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Design Thinking Bootcamp (2-3 days) Selected slides for a typical professional training


Continuous Innovation ! Quick Win

This slideset is an exemplarily excerpt of short input presentations given in my design thinking and innovation management trainings. In the light of design thinking’s current hype I share them with the hope that it is being understood better and becomes a more widespread and accepted way of innovating – without the disappointments that exaggerated expectations may bring along. If you’re interested in professional training and strategy advisory (also beyond design thinking) you’ll find my contact data here. I facilitate all training formats in cooperation with experienced DT coaches (e.g. d.School Potsdam and IDEO alumni).


Design Thinking Bootcamp: Day I Experience the basics of design thinking


“

„

The future is best found in the opportunities that go unnoticed in the present. Peter Drucker

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How your journey may feel ‌

Source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Teststrecke_Roller_Coaster.JPG

5


There is nothing new about “Design Thinking” It’s a way of designerly (entrepreneurial!) doing and thinking which can be seen as »innovator’s common sense«

Everything that needs to be said has already been said. But, since no one was listening, everything must be said again.

André Paul Guillaume Gide (French author and Nobel Prize literary)

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T PU IN

The Basics ÂťDesign thinkingÂŤ its origin, nature and use.

Image Credit: New Bauhaus Chicago; Stefanie Di Russo (ithinkidesign.wordpress.com), ), PhD/Researcher at Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia


Place - People - Process Design thinking in the media – a sketchy view

! Heavy collaboration in multi-disciplinary teams ! Space as catalyst

! Culture of visualization and prototyping ! Radical user perspective

! Heavy use of sticky notes ‌

Source: http://www.ftd.de/karriere/management/:design-thinking-kreativ-um-die-ecke-gedacht/50171916.html

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Place - People - Process Design thinking in the media – a sketchy view

! Heavy collaboration in multi-disciplinary teams ! Space as catalyst

! Culture of visualization and prototyping ! Radical user perspective

! Heavy use of sticky notes ‌

Source: http://www.ftd.de/karriere/management/:design-thinking-kreativ-um-die-ecke-gedacht/50171916.html

9


Place - People - Process Design thinking in the media – a sketchy view

! Heavy collaboration in multi-disciplinary teams ! Space as catalyst

! Culture of visualization and prototyping ! Radical user perspective

! Heavy use of sticky notes ‌

Source: http://www.ftd.de/karriere/management/:design-thinking-kreativ-um-die-ecke-gedacht/50171916.html

9


Place - People - Process Design thinking in the media – a sketchy view

! Heavy collaboration in multi-disciplinary teams ! Space as catalyst

! Culture of visualization and prototyping ! Radical user perspective

! Heavy use of sticky notes ‌

Source: http://www.ftd.de/karriere/management/:design-thinking-kreativ-um-die-ecke-gedacht/50171916.html

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What is ÂťDesignÂŤ?

design is to design the design of a design. noun verb noun noun 1

a general concept or policy

2

an activity

3

a plan or intention

4

a finished outcome (system, service or product)

cited after John Heskett (former Chair Professor Design, Hong Kong Polytechnic University); adapted from Hardt, M. (2006). Design: The Term Design. 10 Lecture presented at University of Lapland, Rovaniemi Finland. (www.michael-hardt.com/PDF/lectures/design-definition.pdf)


Design Thinking: Why the sudden Interest? Fundamental cultural differences ‌

problem finding

doing the right thing

problem solving

doing the thing right

value creation + value capture

11


Design Thinking = Strategic Thinking

problem finding

doing the right thing

problem solving

doing the thing right

value creation + value capture The E!ciency Movement: Outsourcing, Total Quality Management (TQM), Six Sigma, Lean Manufacturing, Maximizing Return on Assets, Corporate Redesign, Market Segmentation, Licensing, Line Extensions & Diversification, etc.

12


Design Thinking = Strategic Thinking

problem finding

doing the right thing

problem solving

doing the thing right

value creation + value capture Design is the one business discipline whose primary concern is innovation. When design thinking becomes a core competency, companies become more nimble in the face of rapidly changing markets and new competition.

adapted from Bernhard Roth (Academic Director, d.school Stanford)

13


Design Thinking = Strategic Thinking Value migration and the shift to a Âťvalue creation economyÂŤ

problem finding

doing the right thing

problem solving

doing the thing right

value creation + value capture = advantage

14


Design Thinking = Strategic Thinking Value migration and the shift to a Âťvalue creation economyÂŤ

problem finding

doing the right thing

Design Thinking

problem solving

doing the thing right

Agile Lean Start-up

Execute: Classic Lean

15


Design Thinking = Strategic Thinking

problem finding

doing the right thing

problem solving

doing the thing right

value creation + value capture = strategy

17


Design Thinking = Strategic Thinking problem finding

doing the right thing

problem solving

doing the thing right

17


Strategic Thinking and the ÂťKnowledge FunnelÂŤ problem finding

problem solving

doing the right thing

doing the thing right

01100111001

Mystery

Heuristic

Algorithm

Code


Embracing and living a Âťd.mindsetÂŤ is the first step - and as we think, perfect prerequisite - to successfully understand and apply lean start-up principles and agile development methods.

