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NewEnergy magazine for the bioenergy business
Cutting edge technology at Avantium New life for U.S. biofuels Dutch feed company imports wood pellets
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Voor zuivere Foreen a pure diervoederproductie biofuel production NOBA biedt een breed scaleavan plantaardige oliën en vetten NOBA offers wide range of vegetable oils and fats NOBA biedt producten volgens GMP+that en HACCP NOBA offers products apply tonormen HACCP en GMP+ regulations NOBA biedt u NOBA de mogelijkheid om producten te specifications stellen, speciﬁek gericht op uw productie offers product mixturessamen to client NOBA biedt deNOBA mogelijheid om producten dedicated voorproducts u op te slaan offers dedicated storage for your NOBA biedt kwaliteit door uitgebreide productananlyses en voederproeven NOBA offers quality through thorough product analyses and testing
Onze medewerkers staan u graag te woord voor nadere informatie.
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Wij wensen al onze relaties prettige kerstdagen en een voortreffelijk 2007.
03•Content-colofon:03 28-08-08 16:53 Pagina 3
New Energy Plus is a supplement with De Molenaar, trade journal for the grain processing and feed industry in the Benelux. De Molenaar is a two weekly trade journal. The special New Energy Plus, magazine for the bio energy business, is first published in October 2006. The next publication is due in November 2008.
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New Energy News
Detaf, a new fair renewable energy
OECD experts plead for free biofuel market
Avantium:Delivering cutting edge research technology
Ghent as bio-energy valley
‘Wood pellets are not much different from feed pellets’
New life for U.S. biofuels
PrePress ZeeDesign, Witmarsum (The Netherlands) Print Scholma druk bv, Bedum (The Netherlands)
© Copyright 2008 Eisma Businessmedia bv, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands. Nothing from this publication may be multiplied and/or copied in any way without written permission from the publisher. Publisher and authors declare that this magazine was made with the utmost care and to the best of their knowledge. However neither publisher nor authors can be held responsible for the correctness and/or completeness of the information supplied. Publisher and authors do not accept any responsibility for any form of damage caused by decisions or actions taken on the basis of the presented information. Users of this magazine are firmly advised to not use this information without question, but to use their professional knowledge and skills and to check the information before use.
20 The European decision: a long way to go!
Biofuel events and activities
New Energy Plus September 2008
04•adv:04 28-08-08 08:28 Pagina 4
bio-ethanol / feedstuffs P.O. Box 6 4600 AA Bergen op Zoom The Netherlands Phone: +31 (0)164 – 213400 Fax: +31 (0)164 – 213401 Internet: www.nedalco.com Dutch sales point: Mr A.P.A. van der Weide Phone: +31 (0)6 – 53435045 E-mail: email@example.com
05•Actueel-column:05 28-08-08 16:34 Pagina 5
New Energy News
Royal Haskoning and Ingrepro develop Powerfarms Royal Haskoning is teaming up with algae specialists Ingrepro to convert wastes into nutrients. Ingrepro and Royal Haskoning have signed a letter of intent to develop Powerfarms. By combining the capabilities of Royal Haskoning and Ingrepro, expertise in the areas of growing algae, treating waste water and generating energy is improved. Royal Haskoning’s contribution to the Powerfarm concept will include engineering and project coordination, and Ingrepro will supply specialist know-how about producing algae. The Powerfarm concept utilizes the cradle-to-cradle principle. The residues from a variety of industries (such as the foodstuffs manufacturing, waste water purification and livestock farming) are considered to be ‘feed’ rather than waste. Algae can convert these wastes to highgrade biomass, biodiesel or energy. The organization is working with water boards, industries and farmers to find solutions to their waste problems. Discussions are currently taking place with a number of industrial companies and water boards in regard to developing a Powerfarm. Ingrepro has an alliance with the innovation network of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Food Quality for the pig farming sector in order to expedite the building of Powerfarms in this industry.
New Energy Omega-3 fatty acids from biodiesel by-productNews
Zhiyou Wen, assistant professor of biological systems engineering in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, found a way to grow omega-3 fatty acids using glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel. He presented his findings last August at the national meeting of the American Chemical Society. Biodiesel plants leave behind approximately 10 percent crude glycerol during the production process. The rise in biodiesel production over the last decade means that the market can no longer absorb all the extra glycerol. Wen and his colleagues have developed a novel fermentation process using microalgae to produce omega-3 fatty acids from crude glycerol. "Furthermore our chemical analysis show that the algae biomass composition has the same quality as the commercial algae product." After growing the algae in the crude glycerol, researchers can use it as an animal feed. Wen has partnered with Steven Craig, senior research scientist at Virginia Cobia Farms, to use crude glycerol-derived algae as a fish feed. "The results so far have been promising," Wen said. "The fish fed the algae had significant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids." He and Audrey McElroy, associate professor of animal and poultry sciences, are now trying to determine whether the algae would work as a chicken feed. Kumar Mallikarjunan, associate professor of biological systems engineering, is also working with Wen to determine the fate of omega 3s after they enter the food supply.
IN BRIEF8 Thenergo (Alternext Paris: ALTHE), developer and operator of decentralized, clean energy projects, will list and admit to trading all its shares on the Euronext market of Euronext Paris and on Euronext Brussels from the end of August onwards.
Sun The discussion about government stimulation of biofuels has also reached the United States. So far this has not lead to policy changes. The country’s goal is to be less dependent of the Middle East high. The mandates stay in place. This policy is similar to that of other Western countries although the current EU chairman France pleads for less tight blending targets. With the lobby of non-governmental organisations it is likely small changes will be made. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) studied the impact of the support of biofuels on economies. The organisation concludes that the influence of biofuels on, for example, food prices is significant. The main goals of this policy, the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions and increased independence of fossil fuels, however are not in sight. The impact of the support policy is almost marginal compared to the rising fuel demand. The OECD pleads for more research so policy makers can base their decisions on more and better-founded knowledge. With the tension between East and West building up in the past few weeks there are more worries about the continuous fuel supplies. Europe is afraid to make a firm statement to Russia concerning Georgia, as this could mean Russia shuts down the gas supply to Europe. The United States can’t stand up as its president is due to leave the White House. In the meantime hurricanes and tornados threaten the fuel supply off shore. All these things affect the oil price and lead to daily fluctuations. Long term predictions of the development in (bio)fuel markets therefore are hard to make. Fortunately, there is always the one sure thing: the sun will shine every day. Most likely less brightly due to air pollution. That’s why the OECD wants us to put more effort into saving energy as this has a much bigger effect on emissions. This also ensures the availability of the one energy source that is not likely to let us down: the sun. Jacqueline Wijbenga
The Dutch platform for renewable energy urges the government to implement the sustainability criteria for biofuels. By doing so the debate can focus on the positive effects of those biofuels that meet the criteria.
