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Affordable Eyewear

Bringing spectacles to remote communities

Jane Wan Chen Tsai Major Project

“Aboriginal health is not just the physical well being of an individual but is the social, emotional and cultural well being of the whole community in which each individual is able to achieve their full potential as a human being within their community� - NACCO

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Pre major Chapter 1 Research Mind map 5 Background 6 The major eye conditions of indigenous people 8 The current eye care program 10 Approach 14 The main concept of Inclusive design 15 The potential method to improving access to eye health services for indigenous people 17 Further details about Eyewear 21 Injection moulding design considerations & material 31 Eyewear lenses 32 Pupil distance 34 Marketing research 35 Methodology 36 Research conclusion 38 Major project plan 38

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Major Chapter 2 Design development Stage 1 Initial idea Idea sketches 40 First mockup 43 Form & shape 45 Material testing 46 Stage 2 Clarifying design statement Design for different groups 47 Second mockup 49 Different types of joins 50 First cad 51 Stage 3 Idea enhancement Panels 52 Second cad 53 Stage 4 Refine Pattern development 55 Pattern combination 56 Third mockup 58 Package 59 Lens 61

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Chapter 3 Inspiration 63 Final pattern 65 Logo 66 Final material & manufacturing 67 Parts 68 Function 69 Final design 70 Final panel 72 Packaging 74 Case 75 Instruction 76 Model making 79 Final prototype 83 Cost 84 Evaluation 85 Project conclusion 86 Reflection 87 Reference 88 Photo credit 89

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Chapter 1


Mind Map

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Background Indigenous Australians who live in the remote areas

inappropriate life style such as smoking, tobacco and

and anisoetropia are the common eye conditions which

are isolated from the other Australians because their

alcohol abuse. Recently, their vision problems have

need eyeglasses to correct patients’ vision. Diabetic

geographical locations and poor transportation systems.

become a serious issue in indigenous population.

retinopathy and cataract can be treated by eye surgeries

The essentials of their life are deficient and they even

The percentage of the blind indigenous population

but most of the patients still need eyeglasses to protect

lack of the opportunities for education, housing,

is increasing every year since they are 10 times

their e after surgeries.

working and especially health services. The health and

more frequently to become blindness than the rest

wellbeing between the Indigenous Australian and the

of Australian population. However, the financial

Eyeglasses have become one of the most important

other Australian communities has a gap between them

difficulties, lack of culturally appropriate services

essentials for indigenous people. According to the 2001

in terms of medical treatments and accessibility of

and the distances from their living area to main cities

NHS, the main population of Indigenous people who

faculties (the Fred Hollows foundation 2009). Although

cause them for lacking the accessibility of eye care

need glasses for the common eye conditions (hyperopia)

Australian government has been trying to improve their

services (Australian indigenous Health Infontnet 2009

were 23% of the whole Indigenous people population

standards for the Indigenous Australians, the result was

). They need more ophthalmology and optometry

(Australian indigenous Health Infontnet 2009 ).

still poor.

services and vision screening to diagnose their eye

However, there are some issues which cause indigenous

problems regularly and also have appropriate treatments.

Australian accessing eyewear products more difficultly

According to the Fred Hollows foundation (2009), the

Otherwise, indigenous people will have much higher

such as access to and utilization of testing, cost, the

life expectancy of Indigenous Australian has 17 years

risk to have eye conditions than non-indigenous people

administrative difficulty of dispensing, the repair and

less than all of Australians. It is alarming that between

(Taylor, V, Ewald, D, Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003).

storage of spectacles(Taylor, V, Ewald, D, Liddle, H,

65 and 75 percent of most Indigenous Australians will

Warchivker, I 2003). Australian government and some

live up to 65 years old. This is mostly due to poverty and

The major eye conditions of Indigenous eye include

medical programs have been trying to find out the

lack of health and wellbeing related issues.

refractive error, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma

methods which can solve those problems recently but

and trauma. However, there are 90 percent of eye

the outcomes barely successfully work for indigenous

There are many different types of diseases among

disease are preventable and some of eye conditions


indigenous population including diabetes, respiration

can be improved by wearing glasses (Australian

diseases, and middle ear diseases because of their

Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009). Refractive error

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Table 1.Estimated Indigenous population, Australia, by State and Territory, 30 June 2006

Further info Eyewear is important in everyday products. It helps people to correct their vision and protect people from the UV. Eyewear embraces various factors of philosophy, optometry and people’s lifestyle so it has become a significant design business. According to The World Health Association, there are currently 3.04 billion people who need prescription glasses to see clearly including far-sighted, near-sighted and presbyopia. However, 81% people of the world Table 1 is a chart gives us a rough idea about how many indigenous people in Australia. According to Australian Bureau statistics (2007), “There were almost 517,200 Indigenous people living in Australia in 2006 (around 463,900 Aboriginal people, 33,100 Torres Strait Islanders, and 20,200 people of both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent). Indigenous people comprise 2.5% of the total Australian population. NSW has the largest number of

living in the remote and rural areas can barely meet their own basic need. It is hard for them to have proper eye care services and even afford eyewear products.

Indigenous people. The NT has the highest percentage of Indigenous people among its population” (Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009)

the world population: 6.77billion

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currently 3.04 billion people who need prescription glasses

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The major eye conditions of indigenous people The major eye conditions of Indigenous eye include refractive error, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma and trauma. However, there are 90 percent of eye disease are preventable and some of eye conditions can be improved by wearing glasses which including diabetic retinopathy, refractive error, and cataract (Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009).


UV rays. Some of the patients still needs bifocal glasses

Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009). It affects indigenous

The main eye conditions that Indigenous face are

to protect their eye after the eye surgeries which replace

people a lot and needs to be treated earlier. However,

‘Cataract’. When the crystalline lens of the eye becomes

the damge lenses by artifial lenses(Australian Indigenous

the regular screening test can effectively prevent the

non transparency, it blocks the light from outside of

Health Infontnet 2009).

blindness from DR and can be detected by early stages.

eye so the retina can not sense objects or images. It

The quality of retinal laser treatment is improved by

causes blindness, and it has own methods and occurring

Diabetic retinopathy (DR)

in different areas of the lens: cortical cataract, nuclear

Diabetes is a serious disease among indigenous people

eye surgeries (Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait

cataract and posterior sub capsular cataract (American

and causes Diabetic retinopathy (DR) which is a

Islander Health 2001). Spectacles are necessary for

Academy of Ophthalmology 1997).

common vision problem . It will damage small blood

patients during the recovering processes.

new technology but severe blurring may occur after

vessels in the retina and causes blindness (Australian Cataract is a disease which slowly worsted as people grow older and become blind eventually. Other courses of cataract is when the eye is often exposed to UV rays, illness, ionizing radiation and patients who smoke will increase their chances for contracting this eye disease. This is a problem as most of the Indigenous Australians lives in remote desert areas which have high exposure to

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Refractive error

Refractive error is a focusing error eye condition which makes people have glare when they seeing. It includes longsighted vision, short-sighted vision, nearsightedness and vision defects due to advancing age. When the eyeball becomes too long, it causes the image focused in front of the retina. That is the reason Myopia (near-sightedness) makes patients cannot see things far away from them clearly. Hyperopia (long-sighted) is the other way around from Myopia. The eyeball becomes too short so that the light ray focus behind of the retina so it causes people cannot see the near area clearly. Presbyopia (advancing age) usually occurs to people over 40 years old when their lens no longer to change its shape because the lens loses its flexibility and makes people cannot see closer things clearly. Commonly spectacles are used for correction of refractive error (Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009).