Image Credit: Nordstrom Innovation Lab (https://secure.nordstrominnovationlab.com/pages/our_process_told_as_our_team_s_timeline)

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Image Credit: DT Venn Diagram, Stanford d.School

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“

Design is the expert discipline for relating and connecting floating fields.

Image Credit: DT Venn Diagram, Stanford d.School

Wolfgang Jonas (1999)

„ 20


Design Thinking and Value Creation

Technology

Business Viability

Feasibility

People & Human Values Usability & Desirability

21


Design Thinking and Value Creation

Process Innovation: Manufacturing

Technology

Business Viability

Feasibility

Emotional Innovation: User Interaction and Interface, Relationships, Marketing

People & Human Values

Functional Innovation: Organisational Behavior Marketing & Branding

Usability & Desirability

21


Design Thinking and Value Creation

Process Innovation: Manufacturing

Business

Technology

Viability

Feasibility

E U L VA ATION INNOV

E C N E I R EXPE TION INNOVA

Emotional Innovation: User Interaction and Interface, Relationships, Marketing

=

People & Human Values

Functional Innovation: Organisational Behavior Marketing & Branding

Usability & Desirability

21


Design Thinking and Value Creation Cost Avoidance Less sedations, more patients

MRI Scan Technology

Adventure Frame

Image Credit: Š 2011-2012 General Electric Company

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Design Thinking and Value Creation Cost Avoidance Less sedations, more patients

E U L VA ATION INNOV

MRI Scan Technology

Adventure Frame

Image Credit: Š 2011-2012 General Electric Company

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JaipurKnee :

A Prosthetic Knee Joint for Extreme-Affordability

The JaipurKnee is a high-performance, low-cost prosthetic knee joint for above-knee amputees. Designed in collaboration with Stanford University and the Jaipur Foot Organization (BMVSS), the JaipurKnee’s polymer-based polycentric design provides a stable gait at a fraction of the cost.

SAP Hana

High Performance: Blends gait stability with a natural swinging motion Embrace Affordable: One tenth the cost of comparable polycentric knee joints

d.light

Lightweight: 1.5 lb / 0.68 kg High Range of Motion: 165˚ range of motion enabling kneeling and squatting

!"#$%&'()$*&++'#$*,'-$"(.$-##/$ !"#$%&'()$*&++'#$*,'-$"(.$-##/$ Keep the Change 0/.+(''#1$+&$2)&301#$455$6(++.$&7$'08"+ 0/.+(''#1$+&$2)&301#$455$6(++.$&7$'08"+

Universal Design: Works with standard prosthetic leg systems including BMVSS and standardGE pyramid adapter system MRI Adventure Series

Mayo Clinics

Long Life Span: Benchtop tested to 3-5 years of use Durable Material: Oil-filled nylon polymer self lubricates with use Simple Geometry: Five plastic pieces and four standard fasteners Takes Inspiration Biology: A Liter offrom Light Mimics an anatomical knee’s motion

JaipurKnee

Hippo Roller


Paradigm Shifts, Market Disruptions and Competitive Advantages

High Jumps

Ship Container vs. Dock Workers

GPS vs. Map Navigation

Hilti

Nintendo Wii

Godrej chotuKool

Memory Stick vs. Punched Tape

Wikipedia vs. Encyclopedia

Fluorescent »Computer Furniture«


T PU IN

Design-led Innovation Shared values and principles of a d.culture ‌

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324744104578475220275737136.html

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1: Have an Outside-in Mindset

inside »

« outside

TRADITIONAL INSIDE-OUT VALUE CHAIN What are our core competencies?

What is our current business model?

What else could we o!er? er?

What other channel could we use?

What customers would we sell to?

Perceived Customer Value = Functional Benefits – Financial Cost

adapted from Peer Insight. (2007). Seizing the White Space: Innovative Service Concepts in the United States, Technology Review. Study, Helsinki: Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation.

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1: Have an Outside-in Mindset

inside »

« outside

TRADITIONAL INSIDE-OUT VALUE CHAIN What are our core competencies?

What is our current business model?

What else could we o!er? er?

What other channel could we use?

What customers would we sell to?

Perceived Customer Value = Functional Benefits – Financial Cost

CUSTOMER EXPERIENCE OUTSIDE-IN VALUE CHAIN What do we need to execute that design?

What business design would create defensible profits?

What could we o!er?

What ecosystem exists to meet those priorities?

What customers do we want? What are their priorities?

