Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship and Democracy quarterly report
A Happy New Year wish from Janaagraha! We are delighted to bring to you the Q3 report for Janaagraha Centre for Citizenship & Democracy. This document will take you through the Janaagraha Balanced Score Card, program highlights and the quarter financials. Each program at Janaagraha follows its own Balanced Score Card which is closely linked to the institutional one. You will see in the following pages some of the programmatic highlights for this quarter. As an organisation committed to the values of transparency and accountability, we have also put forward our financial statements for the period from Oct 2010Dec 2010. This report is an attempt to inform you of our activities and seek your advice and feedback. We are always
Shri L C Jain (1925- 2010)
open to suggestions and we look forward to hearing from you!
A Gandhian activist , an upright constitutionalist, a writer, a
Magsasay award winner, Shri L C Jain held a special place in
Janaagrahaâ€™s heart. He was the pillar of strength we depended on
Communications Manager firstname.lastname@example.org
when we struggled through understanding our own core values and way ahead. He was the inspiration to keep going and to keep doing. His passing has left a void which will be impossible to fill.
Dropout rate which was alarmingly has been tackled through a peer-pressure strategy
jaagte raho http://jaagteraho.net
Q3 highlights Previously, between transitions from mobilisation to training to engagement to clean-up activity, considerable amount of volunteer (Area Voter Mitras) attrition was experienced. However, this was overcome by adopting few course corrections • Dropout rate which was alarmingly has been tackled through a peer-pressure strategy. Accordingly, volunteers are mobilised in groups and then they are trained together and their work styles are moulded in a manner which encourages them to work together. • Earlier, the volunteers could choose to attend any one of the multiple training sessions according to their convenience. However, by fixing the training dates and thereby reducing the options for AVMs, greater turnout has been registered. • The turnout at training sessions conducted on weekdays was not encouraging. Therefore, B.E.S.T. Training sessions are now held only on Sundays to facilitate more and more potential AVMs to attend the same.
Advocacy with the Election Commission of India A meeting was held on November 25, 2010 between Janaagraha and the Election Commission of India (ECI) in order to apprise them of the progress made in the B.E.S.T. project so far. Swati Ramanathan, Co-founder of Janaagraha and Uthara Narayan, Project Manager B.E.S.T. represented Janaagraha. The meeting was well-attended - Dr. S. Y. Quraishi, Chief Election Commissioner, V. S. Sampath, Election Commissioner, Brahma, Election Commissioner, Alok Shukla, Deputy Election Commissioner, S. Mendritta, Legal Advisor, Akshay Rout, D. G. (IEC) and Yashvir Singh, Director were in attendance. The ECI expressed confidence in the B.E.S.T. project. While applauding the pace of B.E.S.T. project, it also accepted the numerous challenges - incorrect entries, mismatch of fields, etc. in voter lists. The ECI even mentioned that it is keenly watching the project as it would like to replicate B.E.S.T.’s success in other cities and towns of India.
Contact | Uthara Narayanan, Programme Manager - B.E.S.T , email@example.com
Neighbourhood and street-level maps are the mainstay of iJanaagraha.
iJanaagraha Catalysing urban citizenship
iJanaagraha maps Neighbourhood and street-level maps are the main-
Having been an early adopter of emergent technolo-
stay of iJanaagraha. Locations of Resident Welfare
gies - internet and mobile - Janaagraha Centre for
Associations, BBMP, BWSSB, BESCOM offices and
Citizenship and Democracy, launched the civic portal,
boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies, Assem-
iJanaagraha.org on October 2, 2010. iJanaagraha (iJ)
bly Constituencies and BBMP Ward limits can be
aims to become a primary source of independent
identified on the maps. This information can even be
news and information on urban issues that affect
located through a search based on pin code.
quality of life. In the coming months, iJ is expected to catalyse urban citizenship much like Janaagrahaâ€™s other web-based initiative IPaidaBribe.com. iJanaagraha classifies urban issues under eleven parameters viz.; Amenities, Governance, Mobility, Safety, Water, Sanitation, Health, Education, Environment, Heritage, Art and Culture; each of these being equally vital in ensuring the liveability of a city.