Anisometropia It also known as unequal refractive error, this causes amblyopia which contains myopia and hyperopia because the eye development is not completed so it usually occurs to young Indigenous children when they are growing. It is related to the brain development as well (Taylor, V, Ewald, D, Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003). 2

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The current eye care program Method 1 Subsidized spectacle schemes

each other to communicate and working together. Therefore, the Aboriginal who uses these schemes are

Method 2 Readymade spectacles

There were state and territory schemes providing low

unable to comment on areas of improvements (Taylor, V,

Recently, there are several eye care programs have

cost spectacles to indigenous people (to which many

Ewald, D, Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003).

been providing low cost readymade spectacles through

Indigenous people are eligible) (Taylor, V, Ewald, D,

Also, in all states and the Northern Territory, many

urban discount stores or local clinics. Many people

Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003). Recently, Australian

aboriginal customers commented about the price is

from different regions and communities can use self-

government have improved and modified the schemes.

still high and the even lack of choice of frame. Most

selected ready-made glasses from urban discount stores

Now all states have separate subsidized spectacle

of indigenous people can not afford those expensive

and clinics. Those ready-made glasses will provide

schemes. People need to qualify their residency to

spectacles and the limited types of the frames provided

different diopters (+1, +1.5, +2, +2.5 ) and are displayed

the state governments and health care cards to have

by the scheme cannot cover the whole indigenous

on store stands which allow people to try them on

subsidized glasses from local clinics after eye testing.

population. Moreover, the quality of the frames is

before purchasing them. People can get a new pair of

A comparison of the schemes for standard frames as follows:

inappropriate for their living environment which is

readymade glasses for about $10 (Taylor, V, Ewald, D,

normally under high temperature and dry deserts. For

Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003).

• Western Australia has a $50 rebate.

example, the standard plastic frames are cheaper to

• Queensland provides free spectacles.

repair and stronger than metal frames. However, the

Problem statement 2

• NSW provides free spectacles.

metal frames are corrosion-resistant and more suited

Even though readymade spectacles have been proved

• Victoria has a cost of $26 for frames with single lenses.

to hotter climates according to the communities and

to be popular, even after improved access to subsidized

• Northern Territory provides a subsidy of $41.95 on

optometrists (Taylor ,HR 1997).

prescription spectacles has been organized. There are

frames with single vision lenses.

The biggest issues of subsidized spectacles scheme are,

still some issues of readymade spectacles. The storage

• South Australia has a cost of $41.10 for frames with

indigenous people still have to go to local clinics which

area should be enough to prevent spectacles crashed

single vision lenses (Taylor, V, Ewald, D, Liddle, H,

lack of ophthalmology and optometry services and are

and it is also hard to determine the number of spectacles

Warchivker, I 2003)

far away from the communities (Taylor, V, Ewald, D,

should be dispensed to each stores. Also, the other big

Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003). That is why they lack of

issue of the readymade reading glasses is that both side

Problem statements 1

the information about this scheme because the distance

of lens are same degree which people cannot change

The results of the schemes demonstrated as poor

and limited assistants. Also, they need to wait for long

when they have different degrees with two sides of eye.

because of the Barriers between the government and the

time to test and get a prescription in the clinics and make

Aboriginals. Some factors of this are due to the scale of

the process harder for them.

the land especially in the remote areas, which distance

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To sum up, the main issues of the current methods to help indigenous people to access spectacles include access to and utilization of testing, cost, the administrative difficulty of dispensing, the repair and storage of spectacles Method 1 Subsidized spectacle schemes Australian government

People eligible for the subsidy have to demonstrate their residency in that state and be eligible for a health care

Long distance

Problem statements 1 1. Hard to find info about the of eligible Aboriginal people 2. The lack of choice of frames


3. Still expensive 4. The type and quality of the frames provided are local clinic

All states and the Northern Territory have

inappropriate for their living

separate subsidized spectacle schemes

environment 5. Lack of the info for indigenous people living in remote areas

Problem statement 2 urban discount store

Long distance

low cost readymade spectacles provided through urban discount stores or local clinics

1. The repair and storage issues 2. Both side of lens are same power

Method 2 Readymade spectacles suppliers

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Que e ns land

Re quire me nts

What doe s the s pe ctacle s s che me cove r?

Othe r be ne fits

Data on Indige nous us age

Mus t have a he alth care Mus t e nrol in s che me with Spe ctacle s are fre e in a card and be re s ide nt for proof of re s ide ncy. Local s tandard frame s and le ns . at le as t 6 months . arrange me nts are als o made with local optome tris ts s o that the y ca n facilitate the ir clie nts ’ acce s s to the s che me .

Eligible pe rs ons re ce ive one pair of s pe ctacle s in a two ye ar pe riod if the re has be e n a change in pre s cription, or whe n the frame s are broke n or los t.

The s che me has not be e n re vie we d and the re is no information on its uptake by Aboriginal pe ople .

Ne w South Wale s

Pe ople fill in a cons ume r-frie ndly application.

The s pe ctacle s che me offe rs a s e le ction of ove r 30 frame s , including me tal frame s . No fe e is charge d for the m. Provis ion of s pe ctacle s to Aboriginal pe ople has be e n prioritis e d.

Pe ople are e ntitle d to one pair of bifocals , or one pair of dis tance and one pair of re ade rs . If glas s e s are broke n or the re is ne w pre s criptions , the y will be re place d.

Have s e e n 8,000+ and have pre s cribe d and s upplie d to 5,000+ s ince s tarting this s e rvice .


Mus t have a he alth Mus t apply for s ubs idy care card and apply to the Victorian Colle ge for the s ubs idy. The re is of Optome try. a waiting pe riod. Thos e applying ne e d to have domicile s tability for the pe riod of time the ir application is be ing cons ide re d. The y are contacte d at the ir home addre s s whe n a de cis ion on the ir e ligibility is made . This may take s ome time afte r the application is s e nt.

Pe ns ione rs pay $26 for s ing le vis ion s tandard frame s .

Eligible pe rs ons re ce ive one pair of s pe ctacle s in a two ye ar pe riod or if the re has be e n a change in pre s cription.

The s che me has not be e n re vie we d and the re is no information on its uptake by Aboriginal pe ople .

The s e rvice is comple te ly fre e —at no cos t.

Review of the Implementation of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Eye Health Program


Table Ta b2. le Subsidized 7 . 1: S u spectacle b s id is e dschemes s p e c t1a c le s c h e m e s in A u s t r a lia

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Que e ns land

Re quire me nts

What doe s the s pe ctacle s s che me cove r?

Othe r be ne fits

Data on Indige nous us age

Mus t have a he alth care Mus t e nrol in s che me with Spe ctacle s are fre e in a card and be re s ide nt for proof of re s ide ncy. Local s tandard frame s and le ns . at le as t 6 months . arrange me nts are als o made with local optome tris ts s o that the y ca n facilitate the ir clie nts ’ acce s s to the s che me .

Eligible pe rs ons re ce ive one pair of s pe ctacle s in a two ye ar pe riod if the re has be e n a change in pre s cription, or whe n the frame s are broke n or los t.

The s che me has not be e n re vie we d and the re is no information on its uptake by Aboriginal pe ople .

Ne w South Wale s

Pe ople fill in a cons ume r-frie ndly application.

The s pe ctacle s che me offe rs a s e le ction of ove r 30 frame s , including me tal frame s . No fe e is charge d for the m. Provis ion of s pe ctacle s to Aboriginal pe ople has be e n prioritis e d.

Pe ople are e ntitle d to one pair of bifocals , or one pair of dis tance and one pair of re ade rs . If glas s e s are broke n or the re is ne w pre s criptions , the y will be re place d.

Have s e e n 8,000+ and have pre s cribe d and s upplie d to 5,000+ s ince s tarting this s e rvice .