Perceived Customer Value = Emotional Benefit – Hassle Factor

adapted from Peer Insight. (2007). Seizing the White Space: Innovative Service Concepts in the United States, Technology Review. Study, Helsinki: Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation.

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1: Have an Outside-in Mindset The ten Schools after Mintzberg

Strategy Formation as …

The »Design School«

Process of Conception

!

The Planning School

Formal Process

!

The Positioning School

Analytical Process

The Entrepreneurial School

Visionary Process

The Cognitive School

Mental Process

The Learning School

Emergent Process

The Power School

Process of Negotiation

The Cultural School

Collective Process

The Environmental School

Reactive Process

The Configuration School

Process of Transformation

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., & Lampel, J. (2001). Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour Through The Wilds of Strategic Mangament. New York: The Free Press.

Inherent in DT

!

27


1: Have an Outside-in Mindset The ten Schools after Mintzberg

Strategy Formation as …

The »Design School«

Process of Conception

!

The Planning School

Formal Process

!

The Positioning School

Analytical Process

The Entrepreneurial School

Visionary Process

The Cognitive School

Mental Process

The Learning School

Emergent Process

The Power School

Process of Negotiation

The Cultural School

Collective Process

The Environmental School

Reactive Process

The Configuration School

Process of Transformation

Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B., & Lampel, J. (2001). Strategy Safari: A Guided Tour Through The Wilds of Strategic Mangament. New York: The Free Press.

Inherent in DT

Y G E T A R T TS

N E G R EME

G N I K N I TH !

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1: Combine Outside-in & Inside-out Innovating with push (proposing) and pull (exploring)

Identify

Business Develop

1

Technology

2

Create

Concepts

Fit them to

3

Users

T C E N CON Understand

Users

3

Create

Concepts

2

Build

1

Business Develop

Technology adapted from Vijay Kumar: Business & Technology-driven Innovation vs. Design Thinking

28


2: Use Empathy for Users & Stakeholders

Viability

Feasibility

Desirability

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2: Use Empathy for Users & Stakeholders Solution

Viability

Feasibility

What can be financially viable?

What can be done in terms of capabilities and technology?

Desirability What is it, people desire?

Start

29


3: Embrace Diversity and Multi-disciplinarity

30


3: Embrace Diversity and Multi-disciplinarity Physical Design

GRAPHIC DESIGN

WEB DESIGN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

HUMAN SCIENCES

PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

PHYSICAL SCIENCES

H.C.I.

HARDWARE ENGINEERING

COMPUTER SCIENCES

Technical & Objective

Human & Subjective

INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

INTERACTION DESIGN

Digital Design after Bill Moggridge, Interaction Design Professions

31


4: Think holistically and systemic

32


5: Generate many, many, many ... new Ideas

33

3


6: Find and Iterate Alternative Solutions

Iterations

Alternative Solutions

34


6: Find and Iterate Alternative Solutions = Market Definition

Customer Functions

Market Industry Z Industry Y Industry X

Business

Customer Groups

Alternative Solutions

after Abell, D. F. (1980). Defining the Business - The Starting Point of Strategic Planning. NJ: Englewood Cli!s.

35


7: Fail early, Fail often – But: Fail smart!

COSTS OF ERRORS

Too late! T Nu es m t& be Ite r o ra f E te: rro rs

Danger: Post-decision dissonance! »Sunk cost fallacy«

!

e r u l i a F r e p t s o C

Learn here!

!

! Planning & Development

Procurement & Production PROJECT PROGRESS

Test, Delivery & Launch 36


7: Fail early, Fail often: Design’s Impact on Innovation ROI

Investment / Return

+!

Return

Investment

Time

-! Image Credit: Charles Owen (1998)

37


8: Make conscious Use of Space

LaunchLabs, Berlin (www.launchlabs.de (www.launchlabs.de)

38


The famous D.Mindset

HUMAN CENTERED

BIAS TOWARDS ACTION

RADICAL COLLABORATION

SHOW DON’T TELL

CULTURE OF PROTOTYPING & EXPERIMENTATION

Image Credit: D.Mindsets, d.School Stanford (dschool.stanford.edu)

CRAFT CLARITY

MINDFUL OF PROCESS 39


meth!o

d!ol!o!

T PU IN

noun g y /"meTH #$d채l#j method %/ ologies , plural

The sys t e m of prin proced ciples, ures ap practic plied to e s, an any spe c ific bra knowle nch dge

Process, Toolset, Method or what? Annoying discussions around a methodology.

