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J A M E S

O B E R I N

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C O N T E N T S 4

A0 - INTRODUCTION

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A1 - DESIGN FUTURING

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A2 - DESIGN COMPUTATION

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A3 - COMPOSITION/GENERATION

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A4 - CONCLUSION

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A5 - LE ARNING OUTCOMES

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A7 - REFERENCES

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A6 - ALGORITHMIC E XPERIMENTATION


[ 0] INTRODUCTION. James Oberin // About Me Currently in my third year of the Bachelor of Environments at the University of Melbourne, majoring in Architecture. I hope to complete my Master in Architecture shortly after I graduate. I have lived out of home since I was in year 9, attending boarding school through until year 12. I am interested in all forms of design.

I have been immersed in the field of hospitality from a young age, working for my uncle in his restaurant since year 10, and also working over summers in my family’s pub in Echuca. Through this connection, I have developed an interest in hospitality design. Now after working in this field for seven years, I have an appreciation for intelligent bar and restaurant design, and an admiration for spaces that enhance and create a venue’s atmosphere. I am excited by the learning experience of undertaking this subject. Learning design through generative compuational techniques is an avenue that I have not yet experienced.

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Previous Work and Experience // My previous experience in the field of architecture extends back to year 10, when I spent a week with a local architecture firm in Echuca for the school’s work experience program. Since then, I have been deeply interested in the field. My first exposure to design was in year 10 when I completed my first unit of Visual Communications and Design. I then continued this subject through until year 12, achieving to achieve recognition as a state high achiever for this subject in 2010. At the tertiary level, my first exposure to digital design was the first year subject of Virtual Environments. Here I was able to experiment with different computational techniques, primarily learning fabrication strategies through the ‘panelling tools’ plug-in for Rhino 3D. Throughout my second year I was able to apply the skills learned in Virtual Environments into my design studio

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work, giving me a base knowledge of how to visually represent a project, how to model in a virtual space, and how to then fabricate a realised model. Studio Air will further my knowledge, giving me the ability to work with algorithms in parametric modelling software, and give me an insight into how these techniques can generate design outcomes. External to university I have been involved for the last three years with the year 11 architectural unit at Caulfield Grammar School, guiding students with their work over a six week period. In addition to this I have also guided the year 12 students through a model making workshop for the last two years. In addition to this, other external interests include a personal architectural project in my home town of Echuca, where I am currently designing a small pop-up coffee shop which is planned to open in November 2014.

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[ 1] DESIGN FUTURING. Much research at the beginning of the 21st century has outlined the unsustainable situation of our present society. In addition to our detrimental mode of habitation, Fry indicates that designers lack a sense of how to design according to these issues.1 Hence, design must become a re-directive practice that attempts to revert this process of defuturing.2 The following two case studies showcase two land art installations that attempt combat the defuturing issue at hand.

Scene-Sensor // Crossing Social and Ecological Flows The Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) is a competition that asks submissions to respond to a brief by generating a public art sculpture that has the added benefit of utility-scale clean energy generation.3 The Scene-Sensor (fig. 1) is a submission which featured in the 2012 LAGI competition. The primary aim of the submission was to intersect key environmental flows within the site of Freshkills, enabling the harvest of both human and ecological energies. The installation consists of two planes, each containing a network of metallic films that generate electricity when spinning in the wind.4 The thin film holds an embedded wire and piezoelectric energy converters that are able to harvest the winds kinetic energy. Perpendicular to this key ecological flow, the installation also promotes human interaction in between the two planes. Enabling a further opportunity to take the kinetic energy

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produced by pedestrians, cyclists and cars and harvest it into clean electricity.5

energy use.

The Scene selector heightens the experience of inhabitants on the The Scene Selector is a well site whilst at the same time beresolved submission that uses intel- ing unobtrusive to current ecoligent thinking and existing techlogical flows and ecosystems. The nologies to inform its design. While vantage points created within the the submission may have further structure attract inhabitants to bepotential to introduce innovative come a part of the energy generatways to expand future possibilities, ing initiative, forcing a view of their its intelligent use of existing context surroundings through an environis noteworthy. By choosing two mental future. This key interacintersecting key energy flows, the tion with users is a driver to spark structure is able to generate the different ways of thinking, further maximum amount of energy on aiding in the eversion of our current the site using that type of technol- defuturing situation. ogy. In parallel, by creating a visual representation of the energy being A large amount of potential lies produced by wind flows, they within this submission to make use are educating the public, creatof computational design stragegies ing awareness about the current in the design of its structure. Aldefuturing situation of which we gorithmic design could be used to are currently exposed. This may create intriguing spaces within the urge the public to understand the structure for users to inhabit, or to importance of sustainable thinking create innovative structural framein relation to energy production and work for the films to rest within.


