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TLtpl;L TLgha[k; cly; cly;;fs;. cly;fspd; 'vz;l;ugp' -rpe;jidapd; btg;g naf;ftpay; gw;wpa g[idt[fs; $khyd; nilaPL-1  "Vd; nyf;fpaj;ij tpl;Ltpl;L mwptpay; vGjpf; bfhz;oUf;fpwha;, mwptpay; twz;l K}isfsp;d; cjak;, nyf;fpak; Mf;f kdk;, gilg;gpd; Nuk; goe;jJ, Mdhy;, cdf;Fs; Nuk; ny;iy, cd; K}is btg;g uj;jA;fshy; epiwe;J tHpfpwJ, cdf;F nyf;fpak; tuhJ, mJ xU gilg;g[ kdk; mila[k; mDg{jp epiy, xU mw;g[j fzk;, mJ cdf;F tha;f;fhJ, cd; g[yd; cWg;g[fs; czh;t[fs; mw;W kuj;Jtpl;ld, me;j 'fha;yhA;fil' cWg;g[fis kiwj;J, g[jpa rpe;jid kw;Wk; mwptpay; mhpjhuk; g{rp tpw;f Kay;fpwha;. kuzj;ij Behf;fpa g[yd; rA;BfjA;fis thH;jiy Behf;fp jpUg;g Kay;fpBwd; vd;fpwha;, ek;gKoahJ, ehA;fs; Vkhspfs; my;y.  nyf;fpak; bjhpahJ vd;gij ne;j $df;Tl;lj;jpd; Kd; xj;Jf; bfhs;. mijtpl;Ltpl;L, mwptpay;, nyf;fpak;, Fg;ig, kUe;Jr; rPl;L vy;yhk; xd;Wjhd;, xU g[idt[ btspia fl;likj;J mjw;fhd jh;f;fj;jpy; naA;fp bfhz;oUf;Fk;, xUtif bkhHptpisahl;Lj;jhd; vd;Wk;, eP nA;F mwptpay; kw;Wk; jj;Jtk;, rpe;jid Kiw, nyf;fpak;, bkhHp vd;W vy;yhg; g[idt[fisa[k; FHg;goj;J vGj JtA;Ftjhf cd; nayhikia kiwj;J 'gk;khj;J' gz;zhBj.  g[hpahky; vGJtBj eP vd;kPJ brYj;j Kida[k; td;Kiw vd;fpw vd; Bfs;tpf;F mwptpaiy vLj;J te;J fij tpLfpwhah? Bfl;lhy;, mwptpay; vd;gJ bkhHpahYk;, ekJ gHf;fg;gLj;jg;gl;l g[yd; cWg;g[-fspd; rA;BfjA;fshy;; epU}gpf;f Koe;j kw;bwhU g[idt[jhd; vd;W TWfpwha;. mwptpay; bjhpahj vz;zw;w $df;Tl;lk; cyfpy; thH;e;J bfhz;Ljhd; nUf;fpd;wd vd;gha;, gpwF Vd; mjid nA;F vLj;Jte;J fil tphpf;fpwha;? vija[k; mwptpay;hPjpahf ek;g[k; Bkw;fj;jpa mwpt[thj g[yd; cWg;g[fis itj;Jf; bfhz;L, g[idt[fSf;F Mjhuk; Bjo miyfpBwd; vd;gjhyh?  vy;yhBk, g[idt[ vd;why; KGKjy; cz;ik vd;Bwh, kdpjDf;fhd Mjhuk; vd;Bwh vJt[Bk ny;iyah? kuzk; vd;fpw bjhHpy;El;gk; kl;Lk;jhd; kdpjDf;fhf nUf;fpwjh? kuzj;ij xj;jpg;Bghl nayhky;, beUA;fpr; bry;tjhf nUf;fpwjh thH;jy;? thH;jypd; tijapypUe;J tpLgl vGj;jpw;Fs; EiHfpwhah? ny;iy, vGj;J vd;gJk; xU jw;bfhiy epfH;t[jhd; vd;fpwhah? vd;d brhy;y Kay;fpwha; vd;gij ghh;f;fj;jhd; BghfpBwd;."

