Page 1

Type Specification

Fuse 燃


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Contents

Grids

4–7

Features

8–9

Type

10 – 17

Colour

18 – 19

Orphans

20 – 21

Image Layout

68 – 81

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Grids

4.

7.

3.

2.

1.

5. 4

6.


Grids

Document size: 184 mm x 219 mm. Facing pages. Grid: 3 columns by 5 rows with a central column divider. 1. Moduel width: 52.359 mm 2. Moduel height: 35.308 mm 3. Baseline: 4.41 mm (12.5 pt) Gutters: Both column and row gutters are 4.41 mm. (12.5 pt) Margins: 3. Top: 8.819 mm 4. Bottom: 16 mm 5. Inside: 8 mm 6. Outside: 10 mm Bleeds: 3 mm x 3 mm x 3 mm x 3mm

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mixture was inserted into the hollow of a bamboo stick and when thrown into a fire, the Grids gases produced by the ignited burning powder inside caused an immense build up of pressure and blasted the tube apart. The basic firecracker was born. These ‘firecrackers’ played an essential part in early Chinese festivities and religious rituals. They believed that the intense sound was to be powerful

explosives. Within 100 years they had developed fire arrows (bamboo fire crackers attached to regular arrows and shot at the enemy). They also used the new creation to intimidate the enemy by using gunpowder to shoot rats from thick bamboo barrels which had a great psychological effect -scaring soldiers and causing horses to go wild. The Chinese realised that bamboo was too fragile to propel anything heavy.

warfare was brought to an end with gun powder causing it to come to a close. Bullets could now puncture metal armor and once seemingly impenetrable walls of castles could be blown to bits by cannon balls.

火药

Other Materials

Casings Casings for devices are fundamental for creating pyrotechnics devices. It is very important that they are made from a material that will not create shrapnel like glass and metal. Fire Chemical

ˇ Huoyào

Casings for spherical aerials shells are hard to come by in the UK but they are avalible in America. Alternatively they can be made by layering and 火 gluing paper over a spherical object such a tennis 6 ball however this takes a lot of time and generally has a poor outcome. Specialist cylindrical casings are are again, hard to come by. However they can easily be replaced by using PVC piping or creating them out of paper.

Dowel A variety of different sized dowels are great to have in a hobbyists collection of tools. They are primarily used for compressing compositions in casings for devices like rockets and gerbs. This is done by adding small amounts of the composition into the casing and using a mallet to compress it down and then repeating until the casing is full.

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Grids

Centre Column Divider The central column divider is used to space even elements on the page. It is also used as a device to give the document more layout varieties.

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Features Page Furniture 1 A 0.25 pt orange stroke was used in most chapter pages and against any long lengths of text.

Birth 初 The discovery of fireworks is believed to have occurred by chance approximately 2,000 years ago in China. The base of all pyrotechnics was accidentally created by mixing together three common kitchen ingredients: KNO3, Sulphur and Charcoal. This mixture was dried over a fire and it was discovered when lit that the product would aggressively combust. This mixture produces the famously used composition that we all know of today as gunpowder. It is believed that Marco Polo on one of his many trips to China transported this invention to the Middle East where European Crusaders brought it to England. An English Scholar by the name of Roger Bacon (1214-1294) was one of the first Europeans to study gunpowder and write about it. He wrote “if you

light it you will get thunder and lightening if you know the trick”. He realised that the potassium nitrate was the key ingredient behind the explosion. Realising that his findings had the dangerous potential of completely revolutionising warfare the notes were written in code. This code was not deciphered for hundreds of years. It was in 1560 that European Chemists managed to make gunpowder as explosive as possible by experimenting with the ratios of the ingredients.

火 4

Page Numbers Univers Light 10 pt regular was used as page numbers matching the main body content.

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Features Page Furniture 2 A 0.25 pt orange stroke was used in when text only filled a single row.

Gunpowder

Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) – 75% Charcoal (C) – 15% Sulphur (S) – 10%

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Running Footer 12 pt Hei was used above the page number to act as a running heading referring to the chapter the page is in.