Mus t have a he alth Mus t apply for s ubs idy care card and apply to the Victorian Colle ge for the s ubs idy. The re is of Optome try. a waiting pe riod. Thos e applying ne e d to have domicile s tability for the pe riod of time the ir application is be ing cons ide re d. The y are contacte d at the ir home addre s s whe n a de cis ion on the ir e ligibility is made . This may take s ome time afte r the application is s e nt.

Pe ns ione rs pay $26 for s ing le vis ion s tandard frame s .

Eligible pe rs ons re ce ive one pair of s pe ctacle s in a two ye ar pe riod or if the re has be e n a change in pre s cription.

The s che me has not be e n re vie we d and the re is no information on its uptake by Aboriginal pe ople .

The s e rvice is comple te ly fre e —at no cos t.


Review of the Implementation of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Eye Health Program

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Table Ta b3.leSubsidized 7 . 1: S uspectacle b s id is e schemes d s p e c t2a c le s c h e m e s in A u s t r a lia

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The main concept of Inclusive design


There are number of definitions of inclusive design have

cultural, gender, and environmental concerns in their

The aim of this project is to apply the concepts of

been given. The most well-known one has been provided

design process.

inclusive design to eyewear products for indigenous

by Ron Mace from The Center of University which is

Therefore, inclusive design should be a method in this

Australians, and improving their vision quality, and a

included seven principles: equitable use, flexibility in

project which can approach the gap among indigenous

better standard of life. The new scheme will enhance

use, simple and intuitive use, perceptible information,

people, non indigenous people and the end products by

the performance of eye care service for the indigenous

tolerance for error, low physical effort, and size and

looking through the culture of indigenous people, their

people and offer them equal opportunities of medical

space for approach and use (John. B, Roger. C, 2005).

life style, and their important role in society.

treatments with non-indigenous people by providing a

He indicates the main point which is designers should

better method and a high quality eyewear product, which

always deliberate the usability of products and add in

will be designed by the consideration of their needs,

other considerations such as economic, engineering,

materials, eyewear structures, culture, social contexts and capability levels.


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The potential method to improving access to eye health services for indigenous people Bringing reading glasses to remote communities The initial idea is delivering reading glasses to remotes community stores which play an important role in indigenous people’s life. Indigenous people can get the information clearly by local staff and have a simple test as a guide in the stores. This test can help them to determine if they should use reading glasses and what degrees they can use. Different degrees of lens will be provided separately from frames in community stores. People can select right degrees of lens to fit into the frames which they have chosen. The store staff will be trained to help the people to select the right spectacles and their needs. Frames and lenses can be delivered from closer suppliers or made in community stores (the materials and tools can be provided from the supplier through medical groups).

The important role of community stores Indigenous people in remote communities purchase 90–95 per cent of goods and products from the community store. Stores provide different sources

Therefore, indigenous people can access spectacles easily and quicker in the place they feel familiar with

of goods including healthy products, medicines, food and house wares such as shampoo, soap, bath plugs, blankets, brooms and cooking utensils for people living in remote areas. At least 70 percent of the total Aboriginal income goes into stores. Aboriginal community stores also have a retail services for local community development function such as promoting healthy information and educating people in general knowledge and even being a bank or credit agency for people’s financial needs (Bierbaum, N 2002). 4

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closer distance communities

Suppliers Manufacturers Community store


Community store staff has

They can help indigenous people


training about eyewear

to have simple eye test & select their reading glasses

+1 +2 +3

-1 -2 -3

Different powers of lens will be provide separately from frames People can select right degrees of lens to

closer distance

fit into the frames they have chosen Suppliers Manufacturers

Indigenous people can access spectacles and get the information easily and quicker in the place they feel 5 16 ai eyewear



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Location The Fred Hollow foundation is a very important resource for me. People in the foundation programs help the people who living in developing countries and remote areas to access eye care treatments. I found out the most of information about indigenous people here. I had a interview with Helen Sorensen, who is a really nice and talkative lady. She explained me how they work in the eye care services. Those remote areas have already been visited and proved by the Fred Hollows Foundation that it is possible to deliver ready made glasses to their community stores. NGUIU






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By considering the concepts of Inclusive design, their needs and the main current issues, the eyewear for indigenous people will focus on materials, structures and the following elements:

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Near East






Make eyewear affordable Most of indigenous people have finial difficulty. The spectacles in the community stores should be low cost so they can afford it. Even they can purchase different parts of eyewear for repairing to reduce the cost.

Near East

Why eyewear is expensive

Italy Because the process is to complicated Africa Remove some parts of the process can reduce the price

Ethic differences and design for specific physiologies


Everyone has different face features and shapes. There are certain angles and lines of face and distances from ear to nose. People usually have unsymmetrical features.


It means that people normally have different heights of the ears and eyes. A better suitable size and proportions of eyewear for indigenous people can provide a good vision and comfort to them whenever they are standing


or sitting.


Different types of faces

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Different face shapes Easy for delivering All materials, tools and products should be easy for delivering from suppliers to those remote areas by considering the volumes, weights and cost. Usability



Too many complicated spectacle spare parts and accessories are hard to assemble especially the connection between lens and frames. Therefore, in order to help the staffs of community stores communicate with indigenous people easier, the products should have a clear instruction for operation. It also should be easy to adjust be balanced and flexible. The design should be able to correct the tilt of temples and nose bridges quickly to provide comfort frames for people.

Safety Eyewear should have a stronger structure to avoid those situations for making people’s vision get worst such as broken easily and unstable components which hurt people by giving a long-term Long


pressure or other physical problems to eyes and nose bridges. Also, materials have to last longer, and stand UV exposure or the big range of climate change. It should be able to prevent losing coating which can cause allergies and environmental friendly to reduce chemical damage to people.




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Further details about Eyewear Frame structure To understand about the structure of eyeglasses is very important during the eyewear design process. The main parts of eyeglasses are the frame front and the temple. Those two sections contain different Components which can support glasses rest on human faces and make lens stable on frames. Also, they should be designed in right

7) for fitting parts (Clifford, W 2002). Basically, nose


pads (made by rubber) are separately from nose bridges

The temples can support the frames fronts to rest on

but still attach on frames by guard arms or pad arms.

human faces. The area from the butt end to the bend

Recently, most of plastic frames have one-piece design

is called the shank or shaft. The shaft connects frames

which remove nose pads and replace them by plastic

from ears and eye sides. The butt portion is attached to

frames (Carlton, J 2000).

the front and the bending part is the earpiece which rests on ears (Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall G 1998).

proportion and be joined to each other well.

BASIC PARTS Frame Fronts There are several parts of the frames fronts which are nose bridge, nosepad, endpiece, eyewire and shield (conventional eyewear). The bridge is between two lenses. It is for users to rest the frames on their noses.

Figure 1 The frame front

Lenses fit into eye wire or rim which is combined with nose bridges. Two sides of the frame front (left and right) are the areas of endpieces which are connected with temples. Some plastic frames may still have a metal shield within the end piece for riveting and attaching to the hinges of temples. The hinges form the temple to the front are normally with an odd number (3, 5,

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Figure 2 The temple

Figure 3 Different structure of endpieces

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Frame materials Plastic frame materials Cellulose acetate Basically, the cellulose material could be made from cotton or wood pulp and even be manufactured more in the further process. When derived from cotton, the fiber from cotton that attaches to the cottonseed after ginning but sometimes it is still too short to be used for producing textiles (Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall G 1998). The cotton or wood material is manufactured with a mixture of anhydride and acetic acid by using sulfuric acid as a catalyst. Plasticizers and aging stabilizers are added to this material in the last step of process (Clifford, W 2002). However, cellulose acetate is still broke easily when it aging. Cellulose acetate is a type of thermoplastic does not have a “plastic memory� which can be bended when heated but does not return to



Optyl is a kind of Epoxy resin for spectacle frames. It

Polyamide is a type of nylon-based material. It is

is based on thermoplastic which can be reformatted by

stronger than nylon and lighter. It can be made thinner

heating and also can return back to its original shape if

and is only 72% of the weight of cellulose acetate

it is reheated (Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall G 1998).

