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C O N T E N T S 4

A0 - INTRODUCTION

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A1 - DESIGN FUTURING

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A2 - DESIGN COMPUTATION

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A3 - COMPOSITION/GENERATION

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A4 - CONCLUSION

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A5 - LE ARNING OUTCOMES

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A7 - REFERENCES

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A6 - ALGORITHMIC E XPERIMENTATION


[ 0] INTRODUCTION. James Oberin // About Me Currently in my third year of the Bachelor of Environments at the University of Melbourne, majoring in Architecture. I hope to complete my Master in Architecture shortly after I graduate. I have lived out of home since I was in year 9, attending boarding school through until year 12. I am interested in all forms of design.

I have been immersed in the field of hospitality from a young age, working for my uncle in his restaurant since year 10, and also working over summers in my family’s pub in Echuca. Through this connection, I have developed an interest in hospitality design. Now after working in this field for seven years, I have an appreciation for intelligent bar and restaurant design, and an admiration for spaces that enhance and create a venue’s atmosphere. I am excited by the learning experience of undertaking this subject. Learning design through generative compuational techniques is an avenue that I have not yet experienced.

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Previous Work and Experience // My previous experience in the field of architecture extends back to year 10, when I spent a week with a local architecture firm in Echuca for the school’s work experience program. Since then, I have been deeply interested in the field. My first exposure to design was in year 10 when I completed my first unit of Visual Communications and Design. I then continued this subject through until year 12, achieving to achieve recognition as a state high achiever for this subject in 2010. At the tertiary level, my first exposure to digital design was the first year subject of Virtual Environments. Here I was able to experiment with different computational techniques, primarily learning fabrication strategies through the ‘panelling tools’ plug-in for Rhino 3D. Throughout my second year I was able to apply the skills learned in Virtual Environments into my design studio

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work, giving me a base knowledge of how to visually represent a project, how to model in a virtual space, and how to then fabricate a realised model. Studio Air will further my knowledge, giving me the ability to work with algorithms in parametric modelling software, and give me an insight into how these techniques can generate design outcomes. External to university I have been involved for the last three years with the year 11 architectural unit at Caulfield Grammar School, guiding students with their work over a six week period. In addition to this I have also guided the year 12 students through a model making workshop for the last two years. In addition to this, other external interests include a personal architectural project in my home town of Echuca, where I am currently designing a small pop-up coffee shop which is planned to open in November 2014.

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[ 1] DESIGN FUTURING. Much research at the beginning of the 21st century has outlined the unsustainable situation of our present society. In addition to our detrimental mode of habitation, Fry indicates that designers lack a sense of how to design according to these issues.1 Hence, design must become a re-directive practice that attempts to revert this process of defuturing.2 The following two case studies showcase two land art installations that attempt combat the defuturing issue at hand.

Scene-Sensor // Crossing Social and Ecological Flows The Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) is a competition that asks submissions to respond to a brief by generating a public art sculpture that has the added benefit of utility-scale clean energy generation.3 The Scene-Sensor (fig. 1) is a submission which featured in the 2012 LAGI competition. The primary aim of the submission was to intersect key environmental flows within the site of Freshkills, enabling the harvest of both human and ecological energies. The installation consists of two planes, each containing a network of metallic films that generate electricity when spinning in the wind.4 The thin film holds an embedded wire and piezoelectric energy converters that are able to harvest the winds kinetic energy. Perpendicular to this key ecological flow, the installation also promotes human interaction in between the two planes. Enabling a further opportunity to take the kinetic energy

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produced by pedestrians, cyclists and cars and harvest it into clean electricity.5

energy use.

The Scene selector heightens the experience of inhabitants on the The Scene Selector is a well site whilst at the same time beresolved submission that uses intel- ing unobtrusive to current ecoligent thinking and existing techlogical flows and ecosystems. The nologies to inform its design. While vantage points created within the the submission may have further structure attract inhabitants to bepotential to introduce innovative come a part of the energy generatways to expand future possibilities, ing initiative, forcing a view of their its intelligent use of existing context surroundings through an environis noteworthy. By choosing two mental future. This key interacintersecting key energy flows, the tion with users is a driver to spark structure is able to generate the different ways of thinking, further maximum amount of energy on aiding in the eversion of our current the site using that type of technol- defuturing situation. ogy. In parallel, by creating a visual representation of the energy being A large amount of potential lies within this submission to make use produced by wind flows, they are educating the public, creatof computational design stragegies ing awareness about the current in the design of its structure. Aldefuturing situation of which we gorithmic design could be used to are currently exposed. This may create intriguing spaces within the urge the public to understand the structure for users to inhabit, or to importance of sustainable thinking create innovative structural framein relation to energy production and work for the films to rest within.


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Environmental and cultural direction is key to achieving a sustainable future. Through education and awareness change can be driven through design, which gives designers the opportunity to redirect our habits in a sustainable direction.6 As outlined by Fry,7 decisions made by designers are “future decisive,� and should be used in a way that promotes a healthy and sustainable way of life.

Windstalk // Masdar Windstalk, a submission for the 2010 LAGI competition, is composed of an array of carbon fibre stalks embedded with a stack of piezoelectric ceramic disks, located in a field adjacent to a highway.8 Each stalk is anchored to the ground by a concrete base that may have a diameter anywhere between 10 and 20 metres. While Windstalk is a sound response to the design brief, it holds potential to be a greater driver in the global effort to reverse our defuturing situation.

of a sunflower.9 Perhaps a deeper investigation into how algorithms could be used on this location could have increased the potential to harvest wind energy. Algorithms could have been used to map and design according to prevailing winds on the site, using specific parameters to array the stalks rather than using a replication of the sun flower.

