FOLLOW THE RIGHT LIGHT corporate Brochure
About the Company
Lighting Innovation Centre
Right Light – Office and Communication
Right Light – Science and Education
Right Light – Industry, Engineering, Outdoor Workplace
Right Light – Presentation and Retail Shop, Shopping Mall
Lighting Quality Standard
LQS Composer, LQS Composer PRO
Lighting Management System
About the Company OMS Brands
Our philosophy and ambition is to define the trends, not to follow them blindly
The company OMS, spol. s r.o. established in 1995 is the largest producer of the industrial and design luminaires and supplier of complex lighting solutions in Central and Eastern Europe. Our own Department of Research and Development, in-company designers, above-standard technical background, optimally adjusted manufacturing processes and a wide network of suppliers enabling to choose from the market only the best offers create conditions for defining the trends in the area of artificial lighting in 122 countries worldwide.
Our production programme, segmented to three brands UNOLUX, ADVANCED and ELITE includes a broad centre of the luminaire types for the administration areas and living spaces, hotels, restaurants, health-care facilities, manufacturing and warehousing spaces, banks, sports grounds, historical and architectonical sights, billboards, public spaces or road communications. We have developed and are successfully implementing in practice our own standard of lighting quality – Lighting Quality Standard (LQS) and interactive software determined for
quantifying its parameters – Lighting Quality Composer PRO which currently represent the most objective method of lighting quality assessment in the lighting industry. We are the leaders and pioneers in the area of the LED technology as well as owners of extensive know-how in the area of their production and utilisation.
Company in Numbers Established in: 1995 Number of Employees: 1008 Export: 98% Distribution to 122 countries worldwide Company Area: 92 600 m2 Built-up Area: 33 550 m2 Manufacturing Spaces: 16 000 m2 Storage space: 12 000 m2 Administration Spaces: 6 550 m2
Centre of Light Innovations The new challenges require aÂ new approach. Therefore our company OMS as one of few enterprises on the lighting market has decided to build its own centre of lighting innovations â€“ Lighting Innovation Centre (LIC) with its in-company Department of Research and Development.
The LIC is located in modern newly-built spaces with an area of 1,000 m2. Thanks to more than 120 experts in the area of the lighting solutions, optics, energy saving, electronics, thermal management, industrial design, product management and quality we are able to provide our customers with above-standard consultancy or after-sale services and to create for them tailor-made complex lighting solutions. Specialised labs equipped with the latest technologies enabling our specialists to test the IP luminaires or to carry out optical, electric and thermal measurements are part of the LIC. An interactive showroom with the area of 500 m2 is an attractive part of the LIC where you can find an overview of the latest technologies, design luminaires and lighting management systems developed by the company OMS.
CONCEPT AND DESIGN
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
OMS BRANDS The broad portfolio developed, designed and manufactured by the company OMS is segmented to three brands characterised by special design, by implemented technologies of various levels and abovestandard quality.
Exclusive Design & Most Modern Technologies The luminaires of the product line ELITE represent aÂ unique connection of the futurist design with the latest technologies developed by our company. Each luminaire of the ELITE brands reflects the philosophy of the company OMS to be the trendsetter in the area of the development and production of luminaires. The luminaires of the ELITE brand are manufactured of high-quality materials typical by excellent luminous parameters and abovestandard design creation. The technologies applied rank them among the top products on the current market.
A complete ELITE portfolio – see the ELITE catalogue.
Variability, Comfort, Quality The product line ADVANCED consists of aÂ great number of highly efficient luminaires typical by variability of the shapes, abovestandard optics and lovely design. The luminaires are manufactured from highquality materials from the foremost European producers. The variability of the products enables adapting the individual luminaire parameters to the clientsÂ´ requirements. The assembly and the possibility to connect the luminaires to the lighting management system rank the ADVANCED products to the products characterised by aÂ high user comfort.
Top Quality, Attractive Price The quality complying with the European standard, attractive price and short delivery terms are the main attributes of this brand. UNOLUX represents a complete line of luminaires determined both for interiors and exteriors, produced from high-quality components from the best suppliers. The geographical proximity of the supplier chain and sophisticated logistic processes create conditions for extraordinary short delivery terms. Moreover, all luminaires from UNOLUX production line fulfil the requirements of the technical standards and achieve corresponding technological parameters.
A complete portfolio – see the ADVANCED catalogue.
A complete portfolio – see the UNOLUX catalogue.
People receive the majority of information about the surrounding world through their vision. Therefore the appropriate illumination is a key factor on the way to acquire human knowledge. The light, its colour and intensity directly affect the visual and psychological wellbeing of an individual.
RIGHT LIGHT The light has an ability to influence the mood of people, it is able to increase their activity or vice versa, to perform in a relaxation way. Every space places on the illumination specific demands. The character of the space and the way how it is utilised are the determining parameters for solving a lighting system. Thanks to the extensive know-how and long-year experience in the area of design and realisation of the lighting solutions we are able to design optimal lighting for any type of space.
The series of publications RIGHT LIGHT represents a summary of our know-how in the area of planning the lighting systems verified by a number of realised projects in practice. At the same time it offers a detailed overview about our products. The RIGHT LIGHT publications are a clearly arranged and understandable guide through right illumination for various types of spaces, from the administration buildings through the sales, production and warehousing spaces
PRESENTATION AND RETAIL SHOP, SHOPPING MALL
INDUSTRY AND ENGINEERING, OUTDOOR WORKPLACE
OFFICE AND COMMUNICATION
HOTEL AND GASTRO ARCHITECTURE, FACADE, CITY MARKETING AND VISUAL PRESENTATion ROAD, PATH AND SQUARE
HOUSE, FLAT AND LIVING AREA
EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
HEALTH AND CARE
SPORT, LEISURE AND WELLNESS
up to health-care facilities, sports grounds, facades or cultural monuments. These publications provide the developers, investors, architects and lighting designers with complex information about correct illumination of various types of spaces and selecting appropriate products through which we can achieve the optimal lighting conditions.
RIGHT LIGHT Office and communication The administration spaces today represent more than anytime before a town with a complex infrastructure. They become an inspiring space which is to increase the work productivity but at the same time they are to create a relaxation space for the employees. In this context the light plays a key role: it stimulates to better performance efficiency, supports the ability to concentrate and improves the individual’s feeling of comfort. The correct illumination of the administration space beginning with the desk, its immediate surroundings up to the largearea office today exceeds the boundaries of the technical standards and more and more frequently fulfils also aesthetic and ergonomic functions and respects the individual needs of every workplace. The illumination quality with a greater emphasis on the parameters of its biological efficiency is one of the most important parameters when solving the illumination in the administration space.
The desks which represent the task area from the point of view of the standard place different demands on the illuminance levels and the lighting uniformity than the general office space. These values are defined by the European standard EN 12446-1.
Open Space Office The large-area offices with an open disposition, an area often achieving hundreds of square metres determined minimally for six persons are a favourite solution especially in the modern technological companies emphasising the effective utilisation of the space. An open space office without internal walls and doors creates conditions for immediate communication and feedback between the employees. It enables them to collaborate more effectively and at the same time it satisfies the natural need of people to create social links. In spite of the missing walls, the open space office is a considerably structured space. However, the hierarchy of the individual zones here is not defined by the walls but through ergonomically appropriately positioned furniture which defines the space for management, leading employees, individual working groups and at the same time it defines the communication zones. The lighting solution has to be adapted according to this space layout.
