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Architecture Studio 1.1 Portfolio Manchester School of Architecture Year 1 2013 James Matthew Nutt


Ct

Table of contents for studio 1.1

Habitat 1.1.1 Relationship between man and animal // Neccesity and anatomy of cient // Anaylsis of site and relevance to client Process of design ideas Test modelling of final design and design concepts Section // Perspective in context // Plan Fabricate 1.1.2 Consideration of materials // Construction Plan Photographs of Model // Model in Context Documentation of Process Expedition 1.1.3 A series of Photographs from Berlin Diagram Booklet Composition of design Diagrams Transcience 1.1.4 Ergonomics and personallity of the Client // Understanding of clients needs from Design // Client in other application Understanding of what is a home // Transient Living design ideas // Process of Design ideas Final Plan // Final Section // Computer Perspective in Context// Perspective Drawing in Context


Hb 1.1.1 Section 1: Habitat 1.1.1


Cl My habitat client is a chicken. A chicken, a domesticated animal with over 24 billion in the world is the largest population of any bird in the world. Humans keep chickens as a food source consuming both there meat and the eggs they lay. Traditionally in the UK chickens are used in poultry farming but they were previously used for cockfighting in Asia. In terms of behaviour chickens live in flocks making them gregarious birds. They are produced from the incubation of eggs and the raising of young. Within chicken flocks there is a pecking order. This order is a hierarchy in terms of nesting locations and food access. To remove a hen or rooster from a flock it can disrupt this pecking order and interfere with the chickens laying pattern. Within my design i need to cater for the flock of chickens ensuring they are purposeful in there application to the Oxford road site but also safe in there own respect.


The Chicken and Human Relationship This diagram shows a composition of the human to chicken relationship. The red lines indicates the interaction the human has with the chicken to gain its optimum outcome. The main purpose of the diagram is to show how much a human changes the life of the chicken for the benefit of the human.W

Cockerills are often slaughtered at birth because of there lack of purpose.

There are 24 million chickens in the world. Over 50% of which are slaughtered for food.

The slaughtering of chickens makes a need for reprodution . This is a huge cycle in the lifestyle of chickens

The use of hens makes a need for roosters whoes only purpose is to reproduce for hens. This creates over population of hens. The human needs to provide the selected factors for the optimum outcome.

Man buys chicken with intention to produce food in form of egg or meat.

For optimum egg laying conditions a chicken needs 14 hours of light per day. Whether it be artificial or natural.

The chicken needs at least 3m2 per chicken to ensure it has optimum laying conditions.

On average a hen will produce around 300 eggs per year. If the human optiimises the discused factors it is likely that they will lay more.

Chickens like most animal need plentifull supplies of both food and water to ensure egg production is optimum.


Anatomy and neccesity of chickens

The Behaviour of the chicken: In terms of social behaviour chickens live in flocks or groups. They have a clear distinctive pecking order within the flocks and this prioritises things such as food and nesting locations. When adding hens to flocks it can lead to fighting and injury because of this social behaviour. When a rooster finds food he may call other chickens to eat the food. In terms of social interaction a hen will cluck loudly when laying an egg or trying to call there chicks. They also give a low ‘warning call’ when they think a predator is approaching. Hens often try to lay in nests that already contain eggs and have been known to move eggs from neighbouring nests into there own. The result of this behaviour is that a flock will use only a few preferred locations. In terms of my design it is there-

fore important that the hens can use it as an appropriate nesting location. Chickens in farming: When chickens are farmed for meat they are called broiler chickens. Chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years but broiler chickens will take less than 6 weeks to reach broiler size. More than 50 billion chickens are reared annually for the production of food in both their meat and their eggs. Intensive farming techniques account for more than 74% of the worlds poultry meat and 68% of the worlds egg supply. Free range is the alternative method to this farming. Chickens as pets: W As pets chickens can be farmed by hand feeding. Roosters in these methods can become aggressive

and noisy, although aggression can be curbed with proper handling. Some have advised against keeping them around very young children. Some people are said to find chickens behaviour entertaining and educational.


