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BEGINNING BUILDING DESIGN ELEMENTS PROJECT NAME: LOCATION: TOTAL SITE AREA: TOTAL BUILT UP AREA:

L.A. GASTRONOMY LOS ANGELES 56,000 sq.ft. 17,986 sq. ft.

GROUP 10: YUSH CHANDAT ANDREW FOSTER JAMES LENNON ADAM REIS

AREA BREAK-UP BLDG 1 BLDG 2 BLDG 3 BLDG 4

ACTIVITIES EDUCATIONAL RETAIL EDUCATIONAL RETAIL

AREA 3410 sq. ft. 5635 sq. ft. 3378 sq. ft. 5563 sq. ft.

WALL TO WINDOW RATIO WALL NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST

TOTAL AREA 9500 sq.ft. 10600 sq. ft. 3400 sq. ft. 3500 sq. ft.

GLAZED/WINDOW AREA 4750 sq. ft. 1975 sq. ft. 340 sq. ft. 350 sq. ft.

CONSTRUCTION TYPE WALL ROOF SLABS GLASS

SHEET STEEL ASPHALT W/ CAST CONCRETE UN-INSULATED SOLID GROUD FLOOR 4MM PILKINTON SINGLE GLAZING

ENVELOPE INSULATION VALUES WALL ROOF SLABS GLASS

WALL TO WINDOW AREA (A/B) 2 TO 1 4 TO 1 10 TO 1 10 TO 1

1.036 0.356 0.125 1.221

MECHANICAL SYSTEM HVAC VAV SINGLE ZONE TWO BUILDINGS W/TWO RETAIL ZONES VAV MULTI-ZONE TWO BUILDINGS W/12 CLASSROOMS UTILITY PROVIDERS AND RATES ELECTRIC GAS

PASADENA ELECTRIC COMPANY $0.20 PER KWh $1.20 PER THERM

USA AVERAGE $0.13 PER KWh $1.00 PER THERM

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Weekly Assignment #1 Baseline Design Objective: In this week’s assignment, we will use Los Angeles’ climate and code data as a tool to alter our building design and its approach. Upon completion, future investigation can be connducted with the newly obtained preliminary performance data and 3-D mass model. Task: With the climate and code data found in lab and a simple 3-D mass model come up with a baseline energy model and dat with the VASARI and ISEVE softwares. Climate Analysis for Los Angeles, CA Los Angeles has a climate which averages 520 hours of comfortable condtions annually. Humidity ranges from 50-100% and averages around 80%. Average temperatures range from 50-90 Deg-F. The comfort zone for Los Angeles is between 70 and 75 Deg-F with 60-80% humidity. Successful passive systems for this climate include Internal Heat Gain in the cooler months with Passive Solar Gain in the warmer months. According to the Temperature Range graph from Climate Control 5.4, Lost Angeles has a temperate climate with temperatures reaching higher temperatures from July-September. December-February have temperatures that dip below comfort level. This shows that Los Angeles has a favorable climate, with temperatures lying in the comfort zone for the majority of the year, so our building will not need an excess of heating and cooling strategies. Winds in the Los Angeles region rarely exceed 20 mph with a record high of over 50. Every month has a record low of 0. Average wind speeds range between 5 and 10 mph. Annual winds primarily blow in from the west-southwest directions. The low averages indicate that natural ventilation will not be of much use as a passive design. Diurnal Temperatures Range from 10 to 20 Deg-F. This remains common throughout the year. Night flush ventilation could be considered given the day to night temperature changes.

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Climate Relations to Mass:

The building mass when tested in Los Angeles climate recieved winds primarily from the southwest direction. The longer parts of the mass take a direct hit which can be useful for natural ventilation systems because of the narrow width of the forms.

Summer winds prevail from the southwest region while winter winds occasionally pass through the mass from a north direction. Since the mass is oriented almost on a north south access, winds can play a major role in achieving thermal comfort. The mass sits facing south so the wide south facades recieve most of the sunlight. The shorter sides are oriented mainly east west. For this climate the south facade will need shading devices and methods to prevent sunlight from the east and west sides.

Areas will overheat during the warmer months so a combination of sun shading and natural ventilation will be needed and can be achieved with this orientation given the area’s climate.

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Shading Profiles: Sunny days are common in the Los Angeles areas so sun shading is needed to provide comfortable temperature levels in buildings. Sun shading on the south orientation is needed almost year round to contain a comfortable environment with possiblly the exceptions of December through February. Fenestration be limited on the east and west sides and and used on the north side for diffused lighting purposes. Baseline Building Codes: Climate Zone Climate Design Data Minimum future energy generation Minimum Envelope Values Minimum Roof Values Max Fenestration Permanent Projections Interior Lighting Power Densities Interior Lighting Power Density factor HVAC System

3B 6323 6.0 BTU x Roof Area R-19.0 metal building R-13.0 + R13.0 40% 0.5 0.99 Standard home system

These baseline codes show the minimum energy and lighting power ratings for a specific building type in this particular climate. These ratings are based on climate, materials, structure, fenestration and surface area. These guidlines help determine what electrical and mechanical systems would be appropriate for a specific building type. By determining the minimum codes along with conciousness of the climate conditions, efficient systems can be chosen with more ease.

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Conclusion: Calculating climate data for this specific mass helps determine design issues such as orientation, passive systems, materials, lighting, electrical systems and mechanical systems. The various climatic charts provided information on what the best passive systems to use and which orientation based on sunlight and wind direction would be the most efficient. In this case the mass sits on a north south axis with soft winds primarily coming from the southwest and occassionaly the north. Two major passive systems can provide natural thermal comfort. Internal heat gain can be used during the day to provide warmth in the cooler months while solar shading systems, on the south side primarily since it will have the majority of the fenestration, will keep the building cool in the warmer months. Knowledge of baseline building codes are extremely useful to guide which systems to use in the complex. Narrowing it down to a specific building type helps determine the most efficient materials, HVAC systems, lighting, fenestration and the energy values they produce compared to others. It also shows the required minimum values a design can have in a specific climate. By responding to the natrual climate conditions and determining the best materials and energy systems the mass can now be further developed into an efficient building.