(Clifford, W 2002). It is good for making eyewear which

A hardener is added into the liquid optyl to make

can prevent to give user a long term pressure. Polyamide

materials stronger. The mixed materials will together

frames can be made non transparency or translucent.

and be pinched into the frame molds by using a vacuum

They are resistant and hypoallergenic which contain

machine. Optyl is also generally 30% lighter than

strong chemicals and solvents (Carlton, J 2000).

cellulose acetate and more stable. Optyl is even suitable for people who might be allergic to other types of frame


materials (Clifford, W 2002).

Grilamid is also a nylon-based material. It can be mixed with different materials to create stronger and more

Nylon and Nylon-Based Materials

colourful eyewear frames. It is normally used for sports


and performance type of eyewear (Clifford, W 2002).

Nylon is usually used for sports spectacle and ready

its original shape when reheated.

made glasses because its high flexibility. Manufacturers

Carbon Fiber

have to infuse nylon materials into water over and over

Carbon fiber material is usually combined its strands


again to reduce the chance of losing the flexibility.

with Nylon to produce strong and thin frames. However,

Otherwise, it will still become weaker and weaker

it is not easy to adjust and hard to fit well in the frame

(Clifford, W 2002). Nylon can be added different

moulding section. Also, because the colour of carbon

materials to enhance its performance. The mixed

is black so the materials colours are non transparency

nylon will be more stable and extensive than usual

and limited. Sometimes it is easy to break during winter

(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Frame Materials).

since the thermal problems (Clifford, W 2002). It is

Cellulose aceto-propionate is more commonly called as a propionate. It works better for injection molding and similar as cellulose acetate (Clifford, W 2002). However, the colour of propionate does not really stable and it requires better coating with high quality materials which can stand UV and last longer (Carlton, J 2000).

mainly for the front frame and manufacturer usually use different materials for temples. Its biggest advantages are light weight which is 60%lighter than cellulose acetate and strong enough to be made thinner (Carlton, J 2000).

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copper and those alloy frames normally cost less than


Polycarbonate can produce frames and lenses. It also

100 percent titanium frames (Allaboutvision 2009,

Aluminum is extremely light for making frames and also

can make the lenses and frame as one unit. Frames

Eyeglass Frame Materials).

highly corrosion-resistant. It is easy to create different

and lenses made from polycarbonate are very impact

types of shapes so has been popular for high end fashion

resistant. It is used to make for sport and safety eyewear


products. It is a nonferrous material. When it is pure, it

especially for those glasses with elastic straps or shield

It is also a steel-gray metal but cheaper than titanium. It

is weak and soft. But after mixing with silicon and iron,

shapes (Clifford, W 2002). Unfortunately, polycarbonate

is corrosion-resistant and can stand salt water. Therefore,

it will become hard and durable (Allaboutvision 2009,

frames do not work well for traditional eyeglasses

it is suitable for those people who are easy to have

Eyeglass Frame Materials).

because it is hard to adjust.

allergic. Beryllium has a variety of colours choices

Metal frame materials

and lightweight. It is also flexible and easy to adjust

Unusual Frame Materials

(Clifford, W 2002).

Solid silver or sterling silver and gold


Those materials do not provide user comfortable frames

It has been used widely for making frames because

Stainless steel

therefore it has not been used commonly in the eyewear

its strength and corrosion resistant. The right coatings

Stainless steel is pretty similar as titanium. It is light,

market. Some companies use them to make a jewelry-

such as palladium or other nickel-free can also enhance

durable, corrosion-resistant, hypoallergenic and less

like look on plastic frames (Allaboutvision 2009,

its performance. It can be mixed with different kind

toxicity. It has become an alternative option from

Eyeglass Frame Materials). Sometimes silver materials

of metals and become a broad range of alloys. It is

titanium. It is cheaper than titanium and sometimes

will be mixed with different alloys to create unique

also malleable and suitable for any kinds of eyewear

added other materials into such as chromium. Most

frames. Gold plating are used more than solid gold and

(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Frame Materials).

stainless steels contain 10 to 30 percent chromium,

usually made for fashion eyewear combined with plastic


which provides excellent resistance to corrosion,

and other metal frames (Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall

Titanium is a light weight materials and used for a huge

abrasion and heat (Clifford, W 2002).

G 1998).

people and medical purpose. It also can be changed


Wood, bone, buffalo horn and leather

colour easily because it is silver-gray base which is easy

It is a titanium-based alloy which is lightweight

Those unique materials are commonly used for one

for coating and dying (Clifford, W 2002). Titanium is

corrosion-resistant and hypoallergenic. It is very unique

piece frame(with temples) and handmade. They can

like the other metals which are strong and corrosion-

and famous as its “memory metal� character (Clifford,

be easily warmed by body temperature and fit people

resistant but it usually last longer than the other. Some

W 2002). It always returns to its original shape no

comfortably from their natural feeling. Wood, bone and

titanium will mixed with other metal such as nickel or

matter how hard it has been twisted, bended and crushed

horn are limited for adjusting and more expensive than

range of eyewear. It can be designed for allergenic

(Carlton, J 2000).

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23 ai eyewear

other materials. They also do not last long so most of the manufacturer only use them for creating some parts of frames especially leather (Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Frame Materials). Semi-precious or precious stones and crystals They are sometimes used to produce decorative parts of frame or temples. Different types of those materials such as onyx, turquoise and Swarovski crystals, even diamonds are popular used for fashion eyewear. They provide people a luxury eyewear and more choice of fashion accessories. Many jewelry designers are working this area to create more interesting designs for eyewear market (Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Frame Materials).

Table 4 Metal frames are stonger but more expensive

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Manufacturing process Metal frames Making eyewire: legs and front

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25 ai eyewear


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Plastic frames

Making the legs and cutting the front

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Finishing and polishing

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Measurements There are several types of measuring systems for frames


and temples. For the frame measurements, “the datum

It is a whole new system which is modified from the precious system (the datum system). The datum system

system” and “the boxing system” are the most common

used two horizontal lines from the top of the lenses to the bottom to make a segment. The new system creates

systems have been used. For the temple measurement,

the other two vertical lines on the sides of lenses and still continues using the two horizontal lines. This way

“overall temple length system”,” length to bend

can have more accurate segments for measuring the lenses (Paul, M 2003).

system” and “front to bend system” are used in different

The meaning of A dimension in the boxing system is the horizontal width. The B dimension is the vertical

applications. Each of systems has its own advantages

length and the C dimension is the midline of the lens width. People usually are confused about the C dimension

and disadvantages for dispensers to use.

and “C-size” which is the length around the lens. People use C-size to make sure the length they need to cut for


lenses and fit them into frames (Clifford, W 2002).

Horizontal Midline The horizontal line is on the centre of the segments which is usually in horizontal or vertical in the new boxing system (Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall G 1998). In the older system, it is also called “the datum line”. The name is still continued used although it was normally used in horizontal (Clifford, W 2002) . Geometric Center The geometric center is the crossing point of the vertical line and the horizontal line (Clifford, W 2002). It is important for dipensers to cut the lenses at right sizes for fitting (Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall G 1998).