The site

My chosen site along Oxford road is just opposite Dover Street in the centre of the University of Manchester campus along Oxford road. Specifcally it is inbetween the University of Manchesters students union and the Alan Roscoe building. The site is made up of a series of grass street plantation. It is on a pedestrianised zone making it easily accesable for human interaction. The pedestrianised zone

also features the option for the car to move down the road. This is in the form of a removal bollard. The site is 25m2 making it perfect for the 4m2 needed for the habitation of a free range chicken. The site is located on the map below by the use of the lines squaring off the given area on the 3D image to the left hand side of the below image.


Tm The test models below were produced to give a better understanding of certain forms and provide an element of design influence before producing the final design. They extract key forms and styles in a way that cant be reflected via sketch.


These models show a more circular impression and also a futher idea of interior spaces. They experiment the opportunities when using straight lines to create curve approaches.


Pr A series of Process sheets that show my initial sketches to my final design. The sketches below are the sketches i carried out to generate specific forms and understandings of materials before starting my project. They have little correlation amongst each other other than the style in which they have been produced. Using simple black lines meant the sketches became very conceptual. This was so i could get a quick simple visual impression of what potentially could be my design. It also allowed me to plug certain elements from the drawings to encorporate into my final design.


Refined ideas sketches The sketches below are more refined sketches and cross-sections that illustrate what i have taken from my initial designs. They show key geometric forms and where the main extraction in terms of design influence for my final design. Most of the sketches below are carried out in persepctive context. This is because a perspective can pull out and exaggerate certain forms which was one of the key aspects of these sketches for my project.


Final design sketches My final design sketches show the last sketches before I chose to computer generate the file. These include perspecitve drawings and an idea of colour before choosing the materials for the design. The colour is used very loosely to give a potential interpretation of the design as opposed to the final refined drawing.


Pd The precedence of the design was the construction of the 3D model using Google sketch up. This model displays the visualisation of the design with the use of textures and other details. This maximises the ability to display a design. Within my structure i used the modelling to get an understanding of the aesthetics combined.


Material choices

The below diagram shows the materials used for the construction of the work. These are key design decisions that are made after constructing the basic form. My materials and choices are justified in the below text.

Cedar wood cladding Labelled ‘Element 1’ this cladding is for the exterior of the upper floor. This is to create a natural aesthetic within the structure. This is so it links the naturual habitat of a chicken and traditional farming architecture. Masonary base This base is the pre-set foundations that are already built into the site. They currently support the foundations of the tree and plantations amongst the area. To place my design into these foundations a rectangle shape indentation will made before creating the structure within the site.

Glass Glass is used on the lower floor side panels. This is so the public have a full vision of the chickens but also so the animals have sufficent light. This is so the chickens obtain there 14 hours to maximise laying conditions. Structural timber This timber is used for the areas within the glass to support the upper floor. The timber is at different angles to allow it to work against eachother.


Pla // 1:10 PLAN A structural plan with occuption. Drawn with markers and finelines and finalised wih photoshop.

// 1:10 SECTION A section with occuption. Drawn with markers and finelines and finalised wih photoshop.

// PERSPECTIVE IN CONTEXT A google sketch up model in the context of site.


Fb 1.1.2 Section 2: Fabricate 1.1.2


Md

The production of a model required me to first start by choosing appropriate materials and a suitable cutting list. I worked out the longest edge first and related it to my scale. This allowed me to be select the material. Demographics such as time, money and space helped me choose materials as well as opinions and peers.

Longest Edge 1:1 7500MM

Which equates to 1:10

Paper Sizes A5 148.5 A4 210 A3 297 A2 420 A1 594 A0 841

X X X X X X

750MM (In Model)

105 MM 297 420 594 841 1189

From this the only suitable scale falls into either the A1 or A0 paper. This narrowed my choices down to card. In reaserching my materials i realised the capabilities of grey card.The two models to the right are produced using grey card. The materials also suited the demographics of my personal enviroment.


Pr The following images show the documentation of the process to make the model. Using a time lapse camera i documented the process on a running camera from start to finish. The following photos create a film reel showing the different stages and indiateing any points that were particularly difficult or i would change.