Original Baseline Model

Modified Baseline Model

Model Modifactions:

In order to simplify system design and increase efficiency, the total number of buildings in our complex decreased from 6 to 4 separate buildings. Each building creates its own zone which will require its own separate MEP systems. This also decreased the surface area of the walls, which now predominately face south to maximize solar gains. This reformed layout breaks the occupancy types into two mercantile zones and two educational zones. Having these occupancy types in separate buildings simplifies system choices to a specific type instead of designing a system to accomodate both. 6


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Weekly Assignment #2 Optimization and Energy Economics

Objective: As completed in this week’s lab, a benefit cost analysis is to be performed. Based on the analysis performed in lab of possible wall types, we now need to determine the best possible selection of window glazing using the same methods. To select the most efficient glazing type, we will perform a building energy simulation using IESVE. To determine which glazing would be the best possible choice, the energy simulation results must be compared to a cost analysis which will provide the cost/benefit ratio for each specific glazing type. Los Angeles’ climate must be largely considered in our experiment.

Cost diffferences of window types: Baseline glazing was chosen for our control factor to compare to the rest of the glazing types. The baseline glazing has a low cost, but the U Value is too high to be considered in our building, which has a high percentage of glazing. To determine which glazing types would be the most efficient, we chose four test types to compare the U value benefits versus the cost benefits. Our selection ranged from cheaper glazing with poorer U values to more costly glazing with better U values.

Window Type Solar Heat Gain CoeďŹƒcient U Value Visible Transparency Standard Glazing 0.25 1.221 0.76 4mm Pilkington Single Glazing 0.84 0.977 0.76 Double Glazing - Domestic 0.7 0.503 0.36 Clear Element (All solar gain transmitted) 1 1.003 1 Single-glazed window - Domestic 0.8 0.85 0.88

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Cost $12.15 $17.60 $30.50 $13.35 $22.50


Energy Cost Differences: After performing the energy usage analysis, our building had the lowest annual energy consumption when using the domestic double glazing, but its high cost per square foot gives it the third highest annual cost among the other types. Using the clear element glazing, our building had the highest energy consumption but its low cost per square foot made it the cheapest to use annualy. Window Type Los Angeles, CA Standard Glazing 4mm Pilkington Single Glazing Double Glazing - Domestic Clear Element (All solar gain transmitted) Single-glazed window - Domestic

Energy Expenditures Energy Usage (BTU) Cost 967.415 $12.15 774.09 $17.60 398.53 $30.50 794.69 $13.53 673.46 $22.50

Total Annual Cost $11,754.10 $13,624.00 $12,155.30 $10,752.20 $15,153

Benefit Cost Ratio Comparing the cost difference of the results, we found that the baseline glazing would be the most beneficial to use in our building because the marginal benefit was the largest, even though it is has the largest U value. The double glazing originally had the lowest U value, but it proved to be the least beneficial when applied. Window Type Total Annual Cost Los Angeles, CA Baseline Glazing $11,754.10 4mm Pilkington Single Glazing $13,624.00 Double Glazing - Domestic $12,155.30 Clear Element (All solar gain transmitted) $10,752.20 Single-glazed window - Domestic $15,153

10 yr Cost

Marginal Benefit

$117,540.10 $136,240.00 $121,550.30 $107,520.20 $151,530

1.34 1.08 0.55

1.12 0.93

Conclusion: Due to Los Angeles’ favorable annual climate, the standard glazing proved to be the most beneficial to our building. Los Angeles’ climate has a high percentage of days out of the year in the thermal comfort zone so using a high performance glazing type would be unnecessary because it would cost more to install with little difference in the building’s total energy consumption. Since the climate conditions are so favorable, the cheaper standard glazing produced the more favorable results, having the lowest solar heat gain coefficient which is important in Los Angeles’ year round sunny conditions, greatly reducing the enrgy used for cooling and fan powered units. 9


Energy Usage Anaylsis: Standard Glazing:

After applying standard glazing to our building, the main concern is the energy used for heating. This is probably due to the insulation values of the glazing. Since Los Angeles has favorable temperatures year round, heating, in reality, should not be an issue.

4mm Pilkington single glazing

When applying this glazing type, the energy used for heating reduced but the energy for cooling increased greatly. This is probably due to the high solar heat gain coefficient this glazing has. Fan and pump energy increases because of this as well.

Double Glazing - Domestic

The domestic double glazing lowers the energy used for heating and cooling when compared to the Pilkington, but is still uses more than the standard glazing. Fan energy reduces as well.

Clear Element

Clear element causes the highest energy use for cooling out of all the tested glazing types. This is because all solar gain is transmitted, causing a solar heat gain coefficient of 1. It also tops the list for fan and pump energy use.

Single-glazed window - domestic

This glazing type, when applied causes a great amount of energy used for cooling and fans, so the most efficient glazing type proves to be the standard glazing.

*Lighting and equipment energy use remains unchanged for this test because these systems will be designed in the later assignments.

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Weekly Assignment #3: High-Performance envelope design

Objective: Using our baseline model chosen in lab 1, our objective is to analyze how the building envelope will perform in Los Angeles’ climate region. Using different materials and structure types, we will compare the performance of the envelope to the baseline model standards of AHRAE 189.1 and determine what systems will increase effeciency and attempt to meet the standards of the 2030 challenge.

In this educational culinary center including retail, there are 4 main thermal zones which were primarily distigiushed by these factors. -Occupancy types -Mechanical Systems

Building Envelope Optimization We will refer to ASHRAE 189.1 to determine baseline values for our climate zone. This will provide us with a starting point so we can compare what building envelope strategies to choose so our building receives the highest efficiency and lowest carbon emissions.

Each zone is located in a separate building in the complex and is oriented facing south. Zones 1 and 3 are designated for educational purposes while zones 2 and 4 are occupied by retail. The buildings are separated so that each zone will get enough sunlight to enter the south facing windows. Since each zone has the opportunity to take advantage of the south sun, glazing on the other oriented walls have minimal glazing. Each zone is equipped with a Single Zone VAV system.

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Test Preparations Our model is composed of a network of rectangles that vary in size and height. Each rectangular section will be its own zone each with its own roofing system and floor slab. Walls and fenestration will only vary depending on orientation. For this exercise, we will run the simulations with all zones having the same glazing and wall types to help us later determine what materials are needed for each orientation. Our next step is to run a simulation, using baseline materials, and analyze each zone’s enegy use and emissions. This will help us determine how efficient the baseline materials are in Los Angeles’ climate region. Then we will begin to take the necessary steps needed to raise efficiency through use of fenestration design and material use.