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Figure 4

29 ai eyewear



It is an older measurement system for frames. In the

Overall Temple length

bottom of the temple (Clifford, W 2002). The length of

It is a type of the measurements. The center line from

the bottom point to the end bottom is called the length of

the barrel screw line to the end of the temple is used to

drop (Carlton, J 2000).

datum system, the datum centre is a rough point of the middle of the horizontal line and the vertical line. The mid-datum depth usually does not have equal degrees of the angles with the two horizontal lines and also the four segments divided by the datum lines are all different sizes (Clifford, W 2002). The eye size or lens size of the datum system is the width of the lens at the level from the datum line. Therefore, the datum system eye size and the boxing system eye size are different (Carlton, J 2000).

measure the overall temple length. Sometimes the barrel hole will connect with the butt end but sometimes the

Figure 7

barrel hole is separated from the butt end. This way can give people a general idea about the temple length from the centre line. The line should contain a round angle if the temple is not straight (Clifford, W 2002).

Figure 6

Front to Bend (FTB) It is a new system for measuring the temple. It measures the distance from the frame front to the point of the bending angle. The length from this measurement will be longer than LTB system and it is not really commonly used. The distance of the measurement line is called the bending line (Clifford, W 2002).

Length to Bend (lTB)

Figure 8

This system measures the distance from the centre of Figure 5

barrel hole of temple to the bottom point before the angle from the bending part and the point to the end

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Injection Moulding Design Considerations & Material • Appropriate material selection is fundamental to effective manufacture

• Deep projections or ribs require other venting means, such as ‘fixed

and functioning of the moulded part

vents’, ejector pin channels, or extension of the projections to the parting

Plastic Thickness


• Material weight and cooling time are major contributors to the cost of


parts. Minimise wall thickness (typically 1/32 inch to 1/10 inch) and a

• Differing shrinkage rates in areas of varying thickness, are potential

component should have uniform thickness wherever possible.

causes of voids and sink marks

• Where there are changes in wall thickness they should be gradual and/or

Part Ejection


• Incorporate draft angles wherever possible

• Make sure that the mould can (and will) be gated so that the thickness of the plastic from the gate toward the remote areas either remains constant

Eyeglasses frames material for injection moulding

or diminishes.


• Keep 90 deg walls under 0.25inch high.

It is also called optyl. It has been used widely for eyeglasses frames. It is

• Keep thickness of ejection pin surface wall at least 0.07inch.

20% lighter than conventional plastic materials and has various colours.

Flow path in mould

Eyeglasses temples are made by Epoxy do not need to combine with

• Plastic flow in a moulds always takes the path of least resistance – be

metal. It is one of the materials for injection moulding (Uni-Balance

aware of weld lines, do not feed heavy sections through narrow walls

Industrial Limited,,.htm).

• Sharp corners should always be avoided when there is a change in flow direction Parting Line • The outside surface should always end at a the parting line • Wherever possible, design a product so that the parting line can be in one plane Openings • Side cores, moving side walls add significant expense to tooling (consider ‘vertical shutoffs’) Venting • Venting is essential to complete filling of the mould and most venting takes place via the parting line.

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31 ai eyewear

Eyewear Lenses Lens is the other important elements of eyeglasses

Polarized lenses

place, it will turn to lighter. In the lighter place, it will

which can help people to see clearly. Different types of

Polarized lens is the most common lenses types

return back to darker quickly to protect human’s eyes

lenses have certain functions for different users’ needs.

used in the eyewear market now. It can reduce the

(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics).

There are some new lenses inventions recently which

blur form lenses and more comfortable than most of

can help more people to correct their vision. Most of the

the conventional lenses. It is also flatter and lighter

Wavefront technology lenses

new types of lenses are thinner than the conventional

(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics). It also can be

Wavefront technology lens is a unique lens which helps

lenses and give consumers more choices.

added more elements to reduce the glare or improve

dispensers to measure the distance of focuses easily

its performance by coating such as scratch-resistant,

because it is made by a new technique which can trace

Those are the common lenses used recently:

ultraviolet treatment, and mirror coatings (Brindze, R

the light from outside of the frame to human’s eye

High-index lenses


(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics).

index lenses help people to focus images easily. They

Polycarbonate lenses

Bifocal lenses

are thin and light and reduce the pressure to users from

Polycarbonate lens is a new type of safety plastic.

Bifocal lenses are used for people who have Presbyopia.

lenses weight (Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics).

The fabrication makes the lens stronger and durable

It normally contains two different types of lenses which

(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics). It is also

help people to see object from close and far places

Aspheric lenses

extremely thin and light which is suitable for children

(Clifford, W 2002). The upper section is for people to

Aspheric lens is a new lens type which can correct the

eyewear (Brindze, R 1975).

see things from long distances and the lower section is

Most of the plastic lenses are thick and heavy but high-

common vision problem such as short slightness. It

used for reading or working for closer distances. There

is suitable for those people do not have serious vision

Photochromic lenses

is a clear part line between those two different kinds

problem (Brindze, R 1975). It is useful for reduce small

Photochromic lens contains a special chemical

of lenses but do not disturb users when they doing any

distortions from human’s eyes and easy for dispensers

coating around its surface which can allow changing

activities (Carlton, J 2000).

to fit lenses into frame since its lightweight and thinness

the lightness of lenses quickly by receiving different

(Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics).

light sources from the surroundings. In the darker

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Trifocals lenses Trifocals lens is also a type of lenses for presbyopia. The traditional trifocals lenses have three different zones for seeing objects from various distances including near, intermediate, and far (Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics). The lenses are normally higher than users’ pupils to allow people use lenses easily. It provides more

Figure 9 the image of trifocal and multifocal lenses

options than bifocal lenses and can be customized for different people’s needs by their life style and works (Clifford, W 2002). Progressive lenses (mutifocal) Progressive lenses is a new type of lenses which is refined from bifocals and trifocals. It provides users more options to focus images from different distances at the same time (Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics). It can cover more range of people’s needs because there is no part line on the crossing section of two different lenses. It gives users more comfortable and better options (Brindze, R 1975).

Figure 10 the images of different types of bifocal lenses

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33 ai eyewear

Pupil distance Pupillary Distance (PD) is the distance (usually measured in millimeters) between the centers of the pupils in each eye. It is normally measured in millimeters. The typical range of PD for people are 54 to

Shorter pupil distance

72 mm

Longer pupil distance

The centres of lenses should be fit with people’s PD. Otherwise wearer will feel uncomfortable to wear eyeglasses in long term. In the retail shop, lens will be cut from the centre. It depends on different people’s PD. If the PD is shorter, then the lens will be cut near outside of the lens so the PD can sit to each other closer. If the PD is longer, the lens will be cut closer to the inside edged so the PD can sit to each other further. Lens cutting machine will measure people’s PD and cut the lens for people (CAL eyewear).

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Marketing research Ready made reading glasses Ready made reading usually can be found in pharmacies or even online shop. It normally cost from $10 to $100. People can select different degrees which already inserted into frames. Some companies even have cases for people to put their ready made glasses or a small introduction for people to check if they need glasses. Ready made glasses is cost effective and do not give people physical damages. However, people have different degrees in both side of eye are not suitable for ready made glasses.

OZK.O Eyewear OZK.O is one of the biggest Australian eyewear companies, its ready-made reading glasses has wellstructure and clear instruction. Readymade reading usually can be found in many pharmacies. This is one of the readymade glasses companies I found in Melbourne centre, called “OZKO�. Their glasses normally cost from $20 to $100. People can select different degrees which already inserted into frames. They even have cases for people to put their readymade glasses or a small introduction for people to check if they need glasses.

Online ordering glasses There are numbers of website allow people to order glasses online. The process is from giving the prescriptions, select frames, colors, sizes and then payments. It is a fast way to help people get a pair of glasses. However, people can really see the actual products before they purchase.