Algorithmic modelling could have also been used to utilise the full potential of the material properties of carbon fibre, reducing the use of concrete on site which, in turn, will The installation generates energy increase the amount of vegetation through a process that is inherent in most generic wind turbines, but that can be used between each stalk. 1203 stalks are weighted to has been further adapted in order the ground using a large concrete to produce an intriguing form. A form that has been arrayed across anchor. Such a large amount of concrete will embody an enormous the site to produce an artificial, energy generating, forest. The ar- amount of energy, contributing to ray has been produced through an the demise of our society by contribution to greenhouse gas emisalgorithm that mimics the pattern formation that is innate to the seeds sions. An alternative solution could

be to enter the material data into an algorithmic modelling program, and experiment with other possibilities. Each carbon-fibre stalk could be recessed further into the ground, acting as its own footing system that can resist the horizontal forces moving stalks above ground. This would take away the need for a heavy concrete base, increasing the land space available for vegetation and habitation, whilst also reducing the embodied energy on site. Other avenues that could assist in design-futuring may have also been explored such as incorporating the traffic from the highway. Cars generate large amounts of kinetic energy that has the potential to be harvested into electricity. Awareness and education could have been imparted into the passing traffic by incorporating a rest stop that encourages human interaction with the site.

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[ 2] DESIGN COMPUTATION Kostas, in his book Algorithmic Architecture, outlines the importance of computation in design, and differentiates the term ‘computation’ from ‘computerization.’10 In his book Kostas concludes that ‘computerisation’ is an automated process that the majority of architects and designers utilise to enter, modify or store preconceived ideas - simply using this process as a ‘tool’ to realize and refine their idea.11 However, computerisation contrasts to the utilisation of computers by means of ‘computing,’ which Kostas defines as the process of resolving an issue through the means of mathematics or logic.12 Simply editing a NURBS

surface through “mouse-based” manipulations, is not the act of computing. Rather, computing is an exploration technique that generates form through experimenting with the unknown. Computation reverses the traditional design process so that form is generated through the trial of interacting algorithms. Using algorithms parametrically has the potential to produce design outcomes that would not naturally come to the human mind. Rather than using computing as ‘just a tool,’ it becomes a human driven generator of unexpected, but controlled, outcomes. These outcomes are pushing the current trend of design

into an exiting era of developing technological designs. Computation is changing the dynamic between the construction and design industries. While computing increases the ability to be innovative with material and structural solutions, it also reconfigures how the design and construction industries interact. In traditional practice, the architect would seek consultation from the engineer toward the end of the design process, however, due to computation the engineer is involved in the process from the early stages.13 This helps to reduce issues that may arise from the architect designing

10. Peter Cooks museum design is an example of a design, realised through computerisation rather than being generated through computation. 10.


“Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs. The computational way of working augments the designer’s intellect and allows us to capture not only the complexity of how to build a project, but also the multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a buildings formation.”14 - Peter Brady

algorithms has been generated, the designer is able to change Computation uses topological logic and direct parameters to achieve a different outcome that would not to push the possibilities of geometries past the simple formal means otherwise be conceived. of representation.15 Rather than using simple techniques of generAlgorithms can be used to optimize ating form through visual means, materials and structural systems, which has the benefit of generatthe using algorithms parametriing extremely sustainable design cally holds the potential to genersolutions. Through the synthesis ate many complex iterations of a single design. At the same time as of material properties, algorithms speeding up the design process, it can be defined through the derived allows the arrival at a more resolved geometric logic. Producing a simusolution due to the ability to assess lation of how the material will act iterations against one another - Ox- in the build world. In this respect, man describes this as “the potential design solutions are much more infor differentiation.”16 Once a set of telligent than most traditional design solutions where an aesthetic impractical solutions.

11. The Museo Soumaya has been reaslised through techniques of computing

layer of construction is added to the structural layer. In algorithmic design the structure and the aesthetics can be one in the same. In addition to the added environmental benefits that come from using algorithms to mimic material properties, energy and structural simulation software has been developing along side parametric modelling software.17 This combination has given rise to material experimentation and innovation. Infinitely expanding future possibilities to incorporate sustainable design decisions and for design to accommodate a re-directive agenda.

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Strip Morphologies // Daniel Coll | Capdevilla (Prof. A. Menges) Strip Morphologies is a design experiment that demonstrates how computation can be used in design to generate complex material systems. Single strips of sheet metal were synthesized through techniques such as bending and twisting in order to derive geometric logic (fig 14).18 These properties were then used to define algorithms within computational software. Once the algorithms had been defined, they were confined by parameters set up by the designer to easily control and manipulate the material configuration and overall form.

component with the U/V coordinates of a parametrized control surface. This gave the designer a significant amount of control over the design, allowing complex changes to be made almost instantaneously on multiple levels. For example, the width and thickness of each strip, the density of components, and the overall shape of the design could all be changed through manipulating the parameters. With every different design iteration, the structural system required to fabricate the design is instantly resolved due to every element of the design being associated with each other.

However, generative use of computation is inherent in the material system that makes up this form. This strategy of using specific material properties to define algorithms in parametric computational software can assist in producing sustainable and energy efficient outcomes.