BASELINE SIMULATION After running the baseline simulation in accordance to the ASHRAE 198.1 standards our building recorded the following results: -mBTU: -EUI: -CO2 Emissions:

1,116.2 mBTUs 58.0 kBTU/ft2 137,090 lbCO2

The U-Values recorded for each material selected are the following: -Walls: -Glazing: -Roofs: -Floors:

Sheet Steel: Baseline Glazing: Asphalt w/ Cast Concrete: Un-insulated solid ground floor:

U-Value = 1.036 U-Value = 1.221 U-Value = 0.356 U-Value = 0.124

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Increasing the Envelope Efficiency To increase the building’s efficiency and lower carbon emissions, we ran four different tests, applying materials with varying construction types and U-Values. To study how each material effected the total carbon emissions produced, we applied a different material to each construction type one step at a time, starting with glazing. TEST #1: GLAZING STUDY -mBTU: -EUI: -CO2 Emissions:

855.9 mBTUs 44.4 kBTU/ft2 106,797 lbCO2

The U-Values recorded for each material selected are the following: -Walls: -Glazing: -Roofs: -Floors:

Sheet Steel: Large Dbl Glazing (Reflective Coating): Asphalt w/ Cast Concrete: Un-insulated solid ground floor:

U-Value = 1.036 U-Value = 0.514 U-Value = 0.356 U-Value = 0.124

*Highlighted selections are elements that have changed from the baseline design. 14


Using a more efficient glazing provided a slight change in the overall envelope performance. The south windows, when equipped with a higher reflectance, reduces energy used for cooling during overheated periods, which in Los Angeles, is not common throughout the year.

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TEST #2: WALL STUDY -mBTU: -EUI: -CO2 Emissions:

376.3 mBTUs 20.9 kBTU/ft2 50,517.9 lbCO2

The U-Values recorded for each material selected are the following: -Walls: -Glazing: -Roofs: -Floors:

8 in. light weight concrete: Large Dbl Glazing (Reflective Coating): Asphalt w/ Cast Concrete: Un-insulated solid ground floor:

U-Value = 0.143 U-Value = 0.514 U-Value = 0.356 U-Value = 0.124

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Changing the walls to a material with higher insulation greatly effects the energy usage. High insulating walls will maintain thermal comfort within the space by minimizing heat gain or loss. Los Angeles’ favorable climate will be maintained within each building with little use of mechanical systems. The reason for such a large jump in energy reduction percentage can be attributed to the amount of exterior walls in our building. The more walls that are heavily insulated, the more energy efficient the spaces become. TEST #3: ROOF STUDY -mBTU: -EUI: -CO2 Emissions:

286.6mBTUs 15.9 kBTU/ft2 40,084.9 lbCO2

The U-Values recorded for each material selected are the following: -Walls: -Glazing: -Roofs: -Floors:

8 in. light weight concrete: Large Dbl Glazing (Reflective Coating): Flat roof light weight concrete: Un-insulated solid ground floor:

U-Value = 0.143 U-Value = 0.514 U-Value = 0.225 U-Value = 0.124

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The roof is the portion of a building that takes the biggest beating when it comes to energy efficiency. This is exposed to all of the elements, and is the most common palce for energy leakage. By using the chosen roof, with sufficient insulation will allow the thermal comfort zone to be maintained. Concrete is typically a lighter color, and will absorb less energy than a darker roof. TEST #3: FLOOR STUDY -mBTU: -EUI: -CO2 Emissions:

185.5mBTUs 10.3 kBTU/ft2 28,314.8 lbCO2

The U-Values recorded for each material selected are the following: -Walls: -Glazing: -Roofs: -Floors:

8 in. light weight concrete: Large Dbl Glazing (Reflective Coating): Flat roof light weight concrete: Concrete w/ insulation:

U-Value = 0.143 U-Value = 0.514 U-Value = 0.225 U-Value = 0.044

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Since it is imperative to create a complete seal around an entire building, modifying the floors from un-insulated solid ground, to concrete with insulation will provide that complete seal for maximum efficiency, ensuring that energy within the building is not wasted or leaked.

BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS: 137,090 lbCO2 CARBON EMISSIONS AFTER ENVELOPE IMPROVEMENT: 28,314 lbCO2 TOTAL REDUCTION: 78%

*Carbon Dioxide is the main greenhouse gas produced by human activities. Everything that goes into a building effects the carbon emissions it produces. Materials, mechanical and electrical systems all contribute to these emissions. Energy use and carbon emissions are directly related in building use. The more energy used in a building will require systems to run and release harmful carbon emissions. The carbon emissions are the negative effect of using these energy systems. The less energy we use in a building the less carbon emissions we produce. The Architecture 2030 Challenge aims to reduce these emissions and cut down energy use by designing buildings more carefully and reponding to the natural climate conditions.

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Conclusion: In Los Angeles’ climate, the building envelope should respond to the abundance of sunshine and yearly warm-moderate conditions. Sunlight will be the most important factor to deal with. Efficient glazing analyzed in the previous assignment will play a major role in reducing energy use and carbon emissions. Shading devices, roof overhangs, insulated walls, and window orientation will need to be modified to highten efficiency. Glazing will need to be shaded on the south side while north facing windows can be used to allow diffused lighting. the east and west oriented windows should avoid using glazing to reduce uncontrollable thermal gain. A well insulated envelope will maintain a comfortable thermal condition within the building by maintaining Los Angeles’ comfortable temperatures throughout the day.

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Weekly Assignment #4: HVAC System Reccomendation

Objective: By referencing the material studied in lab 4, we will determine the appropriate HVAC systems for our building model. Using the ASHRAE Handbook Applications, online and print journals, we will be able to choose the best systems for our building’s specific function and location. Once the suitable HVAC systems are chosen, we will compare and contrast each one to determine which one, when applied, is the most efficient based on numerous performance factors, needs, maintenance, and cost. Once the most efficient system is chosen, the spatial requirements and components will be further analyzed.