New Energy Plus September 2008
06•Detaf:6 28-08-08 09:34 Pagina 6
Detaf, a new fair on renewable energy ‘The Venlo Region is the most logical area for a fair like this’ Development
[Marc van der Sterren]
For the first time in history a fair on renewable energy will take place in The Netherlands. The trade fair Detaf is being held in the southeast of the country. This spot in the middle of the Greenport Venlo, is one of the European areas were agriculture and food processing come together. And according to the organizers it’s the most logical area for this fair. Chairman Joep Hermans and accountant Jack Fleuren: “Where else should we organize an event like this?”
DETAF, the trade fair on renewable energy promises to be a meeting point for everyone who has interests in or is interested in renewable energy and its sources. Visitors to the event will be introduced to innovations and all kinds of technical solutions for renewable
energy, especially in the world of agriculture and food. This is what’s guaranteed in the name DETAF: Durable Energy Techniques in the Agri and Food branch. This annual fair will be organized by a foundation with board members from industry and business, the regional and local government and the financial sector. Jack Fleuren, the accountant of the foundation, says about 125 exhibitors will present at the fair. “There are raw material suppliers, installers, building companies and manufacturers of machines and installations. They will show what is possible in the world of renewable energy production, wind energy, solar power and heating and techniques for fuels, solid or liquid.” There’s information about the latest innovations in sustainable technology in the area of combined heath and power generation, but also on biogas and other gaseous bio fuels, examples of geothermal power, ways to store energy in the form of heat and cold and of course possibilities to save energy. Most exhibitors will be industrial, but also research and development will be present, as well as engineering and consultancy. Inside the fair buildings 4000 square meters are available to the exhibitors. Outdoors there will be more space for heavy equipment and demon-
DETAF DETAF takes place on December 10, 11 and 12 at Fresh Park Venlo, Venrayseweg 102 in The Netherlands. More information on this trade fair can be found at www.detaf.nl
strations, such as energy from wood and other green material. Cradle-to-cradle Along with the fair the organization offers visitors an intensive program of workshops and symposia. At this occasion, not only the newest technical innovations will be discussed, but also the political and scientific points of view. The opening symposium will be organized by Rabobank. Well known speakers out of the industry will talk about renewable energy in relation to the latest phenomenon cradle-to-cradle. The Venlo region is the first region in the world to embrace this principle. Cradle-to-cradle is also known as a circular economy, because it’s based on the principle of complete recycling in construction and production processes. While energy prizes worldwide are rising, along with the awareness about climate change, energy takes a central place in the principle of cradleto-cradle. C ro s s ro a d The DETAF will take place at the crossroad between the A73 and the A67. The A73 connects Nijmegen to Maastricht, an important link between northwest and southwest Europe. The A67 is the densest highway when it comes to cargo. This road is the main transport route between the nearby Ruhr area, the most densely populated area of Germany. So there’s no question about this choice of location for the DETAF. Joep Hermans, chairman of the DETAF Foundation is clear about it. “Where else should we organize an event like this?”
New Energy Plus September 2008
07•adv:07 28-08-08 08:31 Pagina 7
World meeting place for energy experts The international platform for producers of bioenergy for operators of local energy supply systems in municipalities, crafts and trades, industry with 22,000 m² exhibition ﬂoorspace with 280 exhibitors with 37,000 professional visitors, including over 7,500 from abroad
er 2008 b m e v No 11 – 14 er, Germany Hanov
within the scope of
www.bioenergy-europe.com Hotline: +49(0)69/24788-265
08-09•OECD:8-9 28-08-08 14:26 Pagina 8
OECD experts plead f Development
The price to develop biofuel is too high and doesn’t contribute enough to the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, according to the OECD in their report ‘Economic Assessment of Biofuel Support Policies’. The international organisation pleads for more government efforts to decrease energy consumption. Developing biofuels should not come to a stop, but more research is required to find the right direction, according to the OECD.
According to a group of experts of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) the cost of public support for the production of biofuels, in the OECD member states, is much too high. Also the efforts hardly result in a decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. The improvement of guaranteed energy supply by biofuels is very limited, and on the other hand the production of biofuels has a major effect on the world market prices of food and feed crops. These are some of the con-
Research Besides policy recommendations the OECD report points out areas of further research. One of the topics that should be addressed is the potential economic benefit in relation to sustainable resources used for first generation biofuel production in tropical and semi-tropical countries. Interdisciplinary research is needed for a better understanding of the environmental risks related to land use change resulting from biofuels production expansion and to capture the interrelationships between economic and environmental effects. Research and development should not only be directed towards the commercial-scale development of advanced and second-generation biofuel technologies but also focused on the improvement potential of different first-generation supply chains, concludes the OECD. Besides that innovations in other alternative fuel sources like solar energy and hydrogen need support.
clusions of a recent report ‘Economic Assessment of Biofuel Support Policies’ of the OECD Trade and Agricultural Directorate, prepared with financial support of the Netherlands and Sweden, and published under the responsibility of the OECD secretary general. Support The last few years the production of biofuels from cereals, sugar crops and vegetable oils has grown rapidly. This growth will continue and the production will dou-
OECD secretary general Angel Gurria.
