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MOVEMENTS New York School (1940-1970) International Typography Style (1950-1980) Pop Art (1955-1980) Psychedelic Movement (1958-1975)

1940

1950

1960

1970

1980


NEW YORK SCHOOL


HOW DID IT START? European immigrants Limitation on artistic traditions Diverse ethic heritage European Style vs. American Style Emphasis High competitive society Personal Expression Original American Modernist approach


NEW YORK SCHOOL New York City = Incubator for creativity Significant Designers:

Bradybury Thompson

Alvin Lustig

Paul Rand


PAUL RAND • Born: August 15, 1914 • Where: New York City • Real Name: Peretz Rosenbaum • Education: Pratt Institute, Parson School of Design, Art Students League

Pratt Insititute

Parson School of Design

Art Students League


PAUL RAND Inspirations:

Cubism

Constructivism

Paul Klee

Wassily Kandinsky

Bauhaus


PAUL RAND Strengths Often altered ordinary Weintraub Agency

Bill Bernbach


PAUL RAND

Corporate and Trademark Design

Thoughts on Design


BRADBURY THOMPSON Visual Vocabulary: Letterforms

18th and 19th century engravings tools of print production

Ex: halftone screen and

four-color process plates

Book and Editorial Design Classical Approach Readability Formal Harmony Oldstyle typefaces


BRADBURY THOMPSON

Westvaco Inspirations 1958


SAUL BASS Los Angelos (1950) Influenced by Paul Rand Strengths Technique

Saul Bass


SAUL BASS

United print and media Master of the film title

Preminger’s The Man with the Golden Arm


INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHY STYLE


INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHY DESIGN • Also known as Swiss Design • Characteristics: • san-serif typography

• neutrality • grid system • asymmetrical organization • flush left and ragged right • Akzidenz Grotesk inspired fonts

• spreading information between components of society • universal and scientific approach to design problem solving Joseph Müller-Brockmann,

Zürich Town Hall Poster, 1955


ENRST KELLER

Believed a design solution should come from its content

Reitberg Museum of Zurich


ADRIAN FRUTIGER Univers (1954) •

cohesive

• sans-serif

• 21 variations (now 44)

• same baseline, x-height, ascender, descender lengths

• harmonious

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Adrian Frutiger


MAX MIEDINGER Helvetica (1957) •

HAAS type foundry

• Switzerland

• Neue Haas Grotesk

• changed to Helvetica to market better

• known for its legibility

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz

Max Miedinger


HERMANN ZAPF Palatino (1950) •

Roman style

• Broad/strong serifs

• elegant proportions (Venetian faces)

• changed to Helvetica to market better

• known for its legibility

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz


INTERNATIONAL TYPOGRAPHY DESIGN

• Trilingual journal “New Graphic Design (1959) • Major impact of post-war American design • Linked to corporate design (Mid- 60s)

Odermatt


CORPORATE IDENTITIES


CORPORATE • technological advances • economic expansion and prosperity • companies’ reputations for quality and reliability • cohesive image for corporations • personal imprint


COLUMBIA BROADCAST SYSTEM (CBS) • President: Frank Stanton • Art Director: William Golden • one of the most successful trademarks

William Golden


RAYMOND LOEWY • significance of comprehensive design systems • assume more control over entire industrial and visual campaigns • industrial products

• • •

speed economy modernity


RAYMOND LOEWY

Lucky Strike

Corporate Identities


PAUL RAND

to be functional over a long period of time, a trademark should be based on elementary shapes that are universal, visually unique, and stylistically timeless


PAUL RAND

• Westinghouse trademark • Wires and plugs, electronic diagrams and circuitry, and molecular structures


PAUL RAND

• reducing each letter to its elemental geometric shape


OLYMPIC GAMES


POP ART


POP ART • Started in Britain • challenged tradition • Popular culture • Material removed from their known context, isolated, or combined unrelated material

Andy Warhol


ANDY WARHOL

Marilyn 1964

Campbell Soup 1968


PSYCHEDELIC MOVEMENT


PSYCHEDELIC MOVEMENT • Kaleidoscopic, fractal, or paisley pattern • Bright, contrasting color • Innovative typography and hand-lettering

Rick Griffin


PSYCHEDELIC MOVEMENT

Rick Griffin 1968

Victor Moscoso 1967


SOURCES http://thenextweb.com/dd/2012/02/10/design-flashback-10-iconictypefaces-born-in-the-1950s/ http://www.historyofgraphicdesign.weareswift.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Week-4-The-New-York-School.pdf http://www.historyofgraphicdesign.weareswift.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Week-4-The-International-Typographic-Style.pdf Paul Rand: A Designer’s Art by Yale University Press and New Haven and London From Lascaux to Brooklyn Paul Rand


QUESTIONS?

Paul Rand Presentation  

GRPH 221

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