif;wyfukd a&TUray;vdkY tiftm;wpfaxmif eJYoif;wdkYukd armif;xkwv f kdufcJh&NyDaum? 'DppfyGJudk rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvudk,fwkdif aoe*F pDrHa&;qGJ apvTwv f dkuw f maum}} "n0wDNrdKU0efrSm a'got&SdefaMumifh pum; txpfxpf? taighaighjzpfaeonf/ oluNrdKU0efudk pl;&SpGm vSr;f MunfhvkdufNyD;... ]]NrdKU0efrif;... acgif;at;at; xm;NyD; usKyfwdkY pOf;pm;ajymqdkMu&atmif}} olYowday;oHü wefcdk;tiftm; tjynfht0 ygavaomaMumifh NrdKU0efonf qlyGuaf eaom olY a'goudk xde;f odr;f &ef owdw&BudK;pm;aeavonf/ ]]ppfa&;qdki&f mAsL[mt& usKyfwMkYd unfMh u& atmif? udkpa&m NrdKU0efrif;yg jrifa,mifMunfhMuyg? &SifrjzLuRef;[m &cdkijf ynf&JU rsuEf SmpmwHcg;ayguf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïëê

jzpfaeNyD; ucsme,fu aemufaz;aygufjzpfaew,f? usKyfwkd Yta&;xm;p&m wHcg;ESpaf yguf&Sdaew,f? ucsme,fukv d J usKyfwkYo d wdvGwv f kYrd jzpfbl;?NAdwo d Q [m ucsme,feJYywfoufNyD; r0ifEdkifbl;qdkwm odw,f/ &Sirf jzLuRef;udkyJ olwkYd taMumif;trsKd ;rsKd ; jyNyD; xdyg;Edkifw,f/ &SifrjzLuRef;[m &ckdifjynf&JU wHcg;aygufjzpfovdk &cdkifjynf[mvJ usKyfwdkYEkdifiH awmf&JU wHcg;aygufjzpfw,f? 'DwHcg;ayguftxd csO;f uyf0ifEdkifp&m vrf;[m a&vrf;a&aMumif;yJ}} olYpum; wdus&Sif;vif;vSbjd cif;/ ]NrdKU0efrif;...tck olwkdYqDu wHkYjyefcsuf awGudk wpfckpD jyefMunhfprf;? uRef;ay:rSm usKyfwkYd wyfzGJUr&Scd u kd f ajcmufaygif'g tajrmufEpS v f ufygwJh wyfzGJUEpS fckvw T Nf yD; wuford ;f w,f? e,ferdwfta&; aqG;aEG;yGJrSm cifAsm;vTwv f ku d w f Jh ppforH sm;u uRef; udkMum;aea'oxm;zdkY ajymayr,fh Mum;aea'o rxm;Edkib f ;l vdkY olwkYu d jiif;qdkw,f/ aemufwpfcg jymodkvxJwke;f u cifAsm;wyfawG uRe;f ay:wuford ;f NyD; a'gif;tvHpu kd v f ku d cf sed rf Sm ppfwpfaumif;NrdKU0efu ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïëé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

cifAsm;eJY aqG;aEG;yg&apvdkY pum;urf;jyefw,f/tJ'D tcsdefrSmyJ uRef;&JUta&SUajrmufbuf yifv,fxJrSm ppfoabFm tajrmufwyfoabFmawGeJYolwdkYae&m,l jyefw,f/ 'Dvkw d pfqifNh yD;wpfqifh trsKd ;rsKd ;½Iyaf xG;ae wJh tjyKtrlawG&JUaemufuG,frSm tdE´d,bk&ifcHcsKyf avmh't f rf;[wf&,f? ppfwaumif;NrdKU0ef&,f?olwkYd aoemywdcsKyf tuf'0rfay;*su&f ,f olwo kYd k;H OD;pvHk; &JU tBuHtpnf[m wpfckwnf;jzpfw,f}} ]]usKyfwdkYudk wdkufcsifvkdY...'gyJ}} jr0wD0efBuD;u vnf acsmif;oHB uD;jzifh rSwfcsufcsonf/ ]]rSew f ,f?aoemywdcsKyf tuf'0rfay;*suf &JU ae&muae usKypf Of;pm;Munfv h u dk w f ,f/Armjynf udkwdkufzdkY Munf;aMumif;csDr,fqdk,if awmawmif acsmif;ajrmif;? tif;tdkix f lwJh a'ojzpfwJhtwGuf Munf;aMumif;csDwufa&;[m t½HI;udkzw d af c:wmyJ/ t"dueJY wpfckwnf;aom ppfqifETJa&;vrf;aMumif; [ma&aMumif;yJ? 'Dvkyd JtajzxGuw f ,f? oif;wdkY[m z&efppfawGtay:rSmvJ a&aMumif;wdkuyf q JG ifENJT y;D tEdik f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïëè

&xm;olawG jzpfw,f/ olwdkYa&aMumif;udk A[dk xm;NyD; usKyfwdkYudk usL;ausmv f rd fhr,f}} ]]rif;BuD;... usKyfwdkY bmvky&f rvJ...}} "n0wDNrdKU0efu vufoD;uspu f spyf gatmif qkyí f ar;onf/ oluNrdKU0ef\ tar;udkrajzbJ uREkyf u f kv d rS ;f Munfo h nf/ yk&ydkuaf y:rSpmvHk;rsm;udk zwf&bdouJh odkY olYrsufESmay:rS t"dyÜg,ftvHk;pHkukd uREkfyf &Si;f vif;pGm awGUjrifvku d &f onf/ olYuk, d pf m; uREkyf f 0ifajzEdkiNf yD[kvnf; em;vnfvkdufonf/ NrdKU0efudk uREkyf f rsufESmcsi;f qkdiNf yD;... ]]rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvudk,w f kid f ewfjrpf0udk vmygvdrfhr,f NrdKU0efrif;}} uREkyf f\tajzudk olu pum;wpfcGe;f jzifh jznfhpGufvku d fonf/ ]]jr0wD0efBuD;vJ ygvmvdrfhr,f}} À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïëç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

3

]a&G;vl} ajcmufaxmifudk wyfr trmcH tiftm;tjzpf oludk,w f kid f pdppfa&G;cs,fonf/ rif;w&m; a&SUawmfarSmuf ppfa&;jyobif NyD;qHk;onfESihf rqdki;f rwGyif uREkyf w f dkY {&m0wDukd a&Tcsxm;aom wdkuaf vSrsm;jzifh jzwfu;l um ppfukid ;f bufurf;odkY wyfcsDcJhonf/ wefaqmifrkef;vxJwGif uREkyf fwdkY pvif; qifjzLuRef;NrdKUodkY a&mufonf/ wpf&ufrQom qifjzLuRef;NrdKUwGif wyfpGJcJhNyD; "n0wDokYd qufcsDcJh Muonf/ "n0wDNrdKU0ef? 'Gm&0wDNrdKU0ef? arCm0wD NrdKU0efwdkY\ pkpkaygif;ESpaf xmifhig;&mtiftm;&Sdaom wyfrsm;ukd a&SUumwyftjzpf vnf;aumif;... ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïêð

vuf0JppfuJ Adkvcf sKyftjzpf jr0wD0efBuD; r[moD[ol&OD;pD;onfh tiftm;ig;axmif&w dS yfrsm; udk a&SUajy;csDwyftjzpf vnf;aumif;.../ oluk, d w f kid Of D;pD;í qifig;q,f? jrif;ig;&m? ol&Jwpfaomif; yg0ifvsuf "n0wDaMumif;csDyifr wyftjzpfjzifhvnf;aumif;?wyfrsm;cGJa0csDwufcJhMu avonf/ a*:awmhyv’ifta&mufwGif jr0wD0efBuD; r[moD[ol&udk yef;0godkY csDwufoGm;&efoltrdefY ay;vdkuo f nf/ olt Y rdet fY & jr0wDO;D ponfupäye'D yifv,f0wpfbuf OD;&ifawmifbk&m;teD; pum; awmifwGif tcdkiftrmwyfpGJxm;vdkufonf/ uREfkyw f dkYwyfrsm; a&mufaeNyDukd odonfESihf yef;0gwGif wyfpGJxm;aom NAdwdoQwyfrsm;onf a*:awmhyv’icf HuwkwfrS qD;BudKwdkucf ku d Mf uonf/ odkYaomf... rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kv\ tpDtrH t& awmifukef;i,frsm;xufwGif cHuwkwfrsm; aqmufvkyx f m;NyD;jzpfaom uREkyf fwkYu d NAdwo d Qwyf rsm;udk tjyif;txef wkdufcdkufypfvkdufEdkifMuav ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

onf/

&efolrsm;nwGi;f csif;yif yef;0godkY jyefqkwf oGm;&onf/ &efolYwyf tBuD;tuJrSm wdkuaf &;cdkufa&; wGif pepfwus&v dS Sonf[k olwkYw d yfrsm;rSm emrnf BuD;vSaom Adkvaf emfwifqdkol jzpfavonf/ uREykf w f kYt d wGuyf xrqHk;wdkuyf JEG Sihyf xrqHk; atmifyGJaywnf;/ Adkvfaemfwifonf yef;0godkY qkwo f Gm;NyD; aemuf ppfwaumif;odkY ppfulawmif;vdrfhrnf[k rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kvu BudKwifwGufcsuf cefYrSef;cJh onf/ olum; ppfrIa&;&mESihfqdkiaf om yka&m[dwf BuD;wpfOD;vnf; jzpfacsonf/ olYcefYrSef;csuftwkid ;f jzpfvmcJhonf/ uREkyf fwdkYa*:awmhyv’irf S yef;0godkY qufcsD oGm;NyD; yef;0gta&SUbufjrpfurf;&Sd awmifuke;f rsm;udk odr;f ydkuw f yfpJv G ku d cf sed w f iG f Adv k af emfwifvnf; ppful &aeNyDjzpfonf/ jrpfukjd zwfu;l &ef BudK;pm;aomfvnf; olw\ kYd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêî

ajcmufaygif'gtajrmufusnrf sm; ajzmajzmusvm wwfojzifh uREyfk w f kYjd rpfnmbufokYd csDNyD;rS&efow l yf rsm;udk 0dki;f &Hwnf&adS eonfh uefabmuf½k;d wpfavQmuf odkY wyfpGJvdkufMuonf/ olwkdY\ tajrmufwyfpcef;udk OD;pGm NzdKcGi;f &rnf[k olutrdeYx f kwu f m uefabmufokYt d eD;uyf qHk;jzpfatmif uwkwfusif;rsm; wa&GUa&GUwl;í uREykf w f kYd csn;f uyfomG ;Muonf/ &efoYt l ajrmufrsm; tcsnf;ESD;jzpfoGm;awmhonf/ uefabmif½dk;wdkufyGJrsm;udk wpf&ufvHk;vHk; wyfzGJUwpfckpD?wpfckpD tvSnfhuswku d cf dkufNyD;aemuf wGif &ef o lrsm;onf tajrmufpcef;ud k pGef YcGm xGufajy; oGm;Muawmhonf/ tiftm;av;axmif&Sdaom &efolYwyfudk uREkyf fwdkY\wyfrsm;u &mcsDaomwyfzGJ trsm;tjym; jzifh t&yfok;H rsuEf mS rS 0dki;f 0ef;ydwq f Ykd wku d cf u kd Mf ujcif; jzpf&m olwdkY rcHEkdifawmh/ emrnfBuD;vSaom olw\ kYd aoewfwyfrrsm; xJokYd oluk, d w f idk f jrif;ESit hf jyif;0ifí xdk;cdu k af v&m ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