ble in the coming years. The United States, with 48 percent of the global ethanol production, and Brazil with 31 percent, are the world’s largest ethanol producers. With 60 percent of the global production the European Union is the largest biodiesel producer. These productions are highly dependent on public support. In 2006 the support in the US, EU and Canada alone, was estimated at 11 billion USD or about 7.5 billion euro on a yearly basis. This amount is estimated to increase to 25 billion USD or about 16,7 billion euro in the coming years. Public, or government support, is offered in different ways. Some governments provide tax concessions for biofuel producers, retailers and users, or direct support to biomass supply or biofuel production capacities and blending. Others use mandates to ensure a minimum share of biofuel in the transport fuel market or emplace trade restrictions, mainly in the form of import tariffs. The USA support is, with an amount of 850 million USD, more than eight times higher
08-09â€˘OECD:8-9 28-08-08 14:26 Pagina 9
d for free biofuel market Support costs too high for result on greenhouse gas emissions
than the support of other countries. The Netherlands (130 million USD) Sweden (120 million USD) and Japan (150 USD) are countries with the highest public support of biofuel production. The high public support places biofuel in the centre of the debate and thatâ€™s why the OECD wants to provide policy recommendations. Ta r g e t s a n d re s u l t s There are different reasons for public support of biofuel production and they vary widely between countries. For most countries the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and savings on fossil energy, are the main reason to put biofuel policy in place and stimulate its use. Ethanol production based on sugar cane in Brazil reduces the greenhouse gas emissions by 80 percent. The targets of the support policies in the USA, Canada, and the EU are a lot lower. While biofuels produced from wheat, sugar beet, or vegetable oil can decrease these emissions with 30 to 60 percent the mitigation for ethanol from corn is less than 30 percent. And this ethanol production is strongly supported in the USA. The current public support of bioethanol production leads to a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions of 1 percent in the transport sector. Biodiesel production in the EU results in a reduction of 2 to 3 percent in the EU transport sector. This comes at a projected cost equivalent of about 960 to 1700 USD (640 to 1260 euro) per ton of CO2-eq. saved or 0.80 to 7 USD (0.53 to 4.6 euro) per litre of unused fossil fuel. Even while the crude fossil oil prices increase spectacularly the cost disadvantage of biofuels has widened in the past few years as agricultural commodity prices soared and thereby feedstock costs increased. Impact According to the OECD report the impact of the public supported produc-
United States Canada European Union Brazil China India Indonesia Malaysia Others Worlds
Ethanol Million Mtoe
Biodiesel Million Mtoe
To t a l Million Mtoe
26,500 1,000 2,253 19,00 1,840 400 0 0 1,017 52,009
1,688 97 6,109 227 114 45 409 330 1,186 10,204
28,188 1,097 8,361 19,227 1,954 445 409 330 2,203 62,213
14.55 0.55 1.24 10.44 1.01 0.22 0 0 0.56 28.57
1.25 0.07 4.52 0.17 0.08 0.03 0.30 0.24 0.88 7.56
15.80 0,62 5.76 10,60 1.09 0.25 0.30 0.24 1.44 36.12
Tabel 1. Biofuel production by country in 2007
tion of biofuels on agricultural commodity prices should not be overestimated. With biofuel support policies in place in 2007, about 12 percent of global coarse grain production, and 14 percent of the global vegetable oil production could be used for the production of biofuels in the medium-term. With the support planned in the EU, and the USA, the percentages could raise to 20 percent of the global vegetable oil production and 13 percent of the world coarse grain output. Current biofuel production support is expected to increase average wheat, corn and vegetable oil prices by about 5, 7, and 19 percent respectively. On the other hand existing and additional support of biofuel production might, according to the OECD report, have important implications for global land use and is likely to accelerate the expansion of arable land in Latin America and Africa. While this could provide additional income opportunities for the rural population, possible environmental damages including additional release of greenhouse gas emissions. Loss of biodiversity and runoff of nutrients and pesticides should be avoided.
Recommendations The OECD report offers a number of policy recommendations which have to be differentiated by country policy approaches, their priorities and conditions. The primary focus, according the OECD report, should not be finding alternative fuel sources for the limited fossil fuel supply, but should be redirected towards lower energy consumption, particularly in the transport sector. Saving energy costs less than supporting alternative fuel sources. Furthermore government strategies should focus on those biofuels that maximise the reduction of fossil fuel usage and greenhouse gas emissions. Governments should favour the use of set-a-side land for production of feedstock for biofuels instead of using environmentally sensitive land. Opening markets for biofuels and related feedstocks would allow more efficient and lower cost production. Expansion of the supported biofuel production will contribute to higher food prices. However in a more liberal trade environment, increased biofuel production might be a viable option in some developing countries, thereby improving employment and income opportunities.
New Energy September 2008
10-11•American Ethanol:10-11 28-08-08 09:38 Pagina 10
New life for U.S. b Bioethanol
The total volume of renewable fuels mandated by law to be blended into U.S. fuel supply will remain at nine billion gallons in 2008 and 11 billion gallons in 2009, following a ruling last month by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to deny a request by the State of Texas to reduce the nationwide
for GMA, says the fight for reducing the mandate isn't over and adds his organization is in "regular conversations with many governors" who are concerned about the increasing amount of corn diverted to fuel production.
Renewable Fuels Standard.