1 // I started by producing a minature test model. This model consist- 2 // Within the test model i used the same materieals and ensured the 3 // Once the final test model was complete it appeared like the above 4 // Because my model was at a scale of 1:10 i started by calculating ed of just the sides and the 4 supporting the legs. fixings replicated that of my final model. image. It was fully supportive of itself and replicated a very simple de- the longest edges to ensure my materials where correct. sign that was exactly as the final design intentions.

5 // I then cut the details for the site location. This was the supporting 6 // I then started to cut the material using a scalpel and a steel ruler. 7 // I then produced the fixing sides and ensured the measurement concrete block. It was a simple cuboid structure which supports my The longest dimensions maximimised my A1 Grey card. were correct before adjoining the two edges. actual model.

8 // I was always in reference to the Google sketch up model i had produced. I put the model in 1:10 mode on sketch up so i didnt have to carry out the conversions my self and i could just read of the scale ruler.


9 // I then moved to a larger workspace and started to join the sides together. It became a frame like structure.

10 // At this point the supporting fixings were not strong enough. I 11 // The foam board was a success. I then decided to create the therefore decided to create an additional supporting material. This was walls. These were constructed using two elements of grey card. foam board.

12 // I then drew out all of the lower level dimensions. This was so i could place them all together within sync.

13 // I had to work fast in this process. This was to ensure the ele14 // The supporting walls were very strong. The difficulty came in 15 // I used tape as a temporary support. This was so the glue could 16 // I then moved onto the difficult elements of the side walls. Bements i had glued could fit together. Because of the gluing the struc- attaching them to the base. Again, i used foam board as an additional be supported and had sufficent time to stay hold of the base structure. cause they werent horizontal or vertial i had to use angle which again i ture was at some points very weak. sealant between the two edges. refered to from the Sketch Up model.


17 // The first support i put up was the only vertical one. I worked around this one point for the remainder of the fixture.

18 // I then assembled the upper level as the base structure could support the weight of the top.

19 //I then worked on the triangular sides on the top and the bottom. These were 3D so i used again foam board for extra support.

21 // It was very difficult to create an appropriate balance on these 22 // With the use of additional grey card i had enough support for the 23 // I had to work fast in these stages because the structure when edges. This was because the sides became top heavy. This made for a work to support itself. wet did not try on its own accord. very difficult imbalance.

20 // I then moved onto creating the roof structure. This consisted of the spikes which i joined onto my design after i had constructed the sides.

24 // The structure was then complete. The following pages show the final outcome and demonstrate the performance of the model in both context and as a design.


Ph The following images are taken of the model to represent my design for Habitat 1.1.1. The model is shot at different angles and in different lights. The model itself was produced at 1:10 scale.


Ep 1.1.3 Section 3: Expedition 1.1.3


Br The following pages display numerous images from the Expedition project to Berlin. WIth a city of such change and recent history I specifically looked at Berlin through the eyes of a child. WIth children being the future of Berlin i thought it was important that the future of the architecture and the summary of space needs to be more heavily

From L to R: Reichstag Goverment Building. East Side Gallery, Berlin Wall Traditional German Automotive, Previously West Berlin

related to the future of its residents. With the use of images and the considerations of diagrams the following pages try to represent this common theme. My understanding of the connection with children is also to see if the modern day residents of Berlin are still heavily influenced by the history in which they were not present.


From L to R: Panoramic of Jewish war Memorial (Top Picture) Child playing within Jewish War Memorial Commercial Building, Banhof Potzdamer Platz, Previously Wall occupied zone


From L to R: Hamburger Banhof, Reflection from exhibition Reichstag Dome, Goverment Building (Bottom Left) Neues Museum, Exhibiton Shadow, Previously West Berlin


Bk The following diagrams relate to the image and the word associated. In some cases the word next to the image will not correlate. In all cases it goes Word - Image - Diagram. The diagrams follow a common theme of children and there interaction with the spaces in Berlin, Germany.


b. 2013 Understanding of wall

Relevance of wall to them

b.2008

b.2000

b.1990

b.1970

b.1955

b.1940


Tr 1.1.4 Section 4: Transcience 1.1.4


Ci The client in my design is a farmer. Having identified this from the needs of my habitat animal the farmer seemed the most logical and reasonable solution. With such a small scale farm i felt it was not necessary for a ‘young’ farmer to work the land. This then open a pathway that made me consider the opportunity for retired farmers. Many might say they are retired for a reason but the length of a farmers career is often shortened to physical condition not lack of enthusiasm or anything similar. With my client area focused towards older clientele i felt it was more fitting that the designated housing offered a guaranteed element of sustainability. For this criteria i investigated the notion of lifetime homes and how these can be applied in the housing community.