Different online glasses companies The internet glasses company Eyewear online

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35 ai eyewear

Methodology The method and practice will focus on the research,

main research area will be focus on the anthropometry

to be careful about the sources I collect the information

material testing, product prototype production and

data for collecting different types of human face shapes

from and check the accuracy of the data when making a

evaluations. Firstly, I will analyze the information I get

through observing peoples’ lifestyles and working with

framework of the entire design process.

form several activities, such as interview, survey, and

users. Also, I will have a numbers of interviews and

case studies, and collect data to construct the questions

surveys for getting more information about eyewear

The further stage-Experiments

and problems in the design process. I will bring the

design. I will talk to people who wear eyewear and

This stage is the bridge of connecting the early stage and

research into the practices through a series of material

find out the problems of wearing eyewear such as the

the final evaluation. It is going to have a lot of material

testing and experiments to find out the best solutions.

nose pressure from the bridges and the temples fixing

testing and experiments for the product structure. I will

This method will integrate the craft and technical skill

not well on faces. I will analyze this information and

find more applications of this high technology and apply

of eyewear products and apply them to the prototype

address questions for making a survey. At the same time,

them to my design during the experimenting process.

production process. The final stage will be a number of

I will go to the optician stores and visit the eyewear

Moreover, I will test many different kinds of materials

evaluations by users and experts to conduct the product

manufacturing factories to interview the optometrist

such as zyl and titanium to find out the potential material

value and mistakes which are made in the earlier stages.

and experts of the eyewear field to get the professional

for my design. I will work on the “weightless” and

The final outcome will provide a better eyewear design

options and accurate the information I have in the

better coating materials to prevent coating lose. This

which considers the needs of users.

earlier research. I will analyze the information and

can improve the quality and reduce the danger of the

categorize them into different sections so that I can

eyewear products.

The earlier stage-Research

check the data easily during the design process. Those

I will use “convergent methodology” to format my

activities can complement each other to help me

The final stage-Evaluation

earlier design stage. It will involve different levels of

discover the real needs of users and develop my initial

It is an important stage for testing the usability of my

research which contains interviews, self-observation,

concepts. It also helps me to structure and preparing the

design. It can give me the reflections from user trials

user observation, survey and meeting the experts. The

following stage in the design process. However, I have

in the consumer market. I will use the three steps of

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evaluations: analytical method, empirical methods and expert appraisal. Firstly, I will analyze the information

value of my final outcome such as the packaging, the spectacle cases and display cases.

of the earlier stage and check out the details, such as the eyewear proportions, sizes and the safety of the structure and materials. This final prototype will be put into the actual usage scenarios and have real users involved. Those users will give feedback during my design process so that I can realize the mistake I have already made and go back to the experimental stage to fix the problems. This process will be repeated several times until the eyewear product is maximizing its usability. The expert evaluation will be the last part of the entire design process that can help me to make sure the product accuracy of the relationship between users and the real market. It also can help me to develop more commercial

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37 ai eyewear

Research Conclusion

Major project plan

Indigenous people lack of the oopportunities in education, employment and social

For next semester I will continue my research. There are some potential

engagement. They also lack of the abilities to access eye care service and even are hard to

resources I have got from my previous interviews. I have to look through

get eyewear for protecting and correcting their vision. Vision impairment can enhance the

the details which may help me understand my topic more. I will also have

difficulties for indigenous people who living in those remote and rural areas. Eye health

more material and structure testing for developing my design. I will focus on

can be affected by genetic factors, premature birth, ageing, diseases, smoking, injuries, UV

environmental friendly materials which can be paper, wood, or bamboo. Also, I

exposure and nutrition. Many eye health problems can be prevented (globally about 90%

need to find out the other materials which I can mix with those nature materials

of blindness is avoidable) and some of conditions can be improved by wearing eyewear

to make the structure stronger. The fitting problems (lens, parts) need to be

(refractive error; cataract, diabetic retinopathy). There are some methods have been developed

solved. It should have a clear instruction to help indigenous people assemble the

to help indigenous people to access eyewear easier. The Australian government has already

eyewear. The ways for adjusting the legs and nose pads will be more flexible

had the spectacle schemes to provide indigenous people eyewear and some of medical groups

and clearer

have delivered the read made glasses to those remote areas. However, the result is still poor.

Besides, I have to develop more about the manufacturing tools for frames. A

There are still gaps between indigenous people and those methods which people lack of the

series of mock up is important to improve the structure. I also want to integrate

information about those schemes because of the long travelling distance. Also, the limitation

more about the delivery system for indigenous people and start to manufacture

of the types of frames, the payment and the fitting problems are still the main issues in

my final model. I will look for the possible factories I need and finish the

those schemes. In order to solve those problems, the eyewear design for indigenous people

product in workshop.

should consider the main concepts of inclusive design which include the cost, human factors, usability and safety issue. This project will integrate those elements to create a better quality

The things I must to do for major

eyewear for indigenous people and bring them into the remote communities.

1. Developing more about the manufacturing tools of the frames 2. Solving the problems of fitting and adjusting the parts of eyewear 3. Having a clear instruction 4. More materials and structure testing 5. Looking for the local materials

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Chapter 2

Design Development

Stage 1 Initial idea Idea sketches First concept is about to figure out the adjustable parts and the flexibility.

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41 ai eyewear

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First mockup

Those are the rough mock ups I made in first semester. They are all made by laser cut. I was trying to find out how I can join all the parts with any screws and bolts. I want to develop more on the frame structure for the fitting and adjusting problems.

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43 ai eyewear

Form & Shape

I was trying to combine the contemporary art and aboriginal art to create a fun and joyful look by using simple lines, circles or dots so that I cut out paper and twisted to make different kinds of wavy forms to see the shapes and movement. Those forms are inspirited by the music rhythm because music has been playing a important roles in their lives.

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Material testing

This is the molding prototype I made in the end of first semester. I melted paper into hot water and blended it to make it softer. I got rd of the water in the paper liquid and mixed it with PVA. Then I put them into the MDF prototype which is made by laser cutting and dry them in the oven for 4 hours. The result is quite interesting.

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45 ai eyewear

Stage 2 Clarifying design statment Design for different groups The ai eyewear range consists of 3 designs. The elder: this type of glasses will be more classic and normal to cover more range of generation especially the elder. top view

side view

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Younger generation: I would like to make this type of glasses more fashionable and trendy to fit into younger aboriginal communities.

top view

side view

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47 ai eyewear

Kids: I would like to create a joyful and fun shape for kids. The appearances will be more like toy and have bright colours.

top view

side view

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Second mock up Considering the manufacturing process of injection

parting line

moulding, I was thinking about the parting line and different parts arrangement.




1 4

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49 ai eyewear

Different types of joins

After the first mockup, I strated trying to draw different types of joins. The joins should be part of the design outlooks. I was also trying to find out the way to connect two parts of the eyewear without any srews.

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First Cad

This cad is continuing the ideas of last skectches which is to figure out how the adjustable part and the sizes working. The temple has hole on the side which has been showed in the last page.

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51 ai eyewear

Stage 3 Idea enhancement Panels All the components of the eyeglasses can be taken out from the panels (which like robot model panels). People can assemble those components and adjust the lenth they needs.

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Second cad This is the second cad I had in the mid semester. The

Those pictures are showing the concept about the colours

separated parts were slowly formed and the joins were still

combination which can provide people more choices.

not clear. The patterns on the side were still developing.

ai eyewear allows the clients to customise the colours of their own choice. Especially with mini ai, the children have the option to be creative and chose the colours to suit, and at the same time provides them with an exciting and snazzy eyewear.

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53 ai eyewear

Problems I have here: Those spares are too small and too many. It is hard to let people understand how to assemble and save them

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Stage 4 Refine pattern development Seeing the nature After the research of those communities, my idea is to separate the temples of glasses into two layers which represent the amalgamation of non-indigenous and the indigenous cultures. For the internal layer, I would like to create patterns from the nature by using simple lines and dots and show the respect to the aboriginal heritage of the land.