A snapshot of the home page of iJanaagraha.org. Rich content - videos, podcasts, quizzes, photo features and cartoon features - produced around the 11 parameters make the iJ experience come alive.
The report is a collation of the bribe reports received from citizens over the last five months, analysed by the IPaB team for the benefit of the Transport Department, Bangalore.
I Paid a Bribe www.ipaidabribe.com
I Paid a Bribe releases its first JanaMahithi report IPaB released a report titled Transport JanaMa-
IPaB has joined forces with another government
hithi Report for Bangalore’s Transport Depart-
agency - the Karnataka Power Transmission Corpo-
ment. The report is a collation of the bribe
ration Limited (KPTCL) Accounts Officers’ Associa-
reports received from citizens over the last five
tion to fight corruption. KPTCL officials are working
months, analysed by the IPaB team for the
with IPaB in creating workflows and mapping
benefit of the Transport Department, Bangalore.
processes for the next JanaMahithi Report on
The Transport JanaMahithi Report was officially
Electricity. KPTCL has even assigned their officers to
presented to Mr. Bhaskar Rao on December 22,
answer electricity-related FAQs and queries on
2010 by IPaB Co-ordinator Mr. T. R. Raghunandan.
IPaB Co-ordinator Mr. T. R. Raghunandan officially presenting IPaB’s first Transport JanaMahithi Report to Mr. Bhaskar Rao, Transport Commissioner, Bengaluru on December 22, 2010
Another government agency evinces interest in IPaB’s work
Contact | Awanti Bele, Operations Manager
The projects done by the children will be showcased in the Civic Fest to be tentatively held on 12th February, 2011 in St.Joseph’s School, Bangalore.
Bala Janaagraha Civic Fest sees enthusiastic participation from schools The Bala Janaagraha Civic Project 2010-11 based on the theme Solid Waste Management progressed swiftly in quarter 3. Many partner schools of Bala Janaagraha (BJ) have indicated enthusiastically that their children have already completed the reports. The projects done by the children will be showcased in the Civic Fest to be tentatively held on 12th February, 2011 in St.Joseph’s School, Bangalore. The planning of the Civic Fest - schedule, decorations, seating, audio visuals, activity details etc. - is in full swing. Around 750 schoolchildren are expected to attend the fest.
Screenshots from the Me and My City E-activity module
E-activity module Following the release of ‘Me and My City’ activity book, it was felt that an online game would accelerate learning by making BJ curriculum more interactive. Subsequently, BJ team started work on an e-activity module which has exciting crossword puzzles, word building, memory games, etc. around the following topics 1. Government 2. Local government 3. Urban planning 4. Water 5. Electricity 6. Police & transport 7. Hygiene & sanitation 8. Solid waste management A sample module on the civic topic, Solid waste management which was tested among a select group of school children has received positive feedback.
Contact | Bandana Agarwal, Programme Co-ordinator
It was seen that citizens, administrators of urban local bodies and corporators alike focussed more on microcosmic problems than view issues holistically. This has prevented them from looking at the scores as a means to address problems in a
Ward Infrastructure Services Assessment www.bangalorepatrol.com
Janaagrahaâ€™s programme Ward Infrastructure Services Assessment (WISA) completed the first iteration of data collection and analysis for the city of Bangalore. The exercise started towards the end of December 2009 and was completed on August 15, 2010. The Bangalore Patrol campaign centred on WISA data - a result of Janaagrahaâ€™s collaboration with the Times of India was launched on November 9, 2010.
campaign comprised full-page editorials on the various quality-of-life-parameters of WISA, the significant ones being mobility, water, sanitation, public amenities and environment.
Citizensâ€™ response to Bangalore Patrol The engagement of the citizens, measured by the response to www.bangalorepatrol.com and BP ground events, with the WISA scores has been limited. It was hoped that the citizens would receive WISA scores with greater enthusiasm, to hold their corporators accountable, to improve the quality of life in their wards. However, it was seen that citizens,
The Bangalore Patrol Campaign
administrators of urban local bodies and corporators alike focussed more on microcosmic problems than
Panel members - Bharat Lal Meena, BDA Commissioner, H. Siddaiah, BBMP Commissioner, M. D. N. Simha, Chief Environmental Officer, KSPCB, H. S. Balram, Editor-in-Chief, Times of India, Banaglore and Ramesh Ramanathan, Co-founder, Janaagraha - at a Bangalore Patrol event.