In general it is valid that the lighting in a large-area office should be distributed uniformly, without places with a considerable light exposure and shadow. The open space office is, as a rule, a place of joining various information technologies, requiring a high rate of concentration from the employees. Selecting the correct luminaire and light source helps reduce the strain of vision when we transfer our attention from the screen to the working plane and the surroundings. In this way it is possible to increase the performance efficiency of the employees and at the same time to prevent the health problems caused by low-quality lighting. The suspended luminaires with a direct or indirect characteristic of the luminous flux which are able to copy the properties of the daylight as truthfully as possible are the best choice for the main illumination. The indirect diffuse light they radiate helps modelling the object and faces better and improves the orientation in the space. It also reduces the risk of indirect glare when the light reflects from the PC monitor or other bright surfaces in the room. The optimal conditions for stimulation and concentrated work can be created by a correctly selected correlated colour temperature. The light with a neutral white colour and the correlated colour temperature CCT 4,000 is recommended. However, the maximal visual and psychological well-being of the employees can be best achieved by simulating the daylight.
Daylight Simulation The scientific research has proven that the daylight is most natural for people. This fact results in the effort to adapt the artificial light to its properties as much as possible. The natural daylight is not monotonous. It changes its properties not only in dependence on the season of the year but also in dependence on the daily cloudiness. It intensity and colour change during the day.
All these factors affect our perception of the space and the objects inside of it. The daylight simulation can be achieved in several ways, e.g. by using the technology of the dynamic lighting or tuning the white colour of the light - “tunable white”. The objective is for the artificial lighting to produce the light with colour and intensity which will copy the properties of the daylight as truthfully as possible.
Head Office Almost no other space in an administration building offers the designers and architects such a creative space as the “head office”. Their task is to create conditions for work for the leaders, background for meetings with colleagues and at the same to represent the corporate culture. The natural architectonic structuring of this type of space which links the elements of an office, conference room and representation zone automatically includes the need to count on not only the functional but also from the point of the design impressive furnishing the interior and also the lighting solution.
The illumination of the desk which represents the task area has to fulfil both the normative requirements and aesthetic criteria. This part of the space will show a suspended luminaire to good advantage which will attract attention by its exceptional design, modern technological parameters and at the same time it will be able to create optimal light conditions for concentrated work. The conference part of this office requires a flexible and independently controllable lighting solution which will enable the user to call an adequate lighting scene for various types of activities (meeting, presentation, etc.). The uniform lighting in warmer colour shades will help concentrate on the communication partners and at the same time it gives the human skin a more pleasant and natural appearance. The representation part of the space with references to the corporate culture and possibly other elements characterising the personality of the office user, e.g. photographs or prizes from tournaments require using the accent lighting which, when a suitable contrast is used, can attract attention to a concrete object and to underline its exceptionality.
Meeting and Conference Room
The meeting and conference rooms in the modern administration spaces do not only represent a place where the information is shared and innovative projects arise. They are also a mirror of the corporate culture and a display of the most modern multimedia technologies. Their everyday use defines the need of a multifunctional illumination which can be simply adapted to the activity required. This goal can be achieved by combining various types of luminaires, their appropriate layout in the space and implementing suitable lighting management systems which will enable controlling them individually. For the general lighting of the meeting and conference rooms it is suitable to use the non-glare light of neutral white colour with the correlated colour temperature of 4,000 K which supports the impression of the space openness and simultaneously creates conditions for concentrated work. It is possible to support the ability of the employees to concentrate during meetings and workshops and to stimulate their
performance efficiency by implementing biologically effective luminaires, light sources or integrating the functionality of the daylight. The correct illumination of the presentation surfaces will be ensured by an appropriately placed luminaire with an asymmetric luminous intensity curve.
When solving the illumination by recessed luminaires with a direct characteristic of the luminous flux distribution we do not reach a sufficient illuminance level on the ceiling and walls. The so called cave effect develops and it can affect the employees depressively.
The suspended luminaires with a direct and indirect characteristic of the luminous flux distribution through which we achieve optimal horizontal as well as vertical illuminance are a suitable solution for this type of space.
Increased demands, similarly as in the case of other administration spaces, are also placed on the sufficient vertical illumination of the walls. The meeting and conference rooms not only fulfil the working but also the representation role in the administration building. They are the places where the customers or business partners are met. Through suitable placement of the accent luminaires we can achieve the accentuation of the objects referring to the elements representing the company values or the corporate culture (e.g. logo, awards, prizes, etc.).
When we place the luminaires to the upper ceiling corners of the corridor (the so called “cove” lighting) an optical enlargement can be achieved. This type of illumination belongs to the group of ambient lighting and is often completed by the RGB function for mixing colours. The technology RGBW which enables creating the light in pastel colours is often used for achieving higher colour saturations.
Corridors In the framework of the administration space the corridors are communication paths connecting the key point inside the building. Through their appropriate illumination we can achieve simpler orientation in the space and at the same time improve the feeling of comfort and safety. The communication zones in the interior of administration buildings belong to the space without any permanent occurrence of persons. In spite of this fact they place heavy demands on the lighting quality. Luminaires with a very wide luminous intensity curve or luminaires with a direct or indirect characteristic of the luminous flux through which sufficient illuminance of all vertical and horizontal surfaces is achieved can be used for the main lighting of the corridor spaces.
The ambient lighting enriched by the RGBW function of mixing colours completes the overall space atmosphere. It is often placed into the ceilings or to places where the light sources are not visible. In this solution the light from the light sources falls directly to the walls and this gives an impression that their colour is changed.
For more information, see the brochure or www.omslighting.sk/rightlight
RIGHT LIGHT Education and Science The visual perception plays a decisive role when we achieve information about the world and how its regularities work. Correct lighting of the space where the educational process is performed is therefore one of the key factors for the educational process. The light creates a positive communication atmosphere between the teacher and student; it can positively affect the concentration capability and performance of the student, to create conditions where both pupils and teachers will feel comfortably and especially to ensure correct perception of the depicted objects and information. The correct illumination at school has a substantial influence on the relation which the pupils and students create to the school and if they will like the teaching process. 20
we recommend maintaining the minimal illuminance level of the whole working plane 500 lux also in common classrooms.