By doing so, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) confirmed that, despite rising food prices, the U.S. biofuels industry is an important component of America’s energy security. The decision, in effect, was a vote for the myriad studies showing that biofuel is not the main cause of higher food prices. The decision capped off a rancorous summer of public debate over the role of biofuel mandates in higher food prices. Several companies and associations claimed the push to make fuel from corn was behind higher food prices. Other studies suggested the high price of oil was the real cause. The EPA decision came just prior to a crop report showing that despite earlier Midwest floods, U.S. farmers are on pace to produce the second largest corn crop and fourth largest soybean crop in history. Corn production is forecast at 12.3 billion bushels, down 6 percent from last year’s record but up 17 percent from 2006. Soybean production is forecast at 2.97 billion bushels, up 15 percent from last year but down 7 percent from the 2006 record. "We're very grateful but not surprised by the EPA's decision, given the fact that projections are calling for another bountiful harvest," says NCGA President Ron Litterer, a corn grower in Iowa. "We hope that those who have been critical of corn ethanol because of its perceived connection to higher retail food prices will work with us to help achieve a
diversified and comprehensive solution to high energy prices and our reliance on foreign oil." Texas Governor Rick Perry had cited ethanol's affect on feed and food prices, despite a study by Texas A&M researchers that the requested waiver would have little impact. The Texas A&M study was validated by economists at Purdue University, who tied most of the recent spike in corn prices to higher oil prices, which had in turn caused the demand for ethanol and corn to jump. Perry fights back Calling the decision “bad public policy,” Governor Perry shot back at the EPA decision in a Wall Street Journal editorial. “As we can see now, the diversion of our corn supply from grocery stores to gasoline pumps has caused the price of corn to spiral out of control,” he wrote. “Corn prices were once driven by market forces. Today they are artificially driven up by a government mandate. In 2004, before the mandates were imposed, the cost of corn hovered around $2 per bushel. Now it is close to $8 per bushel.” (editor’s note: corn prices were around $5.65 per bushel at press time). The Grocery Manufacturers Association, a coalition of 300 large U.S. food companies, has joined with livestock groups to call for a reduction in the ethanol mandate and elimination of the ethanol blenders' credit and import tariffs. Scott Faber, vice president for federal affairs
Pivotal moment Faber says although he wasn't willing to go into detail about future coalition strategies, they'll definitely "be working with Congress and the next administration to restructure all food-to-fuel policies." The next pivotal moment for ethanol could be the November presidential election. Republican presidential nominee Senator John McCain has been an outspoken opponent of ethanol subsidies and earlier this year joined other Congressional members asking for a reduction in the RFS. EPA's interpretation of the waiver request and the energy bill itself leaves the door open for future requests to focus on environmental harm, whereas the Texas request only focused on economic harm. A different administration could interpret the law differently. "If a president wanted to try to moderate the effects of biofuels on agricultural markets, the tools are at his disposal,” explains Pat Westhoff, co-director at the University of Missouri's Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute. “Even though the Bush administration decided one way on the wavier, a future administration might choose differently." I m p ro v i n g p ro f i t a b i l i t y Meanwhile ethanol producers were struggling to make profits with expensive corn. As grain prices softened to the $5 to $6 per bushel range, the pressure has eased. Petroleum prices weigh heavily on corn prices as well as ethanol prices. At the
10-11â€˘American Ethanol:10-11 28-08-08 09:38 Pagina 11
. biofuels Ethanol plants face tight profit margins
end of June corn ethanol future prices were as high as $2.90 per gallon and by mid-August were back down in the $2.20 range. During the same period, corn and crude oil prices have fallen more quickly than ethanol, which has given a glimmer of renewed profitability to ethanol producers. Westhoff says assuming the wholesale price of ethanol comes more in line with ethanol futures, ethanol producers could be back to relatively thin margins.
Debt-free plants are faring the best in the U.S. ethanol marketplace. The windfall profit margins of 2006 are long gone. Profitability is at a level that allows for plants to continue running and a little expansion, but not an excessive expansion as previously seen. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, the number of plants currently operating is nearly the same as September 2007. Right now there are 167 U.S. ethanol plants with a capacity
of just under 10 billion gallons. There is a backlog of plants being built - 35 under construction and 7 under expansion - which will come online during the next 12 to 18 months. Plants are doing everything possible to reduce overhead costs. The industry average ethanol conversion is roughly 2.75 bushels of corn per gallon produced. As newer plants come online efficiencies improve and raise the overall industry average.
Profitability of ethanol plants allows for plants to continue running and a little expansion, but not an excessive expansion as previously seen.
New Energy Plus September 2008
12-13-14â€˘Avantium:12-13-14 28-08-08 09:09 Pagina 12
Avantium: Delivering cutting e
Filling of the reactors for the conversion of biomass.
At Avantium they call large numbers of very small experiments advanced high throughput technology, and they claim to be best in class. It speeds up R&D and increases the success rate. Their method is of particular relevance for complex and unpredictable areas of chemical sciences, such as catalysis and crystallization.
[Henri de Haan]
In the port of Amsterdam one finds the usual businesses: ships being discharged, products stored, processed and transported, service companies teeming around all this. In the middle of this port area research technology company Avantium
works on breakthrough inventions at nano scale. It all started back in February 2000 as a spinoff from Shellâ€™s research. Shell however was more interested in the research result than in researching the
methodology. With an entrepreneurial spirit to take this research methodology further, Avantium was born: researchers from Shell, Pfizer, GSK, Eastman Chemical, WR Grace and Akzo Nobel joined forces in their efforts to benefit from the application of high throughput R&D. The result is one of the most advanced chemical laboratories began its search for breakthrough technologies. It first upgraded their parallel catalyst testing platform. New systems and software were developed to establish a fully integrated workflow. The University of Leiden collaborated in developing high throughput technology for crystallization research of small molecules in drug development.
12-13-14•Avantium:12-13-14 28-08-08 09:09 Pagina 13
Performing thousands of experiments with milligrams of material
g edge research technology Indications Intelligent technology Today Avantium’s core methodology consists of three steps: First, it is using statistics to rationally design the experimental set up. Then to do the actual analysis, the company takes only milligrams of sample material, using robotic sampling and highly automated analysis equipment to conduct hundreds or more often thousands of analyses, in various combinations and in different conditions. Finally, the large amount of data resulting from these experiments are analyzed by the company’s own software. Based on the measurements, the software calculates the best conditions for the desired reaction. The second step, in which a very large number of experiments are done, is called high throughput R&D. This is not a unique technology, although it does involve specialized equipment of which Avantium owns the patents. What makes Avantium unique is the combination of the three steps described: A rational experimental design, high throughput R&D, and patented software to analyze the data. This leads to a calculation of the best parameters for a process, cutting short the time needed to get to the final result and improving the quality of the result. Pharma and chemicals Markets for Avantium’s research technology can be found in two main areas: Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals. Research for pharmaceutical companies mostly focuses on crystallization processes. By using five grams of material, the company can perform approximately a thousand experiments at different tem-
peratures, concentrations and solvent/anti-solvent combinations. All the different crystals are x-rayed after these experiments. The crystals scatter (diffract) the incoming x-ray, the software analysizes the diffraction, which identifies discrete types of crystals on which subsequent extensive measurements of physical properties can be done. Furanics biofuel Research for chemical markets mostly emphasizes catalyst reactions. At a temperature of up to 800 degrees Celsius and a pressure of up to 200 bars the output of a gas or liquid conversion is measured, results are then analyzed. Most of the research is done for clients, therefore the results are confidential. An example of a promising result obtained in Avantium’s own research is the development of a new biofuel which the company calls Furanics. Gert Jan Gruter, Chief Technology Officer, explains how they successfully put theory into practice: “Using dehydration with an acedic catalyst, one can convert glucose, fructose or sucrose in hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). This product is very difficult to obtain in high yield as it’s not stable under its production conditions. If the OH group in the HMF molecule could be converted into an ether group, the molecule is much more stable and the product has much better gasoline or diesel blend properties. “So we found a way to accelerate this reaction: Before or during the formation of the instable HMF, the OH-group is converted to an ether-group”. Gruter talks about chemistry as if it were math: “If that’s what you want and this is what
Today Avantium employs 130 people, many of them come from universities all over the world. Together they realize a turnover of 15 to 20 million Euros. All available cash is re-invested in further growth of the company. An Initial Public Offering was cancelled in November 2007. Venture capitalists will now provide the capital to grow its internal research efforts. Due to the confidential nature of their business, nonfinancial measurements of success cannot be mentioned easily. Repeated business may be the best indicator: Of the research contracts 70 percent are being renewed, including two or three year service contracts. Several of Avantium’s research assignments have resulted in production on a commercial scale.