Significant amount of publicity - newspaper advertise-
view issues holistically. This has prevented them from
ments, radio spots and outdoor advertising - went into
looking at the scores as a means to address problems
the making of the Bangalore Patrol (BP) campaign. The
in a systemic manner.
Contact | Gautham Ravichander, Programme Co-ordinator
The ASM team then suggested a more desirable approach which is to reorganise the units in alignment with the existing BBMP ward limits.
Area Suraksha Mitra NDRD Seminar on Civil Defence
manner. Consequently, administering these units becomes increasingly difficult as it involves
A seminar on Civil Defence was organised by NDRD on December 17, 2010 in Bangalore. The seminar was presided by His Excellency Sri H R Bharadwaj, Governor of Karnataka. About 500 Area Suraksha Mitras were present at the occasion. On behalf of Janaagraha, Maj. General (Retd.) Prasad, Co-ordinator - ASM, presented a paper on Community Policing which was
co-ordination between multiple local corporators, MLAs, Civil Defence personnel and the Area Suraksha Mitra volunteers. The ASM team then suggested a more desirable approach which is to reorganise the units in alignment with the existing BBMP ward limits. Major
General (Retd) T M John, Chief Warden, Civil Defence
Next steps in Area Suraksha Mitra
An internal assessment of community policing led Area Suraksha Mitra (ASM) team on to very interesting observations 1) Reorganising Civil Defence Divisions Cities and towns in India are divided into a number of administrative units called wards. Infrastructure and services - water, electricity, roads, etc. - are managed by local government bodies in designated ward boundaries.
Karnataka has agreed to put this sound suggestion
2) Even spread of Area Suraksha Mitra volunteers An even spread of Area Suraksha Mitra volunteers across the various divisions of Bangalore is essential for the effectiveness of community policing. Currently there are dense pockets of the volunteers in certain areas while other areas are unrepresented. To combat this, an exercise is being carried out to plot the active ASMs on Bangalore map. Going forward, this will enable the Civil Defence Unit to recruit volunteers in a planned manner.
However, presently in Bangalore, Civil Defence Divisions span across multiple wards in an irregular
December 17, 2010: Maj. General (Retd.) Prasad, Co-ordinator - ASM, presenting a paper on Community Policing at the Governorâ€™s conference.
Contact | Maj. General (Retd.) Prasad, Co-ordinator - ASM
The Citizenship Index, Janaagrahaâ€™s flagship study to understand baseline levels of civic engagement and civic literacy, gathered pace with the launch of data collection exercise in early December, 2010.
Janaagraha Applied Research Programme (J-ARP)
India Urban Conference, the one of its kind conference in India on urban issues, being organised by
The Citizenship Index, Janaagrahaâ€™s flagship study
J-ARP, saw some exciting developments in Q 3. Indian
to understand baseline levels of civic engagement
Institute for Human Settlements (IIHS), an institute
and civic literacy, gathered pace with the launch of
focused on the challenges and opportunities of
data collection exercise in early December, 2010.
urbanisation, has come on board as the third partner
The J-ARP team is going to conduct 3,960 surveys
of the conference, the other partner being Yale
across 99 wards of Bangalore (half of Bangalore)
University. Working sessions have been conducted
and conclude the activity in the end of February,
with IIHS to finalise on Context Anchors (institutional
subject matter experts) who will organise paper presentations and other activities based on 8 urban
Rigorous literature reviews have provided a
comprehensive framework for the study in order to
1) Urban Land and Infrastructure 2) Urban Water and Environment
1) Provide a background for index creation and
3) Urban Social Services
4) Urban Livelihoods, Mobility and Informality 5) Urban Utopias
2) Understand definitions for the terms of study
6) Urban Governance and Citizenship 7) Urban Economy
3) Generate relevant parameters for the
8) City in Public Culture
questionnaire The conference, tentatively titled, India Urban Pilot studies were conducted in Vasanth Nagar,
Conference: Evidence and Experience, will be held in
Neelasandra, and Malleshwaram areas of Banga-
Infosys campus, Mysore from November 17-22, 2011.
lore to validate the research methodology and the
Around 1,000 participants representing civil society,
students, policy-makers, bureaucrats, and judiciary are expected to mark attendance in the conference.