Classroom AÂ fixed organisation of the working space in the classrooms belongs in the past today. The layout of the desks changes in dependence on the needs of the teaching process and enables the pupils to realise both individual and group tasks. Therefore the basic requirement which is currently placed on the lighting systems in the classroom is the uniform illumination ensuring the users of the room equally good lighting conditions for every activity performed. From the point of view of ergonomics the layout of the desks plays an important role. It is recommended to place them rectangular to the window for the daylight to fall to the working plane from side. This solution prevents undesirable glare and lower sharpness of vision. The European standard EN 12464-1 states for the task area (i.e. the desk) the minimal illuminance level 300 lux, for the classrooms with evening classes and spaces determined for education of adults the minimal illuminance level is 500 lux. However, our experience from practice has proven that these normative requirements are insufficient and therefore
Task Area The highest requirements on lighting in any type of educational space are placed by the task area. The European standard EN 12464-1 states for the task area in the classrooms the minimal illuminance level 300 lux. However, our experience from practice and the results of the research show that from the point of the quality of the teaching process this normative value is insufficient and we recommend maintaining the minimal illuminance level of the whole working plane 500 lux also in common classrooms.
task area immediate surroundings (to 0.5 metres around the task area in the field of vision)
background (to 3 metres adjacent to the immediate surroundings in the framework of limited area)
Harmonious Distribution of Brightness The uniform distribution of brightness in the room where the teaching process takes place is closely connected with level of maintained illuminance. To achieve optimal light conditions with uniform distribution of brightness, it is necessary to increase the illuminance of the surfaces and ceiling. For the classroom space it is recommended to reach the vertical illuminance of the wall surfaces 300 lux and the horizontal illuminance of the ceiling 300 lux. These illuminance levels can be achieved by using suspended luminaires with a direct and
indirect characteristic of the luminous flux distribution. The practical experiments the scientists carried out with a group of pupils show that the optimal ratio of dividing the direct and indirect component of the luminous flux is 50:50 when 50 % of the direct component is directed directly down to working plane and 50 % of the indirect diffuse light directly to the ceiling. These lighting conditions help to be oriented in the space and bring better modulation of the objects – this is very important in the
ACCORDING TO EN 12464-1
Ceiling illumination Dark ceiling, only 100 lux causes cave effect which can even result in depressive claustrophobic feelings of the children.
Illumination on the working plane
Illumination level on the board
Direct illumination from the luminaires always gives only 300 lux on the table.
Good illuminance of the board must fulfil 500 lux and 0.7 uniformity.
classroom especially due to the safety. The pupils are able to identify better and without problems the edges of the desks or other obstacles which represent potential danger of injury. Thanks to the indirect diffuse light the cylindrical illuminance which is important for correct recognising the faces is also increased. At the minimal level of the cylindrical illuminance 150 lux the faces of the pupils and teacher can be recognised without any disturbing shadows. This fact contributes to creating a pleasant communication atmosphere.
Vertical illumination on the wall, 100 lux, provides bad orientation in the room and high value of adaptation luminance.
Cylindrical illumination especially affects visual communication and the ability to interpret faces, events and objects. The standard requires a minimum illuminance of 150 lux in rooms with demands of good visual communication.
Illumination on the working plane Direct illumination from the luminaires always gives 500 lux on the table, to make the visual task easier.
Indirect illumiantion on the ceiling, 300 lux, provides good ambient light and pupils who are more alert and perform better.
Vertical illumination on the wall, 300 lux, provides good ambient light and helps pupils feel more alert and better orientation in the room.
0.85 – 1.3 m
0.5 – 0.7 m
Table and Presentation area The blackboards, whiteboards, flipcharts a projection screens belong among the standard equipment of every classroom. Their usage in the educational process is not substantially different, however, the method how we illuminate them differs. The colour and type of material of the presentation surface play an important role when we solve the illumination of the classroom. Our experience from practice shows that pupils perceive better information depicted on the blackboard written by white chalk. The black surface has a low reflectance and the contrast between the white and black colour creates better conditions for visual comfort. However, the reality today is that the glossy white boards are more and more frequently used in the modern schools. They place higher demands on the illuminance because they are surfaces with a higher reflectance. They represent a higher risk of creating undesirable reflections and thus worse visibility of the information depicted. This
problem can be avoided by a correct layout of the luminaires. The different properties of the black and white presentation surfaces require for the designer to create a lighting system always for a concrete space and type of board which is located there.
The European standard EN 12464-1 states the average vertical illuminance 500 lux with minimal uniformity of 0.7 for the presentation surfaces. For lighting the presentation surfaces it is suitable to use the asymmetric luminaires placed in the distance of 0.85 to 1.3 metres from the presentation surface.
When we actively use the presentation areas during the educational process, the pupils´ and teachers´ angle of vision changes when they quickly transfer their view from the desk to the presentation surface (task area). If the luminance is distributed incorrectly, this fact can cause the vision fatigue. For the eye not to be permanently strained by the forced adaptation to the changed luminance level, it is necessary to ensure correct vertical lighting of the presentation areas and uniform distribution of luminance on the presentation surface and in its surroundings (maps, flipchart, etc.). The correct luminance level will create optimal contrast conditions which will enable the pupils to perceive information on the presentation surface from each angle and will ensure sufficient visibility of the depicted information also for the pupils at the last desks.
Glare Glare is a negative visual perception caused by the light surfaces in the field of vision. To prevent it or to minimise its occurrence is exceptionally important not only from the point of view of the visual comfort but also safety. Excessive direct and indirect glare in the school premises can cause fatigue, damage of vision and reduces concentration. Direct glare is caused by excessive luminance, e.g. from incorrectly placed or non-cut-off luminaires. It arouses feelings of psychological and visual discomfort; therefore it is necessary to reduce it to a minimum. Indirect glare brings the same psychological and physiological burden as the direct glare and moreover it reduces the ability to perceive contrasts. It is aroused by a disruptive reflection of light falling from the luminaires or unshielded windows from shiny surfaces, e.g. from glossy paper or a PC monitor.
Computer Room Today in a modern school the computers are an inseparable part of the teaching process. The room where the teaching process takes place at the PC screens places increased demands on the illumination.
At schools the glare is especially undesirable in the classrooms with monitors (Visual Display Units - VDU). Excessive glare can cause reducing the image contrast on the VDU by veiling reflections caused by illuminating the screen surface by luminaires and bright surfaces which mirror on the screen. The requirements on the visual quality of the screens concerning the undesirable reflections are stated by the standard EN ISO 9241-307.
Besides the main lighting, in the computer room we have to think about the correct vertical illumination of the walls and ceilings. The recommendations of the British designers – Lighting Guide 7 (LG 7) – states the ratio 50% of the illuminated working plane for the lighting value of the vertical surfaces, 30 % of the illuminance of the working plane for the ceilings. Compared with other classrooms the need to prevent undesirable glare and reflections on the screens comes to the foreground. The optimal conditions can be achieved by sufficient cutting-off the light sources and
correct layout of the luminaires. In the rooms with availability of daylight, due to the same reason it is necessary to fit the windows with aÂ system of curtains or blinds. The interactive teaching process in the computer rooms where the students transfer their vision from the PC monitor to the teacher and vice versa, requires uniform distribution of brightness in the room. An overly contrast luminance on the individual levels of the space would bring an increased load for the vision and would cause rapid fatigue of the pupils.
For more information, see the brochure or www.omslighting.sk/rightlight
RIGHT LIGHT Industry, Engineering, Outdoor Workplace When the artificial lighting gradually ceased to be a luxurious product due to the industrial revolution, it found, thanks to massive electrification, its way to the factories. The several-shift operation literally brought a boom of the industrial production. The permanent need to look for more economical solutions motivated the scientists and inventors to develop better and more sophisticated methods how to produce and distribute the artificial light. The metal-halide lamps, later the fluorescent lamps began to compete with the incandescent lamps and at last in 1962 also the ancestors of the LED diodes which at present represent the most effective and economical type of the light source. With the development of the lighting technologies also the interest of the scientist in the influence of the light on the human organism was increasing. The long-year investigations led to a great number of interesting findings which find their place in practice more and more frequently. The fact that people spend 80 % of their productive life at work increases the importance of correct and biologically effective lighting at the workplace. In the manufacturing sphere as well as in all lines of business an appropriately designed lighting system can positively affect the performance and concentration of the employees during all working shifts and minimise the occurrence of failures and the risk of injuries.