you have, then that’s what you have to do to get what you want.” It sounds simple, but probably means bringing it up to a commercial phase is difficult. Having found a process to convert sugars into a family of stable molecules which they call Furanics, applications are available for two markets. Furanics can be used as a fuel. An intermediate product of the Furanics production can also be transformed into furanic dicarboxylic
New Energy Plus September 2008
The management team of Avantium.
12-13-14•Avantium:12-13-14 28-08-08 09:09 Pagina 14
>> Avantium: Delivering cutting edge research technology
The catalysts are tested with a robot operated system.
acid as an alternative for terephthalic acid, the bulk monomer used in the polyester polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Main bottleneck with bringing these applications to the fuel and (to a lesser extent) the polyester market, is the availability of sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose). The market for PET is estimated at 25 million tonnes, while the market for fuel is 3.5 billion tonnes a year. To put this number into perspective; production of all grains, rice and oilseeds together is 2.2 billion tonnes. It took the world more than thirty years to double the production of these agricultural commodities. Other plant materials should bring a solution: conversion from cellulose to sugars would free significant amounts of feedstock, such as straw. In addition novel sources for cellulose and even glucose such as algae are receiving recent attention. Gruter expects these developments will be available within some years from now. By that time Avantium will have the production of Furanics ready for demand. Avantium plans to produce several 100’s of liters of Furanics during the last quarter of 2008 for extensive engine testing. So far the engine testing was done in Avantium’s Citroen Berlingo test car which runs on a regular diesel engine. Initial exhaust analysis of the Berlingo running on diesel/Furanics blends at the Intertek Laboratories in Geleen, The Netherlands, showed promising reductions of soot and NOx. The next step is testing Furanics blends in a regular testengine, which can be optimized for fuel-injection and which can be used to
The production of the catalysts by means of a robot operated system.
study effects of the fuel on engine components. G ro w t h a re a s The Chief Technology Officer explains how the company’s technology is marketed as three different groups. Contract research, also called services, is one of them. “The challenge is to get the R&D manager of a firm to recognize he’s better off investing a part of his budget on us doing their research, than to do all the research themselves. A CEO would be more receptive to this message, but it’s important we’ve got both of them on board,” according to Gruter. As for most businesses, long-term service agreements are important to Avantium. “There’s quite a good demand for short-term contract research. However we need to plan our resources. Our most important assets are our people. They are highly specialized and trained individuals, we cannot increase their number overnight for a short term service agreement,” says Gruter. He explains they have a number of service agreements for the duration of two or three years, which allow flexibility to change the focus of research along the way. To o l s As a result of the service agreements, a new group of activities arose, which Avantium calls Tools.
“Some of our equipment is found to be useful at our customer’s laboratories as well, so we supply them with it.” Examples are ‘Crystal16’ a reactor station to do crystallization research at 1 ml scale. ‘Flowrence’ is a parallel gas and liquid fixed bed reactor system to test many different catalytic processes. ‘Block96’ allows the company to test catalysts in a highly parallel batch system at different temperatures, pressure, solvent and catalyst composition. Gruter explains selling these tools doesn’t compete with their contract research business: “It adds more to our customer relations. By doing their own research with these tools the customers come back to us with more questions. It has helped to bring our business relations to the next level.” Contract research and tools being two of the growth areas, the company also invests in developing their own products and processes. Because the core business of Avantium is contract research activities, they only invest in research of products which do not compete with their clients. Once research for a new product or process is completed, Avantium has no ambitions to bring the project up to a commercial level. Furanics is probably the best example. At present 15 people are working on this project and other related catalytic biomass conversion research.
New Energy Plus September 2008
15â€˘adv:15 28-08-08 13:58 Pagina 15
New Energy Plus
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With the limited supply of fossil energy there is a growing interest for renewable energy. The magazine New Energy Plus offers an independent platform of information on the development of different types of renewable energy using agricultural feedstock. The magazine mainly focuses on heat from biomass, biogas, bio-ethanol and biodiesel. The articles in New Energy Plus not only address the biofuel production but also policy making and new developments in Europe and abroad. New Energy Plus is a quarterly magazine spread throughout Europe. Subcribe now and stay informed on the latest developments in reNEWable ENERGY. Please contact Eisma Businessmedia (tel. +31 (0)58-2954870 or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) and make sure you receive the next issue (November 2008).
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16-17•Ghent:16-17 28-08-08 16:17 Pagina 16
The region of Ghent - also known as the cradle of biotechnology - wants to play an important role in the production of biofuels. The Port of Ghent, known for handling of agricultural products, houses the largest bio-ethanol and biodiesel production site in Europe. Professor dr. Wim Soetaert of the Ghent University is one of the founding fathers of ‘Ghent Bio-Energy Valley’.