Contact | Unna Govindarajan, Research Co-ordinator
A new website www.vakilpedia.com will host a database of case law pertaining to decentralisation, as well as a forum where an advisory board will provide expert commentary.
Advocacy Highlight: Andhra Pradesh
develop an urban governance training module for IAS officers right from the Foundation Course to
In 2010, the Andhra Pradesh government passed the
required laws for creation of Area Sabhas and Ward Committees in Hyderabad. The provisions of the law
The Advocacy team is collating material on the
differ slightly from those in the Model CPL drafted by
basis of a draft curriculum, which was an outcome
Janaagraha. But it appears that the purpose of the
of a meeting with Mr. Gaurav Dwivedi, Deputy
Model CPL will be achieved. This has provided Janaa-
Director (Sr.), LBSNAA, Mussoorie.
graha an opportunity for constructive engagement with
BBMP corporator training
the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC).
The Advocacy team is working in partnership with Dr. Rajeev Gowda of the Centre for Public Policy,
Right to Information (RTI) filings and Public Interest Litigation (PIL)
The Advocacy Unit has been monitoring the State-level the Community Participation
RTI filing: BESCOM
Law (CPL) and the Public Disclosure Law
Requests were filed with Bangalore Electricity Supply
(PDL), which sets out reporting and disclo-
Company (BESCOM) in order to obtain data on design,
sure duties for government bodies.
location and service history of transformers in Bangalore,
Relevant information from all the State and
as well as the number of deaths caused by contact with
Union Territory Level Nodal Agencies
BESCOM transformers. Some formal appeals were required,
(SLNAs) has reached us. The Advocacy team
but all the requested information has now been obtained.
will be approaching the States/UTs and
advocate to modify their statutes to pass
Based on the data obtained, a case has been filed by
the law and notify the rules.
Janaagraha, in the Karnataka high court, against BESCOM with the aim of compelling the removal of the transformers to safer locations.
Significantly, Janaagraha has been invited by the
IIM-B to create a training programme to enhance
Commissioner of GHMC to provide inputs for their
the effectiveness of BBMP’s corporators. This will
planned training of Ward Committee members and
further Janaagraha’s engagement with the govern-
Area Sabha representatives, who have been appointed
ment at the local-level and catalyse thinking on
under Andhra Pradesh’s recently, passed CPL.
The framework for training has been approved by both the Centre for Good Governance (CGG) and the Greater
Hyderabad Municipal Corporation. The content being developed by Janaagraha will be integrated with content developed by CGG.
The Advocacy unit is developing an online resource for the legal and policy community, to increase
awareness of decentralization law and its consequences on governance. To this end, a new website
Urban Module for IAS officers Janaagraha has been invited by National Centre for Urban Management (NCUM) cell in Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) to
www.Vakilpedia.com will host a database of case law pertaining to decentralisation, as well as a forum where an advisory board will provide expert commentary.
Contact | Uthara Narayanan, Programme Manager - Advocacy
An SLB Software that will enable ULBs to enter their SLB data online or offline and forward it to State ULB Cell has been developed and is undergoing testing.
Public Records of Operations and Finance (PROOF)
Reporting the MoUD on progress made in SLB framework
Printing of SLB Databook & finalisation of SLB Handbook
In a significant move, more than 1700 ULBs across
In Q3, PROOF brought out the Service Level Bench-
MoUD on the progress on SLB framework.
India are being contacted by PROOF in order to report
marking Data-book, which summarises the findings of Service Level Benchmarking exercise undertaken
Formation of State SLB Cells
by 28 ULBs across India on four basic municipal
To further the SLB process, Urban Development
services, namely, water supply, sewerage, solid waste
Secretaries were contacted, asking them to constitute
management and storm water drainage.
a 4-5 member SLB cell in their States. The Cell should preferably comprise members with the following
PROOF even finalised on the SLB Handbook Version-4
PROOF is an initiative which is beginning to shape the public policy on direct accountability of
to enable systemic and sustainable monitoring of municipal services using standardised indicators
(i) Two Public Health Engineers with experience in
Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) at the national level.
against agreed targets and benchmarks. The Hand-
Water Supply and Sewerage (one in smaller States)
book will help effect performance improvements in
(ii) Two Public Health Officers with experience in Solid
Recognising the importance of benchmarking in service delivery, the Ministry of Urban Develop-
the identified service sectors by
Waste Management (one in smaller States)
ment (MoUD), Government of India has launched the Service Level Benchmarking (SLB) initiative
(iii) One Management Information System expert
covering water, sanitation, solid waste management and storm water drainage.