In response to the 2014 LAGI brief, informed material systems such as this may be able to control environmental flows and maximise the potential for harvesting energy. Rather than just perforating material surfaces in response to the climatic conditions, which can sometimes be useful, differThe aim of the experiment was In terms of the structure’s overall ent materials can be analyzed and to create a “multi-performative” used to create a more intriguing material system that could provide form, the design process understructure. This will also generate for many different spatial arrange- taken in this experiment can be seen to remain quite traditional, in a fabrication process at the same ments.19 Once a base component had been made using three that it uses simple “mouse-based” time as the conceptualization of functions to alter the U/V control the structure. pieces of the synthesized sheetmetal strips, a set of control points points on the parametrized control surface to achieve its shape. were be used to align each

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PRECEDENT [2.2] Sao Paulo Bridge, Brazil // Robert Stuart-Smith Design The dynamic Sao Paulo Bridge is a case study that uses a computational design approach to generate its structure and form. The pedestrian bridge was designed to link an office building and carpark to a high-end retail mall, using the locally produced fibre-reinforcedplastic as the sole aesthetic and structural material.20 By imputing real material data, sets of relevant algorithms would have been created to mediate structural, formal and material constraints within parametric modelling software. The manipulation of parameters allowed the designer to iterate different structural configurations which could then be used in conjunction with structural modelling software (fig 20). The structural modelling software allowed designers to achieve the most efficient design possible, maximizing the structural capability whilst at the same time minimizing the amount of material used. This not

only reduces the cost of the project, but also assists to reduce environmental impact and assist in reversing the current trends inherent within our defuturing mode of habitation. The use of relevant algorithms in conjunction with parametric modelling software allows the designer to create and understand complex geometries that would not otherwise be conceived through traditional techniques. The designer and the computer work in unison to create highly resolved designs. The form seen in the Sao Paulo Bridge design is extremely relevant to a potential LAGI design within the water-side copenhagen site. Algorithms could be defined by existing site context which create inhabitable spaces for users to occupy. A generated form then has the potential to integrate different types of clean energy harvesting technology.

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[ 3 ] COMPOSITION/GENERATION Current theoretical discourse in architecture is eluding to a shift being made from compositional modes of design to generative modes of design. A shift that has been motivated in recent years by a rapid evolution of generative tools in design software and programming.21 From traditional modes where computers are used to simply to digitize a preconceived design idea (discussed in section A2), increasingly more designers are making the shift to using computing techniques to generate a design outcome. Computing techniques such as using algorithmic design, parametric modelling and scripting are among these emerging generative tools.

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Compositional vs. Generative. Traditional techniques of designing through composition involve an organization which is top-down - a process that requires the designer to first conceive an idea, and then follow on by evaluating different avenues for this idea to be realized. Compositional approaches are largely driven by architectural elements and principles that are an impression of an existing order, an abstraction that simplifies the complexities which surround human life.22 Compositional design strategies can produce arbitrary solutions to complex issues, which may potentially be problematic and not relevant.23 In contrast, generative design inverts the traditional process so tools are used to create

a solution that is at first unknown and too complex for the human mind to preconceive. Generation is essentially an experimental approach that uses human guided rules to produce a simulated design outcome. Once an outcome is produced, parameters may be changed in order to create many iterations of a single design, enabling the designer to generate a highly resolved outcome that is culturally and technologically relevant. Algorithmic Thinking: An algorithm can be defined as a recipe, method or technique that outlines unambiguous and simple instructions that produce a result.24 This definition is quite broad, how-


ever when it is used to describe the instructions given to a computer to perform a task, it becomes more precise. Kostas defines an algorithm as a “computational procedure for addressing a problem in a finite number of steps ... involv[ing] deduction, abstraction, generalization, and structured logic.”25 For example, a CAD program such as Autodesk’s Revit is essentially a collection of algorithms that are used by the designer to address specific graphical design issues. When a function is pressed within the program, for example pressing the “wall” function to draw a wall, the computer uses numerical methods to generate the visual representation of a wall on the screen. However, in this scenario algorithms

are being used ignorantly by the designer to simply produce an efficient realization of a preconceived design idea. Present-day theoretical discourse in architecture argues that algorithms should not simply be used as a ‘tool’ in computational design, but rather a way of thinking that allows designers to undertake an experimental and creative design process. Rather than relying on intuition to make arbitrary and obscure decisions, algorithmic thinking allows designers to establish a “consistent” and “justifiable” process to design.26 Thus, allowing designers to undertake generative design processes in lieu of compositional. The writing of an algorithm is called

scripting. A scripting culture in design emerged shortly after the new millennium, as budding architects used the scripting of algorithms as a mode of experimental design.27 This, in conjunction with parametric modelling techniques, pushed further away from the traditional compositional modes of design. Parametric Modelling. The concept of using parameters in design may not be new, however, a rise in the use of computational design has given a new complexity to this concept through the use of the algorithm. Parametric thinking forces an association and dependency between two or more parts of a design.28 This enables

the designer to have control over the topological relationships between these parts, granting control over complex relationships between algorithms. If a designer wishes to alter a complex design when taking a traditional compositional approach, it may prove extremely inefficient due to the time it would take to make the change. When a computational design is parametrized, it enables complex changes to be made within the design at an extremely fast rate, granting the ability of the designer to generate and evaluate a multitude of iterations.

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PRECEDENT. [3.1]

Urban Agency // Roland Snooks (Kokkugia) Urban Agency is a generative research project that attempts to find form through the selforganizing properties of an organism drifting though urban spavce. Algorithms have been defined through the synthesis of characteristics inherent in an organism as it drifts through the urban scape, extracting and exchanging information as it goes.29 The set of algorithms is controlled by ever changing parameters, in an attempt to mimic the behavior if the organism reacting to its site and intra-relationship of the swarm.30 This conceptual design intention was developed in response to a brief for a project that required a building that comprised a networked headquarters for an organization that explores bio-power. The idea being that rather than the headquarters being a traditional

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building, it would act as an organism and become integrated within the urban fabric. This experiment is a great example of how computation can be used as a generator to find form. No preconceived idea has been realised through this process, rather the process has been completely reversed. Through the experimentation with algorithms in parametric modelling software, an inhabitable form has been generated that can now be further refined and formed into a building typology. In response to the LAGI brief, form finding through the mimicry of algorithms inherent in natural processes such as wind, water and light may be a potential bank for generative design ideas. Forms similar to Urban Agency could be easily integrated with clean energy harvesting technologies.