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Environmental and cultural direction is key to achieving a sustainable future. Through education and awareness change can be driven through design, which gives designers the opportunity to redirect our habits in a sustainable direction.6 As outlined by Fry,7 decisions made by designers are “future decisive,� and should be used in a way that promotes a healthy and sustainable way of life.

Windstalk // Masdar Windstalk, a submission for the 2010 LAGI competition, is composed of an array of carbon fibre stalks embedded with a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks, located in a field adjacent to a highway.8 Each stalk is anchored to the ground by a concrete base that may have a diameter anywhere between 10 and 20 metres. While Windstalk is a sound response to the design brief, it holds potential to be a greater driver in the global effort to reverse our defuturing situation.

of a sunflower.9 Perhaps a deeper investigation into how algorithms could be used on this location could have increased the potential to harvest wind energy. Algorithms could have been used to map and design according to prevailing winds on the site, using specific parameters to array the stalks rather than using a replication of the sun flower.

Algorithmic modelling could have also been used to utilise the full potential of the material properties of carbon fibre, reducing the use of concrete on site which, in turn, will The installation generates energy increase the amount of vegetation through a process that is inherent in most generic wind turbines, but that can be used between each stalk. 1203 stalks are weighted to has been further adapted in order the ground using a large concrete to produce an intriguing form. A form that has been arrayed across anchor. Such a large amount of concrete will embody an enormous the site to produce an artificial, energy generating, forest. The ar- amount of energy, contributing to ray has been produced through an the demise of our society by contribution to greenhouse gas emisalgorithm that mimics the pattern formation that is innate to the seeds sions. An alternative solution could

be to enter the material data into an algorithmic modelling program, and experiment with other possibilities. Each carbon-fibre stalk could be recessed further into the ground, acting as its own footing system that can resist the horizontal forces moving stalks above ground. This would take away the need for a heavy concrete base, increasing the land space available for vegetation and habitation, whilst also reducing the embodied energy on site. Other avenues that could assist in design-futuring may have also been explored such as incorporating the traffic from the highway. Cars generate large amounts of kinetic energy that has the potential to be harvested into electricity. Awareness and education could have been imparted into the passing traffic by incorporating a rest stop that encourages human interaction with the site.

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[ 2] DESIGN COMPUTATION Kostas, in his book Algorithmic Architecture, outlines the importance of computation in design, and differentiates the term ‘computation’ from ‘computerization.’10 In his book Kostas concludes that ‘computerisation’ is an automated process that the majority of architects and designers utilise to enter, modify or store preconceived ideas - simply using this process as a ‘tool’ to realize and refine their idea.11 However, computerisation contrasts to the utilisation of computers by means of ‘computing,’ which Kostas defines as the process of resolving an issue through the means of mathematics or logic.12 Simply editing a NURBS

surface through “mouse-based” manipulations, is not the act of computing. Rather, computing is an exploration technique that generates form through experimenting with the unknown. Computation reverses the traditional design process so that form is generated through the trial of interacting algorithms. Using algorithms parametrically has the potential to produce design outcomes that would not naturally come to the human mind. Rather than using computing as ‘just a tool,’ it becomes a human driven generator of unexpected, but controlled, outcomes. These outcomes are pushing the current trend of design

into an exiting era of developing technological designs. Computation is changing the dynamic between the construction and design industries. While computing increases the ability to be innovative with material and structural solutions, it also reconfigures how the design and construction industries interact. In traditional practice, the architect would seek consultation from the engineer toward the end of the design process, however, due to computation the engineer is involved in the process from the early stages.13 This helps to reduce issues that may arise from the architect designing

10. Peter Cooks museum design is an example of a design, realised through computerisation rather than being generated through computation. 10.


“Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs. The computational way of working augments the designer’s intellect and allows us to capture not only the complexity of how to build a project, but also the multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a buildings formation.”14 - Peter Brady

impractical solutions.

algorithms has been generated, the designer is able to change Computation uses topological logic and direct parameters to achieve to push the possibilities of geoma different outcome that would not etries past the simple formal means otherwise be conceived. of representation.15 Rather than using simple techniques of generAlgorithms can be used to optimize ating form through visual means, materials and structural systems, the using algorithms parametriwhich has the benefit of generatcally holds the potential to genering extremely sustainable design ate many complex iterations of a solutions. Through the synthesis single design. At the same time as of material properties, algorithms speeding up the design process, it can be defined through the derived allows the arrival at a more resolved geometric logic. Producing a simusolution due to the ability to assess lation of how the material will act iterations against one another - Ox- in the build world. In this respect, man describes this as “the potential design solutions are much more infor differentiation.”16 Once a set of telligent than most traditional design solutions where an aesthetic

11. The Museo Soumaya has been reaslised through techniques of computing

layer of construction is added to the structural layer. In algorithmic design the structure and the aesthetics can be one in the same. In addition to the added environmental benefits that come from using algorithms to mimic material properties, energy and structural simulation software has been developing along side parametric modelling software.17 This combination has given rise to material experimentation and innovation. Infinitely expanding future possibilities to incorporate sustainable design decisions and for design to accommodate a re-directive agenda.

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PRECEDENT [2.1]

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Strip Morphologies // Daniel Coll | Capdevilla (Prof. A. Menges) Strip Morphologies is a design experiment that demonstrates how computation can be used in design to generate complex material systems. Single strips of sheet metal were synthesized through techniques such as bending and twisting in order to derive geometric logic (fig 14).18 These properties were then used to define algorithms within computational software. Once the algorithms had been defined, they were confined by parameters set up by the designer to easily control and manipulate the material configuration and overall form.

component with the U/V coordinates of a parametrized control surface. This gave the designer a significant amount of control over the design, allowing complex changes to be made almost instantaneously on multiple levels. For example, the width and thickness of each strip, the density of components, and the overall shape of the design could all be changed through manipulating the parameters. With every different design iteration, the structural system required to fabricate the design is instantly resolved due to every element of the design being associated with each other.

However, generative use of computation is inherent in the material system that makes up this form. This strategy of using specific material properties to define algorithms in parametric computational software can assist in producing sustainable and energy efficient outcomes.

In response to the 2014 LAGI brief, informed material systems such as this may be able to control environmental flows and maximise the potential for harvesting energy. Rather than just perforating material surfaces in response to the climatic conditions, which The aim of the experiment was can sometimes be useful, differto create a “multi-performative” In terms of the structure’s overall ent materials can be analyzed and material system that could provide form, the design process underused to create a more intriguing for many different spatial arrange- taken in this experiment can be structure. This will also generate ments.19 Once a base composeen to remain quite traditional, in a fabrication process at the same nent had been made using three that it uses simple “mouse-based” time as the conceptualization of pieces of the synthesized sheetfunctions to alter the U/V control the structure. metal strips, a set of control points points on the parametrized control were be used to align each surface to achieve its shape.

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PRECEDENT [2.2] Sao Paulo Bridge, Brazil // Robert Stuart-Smith Design The dynamic Sao Paulo Bridge is a case study that uses a computational design approach to generate its structure and form. The pedestrian bridge was designed to link an office building and carpark to a high-end retail mall, using the locally produced fibre-reinforcedplastic as the sole aesthetic and structural material.20 By imputing real material data, sets of relevant algorithms would have been created to mediate structural, formal and material constraints within parametric modelling software. The manipulation of parameters allowed the designer to iterate different structural configurations which could then be used in conjunction with structural modelling software (fig 20). The structural modelling software allowed designers to achieve the most efficient design possible, maximizing the structural capability whilst at the same time minimizing the amount of material used. This not

only reduces the cost of the project, but also assists to reduce environmental impact and assist in reversing the current trends inherent within our defuturing mode of habitation. The use of relevant algorithms in conjunction with parametric modelling software allows the designer to create and understand complex geometries that would not otherwise be conceived through traditional techniques. The designer and the computer work in unison to create highly resolved designs. The form seen in the Sao Paulo Bridge design is extremely relevant to a potential LAGI design within the water-side copenhagen site. Algorithms could be defined by existing site context which create inhabitable spaces for users to occupy. A generated form then has the potential to integrate different types of clean energy harvesting technology.

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[ 3 ] COMPOSITION/GENERATION Current theoretical discourse in architecture is eluding to a shift being made from compositional modes of design to generative modes of design. A shift that has been motivated in recent years by a rapid evolution of generative tools in design software and programming.21 From traditional modes where computers are used to simply to digitize a preconceived design idea (discussed in section A2), increasingly more designers are making the shift to using computing techniques to generate a design outcome. Computing techniques such as using algorithmic design, parametric modelling and scripting are among these emerging generative tools.