(i) helping local decision-makers identify gaps, plan
The SLB initiative aims to overcome challenges faced in earlier benchmarking exercises in the
(ii) enabling the identification and transfer of best
Development of SLB Software and a new SLB website
An SLB Software that will enable ULBs to enter their
(iii) enhancing accountability to customers for service
SLB data online or offline and forward it to State ULB
Cell has been developed and is undergoing testing.
(iv) providing a framework that can underlie
A new SLB website has been developed and will be
contracts/agreements with service providers
hosted on the MoUD portal (www.urbanindia.nic.in)
(v) making it possible to link decision-making on
in the next quarter.
following ways: 1) Creation of uniform set of indicators, definitions and calculation methodology to enable meaningful comparisons 2) Provision of service benchmarks to create consensus on desired service standards 3) Data reliability grades to highlight and address issues of data quality 4) Self-reporting by ULBs (as against consultants) to ensure ownership for data 5) Emphasis on performance improvement planning based on the SLB data generated
and prioritise improvement measures
financial allocations to service outcomes
India Urban Space Foundation (IndiaUSP) prepared draft guidelines on Survey and GIS methodology for States to implement the urban land title system.
India Urban Space Foundation
shaping vibrant cities
India Urban Space Foundation
PLATINUM - Partnership for Land Title Implementation in Urban Management Moving towards a guaranteed land title system in India
www.indiausp.org Draft Guidelines on Land Survey and GIS methodology
India Urban Space Foundation (IndiaUSP) prepared draft guidelines on Survey and GIS methodology for States to implement the urban land title system. These guidelines were presented to the PLATINUM Working Group (WG) during the 3rd PLATINUM meeting held on October 26, 2010 at Ministry of
1) Senior officials from Government of Peru’s COFOPRI (Commission for the Formalization of Informal Property) were invited to India to share their experience in formalising informal property rights in Peru. 2) From the United States, Peter Rabley, President of International Land Systems (ILS), one of the leading technology solution providers on land management presented the work that ILS has undertaken.
Urban Development (MoUD), Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi. Following this, the 4th PLATINUM WG meeting was held on November 26, 2010 at MoUD, Nirman Bhawan where discussions and presentations regarding the technology & infrastructure needed for urban
3) The Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (HUPA) and Department of Land Resources (DoLR) also presented their work on land title security 4) The Society for the Promotion of Area Resource Centres (SPARC) showcased their case study on slum mapping and titles
land title system was presented to the WG members.
National Seminar on Guaranteed Land and Property Title Certification System for Security of Tenure A national seminar on guaranteed land title security for urban areas was organised on November 27, 2010 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. Critical international experience on the issues and challenges of implementing guaranteed land title, as well as successes were discussed and showcased. All the States participated - through various state officials representing survey, urban development, revenue and stamps & registration department.
In Pic (from left) – Mr. Jaipal Reddy, Minister of Urban Development, Mr. Arun Maira, Member of Planning Commission and Mr. Naveen Kumar, Secretary of Urban Development Ministry at the seminar
5) Mr. Jaipal Reddy, Minister of Urban Development, Mr. Arun Maira, Member of Planning Commission and Mr. Naveen Kumar, Secretary of Urban Development Ministry – shared their views on urban land titling, and highlighted the criticality of this reform.
Ms. Yashodhara Raje Scindhia, MP of Gwalior has requested IndiaUSP to help in the city planning process.
India Urban Space Foundation
shaping vibrant cities
India Urban Space Foundation
INSPIRE - Integrated Spatial Planning Including a Regional Emphasis Advocating spatial planning of Indian cities with a larger regional perspective
INSPIRE formally flagged-off
Spatial planning data collection
Project INSPIRE formally commenced with the 1st INSPIRE working group (WG) meeting convened on November 18, 2010 at the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD), Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi. The present state of city and town planning was discussed by TCPO (Town and Country Planning Organisation), MMRDA (Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority), CISCOâ€™s Globalisation and Smart+Connected Communities, and IUSP. The presentations threw light on current planning practices in India, the lack of legislation, the need for an integrated approach to planning etc.