Appropriate HVAC Systems: The program for this specific building is a gastronomy center. The conditioned spaces for the buildings will be the educational spaces (classrooms) located in two of the structures, and retail spaces in the remaining two structures. Since the model is a complex of buildings verses a traditional single building, an efficient HVAC system for each building will be required to be separate. The Edward Allen Tables in reference to buildings with educational and retail occupancies suggests us to utilize these four HVAC systems: Variable Air Volume (VAV) Single Zone VAV Multi-zone VAV Reheat System Fan Coil Terminal Out of these four, VAV Single Zone and VAV Multi-zone are the two optimal HVAC systems functionality. VAV Single Zone systems are specialized to meet constantly changing thermal zones similar to the requirements of retail space. A VAV Reheat system is similar the single zone, independent from outside air ventilation. It terminally reheats circulating air to satisfy ventilation needs. Fan Coil Terminals are preferable in residential, commercial, and industrial buildings where multiple zones will require different conditioning. It requires no duct work and is not centralized throughout the whole building. Fan coils are simple, but produce excess noise pollution. VAV Multi-zone systems are ideal for areas with multiple zones that require similar conditioning. An educational space such as a school with multiple rooms is an ideal place to use this system because it allows each individual classroom to be conditioned based on its needs. 22


Comparison of Possible HVAC Systems: HVAC System Fan Terminal Units

VAV Reheat

Single Zone VAV

Multizone VAV

Description

Performance

Efficiency

Spatial/Opperational Needs Costs (Initial) Cost (LCC)

Recylces heat load from machines, lighting, building systems, and building components.

Solves high variable space Signifantly reduce energy Need hot and chilled water to loads, high ventilation consumption. Makes balancing the opperate. Minimal Space required rates and energy unit easier. efficiency. Noisy.

Central cooling fan systems on roof supply 55 deg to 60 deg air in ceiling mounted ducts to VAV reheat boxes in perimeter zones, cooling-only or reheat boxes in interior zones. Return air through ceiling duct. Cooling fans have outdoor air economizers.

Noise problems may occur near fan rooms and shafts. Slight VAV box noise and hiss from diffusers. Any number of zones may be used, but at high cost per zone

Under normal operation, reheat systems cause high heating cost. During off-hours operation, VAV boxes isolate unoccupied areas to minimize usage

Significant duct space above ceiling. Low shell & Few units required wiring core costs Highest zone costs.

Feeds one zone from one unit. The unit capacity changes to maintain constant air temperature.

One benefit to the airflow reduction is the reduction in fan noise due to change in speed

Uses less energy than constant volume systems.

Variable speed suplly fan, variable capacity compressor, variable speed condensor fan motor. Generally used in small zones.

Provides constant air temperature and Motorized dampers in the varies the quantity supplied to each air handeling unit, but zone. Each zone has its own control. controlled by thermostats in each zon.

Analysis Outcome:

Each unit is capable of handeling up Additional duct spacing will to 8 zone. Somewhat wasteful of increase space need in ceiling energy because of hot and cold air cavity. mixture of same duct.

Unit costs

Requires a separate unit for each zone. More zones=higher cost. Relatively high because of duplication of ducts

Maintenance

Low long term cost.

Requires routine inspections for dirt and debris based on environmental condiontions Systems are Rooftop equipment notorious for Frequent energy wastage, Maintenance/VAV Boxes specifically in Occasional cooler climates. Maintenance/Piping above ceiling risks water damage Can save more money in long run because each space is individualized.

Fairly simple system in comparison, less componenets to maintain.

Energy wastage Faily complex system. costs. More maintainence than simpler systems

Similar to our project, this case study compares the school to the commercial retail aspect of the programatic function. Even though the program is physically split, using the same system for these pieces will generate enough energy savings to pay itself off in approximately three and a half years. This is evident from table 4 in quest energy’s evaluation of a Single Zone VAV System.

VAV Multi-zone system is utilized within this project for two of the four buildings in the complex. These two buildings are comprised of educational classrooms that require individualized thermal control due to the variable occupancy load. The fluctuation of inhabitants and the location of zones affect the zonal cooling and heating loads. The VAV multi-zone system is advantageous for these two buildings because it eliminates the “all or nothing“ situation that comes with other single zone systems. The multi-zoned system also saves huge amounts of energy by restricting airflow with dampers to areas not in use. With zoning HVAC systems, overcooled or overheated areas are eliminated, limiting energy use. Comfort is more controllable because it allows specific temperature and airflow requirements of one area, without affecting other areas (thermostats). The unit performance is quiet and delivers peak performance and efficiency without continually operating at peak capacity; less noise at lower speeds. VAV Single zone system is utilized for the remaining two buildings of the complex. The program change from multiple classrooms for education function (building 1 and 3) to larger public retail spaces (building 2 and 4) with a mercantile function requires a different HVAC system to be the most efficient. The VAV single zone system would better serve the larger retail zones because the whole space would be active unlike individual classrooms. 23


Single Zone VAV Components:

Expansion valve

Evaporative coil

Condensor Coil

Single Zone VAV schematic diagram example: Single Zone VAV General Layout: The general layout of the VAV systems consist of four different air flows consisting of outside air, supply air, return air, and exhaust air. A variable air flow fan for supply and exhaust fan specifies the location of the fan components. A VAV box which connects to the thermostat in each zone.

Spatial Requirements The comprised of a cooling coil, water valve. fan, damper, and thermostat, the chosen Single Zone VAV System requires a minimal amount of ceiling cavity space to remain operable. From the main components, duct work carries the air current to the terminals for dispertion. Water Side Requirements The water side system of the Single zone VAV requires water to be supplied to the main system located in the mechanical room. The cooling coils and the chiller are fed through their designated hot and cold water supply which then condition the air to the desired temperature. 24


Multizone VAV Components:

Multizone VAV diagram:

MultizoneVAV schematic diagram example:

Multizone VAV General Layout: The general layout of the Multizone VAV system is similar to the Single zone System. The difference of this system is that each zone contains its own unit to condition that individual zone. Each zone is equipped with a thermostat which controls the air pressure and temperatue. Thus more duct work will be necessary. Spatial Requirements The space required for the Multizone system is greater than the Single Zone System due to an increased amount of necessary duct work. Space for the individual zone units will require more cavity space to install as well. Water Side Requirements The water side system of the Multizone VAV requires water lines to be ran to each individual VAV unit. Since each zone is heated and cooled based on the needs of that individual zone, cold water and hot water lines travel to each zone’s VAV unit which then manage the temperature. This can be somewhat pricier than other units for initial costs, however efficiancy will pay off in the long term . 25


Conclusion: Since Los Angeles has a temperate climate with favorable conditions throughout the majority of the year, cooling will be the main need to condition outside air to achieve thermal comfort levels during overheated periods. We needed a system that would cool spaces specific to our building program. Our program, being composed of 4 different structures with different program types including mercantile and education, will require different HVAC systems to compliment the previous analysis. The educational portion of our complex will require a Multizone VAV system to distribute the needed air quality for each individual classroom within the building. the mercantile portion of our complex willr equire a Single Zone VAV system because each building with this occupancy type is mainly one large room which will house the same activity. The air flow and temperature in these spaces will be the same so the Single Zone system proved to be the best choice. After comparing the possible HVAC systems for our program, we have decided that these two systems will be the most appropriate for our buildings. They showed to be the most efficient based on costs, performance, maintenance and spatial needs. Each stucture would require an individual system since it would be inefficient to run ducts from building to building. If our program was all under one roof, our decision might have had a different outcome, but the organization of the complex and occupancy types had complete control over our decision.