Automotive engineering The working process in the automotive industry is typical by high demands on the quality of the performed activities. No matter if it is the assembly of large parts or small components, precision is always emphasised. It is the task of the lighting designer to meet this requirement and adapt the lighting system to this fact. The European standard EN 12446-1 states the minimal level of the maintained luminance 500 lux for the manufacturing halls in the automotive industry. This can be achieved by using suspended or ceiling-surfaced luminaires with aÂ direct characteristic of the luminous flux and aÂ wide luminous intensity curve. They can also achieve aÂ sufficient quality of the lighting uniformity.
The line production creates the predominant part of the production. To achieve the optimal lighting conditions we recommend placing the luminaires parallely with the production line. Correct selection of the light sources and luminaires with matt finish
can reduce the risk of undesirable glare of the employees where glossy materials are processed. Those workplaces where the employees realise visual tasks demanding precision are to be fitted with additional luminaires.
Bluelight content The discovery of the third type of receptor in the human eye that is sensitive to the blue colour with the wavelength of approximately 464 nm and the finding that it can directly affect producing melatonin and in this way also the circadian rhythm of the human organism belongs among the greatest discoveries of the modern science. This knowledge became the basis for developing luminaires that emit the blue component of the light spectrum, they are able to direct it straight to the human eye and effectively affect the vegetative functions of the human organism. Making use of the biologically active luminaires emitting the “blue light” is, from the point of view of the work productivity, especially interesting in the industrial production where the employees work in shifts. Under normal circumstances the share of the blue component in the light spectrum declines during the day and this fact causes that during the evening hours the human organism excretes melatonin which signals that it is time for rest. The employees feel increased fatigue, the performance efficiency lowers and the danger of injury at the workplace increases. On the contrary, increasing the proportion of the light blue component in the light spectrum suppresses the production of melatonin and increases the level of the biologically effective serotonin in the blood which activates the human organism. This increases the motivation, performance and a feeling of energy. Luminaires with the light sources producing light with the correlated colour temperature CCT 6,500 K are a suitable solution here.
Influence of daylight on the human body 3 a.m.
6 a.m. noon 6 p.m. midnight
6 a.m. noon 6 p.m. cortisol level
midnight 6 a.m. melatonin level
During morning hours the human organism produces the hormone cortisol which stimulates metabolism. Its concentration in blood reaches its maximum at about 9 a.m., then during the rest of the day its content continually decreases. Melatonin, also called the hormone of sleep, is produced by the human organism also during the night and its concentration in the human organism culminates at 3 a.m.
Correct luminaire layout and suitable direction of the luminous flux is at the same time a way how to avoid developing undesirable reflections when working with glossy paper or foils. If the printing operations are carried out on large machines, it is also necessary to achieve sufficient vertical illuminance enabling to recognise the machine contours along its all height. For printing multicoloured materials and checking operations it is necessary to use light sources with colour rendering index CRI>90. It is important to choose light sources which produce neutral white light with the correlated colour temperature 5000K ≤TCP≤ 6500K which is closest to the properties of the daylight.
Printing In the printing industry the correct illumination of the space plays a key role. Good lighting conditions are the basic assumption not only for a high-quality operation but also safety at work when working with the fast running printing machines. The space in the printing premises is, as a rule, divided into two parts. In the first one the printing operations are carried out, in the other one the pre-press and finalising of the printed material, e.g. binding and lithographical processes. The standard EN 12446-1 states for both areas the minimal illuminance level 500 lux and for typesetting, retouching and lithography it increases the required level of the minimal maintained illuminance to 1,000 lux, for the checking activities to 1,500 lux and for copper engraving up to 2,000 lux. The required illuminance levels can be achieved by using linear luminaires with a direct characteristic of the luminous flux distribution.
Comparison of colour rendering indexes – CRI. Up CRI 70. Down CRI 93
Colour Rendering Index The Colour Rendering Index (CRI) that indicates how truthfully the individual light sources are able to copy the colouring of an object compared to the natural daylight expresses the influence of the artificial light source on the appearance of the colour objects. The CRI is one of the decisive parameters when selecting a light source. The European standard EN 12446-1 requires using the light sources with the CRI minimally 80 for common workplaces, for those workplaces that require the correct recognising of the colours (check-points, printing multicoloured materials, food industry, etc.) it increases the demand on the light source CRI to 90.
Canal, Lock, Port, Shipyard and Dock When planning the lighting system for the industrial spaces it is important to take into account the fact that a lot of activities are carried out in the external environment. The task of the artificial lighting is important here especially after dark when it is necessary to ensure optimal conditions for making demanding visual tasks and at the same time to minimise the risk of injury at the workplace.
The water cargo transportation and subsequently the reloading of the goods in the ports require a consistent solution of the lighting system. The correct illumination of these spaces shortens the time for anchoring the ships to a minimum, it accelerates the transfer of goods and at the same time it reduces the risk of collisions in the port.
For the waterways, canals and transhipment points the European standard EN 12464-2 determines the minimal illuminance levels in dependence on the demandingness of the activity carried out and the risk character of the space in the range from 10 lux (quays, gangways) up to 50 lux (connecting hoses, pipes and ropes; reading notices). The
lighting uniformity requires U0 from 0.25 to 0.4. When designing the illumination it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the selected lighting solution must not pose any risk of glare for the ships moving in the discharging berth or in its vicinity. The lighting solution itself and the type of the luminaires used depend on the size of the surface which is to be illuminated. For illuminating smaller surfaces in the spaces of the cargo port it is possible to use the standard luminaires suitable for the public lighting. Reflectors with a wide luminous intensity curve are also a suitable solution. Due to preventing undesirable glare it is necessary to use the luminaires with a wide
Physiological Changes in Human Organism after Dark While at the indoor workplaces the artificial light fulfils only aÂ complementary task during the day, at the outdoor workplaces it is used only during the evening or early morning hours when we cannot count on any support of the daylight. This fact substantially affects not only the sharpness of vision of the employees but also their physiology. The sharpness of the human vision after dark achieves only 3 to 30â€‰% compared with the day. Moreover the activity of the retinal cones which enables recognising colours and shapes is suppressed. After the dark the so called twilight vision starts. The rods in the retina of the human eye are activated, but they recognise only the shades of grey colours. When the evening is coming, the level of the relaxation hormone melatonin increases in the human body due to which the performance efficiency of the human organism declines to less than 10â€‰%. The increased fatigue reduces the ability of the employee to concentrate and this fact increases the risk of injury. An adequate lighting intensity and suitably selected colour temperature are able to create such light conditions at the workplace which activate the colour-sensitive cones, increase the performance efficiency of the employees, their ability to concentrate and at the same the safety at work.
radiation angle in the vertical direction and a diffuse optical system in the horizontal direction. The places of loading and unloading the goods and workplaces where fluids are pumped are to be fitted with the additional illumination of the task area. In spite of their industrial orientation the cargo ports are often one of the most prominent dominants of the towns. Therefore when designing the lighting system, besides functionality it is necessary to also take into account the aesthetical potential. Through suitable programming of the lighting management system it is only possible during the evening hours to increase the attractiveness of this industrial area.