All major metropolitan regions had been contacted for their spatial data. However, many of the cities either do not have spatial planning maps or are not ready to share them. Following this, IUSP is looking at ways to generate spatial data in-house.
A meeting between Secretary, Ministry of Urban Development and Ms. Swati Ramanathan, Chairperson, IUSP will be held on January 19, 2011 in New Delhi to discuss content and timelines for the completion of INSPIRE Guidelines.
State Information Packets MoUD sent out requests (on behalf of the joint partnership MoUD and IndiaUSP) for information about current plan details and laws related to various aspects of planning to all States and union territory. So far, only Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Sikkim, West Bengal and Goa governments have sent the information packs.
In pic (from left) - Ms. Swati Ramanathan, Chairperson of IndiaUSP, Ms. Sameeksha Gupta, Mayor of Gwalior and Ms. Yashodhara Scindhia, MP of Gwalior
Gwalior invitation Ms. Yashodhara Raje Scindhia, MP of Gwalior has requested IndiaUSP to help in the city planning process. A City Development Plan for Gwalior that was prepared by private consultants and a master plan prepared by the State TCPO have been pronounced as unsatisfactory by the MP. To this end, Ms. Scindhia held a meeting with her entire bureaucracy, which included the Urban Minister and the Mayor, to present and discuss issues with IUSP. IUSP is currently examining the two plans and providing input. IUSP is also considering extending support on the master planning for Gwalior city.
TENDER S.U.R.E. introduces a hierarchical classification of roads and the Right of Way (ROW) or road width associated with each classification.
Bangalore City Connect Foundation http://cityconnect.in/blr/index.php Q3 highlights In Q3, BCCF was invited by DULT to come up with
Brief on TENDER S.U.R.E. (Specifications for Urban Road Execution)
Road Design Guidelines for all the tier I and tier II cities of Karnataka.
TENDER S.U.R.E. introduces a hierarchical classification of roads and the Right of Way (ROW) or road
BCCF shared the draft version of TENDER S.U.R.E.
width associated with each classification. It provides
(Specifications for Urban Road Execution), an
the plan for traffic and public transport lanes,
urban road design manual containing a set of
footpaths, and parking for each ROW. It is intended as
specification standards for urban roads, with Mr.
a ready reckoner for engineers and contractors in
S. V. Ranganath, Chief Secretary, Govt. of Karna-
executing road projects in cities.
taka, and Ms. V. Manjula, Directorate of Urban Land Transport Commissioner for their sugges-
TENDER S.U.R.E. contains standardised descriptive
tions. BCCF Governing Board members also met
briefs on procurement and specifications which will
up with the members of Confederation of Indian
provide clarity to the contractors ease the procure-
Industry (CII), to take TENDER S.U.R.E. forward.
ment issues for the engineers, and gradually build capacity for quality execution of urban roads. Standardisation also allows people to play an active role in their neighbourhoods in ensuring that the works are as per specification.
Model drawing of a Bus Rapid Transit
Contact | Shashidhara, Co-ordinator -Transportation Planning
Janaagraha’s REED framework of change underwent a major revision in order to enable new joinees to imbibe the overall mission, values and objectives of Janaagraha.
Human Resources and Volunteer Management (HRVM)
Q3 highlights 1) In Q3, HRVM achieved a structural adequacy of 73% as against the targeted 90% 2) Janaagraha’s partnerships with IIT-Kharagpur, COMMITS, Bangalore and Symbiosis, Pune have been cemented. A steady stream of interns is now engaged with Janaagraha. 3) Janaagraha’s REED framework of change underwent a major revision in order to enable new joinees to imbibe the overall mission, values and objectives of Janaagraha. 4) Engaging volunteers steadily to meet the targeted staff to volunteer ratio of 2:1 continues to be challenging
Janaagraha staff at a Monday Morning meeting
Contact | Sapna Karim, HRVM Co-ordinator