Resources: Advanced Variable Air Volume Vav System Design Guide. In (2009). California Public Utilities Commission (Ed.), Energy Design Resources. Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Retrieved from http://energydesignresources.com/media/2651/EDR_DesignGuidelines_VAV.pdf?tracked=true Bradshaw, V. (2006). The building environment. (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Krueger. (2012). Terminal unit engineering. Retrieved from http://www.krueger-hvac.com/ecatalog/getfile2.aspx?fileid=3089 Quest Energy Group. (n.d.). Air-cooled unitary single-zoned vav. Retrieved from http://www.questenergy.com/files/Single-Zone-VAV-Evaluation.pdf American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. (2012). 2012 ashrae handbook. (SI ed.). Atlanta, Ga: ASHRAE.

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Weekly Assignment #5: HVAC Design

OBJECTIVE: This week’s assignment calls for a revision of out mechanical system in our building to not only follow standards established by ASHRAE 189.1 but also address the reduction of carbon emissions by the principles of the 2030 Challenge and its goals.

The 2030 Challenge: Governing principles: Initial design phases and strategies, new technology of mechinical systems, renewable energy, and supporting materials must all comply to reduce the carbon footprints and energy consumption of new and exsisting projects. Overarching objectives: By 2030, all new building projects must be carbon neutral by following sustainable design procedures. An equal amount of existing buildings must be rennovated to meet these standards as well. Beyond 2030, these design principles and carbon neutrality will become the new minimum standard for construction and planning.

Implementation by the building design community: The 2030 Challenge was first implemented by AIA. Following shortly after, firms, businesses, local, state and finally federal governments started to adopt the ideas of the 2030 challenge, making it a national goal. Organizations such as LEED and The Living Building Challenge have gained national recognition by achieving this standard of design. Extent of impact of the initiatives: Today the neccessity of this initiative is known worldwide as designers are using these guidelines. LEED and The Living Building Challenge award construction that meets these standards and more firms are striving for this goal. Other companies such as appliance companies strive for energy star ratings and companies which produce building materials are starting to take the initiative to provide products that produce less GHS (greenhouse gases). 28


Reducing Carbon Emission Levels: Facade improvements: In assinment 3 our building’s facade had about 20% glazing. Our structures also housed one program type per zone. Each zone has a separate structure. In hopes of improving the facades thermal characteristics we further reduced the glazing to 10%, reason being the temperate climate of Los Angeles glazing and solar gains produced are small and have little affect on Energy Use intensity. The majority of the glazing is located on the south orientation so solar gains can be controlled. Shading devices and well inulated materials will maintain the favorable climatic temperatures and keep the interior zones at a comfortable level Solar Radiation (cooling): Louvers designed to move in 15 degree inteverals were set to a timed schedule according to the building type. This had little effect on energy consumption due to the favorable climate conditions in Los Angeles explained in the paragraph above. The louvers should still be considered, just not in excess to avoid unneeded solar heat gain. Solar Radiation (Heating): Due to Los Angeles favorable year round temperate conditions solar radiation during winter months (heating periods), it was not neccessary to optimize solar heat gain during those periods. Ventilation: Natural ventilation can be useful for the periods of the year which exceed thermal comfort. When needed, cross ventilation can be considered, but with Los Angeles’ 5 to 10 mph wind average, the required air movement might not always be available. Night flush ventilation might be a better strategy to cool spaces with diurnal temperatures reaching 20 degrees between night and day. This will work with the well insulated envelope to keep these temperatures on the interior for an extended period of time throughout the day. For the passive solution of night ventilation to be properly conducted, modifications of larger doors and openings were put back into our project. This strategy helped reduce the energy used for cooling and had minimal affect on solar gain because the temperate climate. HVAC Systems: The most effcient HVAC systems to be used for our project would be a Single Zone VAV for mercantile use and a Multizone VAV system for educational purposes. After exploring other systems and further analyzing the VAV systems, we modified our structures to be 4 separate buildings that would have 4 indivudal systems which would not require duct work from building to building. Energy Recovery Strategies: Energy recovery strategies for heating and cooling may not be necessary for our climate because it is comfortable the majority of the year. It would not be economical to add these strategies because they would be costly and have little impact on energy consumption. Other strategies such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels will be a great opportunity to capture energy from Los Angeles’ year-round sunny conditions. Sunlight is available year round and a large amount of energy can be absorbed if we place these panels in reasonable locations on the building. 29


Results vs. Baseline Simulation: When comparing the VE energy simulation results to the base case, it is noted that our results came back approximately 33.3 percent more efficient. In the base case there was nothing changed as well as no designated energy attributes. Throughout trial and error regarding material choice, solar studies, as well as HVAC systems we have found that simple changes can make the biggest difference on a building. Heating energy was reduced from 153.3 mBTU to 133.7 mBTU. This system is still undoubtedly using a large amount of energy; however a 20 mBTU reduction is a major difference. Cooling was reduced by 88 percent from 105.1 to 12.5 mBTU primarily because of night cooling and ventilation. Fans, pumps, and controls we reduced 90 percent because of the integration of HVAC systems as well as the usage based on hours of operation. Lights and Equipment stayed the same, possibly due to the fact that electrical lighting and equipment has not yet been considered in analysis. Only daylighting has been analyzed thus far. Due to simple changes, Yearly Energy consumption has gone down from a baseline of 943.3 mBTU to 683.4 mBTU. Approximately a 33 percent difference, which makes a big difference in utility costs.