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Type Univers 45 Light – Body copy (10pt regular) abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789

Univers 45 Light – Body copy (10pt regular) abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789

Univers 45 Light – Sub Body copy (8pt bold) abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789

Univers 45 Light – Sub Body copy (8pt regular) abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 0123456789

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Type

Body The body paragraph style was used in bold and regular. Bold was for sub headings within the body. Reqular is used as the general body content

Sub Body The sub body paragraph style was used in bold and regular. Bold was for sub headings within the sub-body. Reqular is used as the general body content

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Type

Univers Light abcde ABCDE 104 pt Bold

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Type

45 Chapter Headings Chapter headings are in 104 pt type because the cap height is equal to 6 baselines.

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Type

Univers 45 Light

24 pt Bold

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUV WXYZ 0123456789

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Type

Page Sub Headings Page sub headings are 24 pt type. The x-height is equal to one baseline.

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Type

Hei

火变体集 法癖焚 火变体集法癖焚

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Type

Chinese Typeface Page sub headings are 24 pt type. The x-height is equal to one baseline.

Chapter Folios Hei was used to compliment Univers. The x-height each letter in Hei differed so each one was changed to match the cap-height of the chapter heading. A 12 pt version was used above the page number to act as a running heading referring to the chapter the page is in.

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Colour

C=0 M=0 Y=0 K = 73

Body Grey Grey is used as the main colour. It displays general narrative.

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Colour

C=0 M = 60 Y = 100 K=0

Information Orange Orange is the secondary colour. It is used to display informative text.

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Orphans

Oxidisers

2.

The function of the oxidising agent is to produce the oxygen needed in order for the mixture inside the firework to burn. These oxidisers are usually nitrates, chlorates or perchlorates. Fuels would normally burn in open atmosphere however pyrotechnics are self contained therefore oxidisers are the source of oxygen rather than the air.

Oxidisers

2.

The function of the oxidising Oxidisers have the the oxygen ability agent is toalso produce to determine the speed of a needed in order for the mixture inside the firework to burn.

Ammonium Dichromate – [NH4]2Cr2O7

Nitra muc the a

Chlo agen more how to po expl

Perc expl Nitra their muc

the a

Potas

Ammonium Perchlorate – NH4ClO4

Sodiu Chlo Sodiu agen Stron more Stron how to po explo

Lead Dioxide – PbO2

Perc explo their

These oxidisers are usually Barium Chlorate – BaClO3 nitrates, chlorates or perchlorates. Barium Nitrate – Ba[NO3]2 Fuels would normally burn in Barium Sulfate – BaSO4 open atmosphere however Copper Chlorate – Cu[ClO3]2*6H2O pyrotechnics are self contained Iron(II) Oxide – FeO*Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 therefore oxidisers are the source Iron(III) Oxide – FeO*Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 of oxygen rather than the air. Lead Tetraoxide – Pb3O4 Oxidisers also have the ability Potassium Chlorate – KClO3 to determine the speed of a Potassium Nitrate – KNO3 reaction depending on how Potassium Perchlorate – KClO4 stable the compound is.

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reac stab

Ammonium Dichromate – [NH4]2Cr2O7

Potas

Ammonium Perchlorate – NH4ClO4

Sodiu

Barium Chlorate – BaClO3

Sodiu

Barium Nitrate – Ba[NO 变 3]2

Stron

Barium Sulfate – BaSO4

Stron


Orphans

Eliminating Orphan Words A portion of the the paragraph was selected and the tracking was changed by a maximum of +/- 20. If this did not work then a larger portion of the previous text was selected.

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Image Layout

1.

Category 1 devices which are known as indoor fireworks for use in small areas. Therefore they are required to have very little to no debris. This catagory generally includes sparklers and small gerbs.

Peony

58

59

Trail

The most common type of firework, the peony shell type is a spherical break of colored stars that burn without a tail effect.

The trail shell type (chrysanthemum) is a spherical break of stars that burn with a tail effect usually in silver or gold.

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29

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Image Layout

Gloss spreads Single and double spread high resolution images are bled out of the entirety of the page/spread.

Square Images Images taking 3x4 of the modules are used when an image is being explained leaving the bottom row for text.

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Type Specification

Type Specification - Fuse