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PRECEDENT [3.2]

Sigmund Freud Park // Christoph Hermann Hermann has generated the design of Sigmund Frued Park using an informed set of algorithms within a parametric modelling program. The pavilion is located in the central recreation space of Vienna, which forced the need for the pavilion to be amalgamated within an open landscape without pronouncing itself as an obstruction to the nature of the site.31 While Hermann had the preconceived idea that the building needed to blend seamlessly with the site, he used generative techniques in parametric modelling software to create the structure’s form. To replicate the smooth contours within the site, Hermann used simple geometry’s to offset and morph a grid of UV coordinates on a simple plane. He then generated form through altering parameters that had control over a set of algorithms. Whilst this process is not totally generative, it is still a good example of how the use of computation techniques can create emergent forms that can then be post rationalized in order to

fully realize a design response. In response to the LAGI brief in Copenhagen, a process similar to this may be able to spawn some structural idea’s. The mimicry of natural processes on the site may be able to inform a set of algorithms to produce and generate form. Using this technique in parametric modelling software will then give us the opportunity to asses the generated model against different variants of the site conditions in order to produce a model with the highest potential to harvest natural energy. For example, this process could have been used in the case study of the Scene Selector examined within section A1 (pg 5). Rather than making the assumption of where key ecological flows on site were occurring, the information from a thorough site analysis could have informed a set of algorithms to mimic this process. Parametric modelling software could have then been used to generate an intriguing form that could accommodate appropriate technologies for harvesting energy.

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[ 4] Conclusion// We have reached a critical point where change needs to occur in order to secure our future inhabitation of this planet. For this to be realised, design must become a re-directive practice that aims to educate and alert our society of the current defuturing situation. Through my research, it has become apparent that with the rise of computational design, designers now have a greater ability than ever before to implement this change. Computational design has completely revolutionised the design process, inverting its structure and increasing the opportunity for in novative and complex designs to be

produced. The computer should no longer be seen as an object that is used at the end of the design process to realise an idea, instead it should be used in synchronisation with the designer at the beginning of the process to assist in the generation of unexpected, ingtriguing, complex design solutions. These solutions can then be evaluated parametrically and post-rationalised into a refined solution. My design approach to the 2014 LAGI brief will take advantage of these new computational processes. I will aim to analyse and acquire information of key ecological flows that are present on the water-side

site in Copenhagen. With a focus on generated form and environmental material systems, my design process will aim to script a set of algorithms that can be manipulated parametrically. This is essential if an efficient, resolving design process is to take place. My team and I aim to maximise human interaction on the site through the creation of an engaging, redirective design. The primary focus will be to integrate energy generating technologies that utilise natural kinetic flows inherent in water, wind and physical flows.

view of architecture was quite narrow. I’m now able to see architecture with an open mind, assessing built works on their innovation, complexity, and whether or not the design performs in a way that is re-directive or unsustainable. Redirection can be evaluated in terms

of whether the design uses intelligent processes to recognise material and structural properties, and how these benefit the users and the environment. I have also developed key research and documentational skills that will be integral in the architectural profession.

[ 5] Learning Outcomes// Part [A] of this exercise has allowed me to develop a number of key skills that will be beneficial in future practice, not only for design studio work, but future work in the industry. After completing this section of the exercise I realise that my previous

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[ 7] References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

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Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 LandArt Generator Initiative, ‘What is LAGI’, <http://landartgenerator.org/project.html> [accessed 15 March 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene Sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15 March] Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 37 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 37 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 38 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought from Architectural Design (AD) Special Issue - Computation Works V83 (2), p. 10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Echo, Lecture 2, http://content.lecture.unimelb.edu.au:8080/ess/echo/presentation/4ebe45f7-ae37-4650-afd2-7b13d1fa3bf0> [viewed 13 March 2014] Echo, Lecture 2, http://content.lecture.unimelb.edu.au:8080/ess/echo/presentation/4ebe45f7-ae37-4650-afd2-7b13d1fa3bf0> [viewed 13 March 2014] Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 65 Terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, MA: Elsevier), p. 65 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/ parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014]


Images 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

Personal Photograph - Myself Personal Photograph - Completed work from Virtual Environments 2012 Personal Photograph - Completed work from Virtual Environments 2012 Personal Photograph - Completed work from Virtual Environments 2012 Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Scene sensor,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/AP347043/> [accessed 15March] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Land Art Generator Initiative, ‘Windstalk,’ <http://landartgenerator.org/blagi/archives/902> [accessed 15 March 2014] Bee, ‘Green Museum for a Green World,’ < http://www.bee-inc.com/blog/green-museum > [accessed 28 March 2014] Arch Daily, ‘Museo Soumaya,’ < http://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> [accessed 23 march 2014] Arch Daily, ‘Museo Soumaya,’ < http://www.archdaily.com/452226/museo-soumaya-fr-ee-fernando-romero-enterprise/> [accessed 23 march 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Achim Menges, ‘Strip Morphologies,’ < http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4395 > [accessed 20 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Robert Stuart-Smith Design, ‘Sao Paulo Bridge,’ < http://www.robertstuart-smith.com/rs-sdesign-sao-paulo-bridge-design > [accessed 24 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Kokkugia, ‘Urban Agency,’ < http://www.kokkugia.com/URBAN-AGENCY > [accessed 25 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014] Procedural Architecture and Design, ‘Sigmund Freud Architecture,’ <http://www.christoph-hermann.com/parametric-architectures/parametric-architecture-pavilion/#> [accessed 27 March 2014] Personal Render, Grasshopper experimentation

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[ ] C O N T E N T S 4

B1 - RESE ARCH FIELD

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B2 - CASE STUDY 1

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B3 - CASE STUDY 2

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B4 - TECHNIQUE: DE VELOPMENT

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B5 - TECHNIQUE: PROTOT YPES

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B6 - TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

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B7 - REFERENCES


[ 1 ] RESEARCH FIELD. Material Performance // Membranes, Timber grain, Textiles Material performance is concerned with using material qualities to inspire generative computational design. Data can be extracted from a specific material and embedded within algorithms to create informed structures that can easily be fabricated. This mode of design inspires intelligent structures with a minimal amount of materials to be used in their construction, assisting in providing a sustainable future. Case studies will be analyzed within this section to give an understanding of the research field material performance, and provide a solid grounding for our group to explore the LAGI 2014 design brief.

ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 (fig 4 & 5) exhibit structures that have been created through the study of specific material qualities. Material Equilibria uses parameters such as the ranges and regions of knit denisty, as well as the stiffness of the bounding glass-fibre rods to manipulate the structures overall form. Using real material data in a parametric modelling program can allow for accurate simulation to take place.

The Research Pavilion takes a similar approach, where the timber qualities, such as the bending ability and stiffness in each timber strip has dictated the overall form. Changing parameters such as the size and thickness of each timber Examples such as Sean Ahlquist Material Equilib- strip will change the entire form of the structure. ria research project (fig 1, 2 & 3), and the

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[ 2] CASE STUDY ONE.

Voussoir Cloud // Lightweight Compressive Vaults Voussior Cloud is a case study which explores form finding techniques within computational design. The design is a completely compressive structure that is made up of a series of cells. Computational design software allowed the simulation of this structure to be created. As a structure in perfect tension can inverse into a structure of perfect compression, the design was simulated using a tensioned simulation engine, using anchor points and springs to generate an upward force. This force inversed the effect of gravity, which then allowed a form to be generated and fabricated in complete compression.

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Once the form was created, material data could be embedded within design algorithms, and fabrication can be realised. The form relies on each other panel to provide itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s structural support, along with the support from the adjacent walls. This case study was broken down and experimented with in Grasshopper in a similar manner to how the project would have been completed in reality.


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Scene-Sensor // Iterations

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[ 3] CASE STUDY TWO. 8.

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Deep Surface Prototype // ICD, Prof. A. Menges, S. Ahlquist The Deep Surface Prototype has been chosen because the processes and technology used to investigate tensile surfaces hold potential to accommodate energy generating technologies that could be used for the LAGI brief. The structure is made from a series of hypertoroidal cells, each made from two tensioned surfaces of different stiffness (fig. 9).1 The structure is given complexity when the number of cells is multiplied and anchored from a range of points, providing a complex system of tensioned surfaces. The research project conducted in Stuttgart used computational techniques and material performance to inform the design. The research group used a computational program, similar to Grasshopper to simulate real life material performance. The simulation engine was one that was based

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on particles and springs, which we could replicate using the Kangaroo plug-in for Grasshopper, providing the opportunity to attempt a complete reverse engineering exercise to take place. The project used real data from the materials used so that accurate templates could be generated for fabrication. Panels of the un-tensioned mesh were then unrolled so that the structure could be produced. The following four pages explain the process of the reverse engineering exercise, as we attempted to recreate a replication of the Deep Surface Prototype in Grasshopper. A physical prototype was then fabricated using an identical process to that of the Deep Surface Prototype to gain a further understanding of the behaviours of tensile structures.


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Complete Reverse Engineer // Deep Surface Prototype

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Deep Surface Prototype // Investigating Fabrication Techniques The hyper-toroidal of the Deep Surface Prototype has been simplified to this single celled form in order to be fabricated manually without a large scale cut plotter to manufacture the panels. The prototype was has been simulated in kangaroo, which has informed the shape of each

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panel pre-tensioning. This allowed 2D panels to be cut, and then sewed together to give the prototype its correct form. The unrolled panels are shown below, and the final form of the prototype can be seen in images 15,16 and 17 to the right.


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[ 4] TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

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Deep Surface Prototype // Iterations of Form Experimentation

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Deep Surface Prototype // Iterations of Form Experimentation To generate electricity for the proposed LAGI installation, piezoelectric transducers will be embedded inside a tensile form. When the wind interacts with the tensile mesh, movement will occur, giving the Piezoelectric transducers an opportunity to harness the kinetic energy and, in turn, will produce electricity. Thus, the selection criteria for the design iterations (shown left) has been critiqued so that the structure will allow for maximum energy generation using this technology. In parallel to the need for the structure to comply with this energy generating technology, the design must comply with the needs of the inhabiting humans on site. This has also affected the selection criteria of the form, taking into account factors such as movement through the site, entry and exit points, external views and views to the site. The design must be intriguing and enjoyable for the occupants in order to maximise the structures design futuring potential. The iterations highlighted left have been chosen due to their accordance to the selection criteria outlined above. The longitudinal structure best fits the need for circulation on site, with two large openings at each end to direct occupants through the site. The longitudinal structure also maximises the potential for wind energy to be focused through the structure, giving the piezoelectric transducers the best opportunity to generate electricity.

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Structural Iterations // The Process of Determining Structure for Tensile Anchor Points The iterations below illustrate some different structural tension the mesh from. The arched beams allow for possibilities to hold up the tensile energy generating the form to stay consistent without moving away from form. The iterations are shown from above, as arching the desired form too much. glulam beams provide the many possible locations to

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[ 5] TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES. Prototype One // Parallel Glulam Beams, Square Panelled Tensile Membranes

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Prototype Two // Geodesic Glulam Beams, Square Panelled Tensile Membranes

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Physical Prototypes // Testing Construction Detail

The physical prototypes have been constructed to test different panelling techniques for the tensile surface. The aim was to compare three different sizes of panels to see what would generate the most energy on site. If time had permitted, material data could have informed these prototypes, allowing for an accurate prediction of the energy harnessing potential of each of the forms. Thus, the judgement criteria for these prototypes has been restricted to aesthetic appeal and informed predictions about energy generation.