41


!NALYSIS

3YNTHESIS

!BSTRACT

No Need to fear the »Model Mayhem«! &RAME )NSIGHTS h!HAv

%XPLORE #ONCEPTS h%UREKAv

-AKE 0LANS

(YPOTHESIS 

+NOW

+NOW 5SER

-AKE

+NOW #ONTEXT

2EALIZE /FFERINGS

[

0ROTOTYPE 0ILOT ,AUNCH

)MPLEMENT 

2ESEARCH

Convergence-Divergence

$ELIVERY

2EAL

ID.IIT: Analysis-Synthesis

Engine Service Design (UK)

»Design Chaos«

- -

Diamond 1: Direction setting

Diamond 2: Service design

Diamond 3: Service production

Initiate

Initiate

Initiate

Select

Define

Vision Document

Create

Select

Define

Create

Select

Define

- - -

Sustain

Service Blueprint

- - - - - - - -

Create

-

Spirit of Creation (UK)

St. Gallen

Frameworks

Abstract Conceptualization

Assimilating

d.school Potsdam

IDEO (Educators Toolkit)

Bill Moggridge

Stanford’s d.Modes

Imperatives

Converging Problem Selecting

Reflective Observation

Problem Finding

Solution Finding

Active Experimentation

Solution Selecting

Diverging

Observations

d.school Stanford

Accommodating

Concrete Experience

Solutions

Beckman & Barry

etc. 42 Jeanne Liedtka and Tim Ogilvie

Stanford’s Necktie Flare

ID.IIT: Vijay Kumar


Most Common Generic Models of Creative Thinking

ANALYSIS-SYNTHESIS

S1

S2

S3

S4

S5

RE-ENTRY POINT

CONVERGENCE-DIVERGENCE

S6

CONCRETE-ABSTRACT

43


UNDERSTAND

OBSERVE

PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION

POINT OF VIEW

IDEATE

PROTOTYPE

TEST

SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION

44


The most popular Design Thinking Process Representation Empathize

Re-Frame

Explore

Execute

UNDERSTAND

OBSERVE

POINT OF VIEW

Talk to Experts

Immerse

Share

Brainstorm

Insight

Research

Observe

Synthesize

Visualize

Big Idea

Experience

Engage

Point of View

Prototype

Sticky Takeaway

PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION

IDEATE

PROTOTYPE

TEST

SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION


Divergence-Convergence Model increasing complexity

UNDERSTAND “seeking”

increasing certainty

OBSERVE

POINT “solving” OF VIEW

Initial understanding of problem

IDEATE“seeking” PROTOTYPE

TEST “solving”

Problem definition: “reframing”

PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION

SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract Problem Space

Solution Space

Frameworks

Imperatives Model of what »could be« manifest as

Analysis (think)

distilled to

Model of what »is«

suggest

Synthesis (make)

What »could be«

What »is«

Observations

Solutions Existing – Implicit (Current)

Preferred – Explicit (Future)

Concrete after Dubberly, Evenson & Robinson (2008)

47


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract PRINCIPLES

Frameworks

Imperatives

POINT OF VIEW

IDEATE

PLANS

OBSERVATIONS

Analysis (think)

Observations

PROTOTYPE

Synthesis (make)

OBSERVE TEST

TESTS

Solutions

Concrete after Owen, Kumar (ID.IIT)

48


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract PRINCIPLES

Frameworks

Imperatives

POINT OF VIEW

IDEATE Problem Selecting

PLANS

Problem Finding

OBSERVATIONS

Analysis (think)

Observations

Solution Finding PROTOTYPE

Synthesis (make)

OBSERVE Solution Selecting

TESTS

TEST

Solutions

Concrete after Owen, Kumar (ID.IIT)

48


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract

Frameworks

PRINCIPLES

Imperatives

PLANS

Synthesis (make)

OBSERVATIONS

Analysis (think)

Observations

TESTS

Solutions

Concrete after Owen, Kumar (ID.IIT)

49


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract

Frameworks

PRINCIPLES

Imperatives

PLANS

Synthesis (make)

OBSERVATIONS

Analysis (think)

Observations

TESTS

Solutions

Concrete after Owen, Kumar (ID.IIT)

49


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract

Frameworks

PRINCIPLES

Imperatives

PLANS

Synthesis (make)

OBSERVATIONS

Analysis (think)

Observations

TESTS

Solutions

Concrete after Owen, Kumar (ID.IIT)

49


Analysis-Synthesis Bridge Model Abstract

Frameworks

PRINCIPLES

Imperatives

cloud-cuckoo-land

Academic Isolation PLANS

OBSERVATIONS

Analysis (think)

Observations

Synthesis (make)

slavishly user-centered

Express Test Cycle

TESTS

Solutions

Concrete after Owen, Kumar (ID.IIT)

50


Design as ‌

Example

Problem Framing

Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool

Design redefines the challenges facing the organization.

Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems.

Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before.

Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool.

No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization.

The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle

Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel

Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels

German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls

Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)

51


Design as ‌

Example

Problem Framing

Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool

Design redefines the challenges facing the organization.

Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems.

Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before.

Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool.

No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization.

The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle

Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel

Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels

German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls

Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)

51


Design as ‌

Example

Problem Framing

Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool

Design redefines the challenges facing the organization.

Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems.

Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before.

Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool.

No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization.

The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle

Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel

Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels

German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls

Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)

51


Design as ‌

Example

Problem Framing

Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool

Design redefines the challenges facing the organization.

Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems.

Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before.

Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool.

No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization.

The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle

Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel

Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels

German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls

Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)

51


Design as ‌

Example

Problem Framing

Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool

Design redefines the challenges facing the organization.

Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems.

Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before.

Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool.

No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization.

The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle

Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel

Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels

German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls

Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)

51


Design as ‌

Example

Problem Framing

Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool

Design redefines the challenges facing the organization.

Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems.

Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before.

Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool.

No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization.

The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle

Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel

Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels

German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls

Competitive Advantage

Decades

Years

Quarters

Months

!

Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)

51


Large Scale Systems

Systems and Behavior

Artifact and Experience

Artifact

52


Large Scale Systems

Systems and Behavior

Artifact and Experience

Artifact

52


Large Scale Systems

Systems and Behavior

Artifact and Experience

Artifact

52


Large Scale Systems

Systems and Behavior

the clay street project

Artifact and Experience

Artifact

52


Large Scale Systems

Systems and Behavior

the clay street project

Artifact and Experience

Artifact

52


Pyramid of Design Thinking Practice

HIGH Level of Complexity

Large Scale Systems Policy Design, Systems Design, Infrastructure, Public Service, Environment

System

Systems and Behavior Urban Planning, Architecture | Service Design, Strategic Design | Culture

Service

Artifact and Experience Engineering, Interaction Design, HCI, User Experience, Anthropological Design, HCD

Object

Artifact Product, Interior | Fashion, Jewelry | Graphic, Digital Media LOW

The Pyramid of DT practice: adapted from Stefanie Di Russo (PhD), Swinburne University, Australia

53


Customer Discovery + Problem Discovery + Working Culture + Structured Unstructured Process + Sanity and Reason = Design Thinking 54


T PU IN

ts h g i In s

e m i T y t i v i Act d e e N

t n e m e t a St

w e i v Inter

S M

s e c i er v

s e g a ess

ts n e m n o r Envi s t c e Obj e l p o Pe

Empathize Know thy users and stakeholders! E r e s U

x

e c n e p er i

l a c i s y h P e v i t i n g o C l a i c So l a r u Cult

3


Image Credit:Tom Fishburne (http://tomfishburne.com)


Directly witnessing and experiencing aspects of behavior in the real world is a proven way of inspiring and informing [new] ideas. The insights that emerge from careful observation of people's behavior […] uncover all kinds of opportunities that were not previously evident.

Jane Fulton Suri (2005) http://www.thoughtlessacts.com 4


Use, Usability and Meaning

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

5


Use, Usability and Meaning

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html) (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html

5


Use, Usability and Meaning

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html) (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html

5


Use, Usability and Meaning Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs ‌

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

6


Use, Usability and Meaning Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs ‌

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

6


Use, Usability and Meaning Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs ‌

Use

Usability

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

7


Use, Usability and Meaning Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs ‌

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

8


Use, Usability and Meaning Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs ‌

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

8


Use, Usability and Meaning

duced from the archival holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration – Pacific Region (San Francisco)

Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs …

Baskets used in the preparation of mush and bread from the acorn. These Indians are the expert basket makers now living and their baskets demand high prices. After the acorns are Reproduced from the archival holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration – Pacific Region (San Francisc d into meal a mound of white sand is built about eighteen inches in height for feet in ter, flattened at the top and hollowed out. A cloth is spread over this, the acorn flour buted evenly around and covered with small fir boughs. During this time a number 5. of This is [a] Chuckachancy [sic] Indian woman preparing acorns for grinding. Some of t stones have been heating in a nearby fire. Water is placed in one of the basketsacorns and heated may be seen lying on the platform. Removing the hull of the acorn is a slow and difficu se stones until moderately hot when the water is poured through these fir boughs onto theThe shell is sometimes cracked with a small stone and the hulls picked off but often operation. or the purpose of leaching out the bitter principle contained in the acorn. As soon is by the teeth of the women. This woman was probably seventy-five or -eight theyas arethis moved ughly leached the meal is placed in another basket and it is filled with water andyears boiled by yet she was removing the shells with her teeth which were absolutely perfect. of age, erring these hot rocks to the basket and reheating them as fast as they are cooled by the This is kept up until it is thoroughly cooked. Enough is cooked to last the family about a or ten days. The mush is kept in a basket. From meal to meal a portion is dipped out into a er basket and reduced to a thin gruel or soup, which is eaten in smaller baskets.