[Jacques Van Outryve]
Ghent as bio-energy v “We promote the development of the biobased economy. Actions are stimulation of technological innovations by setting up collaborative projects, and establishing a research and development infrastructure. Setting up industrial synergies in the areas of material supply, production and use of bio-energy, as well as building public trust and promoting acceptance of bio-energy and bio-
based products are also part of our efforts,” explains professor dr. Wim Soetaert of the Ghent University, one of the founding fathers of Ghent BioEnergy Valley. What is the present situation? Who is producing biofuels? “Oleon is producing 100,000 ton biodiesel since March 2007. Bioro is producing
Ghent Bio-Energy Valley in a nutshell Ghent Bio-Energy Valley is a public private partnership supporting the development of sustainable bio-energy activities in the region of Ghent, Belgium. Ghent Bio-Energy Valley is a joint initiative of Ghent University, the City of Ghent, the Port of Ghent, the Development Agency East-Flanders and a number of industrial companies related to the Ghent region that are active in the fields of bio-energy generation, distribution, storage and use. Companies that participate are: - Alco Bio Fuel (producer of bio-ethanol), - Axtoll (toll manufacturer specialised in tailormade processing, blending and biodiesel production), - Bioro (producer of biodiesel), - BnS Engeneering (engineering office), - Capricorn Cleantech Fund (manager of venture capital funds). - Cargill (provider, imports, exports and processor of food and agricultural ingredients), - Desmet Ballestra (processing systems for extraction of oils and fats),
- Fabricom GTI (technical installations and services), - Genencor (a Danisco division – industrial enzymes), - Green Earth Energy (engineering, construction), - Lalemant Group (transport and shipping), - Oiltanking Ghent (storage and handling of chemicals, biofuels and petroleum products), Sea-Tank Terminal (liquid bulk terminal operator), - Electrabel (energy company) and - Oleon Biodiesel (producer of biodiesel), - Organic Waste Systems (biological treatment of solid and semi-solid waste), SPE (energy company), Ghent Energy Valley promotes the development of the biobased economy through collaborative programs, joint initiatives and synergy creation between partners in the fields of research and development, structural measures and policy, logistics and communication towards the general public. More information: www.gbev.org
200,000 ton biodiesel since April 2008, and Alco Bio Fuel started up in June to produce 150,000 cubic meters bioethanol. We have had only small technical delays for a few months. So we are still on schedule.” Bioro is the only biodiesel plant in Belgium that covers the whole production process from rapeseed to biodiesel. Other plants start their process from vegetable oils or fats. Bioro is a joint venture between Eco Diesel, Vanden Avenne (Euro-Silo) and Cargill. Alco Bio Fuel is a joint venture between the Alco Group, Vanden Avenne (EuroSilo), AVEVE and Wal.agri, Belgium’s largest cereal collector. How do you feel about the biofuel market at the moment? “I’m not optimistic about the current market situation of biofuels. Biodiesel is very seriously suffering from massive imports of subsidized B99 from the US. That is unfair competition. Bio-ethanol is hindered by high cereal prices. Another problem is that in Belgium the oil companies are not obliged to use biofuels in their products. The Belgian biofuels have to be exported to other European countries.” One of the missions of Ghent Bio-Energy Valley is the communication towards the general public. Is public opinion changing? In what direction? And what can you do about it? “The general public is tending towards
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Belgium and biodiesel In 1937 biodiesel was invented and patented (nr. 4223837) at the ULB, the free university of Brussels, by G. Chavanne, a chemist. The transesterification of vegetable fats and oils with ethanol or methanol gives a vegetable oil ester named biodiesel and glycerol. This process occurred for the first time more than 70 years ago. Brussels is still important for the production of biodiesel not as research- or production centre but as political decision centre. Prof. Dr. Wim Soetaert is very optimistic about
y valley the negative at the moment. It has a lot to do with high food prices, but these high prices are not caused by biofuels! The negative opinion is likely to ‘cool off’ when the prices for agricultural commodities come down from their high levels. Public opinion is heavily manipulated by an unnatural coalition between oil companies, food industry, and environmental activists. They are
the future of biofuels.
against biofuels for different reasons but seem to have teamed up.” How do you see the future of biofuels? “Bright!” D i ff e re n t o p i n i o n Not everybody agrees with Soetaert. Some of his colleagues at Ghent University have a different opinion. Agricul-
tural economists, for instance. Soetaert is not an economist but a technologist one who knows which technologies are in the pipeline. But at what price? An economist uses the price and the technology of the moment. And at present the situation is not so bright without subsidy or obligations from government.
The Port of Ghent houses the largest bioethanol and biodiesel production site in Europe.
New Energy Plus September 2008
18-19•Woodpallets:18-19 28-08-08 16:00 Pagina 18
Using wood pellets for heating buildings has become common in wood rich countries. Today this kind of fuel is used in a less forested and wood importing country with a dense gas net like the Netherlands. A feed company makes it possible that companies and private persons can initiate a heating contract based on wood.
[Marc van der Sterren]
Feed Company De Heus starts bio energy project
‘Wood pellets are not much d A feed company owns everything you need for distributing wood pellets, explains Albert Everts. He is ‘Field Expert Pigs’ at feed company De Heus, according to his business card. “I still am”, says Everts, and have been employee at this company for over 25 years. The past year however he has to leave the pig business to his colleagues, as he’s become responsible for the biomass energy activities at De Heus. It’s a new activity but De Heus is not shifting professions, emphasizes Everts. “Feed remains our core business.” There are many reasons why this company is going into energy. One of them being the willingness to help customers to lower their costs. “We know our farmer customers and their market, so we know how important it is to keep the costs low.” Besides that, the company wants to take its social responsibility and reduce the CO2 output. “As feed company, we are also responsible for the climate change”, admits Everts. “Fossil fuels are not endless. Burning wood is CO2 neutral.” Besides this, wood pellets are similar to feed pellets. From a distance, even Everts can’t tell the difference. For a feed company, fuel from wood pellets therefore is a logical choice. “We have all the knowhow, equipment, storage,
and logistic facilities to handle these flows.” All of their industries are located near a waterway, so they can buy big loads with the same convenience De Heus stores and distributes wood pellets. “No one can do this for a lower price than we can”, claims Everts. Support Off course De Heus has also looked into alternative biofuels that are close to their farming customers. Fermentation of manure, for example. “A big investment”, Everts judges. “And at this moment, it is not profitable without public support.” Another fuel that’s coming up the last years is biodiesel, which can be produced by the farmer himself. Other Dutch feed companies started projects on these fuels, De Heus intentionally didn’t. “With biodiesel or ethanol you have to deal with ethical matters. Food is competing with fuel. Nowadays, corn is used as fuel, people see this as immoral”. Not all alternative fuels have been commercially successful yet. Everts is clear about wood pellets: “It’s very lucrative”. For The Netherlands it might be new, other European countries have about ten years experience with this kind of fuel.