For more information, see the brochure or www.omslighting.sk/rightlight
RIGHT LIGHT Presentation and Retail Shop, Shopping Mall The light is the first element we encounter when entering any space. If it is good, then we do not almost perceive it. Then it fulfils its role exactly: it makes orientation in the space easier for us; it affects our mood and directs our attention to the goods which we should not omit. Therefore the light represents an effective tool for increasing sales in the shops, hypermarkets and shopping centres. If the illumination arouses pleasant feelings in the customers, it stimulates the impulse of the customers to buy and contributes to building a relationship of the customer to the outlet. Satisfied customers will be happy to return to “their” shop. It will become part of their everyday rituals and they will become part of its sale history. The witness of all of this is a correctly and appropriately designed illumination. 32
Clothes The clothes shops represent a large part of the outlets in the shopping centres. This group comprises a wide spectrum of assortment from luxurious models up to the outdoor clothing. The illumination of the spaces has to be adapted to the character of the goods, only in this way we are able to create optimal lighting conditions for accentuating their specific properties. When designing the lighting system for a concrete space, it is necessary for the lighting designer to take into account the colour and reflectance of the material of all surfaces in the premises. The Colour Rendering Index (CRI) is the most important parameter when selecting the luminaires and the light sources. To preserve the colour properties of the goods sold also when they will be exposed to the artificial lighting, it is necessary to use the light sources with minimally CRI 90. A higher illuminance level of the outlet attracts people to enter; it provides an overview about the structure of the whole space and improves the orientation feeling of the customer.
The accent lighting realised by luminaires with a narrow luminous intensity curve can attract the customers´ attention to the goods displayed. This type of luminaires has a big modelling capability and contributes to the overall attractiveness of the space. Shop Window The most important task of the shop window is to attract the passers-by and to arouse their decision to enter the shop. Stronger and stronger tools are necessary for this in the current strong competition. Working with the light using the dramatic techniques of the theatre lighting with luminaires with a narrow luminous intensity curve is one of the most efficient tools. We recommend using the accent lighting for achieving the desired effect. It has the ability to direct the attention to exceptional objects or detail. Their functionality is based on the knowledge that the human vision responds to various luminance intensities. For achieving an optimal effect we recommend the contrast of the object presented and the immediate surroundings minimally 3:1. Appropriate work with the light can imitate the dynamics of a theatre stage. The principle consists in different lighting of the background and the goods being displayed in the foreground. When the customers pass by the shop window, the angle of perception changes and an impression arises that the mannequins move.
Hypermarket The hypermarket is a specific point of sale providing a wide spectrum of opportunities for purchase. On a sale area of more than 2,000 m2 there are tens of thousands of goods and this fact requires diversifying the presentation methods. Every group of goods demands a specific solution because our senses play the key role during the purchasing process. A suitable artificial illumination is one of the most important tools of this strategy. The illumination of the hypermarket fulfils several important tasks. First of all it enables us to see in large spaces without daylight availability and during the night operation. When it is solved appropriately, it also contributes to improving the customers´ orientation feeling. A good lighting solution also enables presenting the goods in a purposefully created atmosphere. The primary task of the main illumination is to sufficiently ensure uniform lighting of the whole selling area. Such lighting conditions enable any changes of its arrangement. When integrating the sophisticated management tools, it is possible to adapt the lighting system through re-programming of the illuminance level and the accent lighting. In this way the light falls to the individual parts of the selling area exactly according to the current need. Correctly designed lighting system creates a pleasant atmosphere and well-being which is very necessary for a comfortable purchase from the psychological point of view.
Vertical Illuminance of Racks and Shelves The racks are the main element for placing and displaying the offered goods. Their layout creates the nature of the space and divides it. First of all the racks have to provide suitable conditions for placing the products. The adequate lighting is part of these conditions. Especially the need of the vertical illuminance which contributes to the orientation feeling of the customers when they move in the rack aisles comes to the foreground and at the same time it creates lighting conditions which allow differentiating the products without any problem and reading the information on the labels along the whole height of the rack.
Shopping Centre A completely small world hides behind the façade, logo and specific architecture of the shopping centre. The shopping centres have enriched the concept of purchases under one roof by the relaxation, entertainment and catering zones. The possibility to spend the whole day here has become a life-style for whole families. From the point of view of lighting the shopping centre represents a complicated complex of spaces with different requirements on its parameters. The quality of lighting with the goal to maintain the visual and psychological well-being of all visitors is a common denominator. The shop front is the basic architectonic element of the façade. Its exceptionality and specific character can be underlined just by
appropriate lighting solution. The material and surface of the façade is determining for the lighting method. If the shopping centre has a glass-walled façade, it is possible to solve its illumination from the internal side of the building. The lighting inside the building creates an effect of a glaring core and attracts attention from a big distance. During the night the transparent spaces of the building acquire depth. In the case of facades made of opaque materials it is necessary to install the luminaires from the outer side of the façade. The suitable selection and placement of the luminaires will attract the attention to interesting architectonic details. The luminaires with a narrow luminous intensity curve are used for this purpose. The building aesthetics can be improved by implementing the RGB luminaires which arouse an impression that the façade is changing its colour.
Logo and Entrance The logo is a signal that we are entering the company territory which it represents. It identifies the place and is the most important element of the corporate identity. The attention to the logo can be attracted by increasing the contrast of higher luminance of the logo against its surroundings, e.g. through ambient lighting. Using the LED technology with the RGB function of mixing colours provides more possibilities and a bigger effect. The accent lighting can be used for accentuating the logo. When solving the illumination, we have to avoid the rise of direct glare. The entrance of the shopping centre is a space through which it recognises its identity. The illumination is part of the corporate design and strengthens the individual character of the trade mark or a chain. A higher level of the horizontal illuminance in the entrance space increases the orientation feeling of the customers and directs them straight to the heart of the building. At the same time it increases their safety by making the kerbs, stairs, corners and other critical zones visible.
For more information, see the brochure or www.omslighting.sk/rightlight
LQS – Lighting Quality Standard The Lighting Quality Standard developed by the company OMS was created with an ambition to be a universal standard for the whole line of business for assessing and marking the lighting quality in various types of space. In difference to the assessment system used until now which represented an inhomogeneous and chaotic summary of criteria, the Lighting Quality Standard enables the lighting designers and customers to evaluate all aspects of the lighting system in a complex way and to provide them a sufficient overview about the quality of the lighting solution.
The Lighting Quality Standard (LQS) is based on a holistic principle resulting from the knowledge that a whole is more than only a component of parts. Therefore parts of a whole cannot be assessed individually but in a context. Therefore LQS emphasises not only technological parameters of lighting but also the biological influence of light on the human organism and the psychological and visual well-being of people. Through a suitable combination of the ergonomic and biological criteria it can find the optimal lighting solution for each type of space. The quality standard LQS is based on the European technical standards EN 12446-1 about lighting the workplaces, EN 15193 for energy economy of the buildings and the directive LG7 about lighting the office spaces. When assessing the individual evaluation parameters of lighting quality, it flexibly responds to the results of the latest scientific investigations and that is why it sometimes states even stricter criteria than the European standards and highlights the need of their revision. Based on the latest scientific knowledge which has been verified by OMS specialists in practice, the LQS makes the requirements of individual parameters in selected chapters even stricter.
When assessing the lighting quality in the space LQS is based on the six pillars: ERGONOMICS, EMOTION, ECOLOGY, EFFICIENCY, ESPRIT AND EXCEPTIONALITY. If you imagine a house, then the first four pillars represent the bearing walls of a construction and in the light industry and they are well known in the lighting line of business. Another two create the roof, a rigid superstructure which gives the house an unmistakable character. The supporting walls and roof together create an infrangibly unified whole and complete each other. This is basic LQS philosophy.