Ergonomics of client specifically With the client being at the age of retirement it is important to consider the physical factors of the client and what he will need out of the design. Below there are a series of sketches that show basic ergonomic movements and interactions with certain household items. With this in mind i investigated the percentile range of the client. This is the correlation of the number of actions someone can do with there age. The correlation often follows a bell shape curve with a very limited number of actions at the start and end and a large amount of actions in the middle (20 to 30 years). It is important to interpret this ergonomic data when designing elements such as desk height or other operations. With the

nature of farming being so physical it is common for farmers to struggle with movements in certain ways. The image to the far right shows a farmer in action. Basic operations such as this performed on a day to day basis can cause repetitive strain and consequently illness within the farmer. With the use of this data and the consideration of design the construction i create needs to look at this data and make an ergonomic solution within a small space.


Clients actions

Because of such specific design needs there are certain criteria that i can follow. Specific health assistants called osteotherapists look into these design needs and how furniture can be adapted to meet the needs of the client. Other initiatives such as lifetime homes follow similar criteria. This ensures that a home will last a liftetime.

Number of actions the human can perform

My client is at the age of retirement. This often means as a human he is less capable to perform actions in comparison to when he was younger. This is the case for all humans. The graph below shows this. With age along the X axis and the number of actions the human can perform on the left it shows a steady peak before declining again. My client is at the stage for which his actions are becoming less and less. This may be physically in the amount he can lift or mentally. This is why within my design i cater for the deterioration of health. This often means i follow the function over form as the client is looking for a workable design as opposed to a aesthetically pleasing design.

BIRTH

TODDLER

CHILD

TEENAGER

YOUNG ADULT

ADULT

RETIRED

GRANDAD


Clients Life Cycle The two diagrams show the intensity of the working life of a farmer. Many people say ‘a farmer never retires’ which would be suggested from the diagrams. A farmer on average just 10 complete days off per year as opposed to the 120 of an average person. This leads to a very hard working life. Consequently farmers are often very strong and physically able people in there prime but there deteriation is often quicker. This is often because of the sheer stress exerted on the body, on a daily basis, for a lifetime. With this in mind it is important to consider the

mentality of a farmer. The proffesion itself is set alone from many other working jobs. Its is often carried out on a very lonely level working long days and nights entirely on your own. It is also seasonal meaning certain times of year are very hard and some points are extremely easy. This may because of the naturual reliance on weather and the seasons. W

- 5am - 6am - 7am - 8am - 9am - 10am - 11am - 12pm - 1pm - 2pm - 3pm - 4pm - 5pm- 6pm - 7pm - 8pm - 9pm -

Days off in the year

Average yearly work for a farmer

- 10pm - 11pm - 12am -

Average yearly work for a standard job = At work = Recreation / Commute


Specific personality of occupation

Conscientious personality style

A farmer is well known for its specific personality. They are often very reserved and quite determined. The animals amongst this page are example of the sort of characteristics so strongly associated with farmers. This is obviously a generalisation and does not account for the entire population bit it is an important part to consider when designing a home. The clients personality shows what a client needs socially. This is a vital component to the success of the designer in creating a habitat for the client.

A capacity for hard work and perseverance

Solitary personality style Comfort with solitude, fully self-contained, stoical

Mood changing personality style A tendancy to go from one mood to another very quickly. Serious personality style

Great capacity to cope with adversity

Vigilant personality style Autonomy, capacity to make decisions Sensitive personality style Comfort with a small circle of friends, with little need for company


Specific ergonomics related to actions The following diagrams identify certain elements of the clients body that are not as efficent in terms of moving as the every day individual. Amongst these factors i have identified what actions within a habitat they may effect and also the extent to which they need to be considered. The diagrams to the left of the sketches show this.