gFjp –1 g[idt[ - 1 FHg;gk; vd;gJgw;wpa etPd tpq;qhdj;jpd; g[idt[fs; brd;w E]w;whz;oy; btspaplg;gl;l 'btg;g naf;ftpaypd; nuz;lhtJ tpjp' (Second Law Of Thermo-Dynamics)-a[ld; JtA;FfpwJ. nt;tpjp bghUl;fSf;F ePsk;, mfyk;, cauk; vd;fpw K}d;W gz;g[fSld; 'vz;l;ugp' (ENTROPHY) vd;fpw 4tJ gz;g[ xd;W cs;sij tpsf;FfpwJ. me;j vz;l;ugpapd; mst[ mjpfhpj;Jf; bfhz;oUf;Fk;, RHpepiyahfhJ (mjhtJ, ENTROPHY # 0). njid ekJ bkhHpapy; Twpdhy;, ne;j gpugq;rk; BkYk;, BkYk; FHg;gj;ij Behf;fpa[k;, xGA;fpd;ikia Behf;fpa[k; Bgha;f; bfhz;oUf;Fk;;, mjhtJ FHg;gk; vd;gJBt gpugq;rj;jpd; mog;gil gz;ghf nUf;fpwJ. ne;j xGA;fpd;ik vd;gij mstpLk; tpq;qhd mstPBl 'vz;l;ugp' (Disorderness Factor - xGA;fpd;ik fhuzp) vd;gJ. epU}gzk; -1 gpugq;rj;jpd; btg;gepiy mjpfhpj;Jf; bfhz;oUg;gjhf rkPgj;jpa tpq;qhd fzf;fPLfs; fhl;Lfpd;wd. njd; bghUs;, gpugq;rj;jpd; xGA;fikt[ vd;gJ rpije;J bfhz;oUf;Fk; xd;W, mjhtJ, bkhj;j cyf mikg;g[k; FHg;gj;ij Behf;fp Bgha;f;bfhz;Ls;sJ. ‘ve;j xGA;fhd bghUSk; rpijtjw;fhd jUzj;ijBa vjph;Behf;fp nUf;fpd;wJ’♣. mjhtJ, Bkirapd; Bky; cs;s xU fz;zho FtisahdJ, cilahky; KGikahf nUg;gjw;fhd tha;g;igtpl, ciltjw;fhd thag;igBa mjpfk; bfhz;oUg;gJ Bghy rpijtpw;fhd ♣

nJ kh;|gp vd;gthpd; Tw;whf ‘Cybernetics Madley’ –vd;fpw E]ypy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

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thag;g[fBs cyfpy; mjpfkhf nUf;fpd;wd. mjdhy;jhd;, cyf kjA;fs; midj;Jk; ne;j rpijit mog;gilahff; bfhz;Bl, jA;fsJ gpugq;rk; gw;wpaf; fijahliyj; Jtf;Ffpd;wd. nr;rpijt[fis mHpthf Fwpepiyg;gLj;jpBa kuzgak; vd;gij fl;likj;J jA;fsJ mwtpaiy, niwapaiy epahag; gLj;Jfpd;wd. kdpj thH;jypid xU bjhlh; epfH;thf fw;gpjk; bra;J, milahsA;fs; mog;gilapyhd thH;jypjj;ij cUthf;fp cs;sd. nj;bjhlh;r;rp xU bgUk;rpijthy; kl;LBk jilg;gLk; vd;gjhd 'nWjp ehs;' / ‘gpusak;’ / ‘BguHpt[‘-gw;wpa bgUA;fijahliy cUthf;fp, epfGk; fzA;fspd; td;Kiwia bksdpj;J xGA;fike;j cliy mjw;fha; jahh; bra;fpd;wd. nr;rpijBt, Xh; clypd; thH;jYf;fhd epahag;ghl;ilj; jUk; Mf;ff;Twhf nUg;gjhy;, rpijit vjph; bfhs;tBj cly;fspd; jh;f;fkhf cs;sJ, vdBtjhd;, clypd; fyfk; vd;gJ xGA;fikjYf;F vjpuhdjhfBt naf;fkilfpwJ. ghypaypy; tpidgLk; nU cly;fSf;F nilapy;, cah; Mw;wy;kl;l epiyapy; cUthFk; mjPj xGA;fpd;ikapd; tpisthy;, nUj;jiy kwe;j, mjhtJ 'jhdw;w' fyf clypd; btspg;ghL vd;gJ epfH;fpwJ. ghypaiy mjpfhuk; ifafg;gLj;jpajd; K}yk;, mjid gy; Kidfspy; gug;gp, bgUf;fp cliy xGA;fike;j brhy;yhly;fSf;Fs; bfhz;Lte;J, jdJ ve;jputpaypd; Kf;fpa cWg;ghf;fp, ghypay; niz