In the first four elements LQS assesses 20 quantifiable and thus those parameters that can be assessed objectively. Two remaining elements are subjective and evaluate the design aspect of the lighting system, the user comfort and individual approach to the customer. Each LQS parameter is assigned the values of 0 to 5, with 5 being the best mark and 0 means that the parameter value is unsatisfactory or the assessed parameter is fully missing. The result of this lighting quality assessment is the LQS Index which is the average of all marks with the maximal theoretical maximum of 5. The higher the LMS value is, the better the lighting solution of the given space is.
For more information, see the brochure or www.omslighting.sk/lqs/456/
The interactive software LQS Composer represents aÂ simple and at the same time effective educational tool enabling the experts to get familiar with the principles of the complex assessment system LQS.
LQS Composer The software LQS Composer creates the user conditions for simulating the illumination with the pre-adjusted lighting solutions in various types of space, from administration through selling up to industrial and manufacturing spaces. The illustrative depiction of individual lighting solutions is based on the characteristic and dimensions of aÂ concrete space. The normative requirements which are to be kept when solving the lighting system, are completed by our recommendation how we will achieve the optimal lighting conditions in the given space.
Thanks to the interactive platform the user can add and take away the individual parameters in the quantifiable categories of ergonomics, emotion, ecology and effectiveness and to follow in real time how the resulting LQS index value is changed and thus the lighting quality in the space. The LQS composer contains the simulation of functionability of sensors and is able to calculate the amount of the potential savings when they are used in the lighting solution.
LQS on European Lighting Tour
One month after introducing the philosophy of the Lighting Quality Standard at the Frankfurt Main Fair, in May 2012 the company OMS chose a unique method of its promotion on the European level. During the rest of the year the specialist of the company travelled with a specifically adjusted truck equipped with displays of the latest technologies, products and system developed by the OMS expert across the European capitals. The multimedia and interactive presentation of the principles for assessing the lighting quality in compliance with LQS was completed by the software LQS Composer which offered the visitors of the European Lighting Tour an opportunity to immediately understand how the individual parameters affect the lighting quality. During six months the truck introduced the LQS method in more than ten European countries, including Sweden, Finland, UK, Luxembourg, Belgium and Germany. During its second year, the European Lighting Tour 2013, the specialised truck will stop in the Czech Republic, Austria, France and Belgium. www.omslighting.sk/lqscomposer
Thanks to the implemented lighting management system tools it is possible to save up to 80 % of energy consumption. The calculations are based on the standard EN 15193 for energy economy of buildings. The space evaluated is subsequently ranked to the corresponding energy class. In this way the user acquires a complex overview how the individual luminous and biological parameters affect the lighting quality.
The software LQS Composer Professional represents the final output of the LQS. It is a superstructure of the LQS Composer version determined for lighting designers, developers or end-consumers.
LQS Composer PRO LQS Composer PRO is a functional tool determined for practical usage. Similarly as the LQS Composer, it serves for testing and assessing the quality of the lighting solution in a concrete space. It is a universal tool that is able to assess each type of the lighting solution, no matter who the producer of the luminaire is or what type of light sources were used.
LQS Composer PRO can be utilized for assessing the lighting quality in the already existing spaces or spaces that are being designed. In the first case the results of the physical measurements of the key parameters are fed as the input data, in the second case the data is acquired through simulation software, e.g. DIAlux. LQS Composer PRO subsequently processes and assesses this data. The software output is a document in the
TEST LQS COMPOSER PRO
LIGHTING QUALITY STANDARD COMPOSER PROFESSIONAL
Colour rendering index
Illumination level (task area)
Illumination level (surounding of task area)
Harmonious distribution of brightness
OFFICE AND COMMUNICATION
Em(wall) 151 lux U0 0.39 Em(celling) 66 lux U0 0.746
OPEN OFFICE GROUND AREA [m2]
FREYN LED Prisma
Em (vertical) / Em (workplace) 0.388
Em (vertical) / Em (workplace) 0.177
Biological factor of illumination Availability of daylight Bluelight content (CCT > 6500K) Daylight simulation Dynamic lighting
Tunable white Accent lighting RGB colour mixing Ambient lighting
ECOLOGY Latest lamp technology
System efficacy of luminaire
Thermal output of lamp
0 % of IR
Dangerous material content
Product life-time and maintenance costs
Comments Testing text
R3 Auto ON/Dimmed
F0 = 1
frequented movement of persons
Constant illuminance sensor
Fc = 1
R8 Photo cell dimming, medium daylight penetration
Fd = 0.4764
Calling of lighting scenes
Working days: Mon
Working hours/day: 9
Working hours/night: 1
Power consumption with LMS
[kWh/year] [kWh/year] [kg/year] [kWh/year.m2]
paper size A4 which gives the customer transparent readable output about qualitative parameters of the lighting system assessed. The final document contains the basic data about the project, space specification, overview of assessed parameters, the resulting LQS Index and potentially also the savings which can be achieved in the given space.
The main benefit of the LQS Composer PRO is that thanks to its transparency and compressing the key data in one document, it enables the customer to compare the quality of the designed lighting solutions.
LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM In the time period when the information about the limits of the natural resources raise their prices constantly, the need for an effective and ecological economy with energy comes to the foreground more and more frequently. The effectiveness and solutions respecting the fragile equilibrium of the environment become the basic values for all subjects including the lighting industry. Lighting Management System offers a complex spectrum of solutions for increasing the efficiency of the lighting systems in all types of space.
The knowledge about the effective utilisation of the lighting management tools are connected with the chapter EFFICIENCY defined in the LQS standard as one of the supporting pillars which affect the resulting quality of illumination. However, at the same time it also penetrates other chapters, especially the element ECOLOGY when it points out to the interconnection between an efficiently working lighting system and the environment. An efficiently designed lighting system is able to save the user of the space considerable financial means for the energy consumed and the maintenance of lighting system. The lower consumption of energy also means a lower burden for the environment. A correct selection and implementation of suitable LMS management tools to the lighting system will bring savings in both categories and this is an optimal situation.
The FLEXIBILITY of the lighting system will be appreciated especially by those customers who operate manufacturing and warehousing premises where the requirements on the illumination are often changed in dependence on the type of the activity realised. Through implementing suitable management tools using the lighting scenes or firmly adjusted time schedules, the existing system can be flexibly adapted to the actual needs without investing any financial means to purchasing new luminaires or installation material.
Advantages of Management The financial and emission savings are often the biggest, however, not the only motivation for the customer. Important parameters when assessing the efficiency of the lighting system are also COMFORT of management, the AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER and FLEXIBILITY which can bring not negligible advantages to the customer. The COMFORT of the lighting system is defined by two basic parameters. The first one is the system functionality of the tailormade space, the control elements through which the management is carried out are the second parameter. The task of these control elements is to simplify the management process. The more sophisticated the control elements involved in the management are the
greater comfort it means for the customers. In an ideal case they enable them to control the whole lighting system by a remote control, tablet or through the internet from a remote computer. The AUTONOMOUS CHARACTER of the lighting system is ensured by components that work automatically. From the technological point of view they are especially various types of sensors scanning movements, luminance intensity or a combination of these sensors in a concrete space. A fully autonomous lighting system works without forced interventions of the user into the management and decisionmaking process, thanks to which we can exclude any failure of the human factor during controlling the lighting and operating the system.
using sensors up to complex solutions using sophisticated technologies which, besides the lighting system, enable the customer to control also other peripheral devices, e.g. the curtains, air-conditioning or heating. It is important for the Lighting Management System to be tailormade for a concrete space and lighting system.