PROTOTYPE 3: This model is constructed using longitudinal panels that are the length of the entire structure. Even though the model does not accurately represent the tensile membrane, the anchor points are evenly distributed throughout the structure on the over-arching beams. This form would be best to capture the energy from a perpendicular direction.

Prototype 3.

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PROTOTYPE 4: This model uses one membrane that spans over the entire length of the structure. This would be best to capture wind energy in a longitudinal direction, acting almost as a wind tunnel.

PROTOTYPE 5: Protoype 5 uses a series of thin strip panels that are anchored in a regular pattern along the structure. These panels seem as though they hold the most potential for energy generation as they could fluctuate in the find more than the other two structures. Real data gathering and material properties could have been embedded within algorithms to give a more accurate simulation of the energy generative potential.


Prototype 4.

Prototype 5.

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[ 6] TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL. LAGI Brief // Design Proposal Our design proposal draws from the itera- will be placed in the locations of maximum wind in order to generate maximum tions selected in part B4. energy. The proposal intends to comply with the following two design criteria; 1) to harness In an attempt to interact with the occupants on the site, and to interact with maximum kinetic energy inherent in the wind on site, and 2) to interact with the in- people viewing site from across the river, habitants of Copenhagen both on and off the design will map the energy generated site, maximizing interaction and educating using the flapping tensile surfaces, reachthem on the defuturing situation at hand. ing far into the sky so that the structure can be viewed from a distance. For this to occur, our proposal intends to For the proposal to be relevant, it will hold develop on the ideas generated in this real data from tensile mesh that can be phase of the design (seen right). Now with a solid understanding of construction measured against the predominant wind flows on site, so that an accurate predictechniques used for tensile structures, actual data from materials and technolo- tion of energy generation can be made. gies will be used to inform our structure. The form will use a similar structural layout to the images viewed right, but the form The proposal intends to maximise the energy generation by interacting with real will be dictated by the predominant winds on site. wind flows on site. The tensile surfaces

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[ 7] REFERENCES.

1. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Deep Surface Prototype,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404> [accessed 5 May 2014]

IMAGES: 1. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Material Equilibria,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7636> [accessed 5 May 2014] 2. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Material Equilibria,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7636> [accessed 5 May 2014] 3. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Material Equilibria,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=7636> [accessed 5 May 2014] 4. Institute for Computational Design, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010,’ <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 5 May 2014] 5. Institute for Computational Design, ‘ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010,’ <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 5 May 2014] 6. Iwamottoscott Architecture, ‘Voussoir Cloud,’ <http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD> [accessed 15 May 2014] 7. Iwamottoscott Architecture, ‘Voussoir Cloud,’ <http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD> [accessed 15 May 2014] 9. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Deep Surface Prototype,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404> 10. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Deep Surface Prototype,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404>11. http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404 12. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Deep Surface Prototype,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404>13. http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404 14. Institute for Computational Design, ‘Deep Surface Prototype,’ <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6404>

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[ ] C O N T E N T S

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C1 - DESIGN CONCEPT

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C2 - TECHTONIC ELEMENTS

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C3 - FINAL MODEL

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C4 - L AGI REQUIREMENTS

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A5 - LE ARNING OUTCOMES

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A7 - REFERENCES


[ 1 ] DESIGN CONCEPT. A New Direction // Designing for a Maximum Return The feedback from the interim presentation was key to a number of realisations in our design process. It became apparent that we had misplaced our focus in the most crucial phase of design, which has forced us to rethink our design proposal entirely. Whilst studying the technique of stretching tensile structures our group had a narrow vision of what could be achieved with this technology. The feedback from the interim presentation outlined that the design was over simplified to achieve a result. This was due to the focus being on achieving an intriguing form rather than focusing on harnessing a maximum amount of wind energy on site. The feedback further outlined that for the design to be relevant, it must be informed by both the wind energy on site and the chosen technology to harness this energy. The form must come second to these factors and accommodate the required functions. Thus, we have developed a

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more informed proposal (fig. )

With this in mind, our new proposal relies on the naturally intense fluttering The old proposal aimed to rest in line effect of a sail and uses this to generate a high number of impacting forces with the predominant wind direction on the piezoelectric transducers. The on site whilst at the same time as exact technology will be outlined in connecting the two entrance points section C2 of this journal. on site. However, this attempt is The form of the sail itself has been completely oblivious to the fact wind informed by the need to enhance is strongest at a high altitude and the natural fluttering effect of a sail is constantly changing direction. as it aligns itself with the wind. The Hence, we have moved away from form is planar enough for complete the singular low-lying structure and alignment, with a subtle twist that will opted for multiple sail-like structures contradict this movement and intenthat are self optimising to harness sify the flutter effect. wind from any direction. Each sail The experiential qualities for the users rests in a ball and socket type joint which allows the sail to freely rotate to of the site will rely on the natural beauty inherent in the moving forms. The align with the wind direction. array, density and scale of the sails on The previous proposal used embedsite will also be highly influential on the ded piezoelectric transducers in the users experience. Therefore, these tensioned membrane that relied on the pull forces of the membrane when three factors became the primary parameters in our design definitions. it collected wind. This was not the best design as a piezoelectric transducer produces a maximum energy output at the time of intense impact.