gpk;gA;fspd; MLfskhf thH;jypd; ikaj;ij fl;likj;Js;sJ. Mdhy;, clypd; nay;g[ (normality) vd;gJBt xGA;fpd;ikahft[k;, nay;gpd;ik (abnormality) vd;gJBt xGA;fhft[k; nUg;gjhy;, vg;go bghUl;fspd; vz;l;ugp RHpepiyia milahBjh, mBjg;Bghy cly;fspd; vz;l;ugpa[k; RHpepiy mila KoahJ. mjhtJ, BgbuhGA;iff; bfhz;l nyl;rpa cly;fs; vd;gJ xU bgUk;g[idBt. fhg;gpa fjhehafh;fs; ne;j bgUk;g[idtpd; tpist[jhd;. ne;j nyl;rpa cliy Behf;fpajhf thH;jiy naf;fp gpHpe;bjLg;gjd; K}yk;, mjpfhukhdJ jdJ nUj;jYf;fhd Mw;wiy bgUfpwJ. Mf, kdpj Btl;ifapd; kpfg;bgUk; fdthd ‘nyl;rpa cly;’ vdgJ rhj;jpakw;w xd;W. ne;j fdBt kjA;fspd; gutyhf;fj;jpw;F fhuzkhf mike;jJ. vy;yh kjA;fSk; jdJ fijahly;fSf;Fs;, ne;j nyl;rpa clypd; Ml;lj;ijBa mog;gilahff; bfhz;oUf;fpwJ. jh;f;fk;-1 FHg;gj;jpw;Fk;, btg;gj;jpw;Fk; vd;d cwt[? xU bghUspd; tothPjpahd nUj;jYf;Fk; btg;gepiyf;Fk; cs;s cwt[jhd;. mjhtJ, xUbghUs; vd;d totj;jpy; nUf;fpwJ vd;gij mjd; btg;gepiyBa jPh;khzpf;fpwJ. XU bghUspd; btg;gk; mjpfhpj;jhy; mZmikg;g[ rpijt[Wk;, mg;bghUspd; K}yf;TWfspd; gpizg;g[fs; tplj; JtA;Fk;, mg;bghUs; rpijt[Wk;, my;yJ BtW xU bghUshf khWk;. Mf, rpijt[Wjy; vd;gJ mog;gilapy; epfGk; bghUs; khWghLjhd;. nJehs;tiu ek;gp te;j rpijt[ vd;gjd; mHpt[f;TW, nA;F jd; mh;j;jj;ijBa rpijj;Jf; bfhs;tjhfpwJ, my;yJ rpijjy; vd;gJBt Mf;f mog;gilapyhd, nUj;jypd; epiy kWj;J BtW xU nUj;jiyg; bgWjyhfpwJ. njid Th;ikg;gLj;jpdhy;, rpijahj KGik vd;W xd;W nUe;jhy;jhd;, xU bghUis rpije;jJ vd;W BgrKoa[k;. mg;go xU VfKGik my;yJ Kw;bwhUik nUg;gjhd ‘niwapay; ek;gpf;if’-Ba nd;iwa mwpt[thj jh;f;f mikg;gpd; mog;gilahf cs;sJ. flt[s; kWg;g[ gFj;jwpt[ Kjy; 'cyf tpobts;sp' jj;JtA;fs;tiu g[idag;gl;Ls;s fijahly;fspd; cs; jh;f;f mikg;g[ ne;j niwapay; gpz;zdpia mog;gilahff; bfhz;l xU mwtpay; jj;Jtf; fskhfBt naf;f kilfpd;wd. kdpj bka;ikgw;wpa[k;, cyf ca;tpg;g[ gw;wpa[k; BgRk; nj;jj;JtA;fs;, mwbthGf;fk; BgRk;BghJ xU mA;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l kjthjpiatpl Mf;Buh&khf BgRtjd; gpz;zdp nJjhd;. nit jA;fsJ fUj;jpay; epfH;-Tlkhf bfhz;oUg;gJ cly;/kdk; vd;fpw xUtif kjthj Mj;khgw;wpa bkhHp tpisahl;ilj;jhd;♣. nt;tpisahl;od; cr;rBk bjspt[k;, bjsptiljy; gw;wpa jj;JtA;fSk;. vdBt, rpijit kWg;gJk;, mg;gor; rpijf;fg;gl;lij xGA;fpd;ikahf mjhtJ rpijthf ghh;g;gJk;, vj;jifa Kw;Bghf;fhsDf;Fs;Sk; (Kw;Bghf;fhsd; vd;w thh;j;ij, xU Tl;lj;ij vg;bghGJk; gpw;Bghf;fhf itj;Jf; bfhs;Sk; tpUg;ghh;tj;ijf; fhl;LtJ, vd;gJ BtW) elkhLk; g[Jik gpj;jdpd; 'fhq;rid'-tif Bga;fis ekf;F btspf;fhl;Lk; Beha;f; TwhFk;.