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Required CFM: According to the VE results, each zone has seen a reduction in cfm needed from the baseline results. Our results show that Zone 1 requires a 0.66 cfm. This zone was analyzed using a VAV reheat system. Zone 2 was analyzed using a single zone VAV system, and requires .29 cfm. Zone 3 was analyzed using a baseline system suggested for retail building typologies. Zone 4 came in with 0.31 cfm for a basic VAV system. According to these results, the single zone VAV was most efficient in that it requires the least amount of airflow. Lesser airflow translates to less energy needed to create airflow so therefore this system again proves to be the most efficient for our building. Baseline CFM

Results CFM

Total Airflow Supply Data :

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Andrew Foster | Yush Chandat | James Lennon | Adam Reis Weekly Assignment #5a: HVAC Design (continued)

Objective:

After determining the proper mechanical system in ordinance to ASHRAE 189.1 and the 2030 Challenge for our building we now have to size and organize the distribution components (duct work) of our HVAC system. Task: Referencing the formulas in lab five, we sized our ducts to meet the cubic feet per meter requirements for each zone.

Supply Air Return Air Supply Terminal Return Terminal Multizone VAV System Air Handling Unit Single Zone VAV System

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Preliminary HVAC Design:

Schematic Designs:

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Index of Duct Sizes used:

34


35


36


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Weekly Assignment #6: Daylighting and Electric Lighting Simulation

Objective: IES VE will be used to design a lighting system for the buildings. Abiding by the IES required illuminance levels, the artificial lighting system will work in tandum with the natural lighting already penetrating the space. By utilizing modifications made based on previous iterations, we will increase energy savings throughout the design and analysis of an integrated lighting system.

IES Target Illuminance Level: **30 FOOT CANDLES

DAYLIGHTING DISTRIBUTION:

Analysis: The daylighting distribution in the front and back buildings is relatively spread out and equal. In the middle structures, the lighting levels dramatically decrease as you approach the core. This is a result of the cast shadows from the taller, southern most building shading the inner courtyards. Modifications: Daylight is already optimize due to the high amount of sunny day in Los Angeles. In collaboration with previous assignments, adjustments were made to the building’s form and 38 fenestration to optimize natural lighting.


Electric Lighting Distribution: Daylight levels vs. IES target illuminance level The resulting calculations show ample amounts of sunlight penetrating into the interior of the space. The lowest illuminance level recorded meets the target illuminance level established in the first portion of the assignment. Electric Lighting Scheme To accommaodate for periods with an overcast of dark clouds or night time, a uniform lighting grid was used. Using an equal distribution of artificial lighting throughout the interior spaces, the target illuminance will be achieved even in the worst of times/conditions.

Lighting type + Designing process Lighting type : Crompton Dulcet linear Upper table depicts the selection process of the Crompton Dulcet Linear light, a simple lighting fixture for this analysis Lower table depicts the optimal light displacement options, number one being the most suitable foot candle for our program needs.

Lighting Displacement This diagram depicts the lighting fixture layout which will be analyzed. Because of the optimal natural lighting conditions, a uniform dispersement was used to accommodate for nighttime usage.

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Artificial Lighting: The diagram to the right shows the footcandles within the spaces when artificial lighting is active. the footcandle total is just above the required footcandle minimum of 30.

Analysis: During daytime the project utilizes natural lighting to the full potential, but could still use some artificial foot candles for assistance towards the inner voided space. The combined lighting image shows the slight balancing that takes place when the two are implemented at the same time. The reason we used the amount of lighting fixtures we did for our analysis was because it was suggested layout based on the footcandles needed for our space. This is simply a study, and based off of the daylighting analysis, we will place lights as needed because the suggested lighting design will require too much energy to opporate. Based on the diagram (right), everything meets the 30 footcandle minimum(red), blue areas exceed the necessary footcandle requirements for that space. Conclusion: The results in this exercise showed how big of an impact natural lighting has over artificial lighting. Natural lighting as a passive strategy reduces the building’s energy consumption and eliminates energy usage caused by the need of artificial light. Window placement and the reflectance of materials play a major role in the distribution of natural light throughout a space. “Natural lighting should be used more as the primary source of ambient light, while artificial light should be used separately for highlights and nighttime. The two beasts should be used separately to bring certain emotions and feeling to the particular space.� 40 - Lisa Heschong


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Weekly Assignment #7 Electrical System Design

Objective: Using our building’s information and location of other mechanical systems, we will design an electrical system that will most efficiently collaborate with other building systems and passive strategies to effectively light the space when daylight is not available.

Electrical System Layout (Ceiling Plan)

2’x4’ Acoustic tile ceiling

Supply air vent

Return air vent

2x4 Troffer light fixture (160W/120V)

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Conclusion: The general layout of our designed electrical system is based off the intended structural grid to evenly distribute light to each individual building. Since the ocupancy types are mercantile and education, the building will be in operation during evening hours with no daylight available. This requires electrical systems to distribute the necessary light so occupants can perform their tasks. Both education and retail spaces require a large amount of light to function so we chose 2x4 troffer lights as a starting fixture to align with the grid of the ceiling tile. The lights generally run along with the mechanical systems in each building in coordinance with the inteded grid. The electrical system will only be used during periods of insufficient daylighting to avoid increased energy costs.

Electrical System/ Mechanical System Axonometric

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Weekly Assignment #8 Electrical System Design

Objective: Using our electrical system design in the previous project, we must determine the various electrical loads and power needed to efficiently light the space when needed. We will provide a detailed list of the components of the system, their location, circuit rooms, wiring systems and other relevant fixtures that work to create the system as a whole. Given our building’s occupancy type and our climate’s sunny year-round conditions, we will determine if the system is efficiently designed to work in unison with daylighting.