Use

Usability

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

9


Use, Usability and Meaning

duced from the archival holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration – Pacific Region (San Francisco)

Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs …

Baskets used in the preparation of mush and bread from the acorn. These Indians are the expert basket makers now living and their baskets demand high prices. After the acorns are Reproduced from the archival holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration – Pacific Region (San Francisc d into meal a mound of white sand is built about eighteen inches in height for feet in ter, flattened at the top and hollowed out. A cloth is spread over this, the acorn flour buted evenly around and covered with small fir boughs. During this time a number 5. of This is [a] Chuckachancy [sic] Indian woman preparing acorns for grinding. Some of t stones have been heating in a nearby fire. Water is placed in one of the basketsacorns and heated may be seen lying on the platform. Removing the hull of the acorn is a slow and difficu se stones until moderately hot when the water is poured through these fir boughs onto theThe shell is sometimes cracked with a small stone and the hulls picked off but often operation. or the purpose of leaching out the bitter principle contained in the acorn. As soon is by the teeth of the women. This woman was probably seventy-five or -eight theyas arethis moved ughly leached the meal is placed in another basket and it is filled with water andyears boiled by yet she was removing the shells with her teeth which were absolutely perfect. of age, erring these hot rocks to the basket and reheating them as fast as they are cooled by the This is kept up until it is thoroughly cooked. Enough is cooked to last the family about a or ten days. The mush is kept in a basket. From meal to meal a portion is dipped out into a er basket and reduced to a thin gruel or soup, which is eaten in smaller baskets.

Use

Usability

Meaning

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

10


Use, Usability and Meaning

duced from the archival holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration – Pacific Region (San Francisco)

Jobs-to-be-done are complex constructs …

Baskets used in the preparation of mush and bread from the acorn. These Indians are the expert basket makers now living and their baskets demand high prices. After the acorns are Reproduced from the archival holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration – Pacific Region (San Francisc d into meal a mound of white sand is built about eighteen inches in height for feet in ter, flattened at the top and hollowed out. A cloth is spread over this, the acorn flour buted evenly around and covered with small fir boughs. During this time a number 5. of This is [a] Chuckachancy [sic] Indian woman preparing acorns for grinding. Some of t stones have been heating in a nearby fire. Water is placed in one of the basketsacorns and heated may be seen lying on the platform. Removing the hull of the acorn is a slow and difficu se stones until moderately hot when the water is poured through these fir boughs onto theThe shell is sometimes cracked with a small stone and the hulls picked off but often operation. or the purpose of leaching out the bitter principle contained in the acorn. As soon is by the teeth of the women. This woman was probably seventy-five or -eight theyas arethis moved ughly leached the meal is placed in another basket and it is filled with water andyears boiled by yet she was removing the shells with her teeth which were absolutely perfect. of age, erring these hot rocks to the basket and reheating them as fast as they are cooled by the This is kept up until it is thoroughly cooked. Enough is cooked to last the family about a or ten days. The mush is kept in a basket. From meal to meal a portion is dipped out into a er basket and reduced to a thin gruel or soup, which is eaten in smaller baskets.

Use

Usability

D E E N

Meaning

Image Credit: National Archives Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian A!airs, Sacramento Area O"ce. Coded Records Relating to Programs and Administration, 1910-1958, Box 44, file "Survey of Fresno and Madera Counties, L. D. Creel, ca. 1920," NARA Pacific Region, San Francisco, USA (http://www.archives.gov/pacific/education/curriculum/4th-grade/acorn-photographs.html)

10


Expertise

UNDERSTAND

Empathy

Re-Frame

OBSERVE

POINT OF VIEW

Explore

IDEATE

PROTOTYPE

Execute

TEST

11


Empathy: Immerse, Observe, Engage

See the world through someone else’s eyes

Walk in other people’s shoes

Image Credit: © MIT AgeLab, Age Gain Now Empathy System; Photos by Nathan Fried-Lipski

Immerse yourself into their experiences

12


Empathy: Methods Triangulation

Contextual Interviewing ASK: Engagement What people say they do.

THE RIGHT BALANCE?

TRY: Immersion What people experience.

Participatory Design

LOOK: Observations What people do.

Ethnography 13


The Dispute over Methods

MARKET RESEARCH

INSIGHTS RESEARCH

10 People

100 People 10 Truths

100 Insights

Image Credit: after Polaine, A., Løvlie, L., & Reason, B. (2013). Service design: from insight to implementation. (1st ed.). Rosenfeld Media.; Lightbulb Icon ! Idea designed by Björn Andersson from The Noun Project

14


Immerse. Observe. Engage. Experience what your user might experience …

Image Credit: © MIT AgeLab, Age Gain Now Empathy System; Photos by Nathan Fried-Lipski

16


Immerse. Observe. Engage. Experience what your user might experience ‌

Image Credit: Š Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

17


“

The time, place, conditions, and circumstances within which aspirations are conceived, decisions are made, and product usage takes place have an impact on the levels of satisfaction experienced in the aftermath. Research practice that ignores context is doomed to misunderstanding and misrepresentation. Jane Fulton Suri (2005) http://www.thoughtlessacts.com