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Compositional vs. Generative. Traditional techniques of designing through composition involve an organization which is top-down - a process that requires the designer to first conceive an idea, and then follow on by evaluating different avenues for this idea to be realized. Compositional approaches are largely driven by architectural elements and principles that are an impression of an existing order, an abstraction that simplifies the complexities which surround human life.22 Compositional design strategies can produce arbitrary solutions to complex issues, which may potentially be problematic and not relevant.23 In contrast, generative design inverts the traditional process so tools are used to create

a solution that is at first unknown and too complex for the human mind to preconceive. Generation is essentially an experimental approach that uses human guided rules to produce a simulated design outcome. Once an outcome is produced, parameters may be changed in order to create many iterations of a single design, enabling the designer to generate a highly resolved outcome that is culturally and technologically relevant. Algorithmic Thinking: An algorithm can be defined as a recipe, method or technique that outlines unambiguous and simple instructions that produce a result.24 This definition is quite broad, how-


ever when it is used to describe the instructions given to a computer to perform a task, it becomes more precise. Kostas defines an algorithm as a “computational procedure for addressing a problem in a finite number of steps ... involv[ing] deduction, abstraction, generalization, and structured logic.”25 For example, a CAD program such as Autodesk’s Revit is essentially a collection of algorithms that are used by the designer to address specific graphical design issues. When a function is pressed within the program, for example pressing the “wall” function to draw a wall, the computer uses numerical methods to generate the visual representation of a wall on the screen. However, in this scenario algorithms

are being used ignorantly by the designer to simply produce an efficient realization of a preconceived design idea. Present-day theoretical discourse in architecture argues that algorithms should not simply be used as a ‘tool’ in computational design, but rather a way of thinking that allows designers to undertake an experimental and creative design process. Rather than relying on intuition to make arbitrary and obscure decisions, algorithmic thinking allows designers to establish a “consistent” and “justifiable” process to design.26 Thus, allowing designers to undertake generative design processes in lieu of compositional. The writing of an algorithm is called

scripting. A scripting culture in design emerged shortly after the new millennium, as budding architects used the scripting of algorithms as a mode of experimental design.27 This, in conjunction with parametric modelling techniques, pushed further away from the traditional compositional modes of design. Parametric Modelling. The concept of using parameters in design may not be new, however, a rise in the use of computational design has given a new complexity to this concept through the use of the algorithm. Parametric thinking forces an association and dependency between two or more parts of a design.28 This enables

the designer to have control over the topological relationships between these parts, granting control over complex relationships between algorithms. If a designer wishes to alter a complex design when taking a traditional compositional approach, it may prove extremely inefficient due to the time it would take to make the change. When a computational design is parametrized, it enables complex changes to be made within the design at an extremely fast rate, granting the ability of the designer to generate and evaluate a multitude of iterations.

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PRECEDENT. [3.1]

Urban Agency // Roland Snooks (Kokkugia) Urban Agency is a generative research project that attempts to find form through the selforganizing properties of an organism drifting though urban spavce. Algorithms have been defined through the synthesis of characteristics inherent in an organism as it drifts through the urban scape, extracting and exchanging information as it goes.29 The set of algorithms is controlled by ever changing parameters, in an attempt to mimic the behavior if the organism reacting to its site and intra-relationship of the swarm.30 This conceptual design intention was developed in response to a brief for a project that required a building that comprised a networked headquarters for an organization that explores bio-power. The idea being that rather than the headquarters being a traditional

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building, it would act as an organism and become integrated within the urban fabric. This experiment is a great example of how computation can be used as a generator to find form. No preconceived idea has been realised through this process, rather the process has been completely reversed. Through the experimentation with algorithms in parametric modelling software, an inhabitable form has been generated that can now be further refined and formed into a building typology. In response to the LAGI brief, form finding through the mimicry of algorithms inherent in natural processes such as wind, water and light may be a potential bank for generative design ideas. Forms similar to Urban Agency could be easily integrated with clean energy harvesting technologies.


