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Designing Series

Design for Print

2014

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Substrate


Substr ate

Noun An underlying substance or layer. -The substance on which an enzyme acts.

Of course, as you’re a graphic design student, this definition isn’t that relevant to you. The real definition of substrate is any stock or material which receives a printed image, ranging from a standard A4 sheet of white paper to more unusual and tactile papers, it can even extend to 3D objects such as mugs, t-shirts, a side of building, etc. It is vital to consider the choice of substrate at the start of the designing process as it can affect

the type of printing process you use and ultimately the tone of voice of your printed design. There is a seemingly unlimited amount of substrates available to you in the world, however in this guide you will be exposed to the substrates which are readily available to you at LCA and also the substrates you can acquire further afield.


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Paper Sizes

Paper _ Sizes (Also known as formats) It can be easy to fall into the trap that the only paper size that is relevant to you is the ISO A series, as this what you will mostly be working with in your time at Leeds College of Art. You should at least be aware of the different series’ of paper sizes used for a variety of different ways.


A-Series of paper is the most commonly used worldwide, with only the US and Canada not currently conforming to the ISO standard. The most frequently used paper size in this series is A4, which measures 210 x 297mm. A3 & A4 is the format that the majority of printers print onto. A8

A7

A6

A4

A5

A2 A3

A0 A1

A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10

841 x 1189mm 594 x 841mm 420 x 594mm 297 x 420mm 210 x 297mm 148 x 210mm 105 x 148mm 74 x 105mm 52 x 74mm 37 x 52mm 26 x 37mm

B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10

1000 x 1414mm 707 x 1000mm 500 x 707mm 353 x 500mm 250 x 353mm 176 x 250mm 125 x 176mm 88 x 125mm 62 x 88mm 44 x 62mm 31 x 44mm

B6

B5

B4

B2 B3

B0 B1

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B8

B7

Paper Sizes

B Series is the geometrical mean between the A series format with that particular number, and the A series format with the preceding number. The B series is less common than the A series, and is most often used for posters, books, envelopes and passports.


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Paper Sizes

Paper _ Sizes C Series The C series of paper is used only for envelopes; as the area of a C series sheet is the geometric mean of the A and B series sheets of the same number. This means that an A4 sheet is slightly smaller than a C4 sheet, which in turn is slightly smaller than a B4 sheet. In practice this means that an A4 letter could fit unfolded into a C4 envelope which could then fit into a B4 envelope.


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A4

Paper Sizes

Folded Twice

110 x 220

DL

A4

Unfolded

229 x 324

C4

A4

Folded Once

162 x 229

C5

A4

Folded Twice

114 x 162

C6


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Paper Sizes

Paper _ Sizes Newspaper Size The Broadsheet newspaper size is the largest of the various newspaper formats and is characterized by long vertical pages. The first Broadsheet newspaper was the Dutch Courante, published in 1618. The term “Tabloid” has become synonymous with down-market newspapers. In some areas, some small-format papers which claim a higher standard of journalism refer to themselves as “compact” newspapers instead, however both are generally the same size.


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Paper Sizes

The Berliner format is used by many European newspapers, it is slightly taller and marginally wider than the tabloid/compact format.

Berliner 470mm X 315mm

Broadsheet 750mm X 600mm

Tabloid / Compact 430mm X 280mm


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Paper Sizes

Paper _ Sizes RA & SRA Format The RA and SRA paper formats are defined by ISO 217 “Paper - Untrimmed Sizes� and cover untrimmed raw paper for commercial printing. The RA and SRA sizes are slightly larger than the corresponding A series sizes to allow for bleed on printed material that will be later trimmed to size, often for bound publication.


Don’t Forget! Evolution Print can only print up on paper as big SRA 2

SRA3

Paper Sizes

RA1 RA3

RA4

RA2

1280 x 860mm 860 x 610mm 610 x 430mm 430 x 305mm 305 x 215mm

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SRA4 RA0 RA1 RA2 RA3 RA4

SRA1

1280 x 900mm 900 x 640mm 640 x 450mm 450 x 320mm 320 x 225mm

SRA2

SRA0 SRA1 SRA2 SRA3 SRA4


The Offset Litho press Evolution print uses, can take a paper from 70gsm up to 450gsm. In the Digital Print resource at Blenheim Walk, you can print double sided on to anything as thick as mount board.

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Paper Density

Paper _ Densi ty Weight Paper density is a measure of the area density. Paper products that let little or no light pass through are considered dense or heavy. Paper products that allow some light to pass through. Tissue paper, for example, is considered lightweight.


GSM The weight of paper is commonly measured in grams per square meter (GSM or Grammage). This measurement allows printers to have much more of a precise control of how thick or thin the paper should be for it’s particular use. This is the common term you would use as a designer to communicate to your printer and determine whether you can use that particular printer.

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Caliper The bulk, or caliper, of the paper is it’s thickness. Rough papers tend to be thicker than smooth papers of the same weight. Thickness is measured by a bulking number - the number of sheets to the inch, under text conditions. The ppi (Pages Per Inch) is twice the bulking number (because there are two pages to the sheet) another way to describe bulk is to measure four sheets of paper. Caliper is measured in micrometers (1/1000) of mm) Grammage is measured by Quality Control System and verified by laboratory measurement.

Paper Density

Don’t forget! If you are using printing processes such as Silkscreen printing, or a type of relief printing you can print onto whatever size GSM paper you like.


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Paper Types

Paper _ Types LCA have a limited supply of substrates & paper types so if you want the best paper for the job you might have to look elsewhere. There is a rich but bewildering range of paper types available to you, and it’s good to start collecting samples along with technical specifications of each, from studios, mills & paper merchants, etc.


Art Paper This kind of paper is coated with a fine clay compound that creates an either gloss or matt effect on both sides of the page.

Uses: letterheads, envelopes, typed reports

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Bond Paper Originally used for documents such as government bonds, it is stronger and more durable than the average sheet of paper. It is mostly made from rag pulp as opposed to the lower grade wood pulp and its aesthetic look makes it popular for letterheads and image building stationery.

Paper Types

Uses: brochures, calendars, magazine covers, magazine text


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Uses: varied, depending on type of coating.

Paper Types

Paper _ Types Coated paper The paper is coated to produce dull, gloss, matt, or other finishes. Coated paper has better reflectivity and produces sharper, brighter images.


Newsprint This low-cost, non-archival paper has an off-white cast and distinctive feel. It is widely used to print newspapers and advertising material because it is economical, strong enough to run through high-speed web printing presses and accepts four-color printing. Uses: newspapers, advertising material Pulp-board These are uncoated boards made of wood pulp that can be white or coloured and come in various different densities.

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Recycled paper Recycled paper is partly or entirely made from re-used paper products. Its production uses much less energy than virgin paper and reduces waste in landfills.

Paper Types

Uses: packaging, mounting prints


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Uses: forms, business reply cards, letterheads, memo paper

Paper Types

Paper _ Types Uncoated paper This plain paper without coating has a unique ink receptivity and absorbency. It is most popularly used for printed items that will also require pen writing such as forms and memos.


Watermarked paper This watermark gives a distinctive prestige and is used in high quality paper such as Conqueror. In the manufacturing process an impression is pressed into the paper by attaching a wire pattern or by using relief sculptures to create the desired effect.

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Paper Types

Uses: logo, paper type description, security feature

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