„

20


Immerse. Observe. Engage. Be a fly on the wall: The art of unobtrusive research ‌

Image Credit: Š Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

22


WHERE WHEN MESSAGES

THINKING (framing)

ARTIFACTS HEARING

INTERACTIONS (services)

SEEING

DOING (behavior) Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

23


WHERE WHEN MESSAGES

THINKING (framing)

ARTIFACTS HEARING

INTERACTIONS (services)

SEEING

Religion: Christian

DOING (behavior) Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

23


WHERE WHEN MESSAGES

THINKING (framing)

ARTIFACTS HEARING

INTERACTIONS (services)

SEEING

Workaround: Beer Cover

Religion: Christian

DOING (behavior) Image Credit: Š Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

23


WHERE WHEN MESSAGES

THINKING (framing)

ARTIFACTS HEARING Potential »Distribution Partner« INTERACTIONS (services)

SEEING

Workaround: Beer Cover

Religion: Christian

DOING (behavior) Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

23


Immerse. Observe. Engage. People say one thing but yet do another

People do not always do what you think they do. People do not always do what you tell them to do. People do not always do what they think they do. People do not always do what they say they do. Observation and asking why makes you find out what people really do and need. Image Credit: http://images.businessweek.com/ss/06/05/ethnography/image/01_intro.jpg

23


ts h g i In s

Observation Techniques Advanced ways of structuring your field work e Tim

METHOD

y t i v i Act

What? | How? | Why?

w e i v Inter

S M

Activity

Time

s e c i er v

s e g a ess

Insights

Interview

Need Statement

|

People

Objects

Environments

Messages

User Experience

|

What-How-Why?

Services During observation mode, What? | How? | Why? is a tool that can help you drive to deeper levels of observation. This simple scaffolding allows you to move from concrete observations of the happenings of a particular situation to the more abstract potential emotions and motives that are at play in the situation you’re observing. This is a particularly powerful technique to leverage when analyzing photos that your team has taken into the field, both for synthesis purposes, and to direct your team to future areas of needfinding.

Physical

|

Cognitive Social

|

Set-up: Divide a sheet into three sections: What?, How?, and Why?

Cultural

Start with concrete observations: What is the person you’re observing doing in a particular situation or photograph? Use descriptive phrases packed with adjectives and relative descriptions.

Emotional

POEMS

Move to understanding: l a ic s How is the person you’re observing doing what they are doing? Does it require effort? Do they appear y h P rushed? Pained? Does the activity or situation appear to be impacting the user’s state of being either e positively or negatively? Again, use as many descriptive phrases as possible here. v i t i n Cog Step out on a limb of interpretation: Why is the person you’re observing doing what they’re doing, and in the particular way that they are doing l aProbes: Final student i Image Credit - Cultural project of Helle Andersen (http://ciid.dk/education/portfolio/idp11/final-projects/seam-city/) it? This step usually requiresRohde that you make informed guesses regarding motivation and emotions. Step out c o S on a limb/ inBootcamp order to project Bootleg meaning into 2010 the situation that you have been observing. This step will reveal Image Credit - WHW, AEIOU: d.school Stanford assumptions that you should test with users, and often uncovers unexpected realizations about a particular l a r u situation. Cult

Cultural Probes

24


POEMS Field Notes

Designin g for the Base of t he P

h T . c i p o t e h t o t g n i n i a t r e p s r e t e m a r w a , r p e l h a c s r e a l e o s h e r w n c i i t h t s i a l w p k r a o o t w t d o n o a f y n h o p t i a r y g r o r n a c h t Credit: Designing for the Base of the Pyramid, Patrick Whitney, Anjali Kelkar (2004) nd work Image d e 27 n d a i p s a g r a o b d e t s within resea r u j e h e c g r r a a e l s o . e t r y t n i i d v i e c t i p t c l s r a e a c h param arg found pl mework h stifies the


Immerse. Observe. Engage. Enlightening conversations ‌

Image Credit: Š Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin

29


Immerse. Observe. Engage. Enlightening conversations ‌

30


Immerse. Observe. Engage. Enlightening conversations ‌

Image Credit: Š Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin | http://www.gretchenchern.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/contextual_A!nity.jpg

31


The Anatomy of an Interview Explore Emotions Grand Tour

risi

Reflection Question Statements

Build Rapport

tion

g ac

fallin

ng

act

ion

Evoke Stories

climax

Wrap-up

resolution

Kick-o! Intro

Intro Yourself

exposition Intro Project

after Michael Barry (d.school Stanford, Point Forward) and Aristotle dramatic structure

32


Cast aside your Biases, Listen and Observe

01

Let subjects tell their own story, and listen for the things that elicit emotion, cause them concern or frustration. "If you want to find out what people really need, you have to forget about your problems and worry about their lives." (Dale Carnegie)

Image Credit & Source: d.school Stanford

34


Listen to People's Personal Stories

02 Let them relate their successes and failures. Stories encompass the implicit rules that govern and organize peoples lives and reveal what they find normal, acceptable and true. They reveal moral codes, sources of pride, shames, shoulds and should-nots.