Import quality About a year ago the feed company put it’s first steps in the world of wood pellets. From the start they used Din+ quality. An aggregation of the Austrian standard M7135 and the German classification 51 731. In a years time, Everts has become a wood pellet expert. All wood pellets from De Heus are imported. With this import quality, De Heus is unique in this country. “The Netherlands don’t have many forests”, explains Everts. The country imports wood for the processing industry. White sawdust, mainly coming from coniferous trees, goes to the bedding industry. “This is too expensive to pelletize”. Because this lack of quality wood, most Dutch pellets come from the wood industry. Rest material from furniture and frameworks often is hard wood, laminated, impregnated, or glued. “This will result in undesirable and unpredictable emissions. And it can be very harmful for the boiler,” according to the expert. Certified De Heus benefits from the experience with burning other materials such as grains. “While using grains as fuel, chlorine escapes, which will oxidize all the machinery”. The feed company wishes
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h different from feed pellets’ to maintain a good name in the market, so it will only use certificated wood pellets. As there is no Dutch quality standard, the company uses other European standards, which come along with importing the material from Germany, Austria, France, Belgium, and Scotland. Heating with wood instead of gas is a lot cheaper. Even with the use of certified and more expensive wood pellets. Everts guaranties that burning this more expensive certified material is even cheaper then using cheap uncertified pellets. “We hear in the field that the output is better”. People are more aware of the benefits of using this quality pellets, Everts notifies. “When buying a boiler, they look at the durability, the output and the emissions”. Above this, the instalment is also seen as important. “The air- and fuel supply have to match “. Pig Farmers A heater, burning on pellets, is most beneficial for a business with a constant demand of warmth. An industry that uses a huge amount of warmth, a glass house for example, needs a bigger installation. For this kind of heating burning shredded wood might be more interesting than pellets. The larger
investment will be paid back in a shorter period. Changing to wood pellets as fuel is attractive for those who use 25,000 up to 100,000 cubic metres of gas. And those are the companies that De Heus deals with. Pig farmers with a livestock between 500 and 1,000 sows, or veal producers. “Thousand calves is the average for a veal farm”, Everts describes. They need 30,000 cubic metres of gas, for the production of 70 up to 100 kW. “These farmers don’t need a big boiler as burning shredded wood would mean a bigger investment”. Shredded wood is usually bought locally. Wood pellets however is a worldwide market. This is also a reason to choose pellets above shreds, according to Everts. “When a few more companies choose for shred, the supply of shred on the local market will decrease enormously. In that case, I don’t know if there will be enough feed stock left for all heaters. And what will happen to the price then?” An increased use of wood pellets won’t disturb the market, Everts thinks. The worldwide supply is large enough. That’s why wood pellets can compete with gas. While gas prices go up and down, in particularly up, the price of wood pellets in The
Netherlands has been stable in recent years.
“As a feed company we have the knowhow,
Energy contract For pellets, a boiler with a silo is relatively cheap, says Everts. “It doesn’t need much maintenance, the owner only has to remove the ashes ones a week”. From the moment the farmer switches from gas to wood pellets, he saves between 30 to 50 percent, depending on the gas price. In the nearby future, farmers don’t even have to worry about their own stock of wood pellets or the prices of this fuel. They simply sign an energy contract, like they are used to, with their regular energy supplier. “We take all their worries away”, Everts explains. “We install all the machinery, take care of the techniques, and the maintenance and make it burn”. In the past year De Heus delivered wood pellets to some hundred customers. “Big users, but also private persons with a small heater”. The feed company has a route for delivering bags through the whole country. Along with these feed pellets, they deliver wood pellets. In the future De Heus can easily increase the transportation of wood pellets. No problem, says Everts. “We have locations all through the country.”
New Energy Plus September 2008
equipment, storage and logistic facilities to handle wood pellets,” says Albert Everts.
20-21•EU opinion:20-21 28-08-08 16:45 Pagina 20
The European de c
“Biofuels are more valuable as fuel than as a scapegoat”. With this one-liner Mariann Fischer Boel, member of the European Commission responsible for Agriculture and Rural Development tried to counter criticism. The new directive on the promotion of energy produced from renewable sources still has a long way to go.
[Jacques Van Outryve]
In 2003 the Biofuels directives set out indicative targets for Member States. The share of biofuels should be gradually increased and should account for 5,7 percent of total consumption in 2010. Despite efforts made by some Member States, the average share of
biofuels is estimated at less than 2 percent in 2006. At that time the European Commission had proposed a binding target that could be controlled and penalised if it was not reached but the Council changed this proposal.
Road Map In January 2007, the Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy, the so-called ‘renewable energy road map’. Its two main objectives are increasing security of energy supply and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An assessment of the share of renewable energy in the energy mix and the progress made in the last ten years, shows that more has to be done. In the Road Map, the Commission proposed setting a mandatory target of 20 percent for the share of renewables in energy consumption by 2020 and a mandatory minimum target of 10 percent for biofuels. It also proposed creating a new legislative framework to enhance the promotion and the use of renewable energy. The most important day in the whole
20-21•EU opinion:20-21 28-08-08 16:45 Pagina 21
Marianne Fischer Boel at the informal council talking about high food prices and biofuels. (photo: Slovenian EU presidency 2008)
Outlook In the most recent ‘Agricultural Commodity Markets. Outlook 2008-2017, a comparatives analysis of projections’ publishes by OECD, FAO, FAPRI and USDA, the EU remains the biggest producer and consumer of biodiesel in the world. The European production of biodiesel will increase from 6.7 billion litres to 9.5 billion in 2017. The US is the second largest producer with 2 billion litres in 2007. The use of rapeseed oil in de EU will increase from 5.2 million tons (2007) to 7.5 million tons (2017). The global biofuel market is dominated by bio-ethanol. The production in the world has tripled between 2000 en 2007 reaching 52 billion litres. The main expansion of ethanol occurred in the US, which doubled its production from 15 to 30 billion litres and has by far overtaken Brazil. OECD-FAO projects the global ethanol production will almost double between 2008 en 2017, reaching 127 billion litres. Prices of ethanol are likely to move in line with crude oil prices and are restricted by ethanol production capacities. For the EU the projections of production increase from 4.6 billion litres in 2007 to almost 8 billion litres in 2017.