Lighting Fixture Schedule: Fixture Type A B C D

BUILDING 1 Description 2X4 Troffer Light Wall Mounted Sconce Light Emergency Light Exit Sign

Number Wattage 16 160 8 100 4 100 4 100

Total 2560 800 400 400 4160

Fixture Type A B C D

BUILDING 2 Description 2X4 Troffer Light Wall Mounted Sconce Light Emergency Light Exit Sign

Number Wattage 26 160 6 100 4 100 2 100

Total 4160 600 400 200 5360

Fixture Type A B C D

BUILDING 3 Description 2X4 Troffer Light Wall Mounted Sconce Light Emergency Light Exit Sign

Number Wattage 14 160 4 100 5 100 2 100

Total 2240 400 500 200 3340

Fixture Type A B C D

BUILDING 4 Description 2X4 Troffer Light Wall Mounted Sconce Light Emergency Light Exit Sign

Number Wattage 20 160 8 100 4 100 4 100

Total 3200 800 400 400 4800

*All fixtures are 120V running on a 120V circuit *Mechanical system is the only component that runs on a 240V circuit

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A

Ceiling Plan

C

2

1

3

2 2

1

5

3

D

4

1

3

3 1

4

2

Floor Plan 5

10

4

9

B

7 8

6

8

5 4 8

7

7

6

11

9 10

6

9

6

7 11

9

10

8

5

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Fixture Legend

A B C D

Panel Schedule

      

     

      

     

      

    

      

     

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Conclusion The electrical system is designed to cluster the fixtures so that the 1400W circuit maximum is not exceeded. The outlets are evenly spaced throughout each building to provide the power necessary for the occupancy needs. Circuits are evenly distributed on the panel to avoid overload and short circuiting. The emergency lighting is placed according to code to highlight exit paths and doors in the event of a fire. Emergency lighting has also been placed in the mechanical and electrical room to allow emergency responders proper lighting to fix the systems in the event of a failure. The overall system is designed according to the proposed grid to evenly distribute light throughout each building and coordinate with other present systems.

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Weekly Assignment #9 Water Supply, Waste, and Conservation

Objective: Using the International Plumbing Code and strategies performed in Lab 9, we will design the water supply, waste and stormwater systems for our building. Each building will require its own individual systems so results and design will be based off of each building’s occupancy types. for our complex we have two educational occupancies and two mercantile occupancies. Educational spaces will have an occupancy load of 150 people while mercantile spaces will have an occupancy load of 100 people.

International Plumbing Code Requirements:

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Water Supply System Design: Fixtures needed for each occupancy type: Occupancy

Load

Educational Mercantile

150 per building 100

Occupancy

Educational

Water Closets Urinals Male Female 2 3 1 1

Lavatories Drinking Fountains Service Sink Male Female

1 0

Fixture # of Fixtures WSFU WC 5 5 Urinal 1 3 Lav 6 2 Drinking Fountain 2 0.25 Service Sink 1 3 Total

3 1

3 1

2 1

1 1

Total 25 3 12 0.5 3 43.5

Water Flow Rate: 29 gpm Farthest Fixture Pressure Requirement: -Water Closet -6 gpm (.38 L/s) -20 psi (138 kPa) -Max Flow: 1.6 gal per cycle

Occupancy

Mercantile

Fixture # of Fixtures WSFU WC 2 5 Urinal 0 3 Lav 2 2 Drinking Fountain 1 0.25 Service Sink 1 3 Total

Total 10 0 4 0.25 3 17.25

Water Flow Rate: 14 gpm Farthest Fixture Pressure Requirement: -Water Closet -6 gpm (.38 L/s) -20 psi (138 kPa) -Max Flow: 1.6 gal per cycle System Design Dimensions: Building Number 1 2 3 4

Height (ft) 10 10 10 10

Width (ft) 13 3 15 3

Length (ft) Developed Length (ft) Equivalent Length (ft) Total Equivalent Length (ft) 37 60 30 90 35 48 24 72 15 40 20 60 20 33 16.5 49.5

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Pressure Loss and Pressure Drop: Building Number 1 2 3 4

Pressure Loss Due to Friction (psi) Horizontal (Width) Horizontal (Length) 7.4 2.6 0.6 7 3 3 4 0.6

Pressure Loss Due to Elevation (psi) Vertical 4.33 4.33 4.33 4.33

Total Pressure Loss (psi)

Pressure Drop (psi)

24.33 21.33 20.33 18.93

0.24 0.21 0.2 0.19

Pump sizes: -Flow at main = 50 psi -Furthest Fixture Pressure = 20 psi Building 1: 20 psi - 25 psi - 10 psi = -15 psi 50 psi - 15 psi = 35 psi extra pressure, so no pump needed. Building 2: 20 psi - 22 psi - 10psi = -12 psi 50 psi - 12 psi = 38 psi extra pressure, so no pump needed. Building 3: 20 psi - 21 psi - 10 psi = -11 psi 50 psi - 11 psi = 39 psi extra pressure, so no pump needed. Building 4: 20 psi - 19 psi - 10 psi = 9 psi 50 psi - 9 psi = 41 psi extra pressure, so no pump needed. *Velocity for each building is less than 10 fps: Meets IPC requirements Restroom Locations in Relation to Building Form:

*Restrooms are located adjacent to mechanical rooms, which is where the main water supply will enter the building.

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3 Dimensional Plumbing Riser Diagram:

Building 1 Restroom (Educational):

Building 3 Restroom (Educational):

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Sample Educational Restroom Section: Due to the occupancy requirements of the Educational buidings, bathrooms need to be larger because of the number of required lavatories and water closets.

Water tank and supply pipes

Building 2 Restroom (Mercantile):

Building 4 Restroom (Mercantile):

Sample Mercantile Restroom Section: Restrooms for Mercantile occupancy are smaller in dimension. Our expected occupancy load is 100 people so only one toilet for each gender is needed due to the shortened amount of time spent in retail stores compared to classrooms and educational spaces. Some smaller retail stores only provide restrooms for employees.

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Water Supply Pipe Sizes: Hot Supply Cold Suply Cold Supply Elbow Hot Supply Elbow Water Supply from Main

1/2 inch 1/2 inch 1/2 inch 1/2 inch 2 inch

Carbon Steel Pipe PVC Pipe PVC Pipe Carbon Steel Pipe Steel Pipe

Waste System: Pipe Dimensions All fixtures require a water trap. Waste pipes are 4” diameter with a 1/4” slope per foot. Vent pipes are 2” diameter connecting and extending through roof. Example Restroom Section:

Vent Pipes

Waste Pipes

Drainage Fixture Units Educational Occupancy

Mercantile Occupancy

Fixture dfu # of Fixtures Total

Fixture dfu # of Fixtures Total

WC Urinals Lav

WC 4 Urinals 0.5 Lav 1 Fountain 0.5 S.S. 2

4 0.5 1

5 1 6

20 0.5 6

Fountain 0.5 S.S. 2

2 1

1 2 29.5

2 0 2 1 1

8 0 2 0.5 2 12.5 55


3 Dimensional Riser Diagram with Waste System:

Stormwater System Design:

Number and location of roof drains: All of the roofs slope slightly to the south at a 1/12 slope. This allows all of the water to flow to the southern side of the roofs to be collected by the gutters. From there, the water flows into the leaders, or down spouts, and out to the drainage system. Since we have such a dynamic roof scape, each roof (17 in total) will have its own gutter and down spout. The drainage system will typically run to the sewers, however, we will study how56 to reuse this water in a water conservation system.