Action // Restricted Movement in leg stride and arm elevation

Osteotherapy analysis - Cuboard height - Light switch height - Overhead Storage - Changing light bulbs - Supporting over head weight -Walking over steps - Walking on gradients - Hanging baskets - Opening / Shutting windows - Reaching the ceiling

// Restricted movement in horizontal movement of arms

- Opening doors - Opening windows - Opening cuboards - The opening of storage - Door frame access - Showering

// Restricted movement in leg movement of lower limb and the ability to sit at different heights.

- Table height - Cooking height - Toilet height - Stairs height - Ability to walk on gradients - Chair heights - Shelfing heights


Lifetime Homes Lifetime Homes are ordinary homes designed to incorporate 16 Design Criteria that can be universally applied to new homes at minimal cost. Each design feature adds to the comfort and convenience of the home and supports the changing needs of individuals and families at different stages of life. The 16 series of design criteria laid out below with the use of diagrams is a key component. 15 13

There must be the potential to add hoists to a bathroom or bedroom.

6

The internal doorways must have a width of at least 750mm.

5

The property must have stairs with 900m hand rails, a uniform rise that doesnt exceed 170mm and no less than 250mm.

16

Service controls should be within band of 450mm to 1200mm from the floor and at least 300mm from any internal room corner. 12

In dwellings that are multi storey there must be space fro a bed on the ground level. 8

7

The bathrrom must have a centre line of 400mm-500mm and a flush control located to the side. The sink must have an approach zone of at least 200mm.

A living room / space should be provided on the entrance level of every dwelling.

There should be enough space for turning a wheel chair in dining areas and living rooms and basic circulation sace for wheelchair users everywhere.

In a multi storey property there must be a space allocated for the potential construction of a two storey lift. 10

11

9

14

The house should allow its occupier to see out when sitting.

There must be an accesible bathroom on ground level

The interior of the bathroom must be suitable for the potential additions of wall supports i.e. hand supports or wall mounts.

4 The entrances to the construction must ... a) Be illuminated b) Have level Access c) Clear opening widths and limbs d) Adequate weather protection 3 The approach to all entrances needs to be e) Have a level external landing level or gentley slopping at no more than 1:60.

1

The house parking space needs a 900mm access path to the property. 2

The access path needs to a suitable surface and a gentle gradient that does not exceed 1:60.


Specific Needs of Client The following criteria are guidelines set by the lifetimes home commision and also personal osteoporosis made on the client. They include an understanding of the interior to create the house ergonomic and functional for the client. These criteria are very simple but play dividens to the outcome of the clients outcome of the construction. W

// The toilet needs to be raised by an additional 100mm. This takes it from 400mm to 500mm. This to create an easier access. The depth of the toilet can remain the same size. simply because this has very little difference to the anthropometics and ergonomics of the client.

// The table and entertainment area will consist of a single chair and table area. This area wil be a workspace as well as a dining space. This is so it can be used in two applications. This maximises the space on offer.

// The shower unit needs to be on a leve lfloor with a width of at least 750 X 750 mm.

// For the area the notions of a working triangle are not really applicable. The working triangle consists of three locations. These locations being the fridge - stove - sink. // In my design the fridge needs to be horizontal along one single plane for the best application.

// The bed will be 110% the size of the client. In this case that makes it 203cm. The bed with is 100cm and the height of the bed is 60cm to make an easy access point for the client.


Tl Transient living suggests that the enviroment needs to move. The term transient means ‘..someone who stays only for a brief time’. This means that the structure has to move. To make a structure move it is often quite difficult. It immediatley creates certain criteria that it may neccesarily have to follow. A home that moves would need to be either light, small or detacable or the action causing the movement is very strong. The most common type of transient living is gypsy culture. The gypsy culture live in small caravans which move from place to place.


How often does my client need to move ?