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PRECEDENT [3.2]

Sigmund Freud Park // Christoph Hermann Hermann has generated the design of Sigmund Frued Park using an informed set of algorithms within a parametric modelling program. The pavilion is located in the central recreation space of Vienna, which forced the need for the pavilion to be amalgamated within an open landscape without pronouncing itself as an obstruction to the nature of the site.31 While Hermann had the preconceived idea that the building needed to blend seamlessly with the site, he used generative techniques in parametric modelling software to create the structure’s form. To replicate the smooth contours within the site, Hermann used simple geometry’s to offset and morph a grid of UV coordinates on a simple plane. He then generated form through altering parameters that had control over a set of algorithms. Whilst this process is not totally generative, it is still a good example of how the use of computation techniques can create emergent forms that can then be post rationalized in order to

fully realize a design response. In response to the LAGI brief in Copenhagen, a process similar to this may be able to spawn some structural idea’s. The mimicry of natural processes on the site may be able to inform a set of algorithms to produce and generate form. Using this technique in parametric modelling software will then give us the opportunity to asses the generated model against different variants of the site conditions in order to produce a model with the highest potential to harvest natural energy. For example, this process could have been used in the case study of the Scene Selector examined within section A1 (pg 5). Rather than making the assumption of where key ecological flows on site were occurring, the information from a thorough site analysis could have informed a set of algorithms to mimic this process. Parametric modelling software could have then been used to generate an intriguing form that could accommodate appropriate technologies for harvesting energy.

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[ 4] Conclusion// We have reached a critical point where change needs to occur in order to secure our future inhabitation of this planet. For this to be realised, design must become a re-directive practice that aims to educate and alert our society of the current defuturing situation. Through my research, it has become apparent that with the rise of computational design, designers now have a greater ability than ever before to implement this change. Computational design has completely revolutionised the design process, inverting its structure and increasing the opportunity for in novative and complex designs to be

produced. The computer should no longer be seen as an object that is used at the end of the design process to realise an idea, instead it should be used in synchronisation with the designer at the beginning of the process to assist in the generation of unexpected, ingtriguing, complex design solutions. These solutions can then be evaluated parametrically and post-rationalised into a refined solution. My design approach to the 2014 LAGI brief will take advantage of these new computational processes. I will aim to analyse and acquire information of key ecological flows that are present on the water-side

site in Copenhagen. With a focus on generated form and environmental material systems, my design process will aim to script a set of algorithms that can be manipulated parametrically. This is essential if an efficient, resolving design process is to take place. My team and I aim to maximise human interaction on the site through the creation of an engaging, redirective design. The primary focus will be to integrate energy generating technologies that utilise natural kinetic flows inherent in water, wind and physical flows.

view of architecture was quite narrow. I’m now able to see architecture with an open mind, assessing built works on their innovation, complexity, and whether or not the design performs in a way that is re-directive or unsustainable. Redirection can be evaluated in terms

of whether the design uses intelligent processes to recognise material and structural properties, and how these benefit the users and the environment. I have also developed key research and documentational skills that will be integral in the architectural profession.

[ 5] Learning Outcomes// Part [A] of this exercise has allowed me to develop a number of key skills that will be beneficial in future practice, not only for design studio work, but future work in the industry. After completing this section of the exercise I realise that my previous

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[ 7] References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

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Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 LandArt Generator Initiative, ‘What is LAGI’, <http://landartgenerator.org/project.html> [accessed 15 March 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene Sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15 March] Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 37 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 37 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 38 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought from Architectural Design (AD) Special Issue - Computation Works V83 (2), p. 10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Echo, Lecture 2, http://content.lecture.unimelb.edu.au:8080/ess/echo/presentation/4ebe45f7-ae37-4650-afd2-7b13d1fa3bf0> [viewed 13 March 2014] Echo, Lecture 2, http://content.lecture.unimelb.edu.au:8080/ess/echo/presentation/4ebe45f7-ae37-4650-afd2-7b13d1fa3bf0> [viewed 13 March 2014] Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 65 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 65 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/ parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014]


Images 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Personal Photograph - Myself Personal Photograph - Completed work from Virtual Environments 2012 Personal Photograph - Completed work from Virtual Environments 2012 Personal Photograph - Completed work from Virtual Environments 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Bee, ‘Green Museum for a Green World,’ < http://www.bee-inc.com/blog/green-museum > [accessed 28 March 2014] Arch Daily, ‘Museo Soumaya,’ < http://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> [accessed 23 march 2014] Arch Daily, ‘Museo Soumaya,’ < http://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> [accessed 23 march 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014] Personal Render, Grasshopper experimentation

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