The specialised department OMS Lighting Solutions has been registering an increase of interest in sophisticated technological solutions of the lighting management systems for a long time. The accessible research shows that this trend will continue to increase during the years to come.
An IDEA, i.e. an exact specification of requirements which a LMS is to fulfil, is the cornerstone of each project. In this phase it is important to define correctly the functionality and principles based on which the lighting system is to be controlled. After designing the lighting system and defining the management system that can be used the ANALYSIS follows.
When realising the LMS designs we are sure that a thoroughly prepared LMS project is the key to correct selection of an adequate lighting management system. Thanks to our strong market position, the innovative approach of our experts and a broad network of suppliers which allows us to choose from the accessible products the best ones, we are able to provide the customers with above-standard quality in every project phase.
In this phase of the project we select the technologies and assess various aspects. Here belong especially the functionality and correctness of the proposed lighting management system, its impact on the economy with energy and environment, the amount and prospects of return on investment.
The Lighting Management System offers a wide spectrum of possibilities, beginning with the basic manual control in the form of a switch through simple applications
The correct selection of technologies for the concrete solution where it is necessary to take into account especially the overall project character plays an important role in this step.
Project of Electric Installation
In the framework of the LUMINOUS PROJECT we subsequently specify the luminaires of the appropriate luminous class with a corresponding optical system as well as suitable light sources for the lighting system being solved. It is important for the investor to be aware of the fact that not only the initial investment but also the overall lighting quality is an important parameter for the
designed lighting management system. That is why it is necessary to take into consideration complete geometry of the space, its utilisation and occupancy, the type and layout of the workplaces or daylight availability in the space. For the PROJECT OF ELECTRIC INSTALLATION it is necessary to have at disposal a complete and final luminous project, including complete technical documentation used for its processing. Based on this input information we can subsequently prepare a complete LMS concept, the design of component control, control devices or sensorics. The output is a complete LMS project with connection schemes which determine how the individual control components will be interconnected. The project of electric installation contains all necessary details, i.e. the list of components
and their layout, technical description, the schemes of wiring including the connection to the main current supply. The INSTALLATION includes complement of luminaires, the control components, sensors and connecting the wires according to the technical documentation. An authorised person puts the LMS into operation immediately after the installation. PROGRAMMING OF LMS includes the complete addressing of the devices and creating the control programme. The functionality and correctness of the control with the defined idea is verified in the subsequent tests. LMS ADMINISTRATION consists in training the operators, handing over the technical documentation in the form of the maintenance plan and a complete description of the system. Furthermore, the output luminous audit which checks the luminous parameters and energy consumption of the luminaires is carried out. It will confirm the correctness of the luminous and energy assumptions. It is also possible to ensure the remote administration through a remote access, e.g. by internet.
For more information, see the brochure LIGHTING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
ENERGY SAVING During the time period when the economies worldwide face the economic crisis, the austerity measures which would fill the gap between the declining real incomes and increasing prices come more and more often to foreground. The energy costs create a nonnegligible item not only in the budgets of large companies but also in the households and statistics prove that they have shown almost implicitly a growing tendency during the last decade. Therefore Energy Saving represents the only way how to achieve reduction of the budget load by high sums. Increasing the energy effectiveness is a way to improving the energy security and decreasing the greenhouse emissions. The advantages of a more effective utilisation of energy are well known and involve lower investments into the energy infrastructure, lower dependence on the fossil fuels, increasing the competitiveness and last but not least also savings on the consumer’s side. Effective work with energy has at the same time a positive impact on the environment in the form of reducing greenhouse emissions and air pollution. It is obvious from the current situation that there are still considerable reserves in the area of energy effectiveness due to the fact that the potential in the framework of implementing austerity measures has not been spent yet. Therefore it is in the interest of the current
civilisation for it to take into consideration that there are methods how to reduce the energy consumption and in this way also that of CO2. A positive message is that there is a considerable space and sufficient amount of available technologies for improving the energy effectiveness.
Light and Electricity The electricity is the most important energy source for the lighting industry. The statistics show that up to 19 % of the produced electricity is consumed for operating the lighting systems. In spite of the fact that according to the EU Annual Report the EU member countries recorded for the first time since 2009 decline of electricity consumption in the second quarter of last year, it did not affect significantly decreasing of its price. Quite the opposite, the international statistics says that the price of electricity has been growing continuously for the last ten years. For a whole spectrum of consumers from developers through owners and operators of buildings up to the households this figure gives an unambiguous signal that the way to control the costs for energy leads through the ENERGY SAVING.
Way to Savings The company OMS has been engaging in the area of energy saving for a long time and has at disposal several-year know-how of implementing principles of energy saving into practice. We know that the existing and in many aspects obsolete lighting systems suffer from several shortages. The most serious one seems to be the wrong design which causes excessive consumption or high failure rate of the light sources which, as a result, mirrors in the costs for their operation and maintenance. The way out from this situation is a correctly designed and installed lighting system which utilises also the primarily available light sources (daylight) and is fitted with an adequate management system.
Energy Specialists When designing the lighting system for our customers the opinion of our experts from the Energy Saving Department is that a right project is the way to an effectively and economically working lighting system. In the case of an existing lighting system the first step is the audit of its lighting solution based on which the effectiveness of the lighting system is assessed. Our specialists then create a draft of a new solution which includes comparison with the current state, quantifying the potential savings and the duration of the return on investment. In the further phase we make a complete luminous project which involves planning the lighting system including all luminous measurements and calculations of costs for realising the project. The third step is a complex project of electric installation including the design of the lighting management system for the planned lighting solution. The autonomous character is an exceptionally important factor when assessing the lighting system efficiency. The more intervention of the human factor, the higher are the risks that the saving potential will not be fully utilised. After realising the project of electric installation the installation itself follows as well as programming and
waste, leakage of heavy metals to the soil and rivers, the emissions of CO2 to the air and felling – all of this signs under global warming and problems with erosion of soil. Currently, when more and more countries declare their participation in the idea of the so called clean energy and announce shutdowns of the nuclear power stations, our calculations show that 20 % savings of the total electricity consumption of one industrial country would enable putting out of operation another nuclear power station. The meaning of Energy Saving shifts the meaning of the word “saving” to fully different dimensions. The know-how and technologies for this are available today.
putting into operation of the lighting system by our specialists. For the customer this moment means the beginning of effective and economical operation of the lighting system.
Communicating Vessels In spite of the fact that just the financial savings represent the motivation for an effective operation with the electric power for the end user, we have to emphasise also the positive impact on the environment. When processing the primary energy sources for manufacturing electricity we encounter the contamination of the environment at several levels beginning with the rise of the nuclear
+5€ 50 %
+10€ 30 %
gas 1 kWh
water 1 m3
+0,05€ 150 %
electricity 1 kWh
+20€ 20 %
crude oil 1 barrel
12,4 % 19 %
86,7 % Share of electric power for lighting: Industry 8%? Offices 30%? Households 20%?