e cision: a long way to go! process was in March 2007. The European Heads of States were in the mood. The European Council, pushed by the public opinion at that time, agreed on an energy policy as proposed by the Commission. The European Parliament endorsed the action. This political agreement has to be backed by new legislation. That takes time and meanwhile the public opinion changed. This makes the whole procedure more complex. Politicians reconsider binding targets and take sustainability criteria into account. On 23 January 2008, the Commission made her specific proposals on how a policy to attain the set objectives could be formulated. Why did the Commission wait so long? At present, September 2008, the proposal is discussed within the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy of the European Parliament. Hot topics in the discussion are the compulsory 10 percent objective for promoting biofuels until 2020, the sustainability criteria, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the methodology for calculating the greenhouse gas impact of biofuels (at least 35 percent, this would apply both to domestic and to imports), cross compliance, taxations …
Fragmented market The decision procedure has still a long way to go. Meanwhile some politicians change their mind. Nobody can predict the result. The Commission defends the binding target and the methodology of calculating sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. Without a binding target, it’s very likely that the internal market would be fragmented. The more advanced products would never take off. Greenhouse gas emissions from transport would continue to climb, imposing heavier emission reductions on other sectors. About the greenhouse gas emission reduction, Commissioner Fischer Boel said that many first-generation fuels score well above 35 percent. The Commission also has simulated that in 2020 80 percent of our biofuel usage target could be met by domestically produced raw material grown on about 15 percent of European arable land. In the same analysis the Commission said that the real land use figure would in a sense be lower than 15 percent. This is because of the by-products obtained from biofuels production. Therefore less land can be used. The whole discussion continues, not only in the European Union, also in the USA and Brazil.
European farmers organisations and biofuels In their opinion about the role of biofuels European farmers and their cooperatives (COPA) are convinced that biofuels produced from European products are the best. The EU is committed to introduce standards that will ensure that only biofuels which are really effective in reducing CO2-emissions will be used in the EU. The carbon saved from the use of biofuels will have to beat 35 percent of that which would be produced from using fossil fuels. Biodiesel made from European-grown rapeseed results in a greenhouse gas saving of 44 percent compared to fossil fuel. Ethanol made from EU sugar beet accounts for a reduction of 48 percent. COPA is in favour of keeping the mandatory targets in place (10 percent biofuels by 2020). To their opinion enough arable land is available within the EU to produce food, feed and fuel. According to COPA the effect on food prices is exaggerated. “The reality is that food is cheaper than ever. Over the last twenty years, the rise in food prices was 20 percent less than that of other consumer goods. The recent increase in food prices just closed that gap”. Price of a commodity is set by market demand. According to COPA prices will increase if demand is higher for example due to the production of biofuels. “Unless supply follows demand. This can be realised by using set-a-side land, bringing fallow land back in production or an increase in productivity”.
New Energy Plus September 2008
22•agenda:22 28-08-08 14:30 Pagina 22
CALENDER / NEW ENERGY NEWS
In the New Energy Plus Calender events and activities are listed. The focus is on those events and activities that are connected with production of bioenergy from renewable feedstock. A selection of events is listed in our quarterly magazine. Future events and activities for this calendar can be forwarded to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2008 August 18 Short rotation crops international conference: biofuels, bioenergy and bioproducts from sustainable agricultural and forest crops, Minnesota (VS) www.regonline.com September 14 Woodfuel Supply Chain-Sharing Experience, Warwick (GB) www.ieabioenergy.com September 21-27 International Biogas training course, University of Hohenheim (G) www.biogas-zentrum.de
October 27 Symposium Biogas ‘food versus energy’ (in Dutch), Lelystad (NL) www.biogasbrancheorganisatie.nl November 11-14 Bioenergy Europe, Hannover (G) www.bioenergy-europe.com December 3-4 International algae congress, Amsterdam (NL) www.algaecongress.com December 10-12 DETAF, exhibition sustainable energy, Venlo (NL) www.detaf.nl December 12 Business meeting bioenergy 2008, The Netherlands Bio-energy Association, Arnhem (NL) www.platformbioenergie.nl
September 24-25 The impact of biofuels on commodity markets, Brussels (B) www.agra.net.com September 25 BioWKK conference ‘biowaste-to-energy’ (NL) www.biowkk.nl September 26 Business meeting bio-energy 2008, The Netherlands Bio-energy Association, Arnhem (NL) www.platformbioenergie.nl
October 16-19 Green Energy Summit 2008, Bangalore (IN) www.saltmarchmedia.com October 27-29 Annual Biogas Congress, Brussels (B) www.agra-net.com/biogas
2009 January 21-22 International congress ‘the permanent oil crisis: challenges and oppurtunities’, Amsterdam (NL) www.europoint.eu
BioEnergy Europe For the second time, BioEnergy Europe will be held within the scope of EuroTier at the Hanover Exhibition Grounds from 11 to 14 November 2008. As the leading international exhibition for bioenergy and local energy supply, it offers investors and interested parties from municipalities, industry, and agriculture a comprehensive overview of products and services in this dynamically growing market. Building on the great success of the last exhibition, the international scale of this year’s BioEnergy Europe will be expanded further and, with support from VDMA Power Systems, the exhibition contents will be expanded along the lines of ‘local energy supply’. The exhibition will focus on individual components and on entire local supply systems as well as control technology and suitable energy management systems. BioEnergy Europe addresses producers and users of bioenergy, biogas, liquid bio-fuels, solid bio-fuels users and operators of local energy supply systems.
Opportunities for algea Following the success of the first Dutch algae congress an international successor of this congress is to take place in Amsterdam. The congress to be held on December 3 to 4, will bring people together with an interest in algae and its potential. The event offers the opportunity to exchange experience and knowledge on this subject. The International Algae Congress will take place in ‘the West Indisch Huis’ in Amsterdam. The congress will highlight the following current themes: research, production, processing, technology, practical applications, and marketing. This congress also offers the opportunity to meet fellow experts with whom one can exchange ideas and visions on the algae sector. The table tops and poster panels during the concurrent trade show will offer added value.
Opportunities for algea February 22-26 Agriculture and Energy Area at SIMA, Paris (Fr) www.simaonline.com September 27-30 World congress on oils & fats and 28th ISF congress, Sydney (AU) www.mvo.nl
SIMA 2009, an agricultural trade show in France, will host an agriculture and energy area at the next exhibition. The cultivated surface area dedicated to renewable energy in France was 750,000 ha in 2006. The estimated figure for 2009 is 2 million hectares, almost three times more. France also is an important player when it comes to energy wood with 15 million hectares. All the more reason for the France based exhibition Sima to organize a ‘Renewable Energy Space’ at the next exhibition to be held from February 22 to 26 in Paris. During the exhibition there will be conference and workshops on the topic in French and English.
New Energy Plus September 2008
omslag 3:omslag 3 28-08-08 08:24 Pagina oms 3
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