Water Conservation: Reduction of Water Use: Some of the techniques we have considered to reduce water use in our building involve efficiency and technology. Some of the ways we can accomplish this are using higher efficiency fixtures such as toilets, automatic sensors for faucets, introducing leak detection systems and the reuse of rain water through collection systems. Reuse of Water: Grey Water - Channeling rain water into collection systems could be an opportunity to reuse grey water. This use of collection cisterns can produce grey water to be used for sinks and toilets, watering plants, and cleaning. The gutter system will channel the water into these cisterns to be treated for potable use. Black Water - Black water could possibly be treated through use of a living machine. It is crucial to treat black water before reuse because fo the bacteria present. Bio-mediation Schemes: Using a living machine can be a solution to treating waste water efficiently and naturally. These systems are designed to mimmick the natural water cleansing process that occurs in constructive wetlands. These systems are increasing in popularity and can be found in Oberlin, and Bath, Ohio as well as all over the United States. These machines use plants to clean the water for potable use and provide areas for natural vegetation and learning opportunities, which could be integrated in the educational spaces of our complex.

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Water Conservation Sketch:

This sketch shows how rain water can be collected and pumped back ito the building for reuse after treatment.

Conclusion: Since our complex is composed of four buildings with two different occupancy types, the plumbing design requirements differed between educational and mercantile spaces, based on the International Plumbing Code Standards. The educational spaces required an increased number of fixtures to accomodate the students and faculty that would be using the space for an extended period of time. The mercantile spaces required smaller bathrooms with less fixtures to accomodate the customers that would only be using the space for shortened periods. Design options for the reduction of water use in bathrooms include high efficiency toilets, automatic sensor lavatories, leakage detection systems and storm water systems. These systems will greatly cut down water waste and allow the process of water reuse. Each building has a system of roofs which vary in height and size, so to make the runoff system simple, we sloped all of the roofs to the south so the water can flow to a common point and be collected easily. This collection system can then be equipped with cisterns and other bio-mediation schemes such as a living machine to process the water and clean it for potable reuse. These systems will reduce the amount of water use and consumption by making it possible to process the water on site instead of the use of treatment plants.

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BEGINNING BUILDING DESIGN ELEMENTS PROJECT NAME: LOCATION: TOTAL SITE AREA: TOTAL BUILT UP AREA:

L.A. GASTRONOMY LOS ANGELES 56,000 sq.ft. 17,986 sq. ft.

GROUP 10: YUSH CHANDAT ANDREW FOSTER JAMES LENNON ADAM REIS

AREA BREAK-UP BLDG 1 BLDG 2 BLDG 3 BLDG 4

ACTIVITIES EDUCATIONAL RETAIL EDUCATIONAL RETAIL

AREA 3410 sq. ft. 5635 sq. ft. 3378 sq. ft. 5563 sq. ft.

WALL TO WINDOW RATIO WALL NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST

TOTAL AREA 9500 sq.ft. 10600 sq. ft. 3400 sq. ft. 3500 sq. ft.

GLAZED/WINDOW AREA 4750 sq. ft. 990 sq. ft. 340 sq. ft. 350 sq. ft.

CONSTRUCTION TYPE WALL ROOF SLABS GLASS

8IN LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE FLAT ROOF LIGHT WEIGHT CONCRETE CONCRETE W/ INSULATION LARGE DBL GLAZING (REFLECTIVE COATING)

ENVELOPE INSULATION VALUES WALL ROOF SLABS GLASS

WALL TO WINDOW AREA (A/B) 2 TO 1 8 TO 1 10 TO 1 10 TO 1

0.143 0.225 0.044 0.514

MECHANICAL SYSTEM HVAC VAV SINGLE ZONE TWO BUILDINGS W/TWO RETAIL ZONES VAV MULTI-ZONE TWO BUILDINGS W/12 CLASSROOMS UTILITY PROVIDERS AND RATES ELECTRIC GAS

PASADENA ELECTRIC COMPANY $0.20 PER KWh $1.20 PER THERM

USA AVERAGE $0.13 PER KWh $1.00 PER THERM

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Design Reflection: Through out this process, we have learned to work through the difficulties of designing a more efficient building in the inteded climate. The overall goal of this project was to reduce the carbon footprint of our building and work towards meeting the 2030 challenge. Through our research we utilized resources that coorespond to the professional field of architects and current real world issues and applications. The future of design relies on the awareness of the impact that buildings impose on the environment. Throughout our project studied how our selected building would perform in Los Angeles’ climate. Research and simulations expanded our comprehension of passive strategies, economical decisions, envelope performance, HVAC design, electrical and daylighting techniques, plumbing and wastewater management. The integration of all of these strategies and systems helped us to understand the importance of efficient design and will inform our future decisions in the design process. By first analyzing the climate and understanding the conditions that the building will be in, passive strategies can be integrated into the design to create a basis for low energy use and natural heating and cooling strategies. From there, materials and envelope optimization add to increase the insulation and help reduce the carbon footprint. Understanding the value, properties, and cost of each material helps determine the most efficient selection for a design. Responsible decisions are necessary to find a balance between efficiency and budget. Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, therefore, are the final design requirement and should only be used when the climate does not provide favorable conditions for thermal comfort and natural lighting. The integration of these systems, so that they work when the natural systems do not, is important to use the least amount of energy possible. Properly sizing and designing these systems to increase their efficiency throughout the building based on occupancy and orientation is crucial to avoid energy wastage. In conlusion, the design process should consider all of these aspects and balance each one to provide the most efficient solution before construction. Passive strategies are ideal, but mechanical systems are necessary for a building to provide comfortable thermal conditons year round. It is our responsibility as designers to fine tune the mechanical systems so they have minimum impact on the earth and overall energy consumption, while integrating with the natural passive strategies.

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Environmental Technology Analysis