Lighting = 2,651 tWh Public lighting 100%? Shops 70%? Schools 80%? Hospitals 50%?
LED ACADEMY The LED technology becomes more and more utilised thanks to is qualitative advantages and possibilities of multilateral usage: lighting of buildings, works of art or goods sensitive to heat. As one of the first in the lighting industry the company OMS responded to the increasing demand for the LED technologies. We possess an extensive knowhow which includes complex knowledge of LED technologies, their utilisation and production. Our specialists summarised this knowledge into a compact conception under the name LED ACADEMY.
What Is LED?
The light emitting diodes (LED) are light sources based on the semiconductors. Only a very small quantity of energy is necessary for emitting light. The diodes emitting the light consist of two types of semiconductors – the N-type with excess of electrons and P-type which lacks electrons (the so called holes). After connecting to current the excessive electrons and holes start to migrate to the PN passage. When they meet, recombination develops and the diode starts emitting photons.
While a common incandescent lamp is able to change to visible light only 5 % and the fluorescent lamp 30 % of electric power, the LED diode with its capability to change up to 40 % of the total amount of electricity has incomparably better parameters. The light source efficiency, or its efficacy states with what efficiency the electric energy is changed into the light, i.e. how much luminous flux is produced from the electric input power (W) delivered to the light source. The unit is lumen per watt (lm/W). While the first LEDs in 1996 had the efficacy of 0.1 lm/W, today there commercially available chips with efficiency of about 160 lm/W with cool white CCT LED and in the labs the scientists achieved the efficacy up to 254 lm/W.
By its size, not much larger than a point made by a pencil, LED ranks among the smallest light sources. A cover, which is at the same time a lens, serves as protection. It enables distributing the luminous flux under the angle of 15° to 180°.
White Light from LED The LED diodes are primarily the source of the white colour emission. The white LED light can be produced in several ways, however, the principle of luminescence is most frequently used for its production.. The blue LED chip is covered by a thin layer of phosphorus which changes part of the blue light which passes through it into white one after switching on the source. This manufacturing technology enables achieving the emission of the white light with various correlated colour temperature from 2,700 to 10,000 K. Another method how to gain the white LED light consists in mixing the coloured light of various wavelengths. The white light can arise by additive mixing the red, green and blue colours (RGB). The advantage of this method is that besides the white colour we can also get coloured light by targeted mixing of the colours. The disadvantage of
acquiring the white light by RGB technology lies in its demandingness. It requires demanding know-how because the control of coloured LED with various luminance levels is complicated and the created white light often achieves lower values of the colour rendering index CRI 70 – 80.
LED Lifespan From the point of the lifespan the LED sources achieve more than average parameters. Their lifespan moves in the values up to 50,000 hours and it means with 11-hour operation daily, 250 day a year a time period of 18 years. The end of the LED’s life cycle is defined as the decline of light source performance to 70, in some cases to 50 %. The failure rate of LED compared with conventional sources is thus considerably lower. An inevitable assumption for keeping the life parameters is good cooling of the light source.
Reflective cup Emitted light Molded epoxy lens
Photon Anode lead Cathode lead
LED and Savings In spite of higher procurement costs, the LED sources represent from the longer-term horizon to most effective and economical light solution. The experts estimate if we today changed all existing light sources for LED, we could achieve up to 30 % savings worldwide. If we realise that up to one fifth of all produced electric power is consumed for operating lighting systems, it is not a negligible amount. All light sources produce also IR radiation during altering the electric power to light which the human organism perceives as heat. However, the LED light sources compared to the conventional lamps produce only a negligible amount of it and thus do not increase the costs for the energy consumption of the air-conditioning. The long lifespan and low failure rate of the LED sources moreover reduces the maintenance costs of the lighting system because it does not require regular interventions of the operators and purchasing the spare light sources.
LED and Environment
LED Thermal Management Similarly as in the case of other light sources, also the LED light source performance is considerably affected by the heat. Without an adequate thermal management the LED source can overheat and this fact shortens its lifespan and increases the risk of its damage. Through implementing a suitable cooling system we achieve maintaining the declared LED source lifespan and its high efficacy. From this point of view the thermal management represents the most critical factor for the LED light sources. y 0,9
The considerate approach to the environment is today a topic also for the producers of the light sources. The reality is that today it impossible to produce the majority of the conventional light sources without using toxic heavy metals, lead and mercury. The users of the premises fitted with this type of light sources have an additional load when they
exchange them because they are obliged to remove the used or damaged sources in compliance with the law about disposal of toxic wastes on the one hand, on the other hand they are exposed to permanent risk of breathing the toxic vapours when such light source is damaged. The LED sources represent in this regard an incomparably lower risk. Though they contain a small amount of heavy metals they are in solid state, so after damaging a LED source there is no risk of damaging health due to breathing the hazardous vapours.
460 380 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,2
The LED sources are mainly divided in compliance with the binning standard ANSI. ANSI defines the colour shades in the area of the xy MacAdam ellipse. According to the standard the defined colours should be inside the ellipse on the curve with four threshold values. Source: ANSI 2012
Pulse Width Modulation The Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) represents the most effective method how to check the intensity of the LED light source. The PWM principle is based on periodical switching on and off of the constant current directed to the LED. The resulting intensity of the LED light source is characterised by the ratio between the state of switching on and off. The frequency of switching on and off is adjusted for the human eye to perceive the emitted light as a continuous luminous flux. Its intensity depends on the adjustment of the PWM cycle (0 % to 100 %). The advantage of the impulse width modulation is the maintaining of the constant correlated colour temperature in the whole range of dimming.
50 % Duty-Cycle
Binning During the industrial production of LED, deviations of the key parameters always arise in individual batches. In the framework of one batch the parameters coincide, but when we compare two different batches the LEDs differ e.g. in the colour or the luminous flux. To ensure the constant light quality with the same luminance level and light colour, it is inevitable to classify each batch according to the value of individual parameters. This classification is called binning. The main criteria which are taken into account during classification: the luminous flux measured in lumens (lm), correlated colour temperature measured in Kelvins (K), forward voltage
measured in Volts (V). The LED sources are currently classified according to the binning standard ANSI. This standard defines the colour shades of LED by the MacAdam ellipse which depicts the colour deviations on the X and Y axes. The MacAdam ellipse shows how the colour of the individual LED modules can differ. The binning standard ANSI recommends for the resulting colours to be inside the ellipse on the curve with four threshold values. The binning groups of the LED sources which show minimal differences of the measured values will produce light of the same colour.
70 % Duty-Cycle
20 Time (miliseconds)
20 Time (miliseconds)
The development of the cycle of pulse width modulation. In difference to the conventional light sources the LED light sources achieve the full luminance immediately. The immediate switching on of the LED source is beneficial also from the point of view of safety and security as well as comfort. Compared to the conventional light sources frequent switching on and off does not harm the LED and also does not shorten its lifespan.
The company OSM has developed specialised user software which enables our specialists and sellers comparing the advantages of the LED luminaires with lighting fixtures with conventional light sources. After entering specific parameters the customers acquire an immediate overview about the efficiency of the light source, consumption, CO2 emission volume, maintenance costs, influence of the light source on air-conditioning and the saving potential when they use the selected management tools. A clearly arranged document with key parameters which immediately compare the quality of the selected luminaires is the output of his software.
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