&efolwdkY tustqHk;rsm;jym;pGmjzifh upOfhuvsm; qkwfcGmMu&avonf/ Adkvfaemfwif 'Pf&mtBuD;tus,f &NyD; aemuf olYae&mudk vTJajymif;wm0ef,l OD;pD;onfh Adkvx f ½l;rif;qdkolvnf; uREyfk w f \ kYd jrif;wyfom;rsm; "m;atmufwGif usqHk;oGm;avonf/ wyfa&;ppfuJrsm;\ owif;ydkYcsufrsm;udk Mum;em&if; yef;0g&Sd NAdwdoQwyfpGJ&m ausmufwHk; twdNyD;aom &Jwkdupf BuøwGif vufydkuí f rwfwyf &yfvkdufaom ol\crf;em;xnf0gvGe;f onfh aoem ywd£a`E´rSm uREkyf frsufpdxJrS rxGuaf wmh/ olYa&SUwGif oHkYtjzpf&vdkufaom NAdwdoQ ppfAdkvfpaumhESihf uif;bJwkdYonf 'l;axmuf&if; aoG;qkwjf zLa&mfaom rsuEf Smjzihf xdwfvefYaeMu onf/ 'Pf&m&rxm;aom NAdwo d QAkv d f pwefvb D ½k uvnf; olYukt d xyfxyftcgcg tav;jyKaeonf/ olYab;wGif &yfaeaom uREykf t f zdrkY u l m; þjrifuGi;f onf awG;rdwkid ;f Muufo;D arG;nif; jzef;jzef;xonf txd *kP f, l0rf ; ajrmuf p&maumif ; vSayaom ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêì

jrifuGif;aywnf;/ uREfkyfo0Pfa&;&ef toifhjyifvku d o f nf/ ]]rif;w&m;qDykdzkdY o0Pfa&;yg}} ]]toifhyg...rif;BuD;}} ]]&efoloHk;&mausmf Adkvfaemfwif? Adkvx f ½l; rif;? Adkvfy&if;*J?Adkvf*&pf?Adkvb f if;euf?orm;Adkvf ar;prdk;?tBuD;tuJAkv d af jcmufa,mufusqHk;/paumh? uif;bJ?pwefvb D ½k Adv k o f k;H a,mufuo kd kY&H &S?d ppfom; ESpf&mhig;q,fausmf oHkY&&Sd? aoewfig;&mausmf? &xm;wif tajrmufBuD;ESp?f jrif;ESpq f ,f? qif ig;pD; odrf;ydkufrdaMumif;}} ]]&ygNyD... rif;BuD;}} ]]yef;0gppfrSm trIawmfukd &Gy&f Gycf RHcRH pGr;f aqmifcJhMuwJh ppfrª;awGukdvJ o0PfrSmxnfhyg? ausmo f la&Tawmif aemf&xm?ol&tmum?bk&ifoD[ aemf&xm? &efatmifoD[aemf&xm? aersKd ;*kP&Ö wf}} us,jf yefY½Iyaf xG;vSaom ppfa&;aoe*FBuD; wpfckvHk;udk pDpOftkycf sKyaf eonfhMum;rSmyif &efolESihf oufqdkio f nfh tao;pdwf tcsut f vufrsm;?rdr\ d ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wyfrawmfom;rsm;ESihf oufqdkio f nfh twdtus jzpf&yfrsm;udk rarhravsmh odem;vnfxm;aomolY t&nftaoG;um; uREkyf t f zdkY av;pm;í rukefEdkif aom t&nftaoG;yifwnf;/ uREkfyfud k aejynf awmf od kYydk&ef o0Pf taMumif; trdeYaf y;NyD;aemuf olua&SUwiG f tav;jyK aeqJjzpfaom Adkvpf wefvDb½kukd pdkufMunfhvkduf NyD;... ]]pwefvDb½k... rif;jrefrmpum; ajym wwfw,f r[kwv f m;}} rsufvHk;rsm; 0dkifoGm;onftxd NAdwo d QAdkvf tHhMooGm;onf/ ]]ig trdefYay;wmawGukd em;axmifaewJh rif ; rsuf v Hk ; awG[ m rif ; ...jref r mpum;wwf aMumif; azmfjyaew,f}} qHyifeDeD? tom;ta&eDeDESihf ajcwH vufwH &Snv f sm;aom NAdwdoQAdkvfonf olYa&SUodkY'l;axmuf csvdkufav\/ ]]rif;[m... bk&ifcHcsKyf&JU vl,Hkawmf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêê

ppfAkv d jf zpfwht J aMumif;? 'Dyef;0gwdkuyf u JG kd rif;a&muf vmjcif;[m ppfwku d zf x kYd uf igwd&kY UJ ppfa&;owif;udk axmufvSr;f zdkY t"duwm0efeJYvmaMumif;...igod NyD; jzpfw,f? tck rif;...igh&JU oHkYyef;? igwdkYt aMumif;udkawmh rif;bmrS odcGihrf &Sad wmhbl;? rif;&JU bk&ifcHcsKyfqDudkvJ rif;bmrStaMumif;Mum;cGifh r&Sdawmhbl;... em;vnfvm;}} NAdwdoQAdkvfonf ausmufwHk;rsm;cif;xm; aom pBuøvrf;ajrjyifESihf ezl;xdvkrwwfrsuEf Smudk idkufcsum... ]]uREykf u f kcd Giv hf w T yf g? uREykf u f kcd Giv hf w T yf g}} [k ryDroajymaeonf/ ]]igar;wmudk... rif;ajzprf;}} olYtoHrSm yuwdat;pufwif;rmaeNyD; aMumufp&maumif;aeonf/ ]]rif;&JUbk&ifcHcsKyf[m wdkY wdki;f jynfudk usL;ausm0f ifa&muf wdkufcu kd o f rd f;ydu k Ef kid zf t kYd xdtpD tpOfawG csxm;NyD;NyD r[kwv f m;...}} pwefvDb½k acgif;razmfacs/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]ajzprf;...pwefvDb½k? rif;wdkY&JUppfa&; &nf&, G cf su[ f m yef;0gr[kwb f ;l ? {&m0wDjrpfaMumif; rSm avSoabFmcsDNyD; aejynfawmfudk vkyfBuHzdkY r[kwfvm;...}} "m;vSHaoewfaygif; ajrmufjrm;pGmjzifh 0dki;f 0ef; csdef&G,fí ppfaq;onfurS olYtar;pum;oH xufyí kd oufomzG,&f aSd yrnf[k uREykf x f ifro d nf/ olYtoH? olYtMunfhum;...rD;vQHajcmif;ajcmif;vTwf aom e*g;wpfaumifyrmES,w f nf;/ ]]pwefvDb½k}} [de;f íxGuv f maomolYtoHukd NAdwdoQAkv d f rcHEdkifawmh? &J&JeDaom? odkYaomf tcdk;taiGU vHk;0 r&Sad wmhaom rsufvHk;BuD;rsm;udk vSefíMunfhum wHawG;udk twefwefrsKd vsuf pwefvb D ½k txpfxpf taighaigh ajzavonf/ ]][kw.f ..[kwyf gw,f? Adv k cf sKyBf u;D cifAsm;}} À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêè

¬½»ºå øé÷ 1

a&;ae&if;rS uREkyf \ f unpfonf ayay: wGif wHkYqdkif;oGm;onf/ tjcm; wyfrif;? ppfuJrsm;uvnf; olYudk 0dkifMunfhaeMuonf/ jr0wD0efBuD; r[moD[ol&u rsuaf rSmif MuKwfaeonf/ ]]qufa&;yg Adkvaf ersdK;&Jacgifausmf...}} olYtrdefYtwdki;f rif;w&m;BuD;xH ydkYrnfh o0PfayvTmay:odkY uREkyf u f npfoGm;udkwifvdku&f onf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïêç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]...þodkY ppfwaumif;? yef;0gwdkYudk uRefawmfrsdK;wdkY wdkufcku d fatmifjrif ta&;awmfvS aomfvnf; rsuEf mS jzLwdo Yk nf Nird o f ufaeMuvdrrhf nf r[kwyf g/ [Hom0wDESi'fh *Hkukd yifv,fa&aMumif;rS xdyg;aESmih, f u S &f ef&ySd gonf/ [Hom0wDwiG v f uf½Hk; ESvk;H jynhpf ko H l rª;BuD;rwfBuD;wdkY toifhprD í H &yfaetyf ygaMumif; a&Tz0g;awmfatmuf wifavQmufygonf}} o0Pfukd tNyD;owfí teD;&Sed m;cHwpfOD;xH ay;vdkufonf/ 0efBuD;OD;pu o0PftaMumif; bmrSrajym awmhbJ oufjyif;csvsuf tjcm;ar;cGef;wpfckudk ajymif;vdkufavonf/ ]]ppfwaumif ;ud k quf csDzdkYta&;aum Adkvcf sKyf}} ]]ppfwaumif;udk rodr;f eJY?'gayr,fhewfjrpf w0kdufrSm olwkdYtiftm; xyfcsxm;Edkiw f ,f/ teD; wpf0dkufa'orSm &efoludk awGU&ifawmh awGUorQ ae&mrSmwdkufNyD; vufeufawGudk odrf;yg? yef;0grSm wyftcdkifpGJNyD; rdk;wGif;umvrSm &yfaeyg? 'D ta&; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéð

twGuf udkpudkyJ usKyfta&;ukef vTJvkdufr,f}} ]]aumif;NyD AdkvfcsKyf}} ]]rdk;wGi;f umvrSm qefpyg;&du©m pkaqmif; odkavSmif &yfae&if;eJYvJ udkp aw;vuFma&;csed f &oGm;wmaygh...}} jr0wD0efBuD;u NyHK;NyD;... ]]tif;...ppfcsDarmfueG f;awGcsn;f a&;zGJUjzpf vdrhrf ,fxifw,f}}[kajymvdku&f mwyfrif;rsm;&,fMu avonf/ wyfrif;? ppfuJrsm; jyefoGm;MuNyD;aemuf uREykf o f nf ratmifhtnf;Edkiaf wmhojzifh olu Y kzd Gihaf r; &avawmhonf/ ]]rif;BuD;? usKyfwdkYyef;0grSm ta&;ukev f S&JU om;eJY bmaMumihpf pfwaumif;txd qufrodr;f wm vJ? tckqkd&if 'uúm;?umvuwåm;txd csDvkdY&aeNyD r[kwfvm;}} oluuREyfk u f dk NyHK;í vufarmif;udkqkyfukid f onf/ ]]udk&if odypf pfaoG;wuf<uaevdkY'Dvkad jym ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wmjzpfrSmyg? acgif;at;at;xm; pOf;pm;av?vluRH wmxuf EIwu f Rw H mu ydq k ;kd w,fr[kwv f m;?EIwu f RH wmxuf wyfuRHoGm;wmu tqdk;qHk;yJ?b*Fvm;NrdKU awGxJukd usKyfwdkYwyfawG a&mufae&if'*HkeYJ[Hom 0wDNrKd UawG[m pnf;½d;k rJw h hJ tdraf wGvkd jzpfomG ;rSmaygh? olwpYkd pfoabFmawG tvH;k t&if; Bu;D w,fqw kd mudv k J rareJYav...}} uREkfyrf auseyfEkid af o;/ &efvdkaom NAdwo d Q wdkYtm; ,ckvkd tompD;&aecsdefwGif twGi;f tjyif tuket f pifwdkucf ku d f ESix f kwyf pfvkdufjcif;onfom taumif;qHk;[k xifrdonf/ ]]&efolYtiftm;udk usKyfodxm;NyD;NyDukd&if? tmcsDuif;bJqkd wJh AdkvfcsKyfOD;pD;wJh wyfawG[m a&aMumif;wyfawGcsn;f yJ?a[m'DrSm Munfh? 'g... yef;0goHkYyef; rsuEf SmjzLAdkvfawGukd ppfar;NyD; &cJhwJh tcsufawGeJY usKyfwdkY&JU taxmufawmfawG pHkprf; &cJw h Jh tcsuaf wGukd pkaygif;tajzxkwx f m;wJph m&if; yJ}} NAdwo d Qrsm;toH;k jyKonfh jzLvGaom0g;puúL ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéî

wpf&Gu?f rnf;eufaom pmvHk;rsm;rSm.../ ]]Adv k cf sKyaf rm&pfqif? Adv k cf sKyt f mcsDuif;bJ? Adkvrf ª;csKyf rufu&d tkycf sKyfonfh wyfrBuD;oHk;wyf/ trSwq f ,fhoHk;ESpq f ,hfav; &J*sD;rifhwyfrsm;? bk&if {u&mZf\ trSwfav;q,fhwpfESihf &Spq f ,fhudk; &J*sD;rifhwyfrsm;? b*Fvm;wyftiftm;ESihaf ygif;aomf pkpkaygif; wyfom;wpfaomif; wpfaxmihif g;&m/ tajrmufwif oabFmESpq f ,f? ydkYaqmifoabFm ESpfq,fhav;? t&G,t f pm;trsdK;rsKd ; tajrmufav; q,f&h Sp.f ..}} BuD;rm;vSaom tvHk;t&if;ayyif/ ]]qufzwftHk; udk&if}} ]]umvuwåm;rS csDvmrnfh b*Fvm;wyfr r'&pfrScsDvmrnfh r'&pfwyfrwdkY twmoBuFef tNyD;avmufwGif tuf'refuRef;ü '*Hk? rufu&d a&wyfonf rmefatmifuRef;? 0g[ifa&wyfonf [dki;f BuD;uRef;...}} zwfNyD;oGm;aompmvHk;rsm;udk uREkfyfai;idkif Munfhaerdonf/ olu uREykf v f ufxJrS puúL&Guu f dk ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