Interpreting the Brief // Merging Social and Ecological Flows The primary four objectives that our group set out to achieve are directly in-line with the requirements of the LAGI brief. In short, these four objectives were; 1) to be a sculptural form that aims to solicit contemplation from viewers on such broad ideas

Review the briefâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s supporting documentation. Site plans, photos, objectives etc. and write a few paragraphs on how you think your teamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s technique can be developed and implemented. Consider how your technique can evolve in relationship to the site, the clients and the people who will encounter the project (as an installation, as a symbol, as an idea, as a manifesto, etc.) Consult with your studio leader and finalise the concept behind your design proposal. - looking specifically at how people interact with the site - loop iterations. - Topography

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as ecological systems, human habitation and development, energy and resource generation and consumption. 2) to harness a maximum amount of energy from the wind using piezoelectric transducers without being detrimental to the desired experiential

qualities. 3) to not create any greenhouse gases and to limit the energy used in the construction of the site (including the embodied energy of materials used). 4) to be realised enough for the possibility of construction.


In order to satisfy these objectives our group set out to achieve a standard structural unit that is self optimising in any direction the wind is blowing. This gave us a large amount of freedom to array the sails on site, giving us the opportunity to satisfy multiple

experiential qualities for the entrances on site, and at two users. By defining charges on key places in the centre of the the site in specific locations in site (seen below). The genan algorithmic modelling pro- erative form that satisfied most gram, our team were able to desired experiential qualities create some generative forms. is outlined below. Each frame These iterations can be seen illustrates a different stange of on the following page. Points the algorithm as it is generatwere defined at the ing the site flow lines.


Generative Iterations // Merging Social and Ecological Flows The iterations shown below illustrate many attempts at trying to arrive at the desired site flows. These lines were then used to array the sails across, and were also used to inform the site topography. Each iteration was achieved by changing the point chargers in the design algorithm, using parameters such as spin charges and point chargers, and then manipulating the strength of these to change the forms.

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Moving Towards Realisation// Finalising Experiential Qualities Iteration 1// Sail: Height: 6.94m. Width: 5.05m. Surface Area: 175.2m2 Base: Circumference: 6.19m. Able to hold 176 transducers. kWh: 377.8 kWh/day: 9,067.2 kWh/yr: 3,309,528 422 sails: 1,396,620,816kWh/yr 210,842 houses fuelled per year.

Iteration 2// Sail: Height: 11.56m. Width: 8.4m. Surface Area: 485.5m2 Base: Circumference: 10.34m. Able to hold 295 transducers. kWh: 1,047.3 kWh/day: 25,135.3 kWh/yr: 9,174,374.3 274 sails: 2,513,778,552.7kWh/yr 379,897 houses fuelled per year.

Iteration 3// Sail: Height: 18.5m. Width: 13.56m. Surface Area: 1254.3m2 Base: Circumference: 16.46m. Able to hold 470 transducers. kWh: 2,705.9 kWh/day: 64,941.3 kWh/yr: 23,703,561.4 127 sails: 3,010,352,292.7kWh/yr 454,942 houses fuelled per year.

Iteration 4// Sail: Height: 23.11m. Width: 13.56m. Surface Area: 1928.2m2 Base: Circumference: 20.48m. Able to hold 585 transducers. kWh: 4,159.7 kWh/day: 99,831.5 kWh/yr: 36,438,507.7 110 sails: 4,008,235,849.2kWh/yr 655,261 houses fuelled per year.

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The sails were initially arrayed on the site at four different scales. Each series of iterations provided us with results that we could assess against the LAGI requirements. The results included; a maximum number of sails for that given

height, the maximum amount of potential energy to be created from this height, and a view of the experiential qualities that each height provides. The results are shown in the matrix below.


Iteration 5// Scale variance of 0.6-0.7

Iteration 6// Scale variance of 0.4-0.8

Iteration 7// Scale variance of 0.1-0.9

The above decimal figures represent a percentage of a standard unit. A standard unit is 5000mm tall.

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The results above tell us that even with a lower number of sails, the largest sail types are able to harness the most energy. However, as seen in the three right hand columns, this iteration does not give a great variance in spatial qualities throughout the site. The experiences we wish to achieve aim to make the user feel; overwhelmed at a point by sails, intrigued to enter the site at both entry points, for the user to be led to a place of complete isolation within a circle of sails, and lastly, for the user to be able to walk into an open space with the

view of Copenhagen across the river. For this to be achieved, the scale of the sails must be manipulated at different points. The three iterations below show a scale variance across the site at different magnitudes. It was found that for the experiences to be achieved a maximum variation in scale must be used. However, this limits the maximum amount of large sails that can be used on site. Thus, a third attempt at arraying the sails was made. The following page outlines this method.


Iteration 8//

Iteration 9//

Iteration 10//

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The iterations below use every second array line to alternate between an array of small sails and an array of large sails. This method allows a large amount of ‘large’ sails to be arrayed on site, whilst stilll holding the experiential qualities that are produced by having a large amount of ‘small’ sails on site. The three iterations show different variences in the scale of the sails, however mimnimal difference was seen in the experi-

ential qualities produced by each iteration. Thus, our team has opted for the iteration that holds the maximum amount of large sails, ensuring that a maximum amount of energy will be produced at the same time the experiences are maintained for the users of the site. Therefore, this iteration is surpassing most of the LAGI requirements.


Comparison of Site Sections //

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eration 1//

eration 2//

eration 3//

eration 4//

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Final Site Array //

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Final Design // View from Ferry

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[ 2]

Tectonic Elements.