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Pattern combination

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After I trying to represent their dance and music rhythms by using lines and dots, I started trying to trace the landscape in Australian by using repetitive dots or enlarge some parts of the lines and dot to create a different movement from the 2D patterns of the temples.

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57 ai eyewear

Third mock up

The parts have been modified in second mock up. The moire pattern was showing nicely on the temples but the sizes were still failed especially the nose pad so I was chaging the nose pad sizes for my final

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Package & Case

To make the project completed, I decided to make the packaging and cases as well. Those are the development of the ideas.

First concept of pakaging

ai ey

ewea r

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Second concept of pakaging

ai eyew


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Cal eyewear retail shops are located on Lonsdale street and South Yarra. I had a interview with the owner, Tetsuo Nishikawa. He imports eyewear frames and lenses from Japan and fabricates those frames for different customers’ needs. The readymade lenses have different degrees and are really easy to fit into frames. His customers can bring their own prescriptions and get a pair of eyewear in 20 minutes. His eyewear only costs around $150 to $180 with lenses and cases which is much cheaper than the other eyewear retail shops. I got the information about readymade lenses here which is useful resources for me. I got my final lenses cut from here which look much better than the pervious object print lenses because those object print lenses look fake and yellow, even the sizes are not quite right.

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61 ai eyewear

Chapter 3


Inspiration “AI eyewear� enhances the performance of eye care services for the indigenous Australians who live in remote areas, by improving healthier visions and living conditions. The idea is to design a series of prescription glasses which are easily accessible, and have their own identity. The project investigates aesthetic of the aboriginal culture and customization. The pattern reflects their respect to the land and all the components can be adjusted the size, pupil distances and lens power to suit different needs.

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ai eyewear

Sketches and ideas from the gum leaves

The initial form of the ai eyewear is influenced from the form of native leaves of a gum tree. The aboriginal community utilise the gum leaves in their daily lives for medical purposes, spiritual dancing ceremonies, instrumental purposes and etc. gum leaves are the essential to their daily life and has the importance to their land.

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Final pattern The outback landscape of Australia is traced and printed on the temple of the eyewear. The representation of the landscape and the dance rhythms is traced from simple lines and dots of an aboriginal art. The intention is to represent its heritage and to the respect of the land. ai eyewear temple consists of two layers that form a moire pattern when there is movement. The pattern is formed when one pattern is over lapping another and that courses the effect of an optical illusion. The pattern illusion forms a 2d image to a 3d image of the landscape and rhythms of the aboriginal culture.

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ai eyewear

Logo “ai” means “eyes” in aboriginal language which is the most common word in the north territoy in aboriginal communities

ai eyewear


ai eyewear

ai eyewear

ai eyewear


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Final material & manufacturing I found a injection moulding factory in china which is “Uni-Balance Industrial Limited”. It is a professional 3D Glasses manufacturer located in Huizhou which is close to Shenzhen and Hong Kong. Most of their 3D glasses are made by ABS plastic (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) by injection moulding and they produce a large amount pairs per day. It is only cost less than AUS 10 per pair of glasses. The ABS material is strong enough and has well performance under -40 to 100 °C. It has fine finishing surface and many colour options by add pigments during moulding process. The company also suggested me about the join part and they send a sample to me within one week. I was really happy after seeing the sample because although the clip on the headphone cover are really small but they are actually quite strong. They also can be taken off from the headphone many times but not even lose their resistance. It is a big improvement for my design which can prove that my concept is working. (info from “Uni-Balance Industrial Limited”)

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ai eyewear


This is the exploded view of A1 eyewear. All the clips on the parts (lens holders, temples) have two legs which are flexible to be pushed into holes (frames, temples) and can also be taken out easily. Especially the clips in the front of the temples, the round shape pins allow the temples to move when it join to the fronts. The other two eyewear (A2, mini) have same function as A1.

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Function Temple, frame and lens adjustment is essential to this project. For each easy adjustable parts of ai glasses there are 3 holes, a clicking device that simply clicks into place according to the client’s dimensions. To adjust the pupil distance the lens, the lens needs to sit on the left, centre or right position. Refer to list below for details The dimensions: - Female temple length: 132mm – 145mm

frame width: 135mm – 155mm

- Male temple length: 135mm – 155mm

frame width: 135mm – 155mm

- kids temple length: 125mm – 145mm

frame width: 125mm – 140mm

- Lens requirements is 45mm – 72mm

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ai eyewear

Final design

ai 1 classic, simple and elegant approach - for everyone within the aboriginal

ai eyewear


ai A2: funky, contemporary and joyful approach - the younger aboriginal communities

ai A1: classic, simple and elegant approach - for everyone within the aboriginal communities

communities young or matured.

pattern: Those curvy shapes cut out from the

pattern: Repetitive lines and similar patterns firm two

size:width: 135mm& 155mm (first &

temples reflect to the nature and show people

layers give kids a dynamic motion while they playing

second hole)

different way about the eyewear display

around the temples

length: 130mm & 140mm &150mm

size:width: 135mm& 155mm (first & second hole)

size:width: 135mm& 155mm (first & second hole)

pupil distance: 56mm& 60mm& 64mm&

length: 130mm & 140mm &150mm

length: 130mm & 140mm &150mm


pupil distance: 56mm& 60mm& 64mm& 68mm

pupil distance: 56mm& 60mm& 64mm& 68mm

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ai eyewear

First panel arrangement

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Final panel The reason I deiced to spread all the components on the panel: Shape: it is flat so it is easy for shipping and storage. Function: there are more than two panels in one box. Therefore, if people lost one part of the glasses, they can easily take out the parts they need from the other panel and replace them. Also, most of the parts of glasses are small so it is really easy to lose them if they are just placed in plastic bags. Those panels can hold them well to prevent people lose them. Creative: people can have fun when they pick up the colours and styles they want and feel joyful when they assemble their own glasses.

Instead of using letter to indicate the parts of panel, I used the simple dots to help aboriginal people to understand how to assemble the eyewear more.

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ai eyewear


ai eyewear

ai eyewear

Style: A1 Colour: black and light grey Material: ABS This box contains: 3 panels, 2 eyewear cases, 1 instruction

Style: mini ai Colour: chrome yellow and french blue Material: ABS This box contains: 3 panels, 2 eyewear cases, 1 instruction

ai eyewear

Style: A2 Colour: italian red and racing white Material: ABS This box contains: 3 panels, 2 eyewear cases, 1 instruction


Style: A2 Colour: italian red and racing white Material: ABS This box contains: 3 panels, 1 eyewear case, 1 instruction The packaging contain the description of style, colour, how many components in the box.

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The eyewear cases will be delivering as flat sheets in the box and people can make the cases by folding them.

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ai eyewear

Instruction The instruction shows people how to assemble “ai eyewear”. It contains three different types of eyeglass and cases diagrams.

ai eyewear 2009

ai eyewear


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ai eyewear



rae wey e ia

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Model making

I got the object print back on week 13 which took me a while to clean them. All the components are so tiny and I was really afraid to break them. I tried to assemble them to if they are working or not. It ended up working quite well.

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ai eyewear

After picking up my print, I started to spray and sand my model. It took me almost two weeks to finish all the paint and sanding. Especially those tiny join parts are hard to make them look smooth because the object print still has rough surface ( stl surface block) in the beginning.

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After I glued all the parts on the panels, it became harder to spray. I could not tape the areas which I did not want to spray because the tape will tear off the prime coat. I could just only use paper tower to cover up those area. It was really stressful to do all of this while I did not have that much time left.