jznf;nif;pGm vSr;f qGJ,lvsuf... ]]usKyw f kYw d pfawG rPdyl&tmoHrSm wdkuaf e Muuwnf;u NAdwo d QawG[m 'Dvkt d pDtpOfawGcszkYd usKyw f Ykd yifv,furf;½d;k wef;a'orSm jyifqifcNhJy;D om; jzpfw,f}} olYtajrmftjrif pDrHcsut f m;vHk;udk ,ckrSyif uREkfyef m;vnfrdawmhonf/ ]]pMum0efBuD;udk oGm;ac:prf;ygudk&if? olYukd usKyfwm0efay;p&m&Sw d ,f}} pMum0ef B uD; owd k; r[maoemywd u d k uREkyf u f k, d w f kid f oGm;ac:&onf/ olYppfwJcef;rwGif tjcm; wyfrif;ppfuJrsm;om vlajymif;oGm;aomf vnf;olurl wpfa,mufNyD;wpfa,muf?wpfvn S hNf yD; wpfvSnhf 'dkifcHawGUqHktrdefYay;aeonf/ ]]pMum0ef... usKyf'*Hku a&0efrif;BuD;qD udk NAdwdoQawG tcsdefra&G; 0ifvmEdkifaMumif; taMumif;Mum;xm;w,f? '*Hku tiftm;enf; vSw,f/ taumif;qHk; tumt&HqkdvkdY vloHk;&yf awmifr&SdwJh opfwyf0if;yJ&Sw d ,f? cifAsm; '*Hkukd ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéì

oGm;yg/ cifAsm;wyftm;vHk; Ekwf,loGm;? tjrefqHk; a&mufatmifcsD}} ]]aumif;ygNyD AdkvfcsKyf}} pMum0efBuD;xGuo f Gm;onf/ xdkn wpfnvHk; olrtd yfaMumif;/ tdyf wpf0uf Edk;wpf0uf &Sad ecJhaom uREkyf v f nf; owd xm;rdcJhayonf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

2

tidu k 0f ifjcif;? tvpfp;D jcif;? tiftm;BuD;pGm toHk;jyKí tvHk;t&if;ESihzf djcif;... wnf;[laom ppfa&;AsL[mudk NAdwdoQwdkY toHk;jyKMuayNyD/ "n0wDwiG f tcdkit f rmwyfpGJ&if; &cdkijf ynf \ NAdwdoQ&efpvufikww f dkYukd &Si;f vif;acsrIe;f &if; a&Teef;awmfrS ]wyfjyefEIwaf p trdefYawmf}udk apmifh qdki;f ae&aom uREkfyfwdkYwyfrrsm;rSm EdkifiHawmf atmufjynfa'orS ppfowif;rsm;udk pdwfrcsr;f ajrU p&m Mumodae&avonf/ uqkefvxJwGif '*HkNrdKUusjcif;? od*Fkwå& uke;f awmfay:wGif NAw d o d QwyfwkYd wyfpv JG u kd Mf ujcif;? owdk;rif;BuD; r[mrif;acgifESifh owdk;r[maoem ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéê

ywdwkYd OD;pD;aom wyfawmfrsm;ESihf NAdwo d Qtajrmuf wyfwdkY jyif;pGmwdkucf dkuMf ujcif;? Munfhjrifwkid w f Gif wdu k yf BJG u;D oH;k Burd jf zpfymG ;jcif;? oefvsicf w H yfusjcif;? xdYak emuf xm;0,f?Nrdwf?rkwårNrdKUrsm;ESihfwuG yJcl; txd &efolwkdY 0ifa&mufodrf;ydkufvkdufMujcif;/ aemufqHk;wGiu f m; owdk;rif;BuD; r[m usqk;H oGm;aMumif; owif;&&Scd haJ vonf/ xdkowif; udk &NyD;onfhaemuf olu "n0wDwyfrsm; tmvHk; udk toifhjyifxm;&ef trdefYxkwfvdkufonf/ ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif rif;w&m;xHrS trdefY awmf a&mufvmonf/ ]]nDawmfom,m0wDrif; r[moD&o d [ D ol& "r®&mZfudk Adkvfrª;AdkvfcsKyfcefYí atmufjynft &yf '*H k E S i h f reD;ra0;"EkjzLodkY wyfapawmfrlonf/ jr0wD0efBuD;tm; "n0wDü tkyfcsKyfNrJ wyfawmfrsm;ESiht f wl tkyfcsKyfaeap/ owdk;rif;BuD; r[mAE¨KvESihfwyfrsm;u [Hom0wDppfrsufESmwGif uGyfn§yf&ef tjrefqHk; jyefvmap}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

trdeYaf wmfa&mufvmonfhtcsed u f mv um; "n0wDrS pvif;qifjzLuRef;ta&muf? ½dk;rwausm? awmBu;D awmifBuD;? acsmufurf;yg;BuD;rsm;wGirf k;d Bu;D onfhxefpGm NzdKifNzdKifusaeaom 0gqdkvyifwnf;/ onfrQ Murf;wrf;cufcJvSaom ppfqkwf vrf;c&D;wGif onfrQqdk;&Gm;jyif;xefaom &moDOwk udkjzwfí tif;0odkYjyefrnfhta&;um; rawG;0Hhp&m yif jzpfawmhonf/ ajcusi;f 0wf txuftxd a&jrKwfaeaom wyfpcef;uGi;f jyifBu;D xJwiG f uREykf w f w Ykd yfrsm; jyifqif vdkufMu&onf/ rdk;a& &TJ&TJpkdaom aoemywd0wf½HkpBuD;udk zg;zg;vsm;vsm; NcKH vrT ;f um jrif;ay:wGif wnfrh wfpmG xdkiv f sufacgufwHkYacgufjyef oGm;aeaomolYxHrS wa0ga0grd;k aygufoBH u;D udk ausmv f mT ;tkyrf ;kd oGm;onfh toH0gBuD; xGuaf y:vmavonf/ ]]wyfawGtm;vHk;toifhjyif?tqdk;qHk;&moD Owk tMurf;qHk;c&D;udk tjrefqHk;igwdkYjzwfMu&r,f? "n0wDuae pvif;qifjzLuRef;txd csDwufcsdef ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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®Å³¿±»³§©¼

ïéè

umvckESp&f ufyJ owfrSww f ,f? urÁn;f wGirf ,fh ppfc&D;udk csDMupdkY aoG;aomufwdkY}} "n0wDodkY csDcJhpOfu aejynfawmfrSonf "l&[wfokYd ppfcsu D mvrSm wpfvomMumjrifhcJhojzihf uREkyf fwdkY twdki;f rod tHhMocJh&onf/ odkYqkyd gvQif ,ck"n0wDrS pvif;qifrjzL uRef;odkY rkd;BuD;avBuD;xJwGif awmawmifacsmuf urf;yg;txyfxyfudk jzwfí c&D;Murf;ESicf Jhaom ]&ufowåywf}onf ]r,HkEikd af vmufp&m tHhMozG,f aumif;aom}ppfc&D;[k qdk&rnf jzpfownf;/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïéç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

3

trf;NrdKUrSonf rif;vGi&f Gm? rif;vGi&f GmteD; awmifMum;vrf;rSwqifh ref;acsmif;udkpke?f xdkYaemuf ta&SUbufurf;&Sd izJNrdKUtxd/ þvrf;c&D;udk olu]trf;awmifMum;vrf; ppfcsDc&D;}[k trnfay;vku d fonf/ awmifqif; awmifwuf?jrpful;?acsmif;ul; c&D;wGif wa0ga0g0g;vHk;xdk;pD;aeaom awmifusa& rsm;? a&wHcGefrsm;u ae&mwdki;f wGif [efYwm;aeMu onf/ ykqdefrsm;udktoHk;jyKum azmifrsm;zGJUMu &onf/ &Jrufwpfaomif;? qifig;&m? jrif;ig;&m? ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèð

aoewf tajrmufpdefajymif;rsm;udk cufcufcJcJ a&G;Ekwfí wyfcsD&onf/ aeYnOfhrjywf wjAKef;jAKef; &Gmcsaeaom rdk;oD;rdk;aygufBuD;rsm;onf Mumaomf uREyfk w f \ Ykd ppfcscD &D;wpfavQmuf\ &if;ES;D aomtazmf jzpfvmonf/ odkYjzifh... ol trdex Yf w k o f nfh &ufowåwpfywftwGi;f rSmyif uREkyf w f kYt d m;vHk; pvif;qifrjzLuRe;f odakY &muf cJhMuavonf/ qifrjzLuRef;wGif wyfpGJvdkufonfhnOfh? wyfrif;ppfuJAkv d rf ;ª rsm; qHkMucku d f olYwx J JwGiu f REykf f rcsKyfrwD;Edkif xkwaf zmfa<u;aMumfrad vawmhonf/ ]]rif;Bu;D ? tck uReaf wmfwYkd cscD MhJuwJch &D;udk rif;BuD;u trf;awmifMum;vrf;vdkY trnfay;cJhay r,fhaemifaomtcgrSm 'Dvrf;udk]rif;BuD;r[mAE¨Kv vrf;}vdkY *kPfjyKac:MurSm trSeyf gyJ}} olu&ifusuaf omtNyHK;jzihf jyefajymonf/ ]]r[mAE¨KvESiahf oG;aomufrsm;vrf;vdkYac: wm ydkrSefr,f}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

pvif;qifjzLuRe;f wGif wyfrsm;pGJxm;apNyD; aemufwpfaeYrSmyif uREkyf fESihaf usmfol a&Tawmif aem&xmwdkY ESpaf ,mufukad c:NyD; ol aejynfawmfokYd xGuo f nf/ [Hom0wDa'o&Sd &efot Yl a&;twGuf uREyf k f wdkYonf bBuD;awmfrif;w&m;\ trdeYaf wmfukd cH,l Mu&OD;rnf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèî

¬½»ºå øè÷ 1

aoewform;oHk;aomif;ig;axmif?rPdyl& jrif;wyfom; ckESp&f m? &Jrufwyfom; ESpaf omif;? q,hfESpaf tmifpusnfvHk;rsm;udk ypfcwfEdkifonfhbD; vSn;f wyf pdefajymif;i,frsm;? tajrmufwifqifrsm; tvHk;t&if;BuD;pGm yg0ifaom uREkyf fwdkYwyfrawmf BuD;onf aqmif;OD;&moDrSmyif aejynfawmfrScsDcJhNyD; &efuif;pH&m jrpf0?vdIifjrpf?arSmb f ?D *lBuD;?uRJul;qdyrf S wufí usLd uúvdkYESifh wHwm;BuD;odkYta&muf csw D uf wyfpGJvdkufMuonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wyfrawmfBuD;\ OD;pD;csKyfum; ,cktcg ppfawmif;NrdKUudkyif rif;w&m;trdefYawmft& xyfrH ydkifpm;&NyDjzpfaom ]owdk;ok"r®r[m}bGJUrnfjzifh xyfrHcsD;jr§ihjf cif;cH&aom ]r[maoemywd}rif;BuD; r[mAE¨Kvyifwnf;/ '*Hkwdkuf&ef ppfaMumif;BuD;ig;aMumif;cGJí uREkyf fwdkY ppfrsufESm zGihv f ku d fMuonf/ Adkvfrif;? wyfrif;tm;vHk;pHknpD nf;a0;yGJwGif olu &J&Jawmufpum;udk qdkavonf/ ]]&efolukd "n0wDbufuae igwdkYajcmuf vSeYf armif;xkwv f u kd w f ,f? uke;f aMumif;eJrY 0ifomvdkY oif;wdkY a&aMumif;u0ifzkYBd udK;pm;vmMuNyD?wpfuRe;f om; ukvm;jzLawG&JUrpd ämpdwu f kd rif;wdkYtm;vHk;odNyD; MuNyDjzpfwJhtwGuf igt&Snt f a0;rajymawmhbl;? ta&;tBuD;qHk;wpfckyJ ajymr,f? 'Dta&;udk tav; teufxm;Mu?ayghayghqq&Sd,if wpfrsdK;vHk;olYuRef jzpfr,f? od*Fkwå&ukef;awmfajrudk igwdkYaoG;puf? toufeJYvJ,l&r,fhta&;? onfwpfyGJNyD;&ifNAdwdoQ ydkifwdki;f jynftxd wufodr;f zdkYyJ&aSd wmhw,f? &ifajr ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèì

uwkwfvky?f &SdorQvuf½Hk;ESvHk;tpGr;f ukef xkwNf yD; wdkuMf uawmh aoG;aomufwkY}d } tNrJwap at;aq; wnfNidrcf Jhavaom olYxHrS þrQpdwv f Iy&f Sm;zG,f&m pum;vHk;wdkYukd Mum;&uwnf;u onfta&;onf aoG;ESihf urÜn;f a&;xdk;&awmhrnfhta&;awmfBuD;jzpf aMumif; uREkyf fem;vnfvkdufawmhonf/ xdaYk emuf olonfoufqikd &f m Adv k cf sKyrf sm;udk wpfa,mufNyD;wpfa,mufac:um trdeYfwpfckNyD; wpfck xkwfqifhavonf/ ]]wHwm;BuD;rSm A[dkwyfrpGJNyD; XmecsKyx f m; r,f? 'vuaeMunfhjrifwdki?f Munfhjrifwdkiu f ae ykZGefawmiftxd puf0kdifjcrf;o@mefxm;NyD; &efol udk 0dkif&Hr,f... em;vnfMuvm;}} em;vnfaMumif; tm;vHk;u ajymMuonf/ ]]NrKd Uvwf0efBu;D r[mrif;vSrif;acgifausm}f } ]]&Sdygw,f AdkvfcsKyf}} ]]tif t m;oH k ; axmif e J Y ta&S U rsuf E S m ykZGefawmifuae ppfzGihfcsD}} ]]aumif;ygNyD AdkvfcsKyf}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]rif;xifrif;acgif}} ]]&Sdygw,fAdkvfcsKyf}} rif;xifrif;acgifum;... olYnDt&if; jzpf avonf/ rif;xifrif;acgifonf pdwv f yI &f mS ;ae[ef jzifhvufrsm;udk yGwo f yfqkwfe,faeonf/ bm aMumifrh eS ;f rod? olu Y kd av;pm;jrwfE;kd oavmufon Yl D rif;xifrif;acgifudk uREkyf fpdwfxJwGif rawGUvS/ ]]tiftm;oHk;axmif? ajrmufbufrsufESm qHawmfBudKvrf;ucsD}} ]]aumif;ygNyD AdkvfcsKyf}} rif;xifrif;acgiftoH rodrom wkefae onf[k uREkyf x f ifonf/ ]]twGif;0efBuD; r[mrif;vS&mZm? tiftm; oHk;axmif ukef;awmfcHwyfukd wdkuf}} ]]aumif;ygNyD AdkvfcsKyf}} ]]vuf0Jrif;rª; r[mrif;vSaZ,soleJY pm; awmf0ef rif;vSrif;acgif tif tm;av;axmif? taemufrsufESm Munfhjrifwkid }f } ]]owd;k rif;Bu;D ?tiftm;oH;k axmif?'vbufucs}D } ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèê

ppfrsufESmjzefYvku d af om olYaoe*FukduREkyf f ½kyfyHkazmfMunfhvdkufonf/ &efolwyfpGJxm;onfh a&Twd*Hkukef;awmfudk A[dkjyKí 0ef;&Hvkduaf paom AsL[mum; *Pef;vufro@mef ppfx;kd tpDt&ifyif jzpfavonf/ jymodkvjynfhaeY eHeufcif;rS pwifvIy&f Sm; csw D ufMuaom wyfrBuD;rsm;onf?wpfaeYcif;twGi;f rSmyifa&Twd*HkapwD\ ta&SUawmtkypf Gef;rSonf'*Hk ESihf tajrmufwpfurf;tuGm ykZGefawmifjrpfurf; txd wyfcsif;qufro d mG ;onf/ A[dkppfaMumif;um; apwDawmfjrwfbuf awmtkyt f wGi;f rSm &Sad eav onf/ wyfpHkNyD;NyD;csi;f uwkwfusi;f rsm; wl;Mu&m naerapmif;rDrSmyif ppfaMumif;BuD;rsm;udk &efolY jrifuGi;f uGif;rS udk,af &mifazsmufEdkifcJhMujyefonf/ þppfaMumif;wpfavQmufwiG f uwkwu f si;f wpfcrk SwpfckodkY wyfwpfckrSwpfckokdY? aeYaeYnn vSnhfvnf ppfaq;aewwfolrSm ol...r[mAE¨Kv yifwnf;/ nOfhtcsdefrsm;wGif raxmif;omvSapumrl ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

aejcnf0if;jyufaom aqmif;wGi;f aeYtcsdefrsm;wGif um; olaqmif;aoma&TxD;onf ukef;awmfay:rS &efolwkdYtwGuf tvGefxif&Sm;aom ypfuGif;jzpfae aomaMumifh olYtwGuf uREkyf fpdk;&drfvSawmhonf/ xdkYaMumifh olYukduREfkyfu owday;pum; ajymrdaomtcg olu usifpG,Ef Iwcf rf;arT;rsm;udk tomt,moyfvsuf... ]]rpd;k &dryf geJ?Y olwkYAd Hk;qef usKyu f krd a&mufEkid f ygbl;}} [kajymavonf/ rnfodkYqdkap...oludk,w f kid pf pfaMumif;rsm; toD;oD;odkYvu kd yf g uGyu f JaeaomaMumifh wyfawmf om;wdkYrSm rBuHKzl;atmif wuf<uaeMuavonf/ uREkfyw f dkYwyfrsm;\ ajruwkwu f sif;rsm;rSmvnf; wpfpwpfp NAdwdoQwyfrsm;csxm;&m uke;f awmf bufqDodkY wdk;a&TUeD;uyfvmMuonf/ odkYaomf &efolwkdYrSm awmifxdyfcHwyfuJhodkY tumtuG,&f xm;av\/ukef;awmfay:rS pD;eif; ypfcwfciG &h f aeMuojzihf olwb Ykd ufrw S pfyrf;omaeonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèè

aoG;aq;uefwpfbuf awmifwef;wpf0u kd u f m; wdu k f yGJ tjyif;txefqHk; jzpfawmhonf/ 'kw, d tjyif;txefqk;H rSm &efo\ l Munfhjrif wdkicf HwyfESifh uREkyf w f kY\ d vuf,mbufppfaMumif; wyfrsm; &ifqikd af wGUMuaom wdu k yf yJG if jzpfavonf/ wdkufyGJrsm; tjyif;txefay:aygufaeonfh umvtwGi;f rSmyif oluppfaMumif;OD;pD;rª;rsm;udk ac:,lawGUqHkum xk;d ppftpDtrHwpfckudk csrSwjf yef onf/ ]]jrpfaMumif;rSm&efolUppfoabFmawG ydwf qdaYk ewmudk oabmrusb;l ? 'g[mtEÅ&m,fwpfcyk ?J olwkd Y u½lZmppfoabFmawG[m urf;udkaumif; aumif ; 'k u © a y;Ed k i f w ,f } } olt Y pDtrHjzifh uREykf w f o kYd nf NAdwo d QoabFm rsm;udk acsmufcsm;EdkifapcJhMuonf/ ykZGeaf wmifacsmif;ESihf Munfhjrifwkid af csmif;wdkY rS a&tuswGif rD;azmifrsm;tcsdefudkuf vTwaf rsm vkdufMuonf/ uREykf w f \ kYd rD;azmifrsm;rSm 0g;rsm;udkazmifzUGJ ? ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïèç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

0g;ESpfpnf;oHk;pnf;Mum;wGif a&eH? *Grf;avmifpm tjynfhodyfonfh ajrtdk;rsm;udk xnfhonf/ ,rf;yg aom avmifpmudkrl azmifay:wGif tESHYtjym; pkyHk xm;vdkufonf/ 0g;tqufqufwGJum emzm;t&Sif jyKvkyfxm;aomaMumifh &efolYppfoabFm&Sd&modkY azmifrsm; a&mufoGm;aomtcg oabFmudk tvdk tavsmuf 0ef;&H&pfywfomG ;Muonf/ þodkYjzifh ppf oabFmrSm rD;0dki;f avmifuRrf;cHMu&awmhonf/ n wdkuyf GJrsm;rSmyif uREfkyfwdkY\ rD;azmifrS rD;a&mifrsm;onf aeYumv[k xif&avmufatmif rDwxdex f def xGef;vif;aeavonf/ olwkdY\ oabFmrsm;rSm rD;azmifrsm;aMumifh 'ku©awGUukeMf uonf/ ]wdraf rmuf}trnf&Sd u½lZm ppfoabFmum; tBuD;tus,f rD;pGJavmifoGm;av onf/ odkYaomf... olwkdY tiftm;BuD;pGmjzifh ckcH aeaom ]od*Fkwå&ukef;awmf}odkY uREkyf w f dkYwyfrsm; rwufEdkifMuao;/ À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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2

ïçð

Adkvcf sKyrf if;BuD; r[mrif;vS&mZm\ wif;rm okerf Ieaf eaom rsuEf Smxm;udk awGUvku d &f uwnf;u ta&;awmfwpfpHkwpfck rvSryjzpfaeNyD[k uREkyf f em;vnfvkdufonf/ rif;BuD;r[m rif;vS&mZmum; wdkufyGJtjyif;txefqHk; aoG;aq;uefppfaMumif;\ OD;pD;Adkvcf sKyfjzpfavonf/ wJxo J kYd uREyfk 0f ifoGm;aomtcsed fwiG f olESihf rif;BuD;r[mrif;vS&mZmwdkYonf wpfckckukd tBudwf te,f aqG;aEG;aeMu[ef&Sdonf/ olu uREkyf fudk wpfcsurf Q apGMunfv h ku d Nf yD; rif;BuD;r[mrif;vS&mZm ESihf rsufESmcsi;f jyefqdkio f nf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]tustqHk; tcsKd ;tpm;csif; wlw,fyJqkd apOD; olwkdYbufu ppfajrjyiftuGuftuGif;ydkNyD; aumif;aew,fAdkvcf sKyf}} r[mrif;vS&mZmu ajymvufpjzpf[efwl aom pum;udk qufajymonf/ uREykf u f olaY emufyg; odkY 0if&yfum olwpfckck trdefYay;vQif toifh&Sdae atmif jyifqifxm;vdkufonf/ ]]usKyfwkYd tm;udk;Edkiw f Jh aoe*Fu ajymuf usm;yJ &Sdaew,f? opfyifay:u NcHKykwaf wGxJu xGufNyD; wku d fw,f? nbufrSm cHwyfudktvpf0if wdkuw f ,f? 'gusKyw f t kYd vkyEf kid q f Hk;xdk;ppfyJ?oif;wdkY&JU tajrmufwyfcHwyfawGukd tvHk;t&if;eJYwufpD;zdkY tcGifhrombl;}} r[mrif; vS& mZmonf yif yef ; EGr f; e,f ae[ef &Sdavonf/ olpum;ajym rSm;oGm;rnfudk uREkyf fu pdk;&drfaerdonf/ r[mrif;vS&mZmu wpfckck qufajymrnf tjyKwGif olu vufumjyvdkuaf vonf/ xdkYaemuf olu wnfNidrfaomtoHjzih.f .. ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçî

]]ppfaMumif;tm;vHk;u owif;awGukd usKyf &NyD;ygNyD? tajctaet&yf&yfudkvnf; usKyfoHk;oyf NyD;NyD? usKyfwkYv d lawG udki&f wJhaoewfawG[m?olwkdY ta&SUtdE´d,ukrÜPDu toHk;r0ifvkdY zsufqD;ypfzdkY odkavSmifxm;wJh t*Fvyd v f kyf aoewfawGjzpfaewm u qdk;w,f? &Jrufwpfa,mufukd aoewfwpfvuf twGuf usnq f efq,fawmifheJY ,rf;rIefY xkwfay;& ayr,fh wpfawmifhxkd; aoewfawG jzpfaew,f/ wpfcgypfNyD;&if aemufwpfcg usno f Gi;f zdkYtwGuf tcsdef,lae&w,f? &ifqdkiw f dkufyGJrSm 'Dvkdusnq f ef topfoiG f;zdkY ,l&wJhtcsdefav;[m tifrwef ta&; ygw,f/ aumifav;awG usnt f opfwpfawmifh toifhrjzpfcifrSm oif;wdkY vSHpGyaf wGu 0ifvmw,f r[kwfvm;...}} ]][kwfw,f Adkvcf sKyf...}} ]]udk&if iopfvSH&Snf urf;vku d fprf;yg}} olYvufxJokdY vSH&Snx f nfhay;vkduf&onf/ olu eH&HwGif csdwfqGJxm;aom wdkuyf GJajryHkum;csyf qDodkY vSHoGm;jzihf axmufvdkufonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]'DrmS ajrmufbufppfaMumif;? 'gua&Tw*d Hk bk&m;? 'gcifAsm;&JUwyfawGr[kwv f m;}} ]][kwfygw,f...}} ]]bk&m;ajrmufbufu cifAsm;wyfawG&,f? vuf0JppfaMumif;u r[mrif;vSrif;acgif&JUwyfawG &,f? qHawmfBudKvrf;u rif;xifrif;acgif&JUwyfawG &,f? a[m'Dvrf;aMumif;twdki;f qkwfcJh...}} vSHoGm;onf ta&SUajrmuft&yfqDokYd a&TUae onf/ ]]uefyJheJY wmarG0g;ydk;wyfrSm wyftm;vHk; qHkMu? opfwyfukd tjyifu&HNyD;wyfaqmuf?opfwyf 0ef;usirf Sm ajrmif;wl;? ajrmif;xJrSm 0g;cRefpdkuf? cHwyfudk A,f? nm opfwyfESpcf keJY &H&r,f?awmifyH ESpfck[m t&Snftawmif&Sp&f m? tus,u f tawmif av;&m&S&d r,f... rSwrf dvm;}} ]]rSwfrdygw,f}} ]]wyftm;vH;k udk cifAsm;uwpfqifh odygap? wyfqkwfwm r[kwb f l;}} ]]rSwfrdygw,f}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçì

]]xdk;ppfuae cHppfajymif;wm? cHppfqkw d m [m ppfwdkufjcif;yJ}} vSHoGm;udk jyef½kyv f dkufonf/ r[mrif;vS &mZmxHrv S nf; olrY suEf SmvTv J ku d o f nf/Adv k cf sKyfr[m rif;vS&mZmu olYukd twefMum pl;pdu k Mf unfah eNyD;rS wdwfqdwfpGm xGuo f Gm;avonf/ r[mrif;vS&mZm tjyifa&mufoGm;NyD;rS olu uREykf fudk vSH&Snjf yefay;onf/ vSH&Snu f kad e&m wGif jyeford ;f NyD; uREyfk v f nf; wJxrJ x S u G af wmhrnf[k ajcvSr;f tjyifvdkufrSmyif... olu ]]cP aetHk;... udk&ifiopf}} olYtoHrSm trdefYay;oHr[kwf? a&mif;&if; csi;f &if;ES;D pGm ajymoHjzpfaeaomaMumifh uREykf pf w d x f J xdckdufoGm;rdavonf/ ]]xdkipf rf;ygtHk;...}} olYa&SUwGif xdkufvdkufonf/ ]]&efukefwku d yf Jt G ajctaetaMumif; udk&if odNyD;NyDr[kwv f m;}} rarQmfvifhaom ar;cGef;aMumifh uREkyf b f m ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

jyefajym&rSe;f rod/ pifppfrl ppfyGJtajctaeudkolESihf teD;uyfqkH;jzpfaom uREyfk u f tjcm;ppfO;D pD;Adkvcf sKyf rsm;xufyif ydkov d rd fhrnf[k xifonf/,ckvko d lu ar;vmonfrSmvnf; pifppfrl?rnfumrwå tar; pum;om jzpfonf/ tajzudkawmif;onfh tar; pum;r[kw?f wpfckckajymvdkí ysKd ;aompum;ed'gef; om jzpfrnfxifonf/ ]]&efukepf pfajrjyifrmS usKyw f kYt d a&;romMu bl;? jrpfxJrSmppfavSESp&f m qHk;cJhw,f? ukuúKd if;eJY aoG;aq;uef wdkuyf GJawGrSm usKyfwkYb d ufu trsm; tjym;usqHk;cJh&w,f? usKyfwkYd cHwyfawG[m tck tcsed frSm &efolYtajrmufqef? AHk;qefukd zGihBf udKqdkae wJh ypfrSwaf wG jzpfaeMuw,f? vufeufcsif r,SOf omatmif jzpfaew,f}} ½HI;edrfhjcif;taMumif;udk uREkyf fvnf; em; raxmifcsif? olYukdvnf; rajymapcsi?f pdwfvuf rcsrf;ompGmjzifh uREkyf rf Sm qufem;axmifae&onf/ ]]ppfonf wpfO;D csi;f taeeJY? NAdwo d QawGukd usKyfwdkY &JrufawG[m tcsed fra&G; ,SOEf dkifayr,fh ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçê

tckppfyGJ[m "m;vSHwkdY&JUyGJr[kwaf wmhbl; udk&if? cHwyf? tajrmuf? ppfoabFmawGyg0ifwJh aoe*F topf jzpfomG ;NyD? 'Dta&;udk usKyfawG;rdvkYd '*HkNrdKU0ef udk rqGuwnf;u owday;cJhayr,h.f ..a&Teef;awmf udk,Ef Iu d u f oabmraygufcb Jh ;l ? usKyef o JY abmcsi;f wlwm udkpwpfa,mufyJ &Sdw,f}} jr0wD0efBu;D udk uREykf v f nf; owd&aeonf/ ]]tck uefyJh wmarGukdqkwNf yD; cHppfjyKzdkY pDrHvdu k w f m udk&iftMum;yJ? odkYaomf 'g[mvJ&efoYl twGuf t[efYtwm; jzpf½HkuvGNJ yD; xljcm;wJh tusKd ; &Srd Smr[kwaf ybl;? ckcsed rf Sm &Edkio f rQppfaMumif;uae jzpfEdkiforQ t[efYtwm;udkyJ wpfqifhpD wpfqifhpD xkwfoHk;&vdrfhr,f? &efol[m usKyfwkYdcHppfawGukd tustqHk;rsm;pGmeJY wdku&f if;? odrf;&if;?jrpfaMumif; twkid ;f xufMuyfruGm vdkuyf gvmMuvdrhrf ,f...}} uREykf f qufem;raxmifcsi?f jzpfEkdifvQifolY a&SUrS xGuo f Gm;csio f nf/ uREyfk t f zdkY BuD;us,cf rf;em; vSpmG tm;udk;txifBuD;vSaom olEY w I zf sm;qDrþ S odkY aom ]tysuf} pum;awGukd enf;enf;rS rMum; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçé

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csifay../ ]]udk&if iopf}} olYavoH ½kww f &ufajymif;oGm;onf/ ]]udk&if...qifusHK; oGi;f zl;ovm;..}} ]][if...}} ]]qif usHK;oGi;f zl;ovm;}} acgif;ndwfrdonf/ olNyHK;onf/ pdwfESvHk; aemufusdaeaom uREkfyf\ trlt&mudk ol&yd pf m; rd[ef&Sdonf/ ]]{&m0wDjrpfukd usHK;vdkoabmxm;?&efol NAdwdoQudk qifvdkoabmxm;? 'gqdk,if udk&if em;vnfavmufa&maygh...}} rdk;wdrftpdkiftcJukd avjyif;wpfcsuf wdk;a0SY z,f&mS ;vdkuo f vdkyif? tHkYrIid ;f aeaom uREkyf \ f tawG; rsm; csufcsif;MunfvifoGm;onf/ ]]tck...tck...b,fvkdaoe*FrsdK;eJY...}} 0rf;omvGef;aomaMumifh uREkyf frSm pum; xpfaeawmhonf/ olutNyHK;rys,af o;aom rsuEf Smjzihf ajym ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçè

avonf/ ]]vId if j rpf 0rSm rif; BuD; r[mrif ; acgif tiftm; wpfaxmihif g;&mwyf? arSmb f rD mS r[moDv0? tiftm;wpfaxmifhig;&mwyf? yJcl;rSm owdk;r[m&JU wyf? xef;wyifuRe;f rSm rif;vSrif;acgif rif;vSol&ed f eJY r[maZ,sow l dkYukd tiftm;ig;axmifeJYtqifhqifh &yfcHap&r,f...}} ]]udk&ifuaum}} BuD;pGmaom ppftpDt&ifudk oljyKaeNyD[l aom 0rf;ompdwaf Mumifh uREkfy\ f EIwrf S ]udk&if}[k vTwu f eJ ac:rdoGm;onf/ ndKarSmifapG;apG; olYrsufvHk;rsm; ta&mif xGufvmMuonf[k xif&onf/ oljznf;nif;av; eufpGm qdkavonf/ ]]"EkjzL}} À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ïçç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

¬½»ºå øç÷ 1

&efukefwpf0dkuf wdkuyf GJrsm;wGif ta&;rom aomaMumifh qkwfcGm&onfh ra&S;raESmif;rSmyif &efolwkdYu uREfkyw f dkY\ e,fpGefe,fzsm; t&Htwm; tiftm;rsm;udk odrf;,lMujyefonf/ rPdyl&ESihf tmoHwkYd &efolYvufwGi;f us& jyefonf/ ppfajrjyif usOf;ajrmif;vmcJhayNyD/ odkYaom... txufatmuf c&D;vrf;qHkusaom ykord f &efukefc&D;rSmvnf; tcsuftcsmusaom &du©m ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðð

axmufyhHrItwGufvnf; A[dkusaom ]"EkjzL}wGif uREkyf fwdkY tcdkit f rm cHwyfaqmufNyD;MuNyD/ NAdwdoQ AdkvfcsKyfuif;bJonf vdIijf rpftxd vHk;0 tcktcHr&Sb d J wufvmonf[k owif;&onf/ olwkdY\a&aMumif; Adkvfrª;csKyfum; ]aumhbGe}f qdkol jzpfonf/ &efoYt l iftm;udkvnf; uREyfk w f kYd twdtus &xm;NyD;NyD/ Munf;aMumif;csD ESpaf xmifih g;&m? a&aMumif; csD wpfaxmihfESp&f mckESpq f ,f? 'dkif,memtrnf&Sd tajrmufwifppfoabFm/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

2

rdk;aumif;rS awmifpm;apmfbGm; aersdK;odef y&mZmudk uREykf t f xl;wvnf owd&aeonf/,ckvkd "EkjzLcHwyfBuD;wGif olb,favmuf]yG0J if}&Smcsiv f rd hf rvJ[kvnf; awG;rdaeonf/ olYukd tcsed rf a&G;qifhac:vdkuyf g?olYvlEiS o hf l Mum;&mt&yfu vmygrnf[k apmfbmG ;u tm;wuf oa&m uwd a y;cJ h o nf u d kv nf ; Mum;a,mif aerdonf/ cHwyfudk vSnhfvnfppfaq;aeonfholYtm; wpfaeYa omtcg awmifpm;apmf b Gm ;aersd K;ode f y&mZmudk uREkyf fowd&aeaMumif; ajymjyrdonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðî

]]apmfbmG ;udk 'DvrS ;f ac:zdu Yk awmh rjzpfEikd af y bl;udk&if?odkYaomf qifusHK;oGi;f NyD;&ifawmh udk&if rkd;aumif;udk tvnftywfav; bmav;oGm;csif oGm;aygh}}[k oluqdkonf/ onfrQxufydkívnf; olYudk uREkyf fpum; ajymcGihrf &/ cHwyfudk wpfvtwGi;f tNyD;aqmuf& rnf jzpfaomaMumifh &Jruftm;vHk; rem;rae tvkyf vkyMf u&onf/ oluk, d w f kid v f nf; cHwyfaqmufonfh ae&mtESHYtjym;odkY aeYaeYnn vSn hfv nfOD; pD; aeonf/ aEGOD;raygufcifrSmyif uREkyf fwdkY cHwyfudk tNyD;tpD;aqmufvkyEf kid cf JhMuonf/ þrQ wdkawmif; aom wpfvwmumvtwGi;f þrQBuD;us,af om cHwyfudk aqmufvkyEf dkicf JhMuonfrSm aemifwpfcsdef þodkY jyKvkyEf dkifygOD;rnfavm[k rdrdwdkYukd,frdrd oHo, 0ifavmufatmifyif uREfkyw f dkY pGr;f aqmif EdkifcJhMuacsonf/ olYajryHkum;csyaf y:u cHwyfyHkpHi,fonf {&m0wD\taemufbufurf; tjrihfqHk;urf;yg;ay: ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wGif xD;xD;rm;rm;BuD; ay:aygufvmayNyD/ "EkjzLudkjzwfí pD;qif;oGm;aom {&m0wD onf cH w yf B uD ; ae&mü tvG e f q H k; tawmif wpfaxmifhig;&mcefY (udkuf 700ausmfcefY)rQom us,f0ef;ayonf/ xdkYaMumifh "EkjzL\ta&SUbuf rsuEf SmrSaeí jrpftwdki;f qefvmrnfh&efoalY &wyfukd csKyf u d ki f x m;Ed ki f a om tajctaeud k obm0 tavsmufyif uREkyf fwdkY &&Sdaeayonf/ uRef;opfvHk; eH&HBuD;rsm;u q,fEh Spaf wmif eD;yg;&Sdonf/ opfvHk;cHwyftwGi;f wGif tkw½f k;d cHwyf wpf xyf&Sdonf/ tkwf½dk;ol&Jajyay:wGif tajrmuf wpf&mh ig;q,f/ xdkYjyif wyfwGi;f rSmvnf; uwkwu f si;f rsm; ajrmif;&SnBf uD;rsm;/ cHwyftjyifwiG v f nf; usKH ;wl;xm;onf/usKH ; twGif;ü 0g;cRef? oHcRef? usi;f uwkw?f qifcvkw?f jrif;cvkwftjynfh/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðì

cHwyfa&SU&Sd opfawmBuD;rsm;twGi;f opfyif rsm;ay:üvnf; arQmpf if? tajrmufpifrsm;udkjyKvkyMf u &onf/ xdkarQmfpif tajrmufpifrsm;ay:wGif &Jruf ESpOf D; aeEdik o f nf/ &Jrufrsm;\vufeufrmS aygifoHk; pdwf tajrmufqef xnfhypfEdkifaom ]*sif*,f} tajrmufi,frsm; jzpfavonf/ cHwyfBuD; aqmufNyD;onfhaeYwGif olu wyfrif;wyfr;ª rsm;tm;vHk;udk pHknDpka0;apvdkuo f nf/ xdkYaemuf cHwyftwGif; wyf pGJ&rnhfae&mrsm;? tiftm;cGJa0yHkrsm;? &efolYoabFmrsm;vmrnfh jrpfjyif ppf rsufESm qDo dkY ypf v Tw f&rnfh tajrmuf rsm; taMumif;udk oltus,w f 0ifh &Si;f vif;jyonf/ olYtrdefYudk em;axmif&if;jzifh uREkyf frSmppfyGJ wGif þrQtcuftcJawGUum cHppfjyKae&aom umv ü þodkYaom cHwyfudk aooyfusepGm tkyfcsKyf wnfaqmufum aphpyfaom ppfa&;tpDtrHudk jyKvkyEf kid fpGr;f olum; olrSwyg; tjcm;rnfolrQ r&Sd Edkifawmh[k ,HkMunfaerdonf/ ]]aersdK;&Jxif? aersKd ;&Jzsm;eYJ? r[mrif;acgif ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

ocF,mwdkY a&SUxGucf Jhprf;...}} i,f&G,Ef yk sKd aom wyfr;ª oHk;a,mufa&SUxu G f vmMuonf/ olwo kYd k;H OD;rSm aoG;aq;uefwku d yf Jw G iG f ]yGJ&} emrnfausmfcJholrsm;yif/ ]]rif;wkYdoHk;a,mufudk wpfjcm;wpfae&m vTwf&vdrfhr,f}} olu aersdK;&Jxif\ ycHk;udk zufí ajym onf/ ]]usKd uu f vGeyf Geaf pwDae&mrSm wdckY w H yfi,f wpfck aqmuf&vdrht f Hk;r,f? apwDy&0kPfeJY &ifjyif awmudk ywfNy;D cHwyfww H ikd ;f wm½d;k aqmufMu&r,f}} aersdK;&Jxif\ rsufESmjyifü ppfaoG;wdkY eDjref; aeonfudk awGUMu&avonf/ ]]&efo[ l m 'D "EkjzLcHwyfBuD;udk a&mufrvm cif rif;wdYk usKd uu f vGeyf eG cf w H yfeYJ t&ifawGUap&r,f/ yGJMurf;awGU&vdrfhr,f? Mum;vm;? aoewfwpfurf; wdkufyGJawG trsm;qHk;&Sdr,f}} aoewfvufajzmifh wyfrª;i,foHk;OD;rSm &ifudk rwfrwfrm;rm; aumhcsDí olYtrdefYukd em; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðê

axmif aeMuonf/ ]]tm;ukeo f eG w f u kd Mf u vlav;wd?kY 'DwpfcgwdYk cHwyfwku d yf [ JG m tqHk;tjzwfwu kd yf yJG ?J igawmhighuk, d f ig o&P*HkwifNhyD;NyD? jzpfav&mb0wdki;f rSm trd Ekid if HawmfeJY trsdK;bmom omoemudk apmifha&Smuf umuG,f &wJh ppf o nfawmfyJjzpf&ygvdk\vdkYv J qkawmif;NyD;NyD? rif;wkYdvJ usKd ufuvGefyGefapwDrSm cHwyfraqmufcif o&P*Hkwif? qkawmif;Mu [kwv f m;}} wyfrª;rsm;u olpY um;tqHk;ü &,fMuonf/ uREkfyfrlr&,frd/ usdKufuvGeyf GefodkYoGm;rnfh wyfrª; i,foHk;a,muftwGuf pdwfylaerdonf/ xkdaeY naerSmyif wyfrSL;oHk;a,mufwkYd xGuo f mG ;Muonf/ uREykf w f w Ydk yfrsm;um; wku d af vSBuD; rsm;ay:odkY ajcmufaygif'g? udk;aygif;'gESifq h ,fhESpf aygif'gtajrmufBuD;rsm;ukd wif&onfhtvkyjf zihf xkdnwpfnvHk; rtdyfMu/ ]]aemufaeY wpfreufcif;vH;k tdycf sed af y;r,f? 'Dwpfnawmh tajrmufawGtm;vHk; avSay:tNyD; ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wifMu}} [k oluqkdonf/ od kYaomf ... aemuf aeYw pf reufcif ;vHk; tdy&f m0ifciG hrf &Mu/ taMumif;rlum; NAdwdoQwYx kd HrS olwAYkd kv d cf sKy\ f o0PfvmT wpfapmifukd ,laqmifvm aom tvHukid w f yfzGJUwpfck a&mufvmaomaMumihf aywnf;/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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3

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NAdwdoQtvHukdifwyfzGJU\ o0PfvTmukd uREfkyfzwfjy&onf/ Adkvcf sKyf aumhweG f\ o0PfvmT yif jzpfav onf/ o0Pfyg taMumif;t&mum; vufeufcs tnhHcH&ef pufem&Dwpfem&DtwGif; taMumif;jyef &ef &mZoHay;jcif;yif/ &efolAkv d cf sKyf\ o0PfukMd um;&aomtcg wyfrif;rsm; ½SL;½SL;&Sm;&Sm; a'goxGuu f kefMuonf/ olurl yuwdat;aq;wnfNird pf mG uREfyk b f ufvn S í hf trdefYay;vkdufavonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îðç

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

]]Akdvaf ersKd;&Jacgifausmf? jyefMum;o0Pf a&;yg...}} uREfkyftoihfjzpfonfESihf olYqDrS jywfom; aom pum;vHk;rsm; wpfvHk;pD xGuv f mavonf/ ]]owkd; ok"r® r[mAE¨Kvu Adkvcf sKyf aumhwGeftm; jyefMum;odapvku d fonf..../ oifESihfuREfkyfwYo kd nf rdrdwikd f;jynftwGuf toD;oD;ppfwu dk af eMuonf/ uREykf w f \ Ykd r,drf;r,kid f ckcHaerIukd oifawGUjrifae&NyD/ uREyfk u f Ekd idk v f Qif oifh *kPo f u d m© udk xde;f xm;Ekid o f nf/ rdwaf qGtjzpf "EkjzL cHwyfukd Munfh½Ivv dk Qif uREkyf u f k, d w f ikd v f u kd v f jH yo rnf/ &efoltjzpfvmvQif urf;odkYwufí wyfcsif; ,SOfEkdio f nf...}} aumhwGef\tvHukdifwyfzGJUonf/ olYukd tav;jyKum ol\cefYn m;aom o0Pfukd,lí jyefoGm;Muavonf/ tvHuidk w f yfzUJG jyefomG ;Ny;D aemuf olu uREkyf f ukd teD;odkYac:í... ]]udk&if 'Dnae usKyu f kd txl;wvnfulnD ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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p&mwpfck&Sw d ,f}} [kajymonf/ uREfkyu f ]bmvJrif;BuD;}[k ar;&m ]usKyfqDom vmcJhyg}[k qkad vonf/ naebufwGif cHwyftwGi;f &Sd olYpHtrd fodkY uREfky0f ifonf/ BuD;rm;vSaom aowåmBuD;oHk;vHk;ukd olESihf twl awGU&onf/ olu uREfkyfukd aowåmzGifch ikd f;aeí txJrS ypön;f rsm;ukd xkwaf ponf/ ckid cf efaY omyk;d BudK;rsm;ESifh csnx f m;onhf rIid ;f ukid pf uúLxkyrf sm;ukd xkw, f l&onf/ BudK;jznfí puúLukd cGmvku d faomtcg... ]][if...}} ]]tJ'gawGyJuk&d if? usKyf 'gukd toHk;jyKcGifh BuHKawmhr,f? ukid ;f ...usKyfukd ulygtHk;}} yxrOD;pGm xlxJaom uwåyD guk, d fusyu f kd olYukd,fay:ü 0wfay;&onf/ xkdYaemuf atmufcH uwåyD gay:wGif aMu;rIyd iG rfh sm;ukd yef;uGuaf zmfí½dkuf xm;aomtusÐ/ xkYdaemuf aMu;rIdtuGuf½ku d fxm; onhf tarm0kdif;vnfyif;tky/f ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îïï

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

oHuiG ;f qufjzih&f ufonhf em;umonf ycHk; txd qufaeonf/ vufarmif;ae&mwGif xlxJaomoHjym;rsm; wpfbufwpfcsuf zHk;tkyx f m;onf/ vufzsHae&mwGif rl wHawmifqpfrS vufaumuf0wftxd vufukd tm;vHk;zHk;rdatmif oHjym;acgif;yGukd acGo@mefzk;H um xm;onf/ &ifbwftonf;ESvk;H ESifh &ifñeG Yw f nhw f nfh ae&mwGirf l oHjym;t0kid ;f BuD;wpfjym;pDudk zHk;tkyaf y; &onf/ aygifae&mwGifrl tjyifwpfbufwpfcsuf qDrS oHjym;rsm;&Sad eonf/ 'l;rSajczsm;ukid f xlxJaom uwåDyg zdeyf&SnBf uD;um; t0wf&tcufqHk;yif/ yef;yGifah zmf cg;pnf;BudK;udkvnf; xlxyfpmG pnf;ay; &onf/ ab;wpfbufwpfcsuw f iG f oHeef;BuKd ;uav; rsm;ukd aphpyfxlxJpGm uGi;f quf,ufazmufxm; onfh em;umESpf&Guyf gaom oHjym;um carmufukd aqmif;NyD;aomtcgwGiu f m; olt Y wGuf ]oHcsy0f wfpHk qifjref;jcif;}} trI NyD;pD;avonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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oHcsy0f wfpkrH mS tjriftm;jzihf BuD;rm;cefYnm; oavmuf 0wfqifvIy&f Sm;&mwGif ayghyg;vSonfukd awGU&onf/ olu eef;BudK;ao;ao;rQifrQifav;rsm; cwfxm;aomvuftdwftwGi;f &Sd vufacsmif;rsm;ukd qkycf snf jzefYcsnfjyKvsuf/ ]]usKu d u f vGeyf eG f cHwyfwu dk yf NJG yD;&if NAdwo d Q awG "EkjzLcHwyfukd rqkid ;f rwGvmMurS aocsmw,f? wyfawGtm;vHk;ukd ppfvSefY ppfEId;xm;&vdrhfr,f}} ]]&efoplY pfoabFmawG[m {&m0wDjrpfxJrSm twHk;t½Hk; jzpfukefMurSmyg AdkvfcsKyf}} "EkjzLcHwyfBuD;\tiftm;ukd pdwcf s,HkMunf pGmjzihf uREfkyfu jyefajymvku d fonf/ ol £a`E´BuD;&ihpf Gm NyHK;onf/ cHwyfuif;wm0ef vJvS,o f nht f csufay; armif;oHxGuaf y:vmonf/ À ÀÀ

ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îïí

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

4

waygif;vqef;\ nOhOf D;tcsed o f nf uREfkyf wkdYvkcd sifaomtarSmifukd aumif;pGmay;wwfonf/ cHwyftwGi;f &Sd opfyifarQmfpifxufrSMunhf vku d fvQif rIefysys {&m0wDjrpfjyifukd us,fjyef&Si;f vif;pGm awGUae&onf/ jrpfjyifxufwGiu f m; rnf; rnf;o@mefrsm;u tpkta0;vku d f ra&GUrvsm; &Sad e Muonf/ xkdo@mefrsm;um; NAdwdoQ ppfoabFm rsm;yif/ usKu d u f vGeyf eG f cHwyfi,fESpcf kwiG f jyif;xef aomwku d yf JrG sm; jzpfay:NyD;cJNh yD? &efolwu kYd tajrmuf ESihf 'Hk;rsm;ukd toHk;jyKcJhMuonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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cHwyftwGi;f aoewfwpfurf; wku d fyGJrsm; ay:cJhonf/ olwkdYbufrS ppfaMumif;ESpaf Mumif;OD;pD; uyÜwed ?f uyÜwed u f ifEGew f kYd usqk;H oGm;cJhovkd uREfkyf wkdYbufrS Adkvaf ersKd;&Jxif usqHk;cJh&onf/ usKduu f vGefyGef cHwyfwku d fyGJwGif &efolwYkd tiftm;avsmhyg;oGm;cJhonfum; trSefyif/ NAdwdoQwkdYonf &Sdxm;aom tiftm;jzihf uREfkyw f Ykd "EkjzLcHwyfukd rwku d &f JaMumif; aocsmvS onf/ jrpfjyifwiG f ausmufcs&if; cHwyfukd vuf0J? vusmf awmifpHn§yí f vjcrf;o@mef0ef;&yf wyfpGJ xm;Muonf/ olwkYd ppfulapmihfaeMuonf/ ]]tay:qHk;tqihfxd wufMur,f}} oluajymajymqkdqkd opfyifarQmpf if\tay: qHk;txyfokdY qufwufoGm;onf/ uREkyf Ef iS hf tjcm;Adkvrf LS ;wyfri;frsm;vnf; olY aemufrS vku d cf JhMuonf/ ]]rSefajymif;}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îïë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

tay:qHk;xyfokYd a&mufa&mufcsif; olu jrpfjyifokdY vSr;f Munhfum rSeaf jymif;awmif;onf/ olYvufxJokdY rSefajymif;&Snf xnhfay;vdkuf onf/ &efolwyfrsm;xHrS odrf;ykduf&&So d nhyf pön;f rsm;wGif tajrmufusnfrsm;ESihf rSeaf jymif;rsm;rSm uREfkyfwkdYzkdY toHk;t0ifqHk;yif jzpfavonf/ rSefajymif;ukd wa&GUa&GU ae&ma&TUvsuf ol Munfhonf/ ]]jrpfnmqDu a&GUvmwJo h abFmawGukd awGU &w,f? jynfuq kd efomG ;wJh Adkvcf sKyu f if;bJ&JUwyfawG ppfulvmNyDeJY wlw,f? MunhfMuprf;...}} AdkvfrSL;oHk;a,mufuvnf; rSefajymif;rsm; xkwfí MunhfMuonf/ olwkYu d vnf; wa&GUa&GUckwfarmif;vmaom oabFmrsm;ukd jrif&aMumif; ajymavonf/ ]]olwkdY oabFmcsif; yl;aygif;rdoGm;NyD;&if uif;vSnx hf u G rf mS aocsmw,f? wkYd aoewform;awG avSwpfpif; vlig;q,fcJNG yD; xGuw f u kd &f r,f?qkid &f m ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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wyfawGukd trdefYqihfprf;? vr0ifcif tarSmifukd tumtuG,, f lNyD; xGuw f ku d fr,f}} uREfkyfwkYd arQmfpifxufrS qif;cJhMuonf/ rMumrDrSmyif ppfarmif;oHrsm;? wHy;kd c&moH rsm;? trdeYo f Hrsm; cHwyftwGi;f aomaomnHoGm;av onf/ cHwyfypöi&f ifxm;&Sd tajrmufwyfzGJUrsm; tm;vHk;onf tqifoih/f cHwyftjyif usKH;wpfbuf wGifvnf; jrif;wyfpkrsm; tqifoih/f {&m0wDjrpf a&jyifxJoYkd xGucf mG oGm;onf/ uREykf w f Y\ kd aoewform;wif avSrsm;onf nOhftarSmifatmuf0,f nifompGm vIy&f Sm;aeMu avonf/ cHwyftwGi;f rS wku d fyJpG &ef tcsuaf y;vkduf onfh tajrmufoHBuD; wke[ f nf;oGm;onf/ wpfqufwnf;rSmyif uREfkyfwkYd\ aoewf orm;rsm;qDrS wajzmif;ajzmif; aoewfrD;aygufusnf oHrsm; ay:vmonf/ "EkjzLwku d yf Ju G kd uREkyf w f Y\ kd tajrmufqefjzifh ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îïé

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

zGifhvSpv f kdufNyD/ apmapmu rnf;arSmifww d fqdwfaeaom {&m0wDonf csucf si;f yif tajrmuforH sm;? pdeaf jymif; oHrsm;jzihf vif;xdefqlnHoGm;onf/ rD;usnfrsm;\ Nyd K;jyufa om tvif; a&mif a tmufw Gi f &ef o l Y ppfoabFmrsm;ukd txift&Sm; awGUvku d &f onf/ {&m0wDESifh "EkjzLcHwyf\ txufaumif; uifum; aeYcif;umvESif h rjcm;awmh/ wpfceJ uf qlnH aeaom tajrmufoHrsm;tMum; w0ke;f 0ke;f aygufuGJ aeaom AHk;qefrsm;tMum;wGif a&TUajymif;ul;vl;um wyfzGJUrsm;ukd trdefYay;aeonhf olYtoGiu f kd ae&m wkdi;f wGif awGUae&onf/ vlomrefru ewfbDv;l ppfonfwrQ]yG0J if} aeaomolYukMd unhí f wyfom;rsm;tm;vHk; wuf<u aeMuonf/ tajrmufqef? AHk;qefwkYd aygufuGJoHrsm; tMum;wGif uREfkyw f dkY\ ppfarmif;oHrsm;uvnf; wa0a0/ À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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uREkyf w f \ Ykd tajrmufwifavSBuD; q,fih g;pD; tcsdefrSefuif;vSnfah eonhf a&v,fuRef;ukd &efol wkdYu AHk;ysHrsm;jzihf zsufqD;um a&v,fuRef;ay:odkY wufa&muf wyfpGJvku d fMuavonf/ xkYjd yif uif;bJ\ Munf;aMumif;csw D yfronf cHwyf\ajrmufbuf a&S;a[mif;apwDae&mwGif uwkwfusi;f rsm;wl;vsuf tajccHppfpcef; jyKvkyf vku d fMuonf/ apwDywfvnfwGif ajrjrKyfAHk;rsm; wl;jrKyfxm;Muonf[kvnf; uREfkyw f kYd tckid t f rm owif;&xm;NyD;jzpfonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

onfMum;xJwGif uREfkyfwYu kd cHwyfwGi;f rS aeí ta0;ypftajrmufBuD;rsm;jzihf tjyif;txef qD;BudKypfcwfaeonhfMum;xJu olwkYd\'kdif,mem trnf&dS ppfoabFmu cHwyfqo D kYcd sDvmonf/ &efoYl a&wyfrsm;csv D maepOf Munf;aMumif;wyfrS pdefajymif; rsm;jzihf cHwyfa&SUykid ;f ukd ypfay;aeMuonf/ cHwyftwGi;f odkY w0ke;f 0ke;f usa&mufayguf uGaJ eaom tajrmufqefrsm;um; rk;d &GmonfESirfh jcm; rD;ck;d vHk;BuD;rsm;u ae&mwkid ;f wGif wvdyv f yd w f ufae onf/ ypöif&ifwm;ay:&Sd tajrmufwyfzGJUrsm;um; tajrmufwyfom;rsm; vlcsi;f vJí ravmufEkdiaf wmh/ tcsKdUae&mrsm;wGifum; tajrmufwyfom;rsm; tpk vkduf? tNyHKvkduf usqHk;aeMuonf/ ta0;ypf tajrmufBuD;tcsKUd rmS vHk;0oHk;r&awmhatmif ysufpD; oGm;Muonf/ uREykf w f Ydk þrQoo J rJ rJ J ypfaeonhMf um; xJu &efoaYl &wyfonf cHwyfuv kd eG í f txufbufrS Munf;aMumif;wyfESifh yl;aygif;rdoGm;avonf/ ]]jrpfurf;bufukd tajrmuftm;vHk;vSn}hf } ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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oluk, d w f ikd yf if trdeYaf y;NyD;NyD;csi;f tajrmuf wpfvufukd jrpfurf;buf vSnhcf sdefvku d fonf/ ]]Ad k v f a ersKd ; &J a cgif a usmf ...cH w yf ausmbufwHcg;ukd oGm;zGih.f ..}} olYtrdeYt f wkid ;f uREfkyfcHwyfatmufqif;cJh& onf/ aemufwHcg;ukd zGihfvku d fonf/ cPtMumwGif vHk;0r,HkEikd fp&m jrifuGif; wpf&yfukd awGU&awmhonf/ armif;oHrsm; w'l'lay:vmonf/ ppfarmif;oHrsm;Mum;wGif a&SUqkH;okYw d u kd q f if rsm;? aemufjrif;wyf? xkYdaemuf ajcvsiw f yf/ qifwpfpD;wGif wyfom; ig;a,mufESifh tajrmufpdefajymif;ESpv f ufpD wifvmonf/ þrQaom tcsed ftwGi;f þodkYaomwyfukd vQyfwpfjyufpDrHvku d fEdkio f lrSm olrSvGJí tjcm; rnfolrQ r&SEd kdif/ ]]&efolYvusmf awmifyHukd 0ifwku d fMur,f? taocHwyfzGJUxGu}f } a&Tx;D atmufrx S u G u f m olu, kd w f ikd af &SUqk;H rS ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

wkdufqifay:odkY wufvku d fonf/ xkdYaemuf cHwyfausmbufwHcg;rS xGucf Gm oGm;avonf/ jrpfbuf rsufESmjyifwGiv f nf; wNcdrfhNcdrfh ypfMuqJ/ naerkd;csKyfrS qifwyfjyefa&mufvmonf/ oGm;pOfu qif q,hfckESppf D;/ ,ck tjyefwGiu f m; qif q,fpD;omygvm awmhonf/ olpD;vmaom wku d q f ifBuD;rSmvnf; usnf oih'f Pf&mrS aoG;rsm; tvl;vl;tvdrf;vdrf;/ oluk, d fwdik rf Smrl 'Pf&mwpfpHkwpf&mr&cJh/ yuwd vef;qef;vsuyf if/ olYoHcsyf0wfpHku aumif;pGm tumtuG,f ay;[efwlayonf/ odkYaomf wkduyf GJtajctaeukd uREfkyf&dyfpm; rdvkdufayNyD/ uif;bJ\ Munf;aMumif; ppfuw l yfud k vusmf awmifyHrS NzdKzsufypf&ef oludk,w f kid fOD;pD;í xGuf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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onf/

odkY&mwGif &efolYtajrmuf'k;H usnt f iftm;ukd razmufo m/ ta&;awmfrvSb J cHw yfwGif;odkY jyefqkwfcJh&NyD/ &efolonf a&wyf? Munf;wyf qufro d Gm; ayNyD/ "EkjzLcHwyfBuD;onf txufbufrS wpf ae&m? taemufbufrS wpfae&m? awmifyHESpcf k jzefYum t0kdif;cHvkduf&NyD/ oHcsy0f wfpHk vuftw d rf sm;ukcd Rw&f if; olu uREfkyfukd trdefYay;onf/ ]]AdkvfaersKd;&Jacgifausmf? aejynfawmfukd o0PfydkYyg? twGif;0efr[mOZemeJY r[mrif;acgif &JxifwkdY&JU tiftm;ig;axmifwyfukd ppfulykYd zkdY taMumif;}} À ÀÀ