Considerations for Tectonic Detailing// The Core Construction Element The core element of each sail rests at the base of the two spiraling poles. This needs to accound for the forces outlined below, and also direct a member to come in contact with pizoelectric transducers that line the base of the structure. The following pages shows some iterations of construction details before outlining the resolved two solutions. Wind Force

Reaction Force = Wei

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ight^2 * Wind Force^2

Weight = mg


Detail Refinement // Iterations and Prototypes

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Initial Prototype//


Detail Refinement // Altered prototype

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Finalising the Detail // The Final Prototype

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Finalising the Detail // Lighting

Glazing

LED Li

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g

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cal Conduit

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ete Framework

Below are images of the light boxes that stream to the main Grid to be utilised by the city of Copenthrough the site on the array lines shown within section hagen, and 3) to create seating to complement the C1 of this Journal. The light boxes serve two three spatial qualities of the site. functions, 1) to illuminate when electricity is produced from the sails, giving a visual representation of the energy generated to the people of Copenhagen, 2) to house the wires for electricity to be transported back


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Spring to reset sail in position Piezoelectric transducer Wireing back to grid


[ 3]

Final Model.

Construction Pocess // 1:500 Site Model

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Construction Pocess // 1:100 Detail Model CLICK LINK TO VIEW CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

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[ 4]

LAGI Brief Requirements.

Design Description //

Our proposal for the 2014 LAGI competition, Copenhagen, presents an array of sails populated over the site, harnessing wind and generating output through piezoelectric energy. The focus of our design is to employ self-optimising tensile sails to utilise wind energy and educate the visitors and residents of Copenhagen on renewable energy. The form of the sail, subsequent to a prolonged design process, was finalised, comprising of a twisted, helix-like structure. Carbon fibre tubes support the tensile fabric sail between, bearing the ability to be flexible enough to adjust in accordance with the wind as well

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as maintain a high level of strength. The sails are arrayed with the assistance of computational software, and emphasise, what we believe, are the three main viewpoints â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the entrance to site, the ferry terminal and the view to the Little Mermaid sculpture. These areas are highlighted throughout the journey by the scaling of the sails and their configuration. Our proposal formation is designed to draw people into the site and, in parts, evoke an overwhelming experience for the visitor. The scaling of sails allows one to experience the dominant power of the large sails and also the opportunity for interaction with the smaller forms.

The array is enhanced by LED strip lighting within concrete trenches, that follow the sail formation, providing a course for transferring the power to the grid, unifying the sails and eliciting a pulse illumination at night in accordance to the energy generated by the site throughout the day. The strip lighting also extrudes in sections to form benches to sit on across the site. This component further drives the intent of interaction and education throughout the site. In addition to providing an artistic, clean energy producing arrangement, our design presents Copenhagen with an innovative and engaging new monument.


Environmental Impact //

Our proposal consists of two main materials, being concrete and carbon fibre. A large amount of concrete is required in our design for the footing system of the sails and light and bench array. Cement is an additive of concrete and also one of the primary producers of, the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide. Cement, dependent on proportion added, creates up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions, 50% of which is from the chemical process and 40% from fuel burning. It is estimated that one tonne of structural concrete will produce 410kg/m3 of carbon dioxide emissions. Carbon fibre is used to support the sails, optimising the materials

strength and lightweight composition. The process of manufacturing carbon fibre requires large amounts of slow heating procedures and hence uses a high level of energy, 25 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 75 kWh/lb . The environmental communities and producers are now heavily regulating carbon fibre manufacturing due to its heat intensive procedure. The production of carbon fibre elicits produces harmful gases including nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide, which both contribute to global warming. Carbon fibre, unlike steel, cannot be melted down and recycled. Therefore, there are large amounts of waste associated with the material, of which mostly ends up in

landfills. Although our site uses materials that do have negative effects on the environment, the large amount of renewable energy are site will generate can definitely be seen to counteract this. A main aim of our proposal is to educate the visitors or renewable energy, and that these systems can have an aesthetically pleasing experience and view.


Piezoelectricity

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Our chosen technology, piezoelectricity, suited our sail form, maintaining our intent of remaining clear of a turbine design. Piezoelectricity converts electrical energy into mechanical vibrations then back into an electrical output. Piezoelectric panels surround the interior lining of the sail bases, and are contacted by the bottom stem of the sail when exposed to wind force. The sail is designed not to rotate, but align with the wind to generate a flutter response, and elicit vibrations in the base. The stem is supported by springs to generate a fast paced continuous movement back and forth when exposed to wind forces. To calculate the energy output of

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one sail, the surface area of the particular sail is required. This is multiplied with the average wind speed of Copenhagen, 5.8m/s2. The weight of the carbon fibre elements, dependent on the sail height, is combined with gravity, 9.8N. Pythagoras theorem can now be used to calculate the force of the stem on the piezoelectric panel. This result is further multiplied by 0.27kWh, in accordance to the piezoelectric transducer, to receive the kW produced by a particular sail over an hour.


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[ 5] Overall this subject as been an extremely unique learning experience. This was the first time in the Bachelor of Environments I have completed a subject that was entirely group work. In addition to this new aspect of course design, we were faced with the confrontation of using parametric modelling software to generate a design outcome. For my group, this was not this difficult part. We unfortunately struggled to find inspiration throughout part B. This was not due to a lack of time given to this subject. Although unfortunately we struggled to produce any promising design ideas until very late in the piece, forcing us to rush a our design realisation in the

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late stages. Looking back at the design process we have undertaken, I would change quite a lot. I believe we restricted ourselves in the design stage by not utilizing the full generative power of grasshopper. I feel that if this was overcome, out design would have been much different. However, that is not to say that I am unhappy with what we have produced. I have learned many things from this semester, which will be useful in later design work. I have developed a proficiency in using Grasshopper, a plug-in which I had not yet used. I now believe that this will be a part of my design

process in many instances in the future. This subject has not only sparked many new design methods for my future design subjects and career, but it has given me a new interest in designing fabricatable pieces for my home, such as desk items and small furniture.


[ 7] References http://landartgenerator.org/

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