Image Credit & Source: d.school Stanford

35


Contradictions between what People say and do

03

Opportunities for innovation lie within the disconnect between action and words.

Image Credit & Source: d.school Stanford

36


04

Watch for ÂťWork AroundsÂŤ

People make do and work around the shortcomings of products and situations. In everyday life, we all come up with "work arounds," clumsy or clever, that we usually are totally unaware of. You must take note.

Image Credit & Source: d.school Stanford

37


Distinguish between Needs and Solutions

05

Needs open up possibilities, solutions constrain them. If you start with a solution then you may overlook the possibility of coming up with an entirely new and revolutionary product or service.

Image Credit & Source: d.school Stanford

39


06

Look beyond the Obvious

Your research may seem so routine and familiar that you feel there is nothing new to be learned. Boredom and frustration easily set in. Stay alert! The epiphanies and insights emerge from the nuances.

Image Credit & Source: d.school Stanford

40


Beginners Mindset

15


Interview Preparation ! Brainstorm questions ! Discover themes

! Refine and memorize questions ! Use prompts

41


Interview Preparation ! Brainstorm questions ! Discover themes

! Refine and memorize questions ! Use prompts

41


Some References this Workshop/Presentation was based on: Beckman, S. L., & Barry, M. (2007). Innovation as a Learning Process: Embedding Design Thinking. California Management Review, 50(1), 25–56. Boland Jr., R., & Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as Designing (1st ed.). Stanford: Stanford Business Books. Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation: How Design Thinking Can Transform Organizations and Inspire Innovation. New York: Harper Business. Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), 5–21. Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm (1st ed.). New York: Crown Business. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The Ten Faces of Innovation: IDEO’s Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s Advocate and Driving Creativity Throughout Your Organization. New York: Doubleday. Kimbell, L. (2009, September). Beyond Design Thinking: Design-as-practice and designs-in-practice. Presentation Paper, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. Krippendor!, K. (2005). Semantic Turn: New Foundations for Design. Boca Raton, Fla.; London: CRC. Kuhn, T. (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition (50th anniversary ed.). University of Chicago Press. Kumar, V. (2012). 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization (1. Auflage.). John Wiley & Sons. Kumar, V., & Whitney, P. (2007). Daily life, not markets: customer-centered design. Journal of Business Strategy, 28(4), 46–58. Liedtka, J. (2000). In Defense of Strategy as Design. California Management Review, 42(3), 8–30. Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2011). Designing for growth : a design thinking tool kit for managers. New York: Columbia University Press - Columbia Business School Publishing. Martin, R. L. (2009a). The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Martin, R. L. (2009b). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Nagji, B., & Tu!, G. (2012). Managing Your Innovation Portfolio - Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 1, 2013, . Ouden, E. den. (2011). Innovation Design: Creating Value for People, Organizations and Society (1st Edition.). Springer London. Owen, C. L. (2005a, May 14). Societal Responsibilities. - Growing the Role of Design. . International Conference on Planning and Design, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan. Owen, C. L. (2005b, October 21). Design Thinking: What It Is, Why It Is Di!erent, Where It Has New Value. . Presentation Paper, Gwanju, Korea. Owen, C. L. (2007). Design Thinking: Notes on its Nature and Use. Design Research Quarterly, 2(1), 16–27. Simon, H. A. (1996). Sciences of the Artificial (0003 ed.). The Mit Press. Suri, J. F. (2005). Thoughtless Acts?: Observations on Intuitive Design (Ideo, Ed.). Chronicle Books. Ulla Johansson, J. W. The emperor’s new clothes or the magic wand? The past, present and future of design thinking. . Conference paper - peer reviewed, Verganti, R. (2009). Design Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating What Things Mean. Harvard Business Press. Wetter Edman, K. (2011, September). Service Design - A Conceptualization of an emerging Practice. Licentiate Thesis (PhD), Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet. Konstnärliga Fakulteten. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/26679.

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Credits & Attributions This slideset was developed via fruitful exchanges of ideas, thoughts and photo material from and with the following organizations and people: LaunchLabs速 Berlin Softgarden速 Berlin Service Design Berlin Schach&Matt速 Kira Kraemer Klara Lindner Mia Sun Kjaergarrd Elias Barrasch Martin Jordan Holger Rhinow 47


Design-driven strategic business planning Jan Schmiedgen // Fidicinstr. 41 // 10965 Berlin // GERMANY // +49 173 3 83 15 26 // kontakt@schmiedgen.eu

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Design Thinking - Bootcamp I  

Design Thinking - Bootcamp I

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