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q,fh&Spaf ygif'g tajrmufqefrsm; ajzmajzm usaeonf/ wnOfhvHk; tqufrjywf aygufuGJaeaom pdeaf jymif;oHrsm;aMumihf uREkyf rf mS em;uGJrwwf jzpfae onf/ qihu f q J ihu f J ay:xGuaf eaom aygufuJo G H rsm;atmufwGif cHwyfBuD;rSm tysut f pD; wjznf; jznf; rsm;vmonf/ jrpfbufrsuEf mS &Sd ypöi&f ifwm;rsm;um; txd cku d t f rsm;qHk;yif/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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w0kef;0kef; aygufuGJvGihpf ifaeaom AHk;qef wpfcsKdUukd wdrf;a&Smif&if; olu Adkvfrsm;tm;vHk;ukd pk½Hk;qihaf c:onf/ urlwpfckay:odkY ol wufvku d fonf/ vif;p aea&mifjcnfonf opfyifarQmfpif Mum;rS xk;d azmufum olYrsufESmay:odkY usa&muf vsuf&Sdonf/ ]]aoG ; aomuf w kd Y ...vufe uf vl ol tiftm;csi;f tqrwefumG jcm;wJhtwGuf igwkYd tck ta&;awmf ysufjy,fp jyKvmw,f/ 'gayr,hf ppfonfawmf&UJ 0D&, d eJYowåu d dk wpGe;f wprS rxdcu kd f bl;vkYd ig,HkMunfw,f}} rvSr;f rurf;qDwiG f usa&mufaygufuJaG om AHk;qefaMumihf ol&yfae&mqDodkY ajrrIeYrf sm; wzGm;zGm; vGihfpifusvmonf/ rD;ck;d vHk;rsm;? zkev f k;H rsm;aMumihf olYtoGifyif ½kwfw&uf aysmufoGm;onf/ uREkyf f rcsKyfwD;Edkif? atmf[pfvku d frdonf/ ]]AHk;qefawG pdyv f Ge;f ygw,f rif;BuD;? tum ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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tuG,f,lNyD; aeyg}} uREfkyf\ atmfoHonfvnf; aemufxyf qif hu J ayguf u GJv kd uf a om AH k;oHatmuf w Gif aysmufuG,foGm;jyefonf/ rD;ckd;vHk;rsm; vGifyh g;usJpifoGm;onf/ apmapmu ae&mwGif ol&yfaeqJ? ra&TU rajymif;... ]]ppfolBuD; xif&Sm; &Sad eygvsufeJY ta&; awmfysufcJh&if &mZ0ifn§dK;i,fvSonf/ ppfolBuD; usqHk;vkYd ta&;ysu&f w,fq&kd ifawmh wkdi;f jynfuykd J jzpfjzpf? rif;wkYu d kyd Jjzpfjzpf tjypfqkdp&mr&Sdbl;? tck ig&Sdaeao;w,f? ta&;awmf rysuaf p&bl;? trd wkid ;f jynfeYJ vlrsK;d &JU*kPu f kd aemufqk;H tcsed t f xd igwkYd aqmifMuOf;Mupd?Yk &efoAYl k;H qefukd raMumufr&GUH &ifqkid f MupdkY...}} urlxufrS olqif;onf/ vufrwifav;yif jzpfawmhonf/ olqif;NyD;í csucf si;f rSmyif urlxuf odkY AHk;qefwpfqef wnhw f nfhBuD; xdrSefaygufuGJ avonf/ ajrpkid cf Jrsm; zGm;ueJviG pfh ifomG ;um em;uGJ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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rwwf toHBuD;ay:vm\/ ]]rif;xifrif;acgif...vmprf;...}} Adv k rf LS ;rif;xifrif;acgif a&SUokYd wk;d xGufoGm; onf/ rif;xif rif;acgifum; ol \ nDt&if; jzpfavonf/ odkYaomf r0Hhr&J[ef&aSd om rif;xifrif;acgif ukd uREfkyo f abmrawGUvSay/ ]]igr&S&d if cHwyfukd rif; wm0ef,l&r,f Mum;vm;...}} rif;xifrif;acgifu awGa0pGm &yfaeonf/ olu oln Y u D dk wpfcsurf QapGMunhu f m tajrmufwyfzJUG &S&d modkY vSnx hf u G o f mG ;onf/ uREykf v f nf; olaY emufrS vkdufvmcJhonf/ wefcl;aeonf wjznf;jznf; jrifhwufvm onf/ ]]a[h...'DrSm 'Pf&m&wJhvloHk;a,muf &Sdaew,f/ rif;wdkY cGmMuawmh vlvJNyD;ypfMu}} ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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tajrmufwpfvuf teD;wGifol&yfí pDpOf aeonf/ cHwyf\ajrmufbuftpyfodkY uREfkyw f kYd a&mufvmMuonf/ þae&mum; AHk;qefwkYd tayguf uGJqHk; tajrmufqefrsm; txlxyfqHk; us&mae&m jrpfjyifqDrSm w&TD&TDysHoef;vmaom AHk;qefrsm;onf uREfkyfwkdY\ 0J,ma&SUaemuf 0ef;usifwGif w0kef;0ke;f aygufuGJaeavonf/ tajrmufAHk;oHrsm;ukd olMum;rSMum;ygavp [k uREfkyfxifrdonf/ olonf þrQtqufrjywf xGuaf y:ae aom aygufuo GJ Hrsm;ukd vspv f sL½Ium tajrmufqef rsm;ukd udk,fwkid f0ifo,fay;onf/ peufwefukd ukd,fwkid frD;½IdUonf/ tajrmufwyfzJUG &rJ ufrsm;onf olwAYkd kv d cf sKyf ukd þodaYk wGU&aomtcg twkid ;f tod wuf<uaeav onf/ ajrBu;D wkecf goGm;onhf aygufuJo G HBuD;wpfoH Mum;vku d f&onf/ ajrmufbufqDrS.... ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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]]a[h...'g[m Muufwkdufukef;bufqDu r[kwfvm;...}} ]][kwfygw,f Adkvcf sKyf....}} ]]ig...tJ'DbufoGm;rSyJ? aumifav;awG ae&mt,lrSefMu&JUvm; rodbl;}} ]]Adkvcf sKyfroGm;ygeJY...AdkvfcsKyf? Muufwu kd f ukef;bufrSm AHk;xlyx f yfvGef;vSygw,f}} ]]AdkvfcsKyf...roGm;eJY}} ]]roGm;ygeJY...rif;Bu;D ? tJ'Durkd oGm;ygeJ.Y .}} tm;vHk; awmif;yefaeMuoHrsm;Mum;xJrS ol xGuv f monf/ olYaemufrS xufMuyfvu kd yf g&efrt S y tjcm; r&Sdawmh/ Muufwku d fukef;onf tjrihb f ufusaom ae&mjzpfav\/ ajrjyifum; txyfxyf x,fxk;d xm;aom v,fuiG ;f ESihfrjcm; jzpfaeayNyD/ ae&mwkdi;f wGif rGrG BuJaeonf/ tqufrjywfaom aygufuJGoHrsm;jzihf wpfcJeuf qlnHaeonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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]]&JrufwkYd...&efoloabFmukd wnhw f nhf csdefvTwMf ua[h...}} tajrmufwpfvufaemufodkY oloGm;onf/ 'Pf&m&xm;aom &Jrufwpfa,mufukd olayGUcsDum usi;f xJokYcd say;onf/ xk&d rJ ufae&modkY ol0if,lav onf/ tajrmufqefukd rD;½IUd onf/ xkt d cku d rf mS yif OygysHouJhoakYd om toHBuD; wpfoHukd jrpfjyifqDrS Mum;vku d f&onf/ uREfkyfwpf udk,v f k;H &Sd aoG;rsm; &yfwefo Y mG ;onf/ w&T&D o DT BH u;D ukd Mum;ae&if;rSyif þtoHESiht f wl ysHoef;vmrnhf AHk; qefonf olESihfwnhfwnhfae&modkY a&muf&aSd ygufuJG awmhrnf[k uREfkyftvkv d kd odvku d fonf/ uREfkyfbmudkrQ rjrifawmh... ]]rif;BuD;...AHk;ysHvmaeNyD}} toHukeaf tmf&if; olYqDokYd wpf[kefxkd;ajy; 0ifvku d f\/ AHk;ysx H uf tvsiOf ;D pGm uREykf af &mufEkid &f rnf/ ajrpkid fcJrsm; uREkyf t f eD;wpf0kduw f iG f vGiphf if aeonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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rD;cdk;vHk;rsm;tMum; wk;d 0ifcJhonf/ tvJvJtNydKNydK twk;d wk;d ta0SUa0SUjzifh.../ ]]rif;BuD;...usi;f xJckefcsyg...ckefcsyg}} ysuf p D ; aeaom tajrmuf w pf v uf u k d 0ifwu kd rf ad omaMumihf uREykf w f vdrahf cgufauG; vdrfhus onf/ emusifrIukd arhaysmufvsuf jyefxonf/ w&T D & T D t oH B uD ; u yk d í us,f a vmif vmaeqJ.../ ]]rif;BuD;...}} jyif;xefvSaom aygufuGJoHBuD;wpfck/ ywf0ef;usiw f cGiv f Hk; NydK;jyuf0if;xdefoGm; aom jrifuGif;.../ xkdYaemuf rD;ck;d vHk;BuD;rsm; wvdyfvyd f/ ]]rif;BuD;...}} tajrmufi,fonf iSufarG;wpfyiftvm; avxJwGif vGifph OfoGm;onf/ rD;ckd;rsm;aMumifh usdef;pyf ylavmifaeaom rsufpdukd tm;,lí zGihMf unhfvku d fonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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vGiphf ifoGm;aom tajrmufESift h wl avxJ wGif ajrmufygoGm;aom o@mefwpfck.../ xkdo@mefonf atmufbufusif;xJodkY usoGm;onf/ uREfkyf ckefcsvku d fonf/ bk&m;...bk&m;...? ol...ol...vGwyf gap/ ydwfqkdYaeaom rD;ck;d vHk;rsm;xJokYd uREfkyf 0ifcJhonf/ wpfpHkwpfckESihf 0ifwku d fonf/ bmrQrjrif&/ wkefaeaomvufESihf xkt d &mukd prf;oyf Munhfvkdufonf/ ylaEG;ap;xef;onhft&nfrsm;.../ ESv;kH onf cHwiG ;f aygufrw S qifh vGipfh ifxu G f oGm;awmhrnf xif&onf/ jrpfjyifbufrS avjyif;wpfcsuf a0honf/ Muufwku d fukef;xuf&Sd rD;ckd;rsm; csucf sif; vGihfoGm;onf/ usKd;aMuruf BudwfcJxm;&onhftwGuf ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îíí

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wef c l ; vjynf h a eY w G i f uREf k y f c H w yf u kd cGmcJhonf/ wpfOD;wnf;.../ jrif;wpfpD;jzih.f ../ oln Y D rif;xifrif;acgifum; cHwyfudk qufNyD; rOD;pD;cJh/ ol&JabmaMumifaom xko d lonf wyftcsKYd ESihftwl wdwfwqdwfxGufajy;oGm;onf/ tOD;tpD;rJNh yDjzpfaom cHwyfBuD;onf z½kzd &J jzpf&NyD/ wyfrLS ;rsm;onf aejynfawmfokYd tjyif;qkwf oGm;Muonf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îíì

olr&Sad wmhNyDjzpfaomaMumihf þppfaMumif; rsm;onf uREfkyt f wGuf Avm[if;vif;jzpfoGm;av onf/ Muufwu kd u f ke;f ay:odkY jrif;ukd 'kef;pdik ;f vdkuf onf/ {&m0wDjrpfxJwGifum; &efoloabFmrsm; tajrmufwpfcsufcsif;azmufum cHwyfqDodkY ckwf armif;vmaeMuonf/ tcktcHrchJ NhJ yjD zpfaom þcHwyfBu;D ukd oif;wkYd rMumrDyif tvG,w f ulpD;0if odr;f ydu k Mf uawmhrnf/ ukef;jrifhwpfae&modkY iHkYMunfhrdonf/ ol usqHk;cJhonhfae&m/ usco hJ nhrf su&f nfwu Ydk dk awmufacgufí odr;f qnf;vkduo f nf/ olukid af eus vS&H n S Bf u;D udk uspu f spyf gatmif qkyfvkdufonf/ jrif;Zufukd wpfbufokYv d Sn, fh v l du k o f nf/ "EkjzLcHwyfukd ,cktcsdefrSpí tNyD;tydkif pGefYcGm&awmhrnf/ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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îíë

½-°º Ñ Ü å ²¼ Õ

odkYaomf... olESihfolY0dnmOfurl uREfkyftouf&Sifae oa&GU umvywfvHk; uREfkyfESift h wl &Sdaevdrhrf nf/ rNyD;ao;aom wku d fyGJrsm;twGuf uREfkyf ESvHk;om;xJwGif olued f;atmif;aevdrhfOD;rnf/ rkd ; aumif ; rS awmif p m;apmf b Gm ;aersKd ; odeyf &mZmukd "EkjzLcHwyfwku d fyGJtaMumif;ESihf BuD; us,fjrihjf rwfpGm olusqHk;oGm;yHktaMumif; uREfkyf ajymjy&rnf/ awmifpm;apmfbGm;ESiht f wl uREfkyo f nf ol "m;OD;ñTecf Jhaom ppfrsufESmrsm;qDokdY wku d yf GJxGuf& OD;rnf/ Muufwku d u f ke;f wpfbufokdY qif;cJhonf/ tjcm;wpfbufwGif "EkjzLcHwyf usef&pfcJh avawmho nf/

cspfOD;ndK À ÀÀ ú©»³§Ø µ ° ³¬µ § º © ¼ µ « º


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Chitoonyo maharthaynarpati  
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