Lyotard –jdJ La Condition postmoderne-y; ‘we no longer find it easy to believe in the City of God, the classless Utopia of Marxian socialism, or even the ordered cosmos of Galilean science. The main device that all these narratives use is the optimistic trope of progress: such optimism appears ever more quistionable’. – quoted in The Viloence of Language (Page. 20) – (rha;t[ ek;Kilait) nt;thW xd;Wf;F xd;W Kuzhf Kd;itf;fg;gl;l ek;gpf;if chpajhf fUjg;gl;l bgUthhpahd kf;fshy; Vw;Wf; bfhs;sg;gl;l jj;JtA;fs;Tl, ‘Kd;Bdw;wk; gw;wpa ek;gpf;if’ vd;fpw Xw;iw K}yj;ijBa mog;gilahff; bfhz;Ls;sij jw;fhy gpd; etPdj;Jtthjpfs; Rl;of;fhl;LtJ ftdj;jpy; bfhs;sjf;fJ.

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mog;gilapy; rpijt[ vd;gBj BtW xU fsj;jpy; (btspapy;), naf;fj;jpy; (fhyj;jpy;), bghUs; bfhs;Sk; totkhFk;, my;yJ BtW xU jh;f;f xGA;fiktpw;Fs; EiHa[k; brayhFk;. nijBa, rpijt[fspd; Mf;ff; Twhft[k;, xGA;fikjyhft[k;, tsh;r;rp mile;j jh;f;f epiyahft[k; ghh;f;f Btz;oa[s;sJ. ndp, xd;wpd; xGA;fikitg; gw;wp BgRk;Kd;, mjd; rpijtpw;F gpwfhd my;yJ Kd;ghd jh;f;f mikg;gpw;Fs; mjd; naf;fk; vd;w epiyapy; kl;LBk BgrKoa[k;. my;yJ, ve;j ghh;itr; rl;lfj;jpy; epw;fpBwhk; vd;gija[k;, mjw;Fk;, ghh;f;fg;gLk;, my;yJ mwpag;gLk; bghUSf;Fk; cs;s rhh;gpay; (Relativistic Relation) cwt[ vd;d? vd;gija[k; ftdj;jpy; bfhs;shky; Bgr KoahJ. Vbddpy;, xt;bthU bghUSk; mjw;Bf chpa jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j mwpjy; jh;f;fj;ijf; bfhz;Ls;sJ. xU bghUis mwptjw;fhd Kiwapaiy, mg; bghUis mwptjd; ClhfBt bgwKoa[Bk jtpu btspapyhd xU mwpjy; Kiwapd; K}ykhf bghUis mwpe;J bfhz;Ltpl KoahJ. BtWthh;j;ijfspy; Twpdhy;, bghUs; vd;gJ mjid mwptjd; K}yk; cUthFk; g[yZzh;tpd; tHpahfBt ekJ rpe;jidapy; cUtikfpwJ♦. cjhuzk;-1 jz;zPuhdJ Kjypy; 0°--f;Fk; Fiwthd btg;g epiyapy; gzpf;fl;oahf (jplg;bghUshf) nUf;Fk;, 0° Kjy; 99°-tiu jz;zPuhf (ePh;kkhf) nUf;Fk;, 99°-f;F Bky; mJ Mtpahf (tha[thf) khwptpLk;. vdBt, ePiu, mjd; gdpf;fl;o-jpl tpjpfisf; bfhz;L mstpl KoahJ. tpist[[-1 g[uhjd rK}fj;jpd; jh;f;fj;ij nd;iwa mst[Bfhy;fshy; mse;J, ‘fhl;Lkpuhz;ofs;’ vd bgahpLtjw;F mwpt[thjk; Kd;itf;Fk; mwptpay; jh;f;fj;jpy;Tl