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Final Prototypes

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Cost ABS frame


Lens Paper for case Paper for packaging

per panel with the working hours fee (Uni-Balance Industrial Limited., china) AUS 2 (both sides) ( CAL eyewear) AUS 50 cent AUS 1

Shipping fee

AUS ?? (approx, depends the distances)


AUS 8.5 without shipping fee ABS easy frame-3D glasses

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I went to the RMIT aboriginal helping centre to ask people to try my model for me. It is really fun and successful.

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85 ai eyewear

Project Conclusion The aim for this project is to provide an eyewear that is one size fits all. At the same time, emphasizing on the functional aspect: flexibility, self-adjustable and ready to wear eyewear. It also improves the conventional way of gaining a pair of glasses, by skipping the appointment with the optometrist and reducing cost and time of proscribing a pair of glasses. “ai eyewear” is different from what there is in the current market; these glasses are function without the requirements of a machinery and provide customizing way for indigenous people. The panels which holding the components of eyewear can be made by Injection moulding can lower the price and give people more option for colour. “ai eyewear” give indigenous people a better way to have their own pair of glasses by designing a easier system and quality glasses with creative appearances and trendy shapes. It is affordable, joyful and easy to access and also covers a wide range of generations-the elder, the young and kids. In the future, it could have more different kinds of design by the concepts pf “ai eyewear” to target more groups besides indigenous communities.

ai eyewear

Style: A2 Colour: italian red and racing white Material: ABS This box contains: 3 panels, 2 eyewear cases, 1 instruction

Panel x 2

In each panel spare parts are included. This allows for replacement when it is needed. All pieces of the glasses are identified in its colour group and easy to be recognized.

Instruction x 1

The instruction shows diagrams to help people to assemble the glasses

Eyewear cases x 2

People can easily make eyewear cases by folding sheets to carry their own glasses.





e w




ai eyewear 2009

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Pre major reflection

Major project reflection

In the beginning of this semester, I wasn’t sure about my project direction

The major project semester enhances the research I have done in

so that my initial research was really general even till the mid semester

per major. By exploring the manufacturing process and the function

review. After the lectures suggested me to narrow down my topic during

developing, I learned more about the design process - each single part is

the review, I started doubting whether my topic is good or not. It was

really important! Sometimes I missed out some tiny details and I normally

really struggling for me to choose a specific target and I was really lost

needed to try twice hard to fix the mistakes I made. I need to learn more

during that time. Even after I chose the area of indigenous people, I still

how to concentrate and organize my work especially while having several

lost a lot because it is really hard to find the problem statements about the

tasks running together. The most difficult section for me in major project

process of their eye service especially in Melbourne. I have interviewed

is that putting all my ideas together and having a nice presentation to show

a lot of people and medical groups but I felt I was keeping make a round.

people my thoughts because sometimes I tried to explain all the thoughts

Luckily, I found some really useful information in the end of semester

and research I had but seems did not work well with my audiences. In

which can support me to start my design. However, after being through all

my major project, I learned more about how to communicate with people

the process this semester (bran storming, research, initial designs), I have

and how important to link my design scenario to the end product. I feel

learned a lot about how to develop my own design. It is important for me

like I still have so many to learn in the design area (interview skill, time

to learn how to think my project from the three different points of view, as

management, finding outsources, make the theory to the real product). In

a designer, a customer, and a manufacturer. I found out I need to be more

the end, I would like to thank every one who has ever helped me in this

decisive and well organized.

project. I am so lucky and I wish I can carry those valuable experiences to

The digital audio feedback recording is working quite well for me because

next stage of my life.

I can find out the problems during the presentation such as I was repeating “like” and “umm” which disturb people a lot to focus on what I saying.

Thanks: Fred Hollow foundation: Helen Sorensen

It is also good that I can relisten my feedback whenever I want and I

CAL eyewear: Tetsuo Nishikawa

usually come out different thoughts when I keep listening to it. However,

RMIT aboriginal helping centre (staff & students)

sometimes I could not hear properly because it was too blur.

Graphic designer: Joy Tung Uni-Balance Industrial Limited., china Thanks Scott and everyone in my class, my family and my friends!!!

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Reference Book Keates, S & Clarkson J 2004, Countering design exclusion: An introduction to inclusive design, Springer- Verlag London Limited, London Goodman, J & Langdon, P.M, Clarkson, P. J 2008, Designing inclusive feature, Springer London, London Thomson ,N & Paterson ,B 1998, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Reviews, 1st edn, Eye health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people program, Darwin Taylor ,HR 1997, Eye health in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: the report of a review commissioned by the Commonwealth Minister for Health and Family Services, Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services, Canberra Taylor, V, Ewald, D, Liddle, H, Warchivker, I 2003, Review of the implementation of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Eye Health Program, Centre for Remote Health, Canberra Office for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health 2001, Specialist eye health guidelines for use in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, Canberra Bierbaum, N 2002, Mai Wiru, Nganampa Health Council and Ngaanyatjarra Pitjantjatjara Yankunytjatjara Women’s Council, Alice Springs Clifford, W 2002, System for ophthalmic Dispensing, Indiana Unversity School of Optometry, Indiana Carlton, J 2000, Frames and lenses, Slack, Thorofare, NJ Cassel, H, Billing , D, Randall G 1998, The eye book: a complete guide to eye disorders and health, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD Brindze, R 1975, Look how many people wear glasses: the magic of lenses, Athenenm, New York Glasuer, B, Schmidt, P, Schodeling, U 2001, Pattern 2: design , art and architecture, Bikhanser, Berlin Klingender, T 1991, Aboriginal art, Sotheby’s, Melbourne

Articles Anonymous 2007, ‘Design in the balance’, The optician, Vol.234, no. 6120, pg 21 Cara, G 2005, ‘Endless options’, ABI/INFORM Global, Vol.38, no.9, pg 32 Paul, M. OH&S Canada 2003, ‘Keep your eyes on safety’, Don Mills, Vol. 19, no. 7, pg 50 John. B, Roger. C 2005, ‘Commercial advantage from inclusive design’, Design Management review, Vol. 16, no. 3, pg. 56 Persad, U & Langdon, P & Clarkson, J 2007, ‘Characterizing user capabilities to support inclusive design evaluation’, Springer-Verlag, Vol 6, pg 119-135 Patrick W 2000, ‘Inclusive design: A holistic approach’, Proceedings of the human factors and ergonomic society…annual Meeting, Vol. 6 pg. 917

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Website Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009, Review of eye health of Indigenous peoples, Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet, view 15 May 2009,< http://www.healthinfonet.> Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet 2009, Background information, Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet, view 15 May 2009,<> The Fred Hollows Foundation 2009, Australian Program, The Fred Hollows Foundation, view 1 Jun 2009,<,au> American Academy of Ophthalmology 1997, What is a catarac?t, American Academy of Ophthalmology, view 28 May 2009, < cfm?article_ID=ZZZSXEVUF4C&sub_cat=119> The UK Engineering and physical Sciences Research Council 2008, The i~design project, viewed April 2009, <> Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Frame Materials, viewed march 2009, < > Allaboutvision 2009, Eyeglass Basics, viewed march 2009, < > engineersedge, Injection moulding, <http://,.htm>

Photo credits The Fred Hollows (Pic 1,2,3,5,6,8, 9) Mai Wiru ( Pic 4, backgound pics) Kim Wan ( Pic 7) Clifford, W (Figure 1-8) Taylor, V, Ewald, D, Liddle, H, Warchivker, I ( Table 2, 3) Australian Indigenous Health Infontnet (Table 1) M. Bilal Yamout (Figure 9, 10) Allaboutvision (Table 4)

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ai eyewear

jane's final dvr  

major project final dvr

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