The diagram below shows the temperatures of manchester throughout the year. These temperatures are peaks monthly. It is clear that there is a significant peak in the middle months of July and September. At these stages the cient may be able to withstand the temperature. It is the cold winters at which the client is most vulnerable. This is why i have identified the times at which the habitat can be located in Manchester. This allows the user to move to a hotter climate or move out but keep it within sight in the colder months. Improved insulation oculd ensure this but it is difficult to achieve in such a small enviroment.

IN-HABITABLE

162119156

881013

JAN

FEB

IN-HABITABLE

HABITABLE

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC


Sketches of transience examples

Before the production of designing my transience enviroment i felt it was important to consider the sort of structures and examples of transient living at current. I therefore started sketching examples of transient living to investigate the styles and forms within the structures.


Pr

Process sheets

The following pages show how i took the processes to get my final design. They also show how the design works and how it interacts with the enviroment. Via a series of sketches i have documented the design process from very minimal drawings to final designs. All of the sketches are produced to provide the best possible interpretation of the design.


Initial design Ideas

These are un-refined sketches that bring out specfic forms to carry forward for my design. They are very basic and very rough but present design ideas that have the potential to be carried forward in the design elements further on. The skethces below are realistic concepts of designs. These include sections and basic floor plans. This is showing quick replications of what the constructions form could be like. From this page i extracted the use of lines and the ability to cut out on plane shapes to create a good effect.


Initial design Ideas

This page focuses on the concepts and process rather than the form. The sketches show how the construction will work. I particularly like the design of geometric square and how you can create curvature with straight lines. This page shows this and it was a concept taken forward in my design.


Wider context

After creating some strong forms in the initial ideas i then looked into the Dwelle house. This house along oxford road manchester althought not transient is an example of a microhome. The architect has combined all the daily neccesities into a small area. For me it wasnt so much the size that was captivating it was the form. Although very simple it uses a strong wooden cladding which is very aesthetically pleasing. It also follows the lifetime homes criteria which my design will also follow. The overall concept is very light and cheap so does have the ability for a transient element. The architect is yet to explore this.


Wider context - Chair Design James Douglas

This chair produced by James Douglas inspired a certain form and construction technique. Useing a central pole and a series of wooden panels he has created a unique form. This idea of layering but with integrated parts is something i am looking to explore. It required little structurally as the form itself when added makes it stronger and stronger. It is also extremely easy to seperate and re-assemble which could be a concept of transient living within my design.


Final idea sketches

The following sketches express ideas and concepts. They are not always neat but there purpose is to show the user how the concept works and how certain elements of the design are presented. Below i have investigated the use of different materials such as curves and how there efficency in a space is questionable.


Final idea sketches

These sketches look into the concept of slotting on the layers to the base structure. This will include 4 rods with the surrounding layer placing its self one by one on top of it.


Final idea sketches

These isometric drawings show the final design ideas. The one on the left has a different opening but the interior is much the same as the final design.


Final idea sketches

This isometric blow out shows the different layers of the design as they are constructed. At the different stages the construction develops taller. This process is the same when the building is disasembbled for movement.


Fc Final concept

This sketch up model shows the design in material and in line. The main structure is cedar wood which is layered upon 4 cyclindrical columns. This structure has two ceiling sky lights and one window at the front and one at the back. The building conforms to lifetime homes.


Floor plan & The Site

The floor plan shows the specific elements of the design that can not be exposed when the exterior is present. It consists of a Sink - Oven - Shower - Toilet - Bed and storage. This design features a simple carpet and some of the interior walls are plastered with a white rendor. The site is situated on Plat Fields Park. This area is secluded and quiet and features a large amount of green space for the client.


Interior & Exterior

The interior image at the top shows how the wood sections from the exterior integrate into the design. The fittings are all part of the outside edge this is because of the layered method. The inside is very similar to the exterior but the white rendor Breaks up the wood. The exterior walls have an interesting curvature. There ends are made up of different lengths which creates an interesting effec


Pla // 1:10 PLAN A structural plan with occuption. Drawn with markers and finelines and finalised wih photoshop.

// 1:10 SECTION A section with occuption. Drawn with markers and finelines and finalised wih photoshop.

// PERSPECTIVE IN CONTEXT A google sketch up model in the context of site.


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