nlkpy;iy. mBjBghy;, nd;iwa mwtpay; jh;f;fA;fisf; bfhz;L ghypay; tpLjiy vd;fpw Bfhl;ghl;ilBah, murpay; mw;w rK}fk;, gpk;gA;fsw;w thH;jy;, td;Kiwaw;w njk; vd;gijBah, tuyhw;wpd; g[idtpaf;fj;ijBah, clyurpay; epiyghLfis, mstplBth, my;yJ g[hpe;J bfhs;sBth KoahJ. ekf;Fs; brwpe;J Bgha[s;s mwtpay; kjpg;gPLfis rpijf;fhky; g[jpa bkhHpj;jsj;jpy; naf;fkila[k; g[idt[fisBah, cUtfA;fisBah, fUj;jhf;fA;fisBah mtw;wpd; jh;f;fA;fisBah g[hpe;J bfhs;sKoahJ. jkpHpy;, gutyhf giHa kw;Wk; etPd vGj;Jf;fs; g[hpatpy;iy, vd;gjhd xU tpkh;rdk; nUg;gJt[k;, nf;fhuzj;jpdhy;jhd;. g[hpe;Jbfhs;tJ vd;gJ thrpg;gpw;fhd murpaYld; cwt[ilaJ vd;gBj Kf;fpak;. (gyh; MA;fpy jkpHpy; vGJtjhYk;, jkpH; thf;fpa mikg;g[fspy; MA;fpy bkhHp mikg;ig g[Fj;JtjhYk; ‘g[hpe;Jbfhs;tjpy;’ rpf;fy; nUg;gij nA;F Fwpg;gpltpy;iy. g[hpahik vd;W nA;F Fwpg;gplg;gLtJ, BtWgl;l jh;f;f mikg;gpw;Fs; cs;s xd;iwg;gw;wpBa.) nilaPL-4  "vdJ bkhHpj;jsA;fspy; cd; ehlfA;fis epfH;j;j Kidfpwha;? nWjpapy; mit btw;W thh;j;ijf; Tl;lkhf kpq;rpg;Bgha;tpLk;? rpijjy; vd;gJ tsh;e;j jh;f;fkhf nUf;fyhk;, mjw;fha; nd;Wtiu ek;gp te;jtw;iw rpijf;f KayhBj?" Kot[[ -1 FHg;gk;, g[hpahik, rpijt[, xGA;fpd;ik gw;wpa rhh;g[epiy tpjpfis, - bghUspd; vz;l;ugp khWghL vt;thW mg;bghUspid kW xGA;fikg;gpw;F cl;gLj;JfpwBjh, mBjBghy fUj;Jf;fs;, rpe;jidfs; Mfpatw;wpd; rpijt[fBs, kdpj caph;j;jiy g[jpa nUj;jYf;Fk;, kW xGA;fiktpw;Fk; nl;Lr; bry;Yk; - vd;gjhf tiuaWf;fyhk;. njd; bghUs; 'khWtJ xd;Bw khwhjJ' vd;gJBghy 'rpijtJ xd;Bw rpijahjJ'.  

ndp nUj;jYf;fhd njk;jUk; fhy-btsp Fwpfs;, rpijf;fg;gl;l bkhHpahy; vGjg;gLk; rhj;jpak; kl;LBk kpq;rpa[s;sJ. bkhj;j rK}f epidt[fspYk; kfpH;tpd; Fwpj;jiy kW vGJjYf;F cl;glj;j Btz;Lk;.

‘njid ekf;F btspapy; vJt[k; ny;iy’- vd;fpw gHk; ne;jpa jj;Jtqhdj;Jld; Bghl;Lf; FHg;gpf; bfhs;s Btz;oajpy;iy. bghUs; btspBa nUg;gJ Bghy mjid mwpe;Jbfhs;tjw;fhd KiwapaYk;, ekf;F btspBa nUg;gJ jhd;. xU bghUis mwpe;Jbfhs;s mjd; jh;f;f mikg;gpw;Fs; EiHaBtz;Lk; vDk;BghJ, jtph;f;f nayhky; ekJ ‘jhd;’ vd;gJ kiwe;JtpLk;. njidBa khahthjkhf tpsf;Fk; ‘mj;itjk;’ Bghd;w jj;Jtj;jpd; bkhHpaikg;g[fs; gpwpbjhU Ma;tpw;F chpait. ve;j xU bghUSk; mjid g[hpe;Jbfhs;tjw;fhd jh;f;f mikg;ig mjw;Fs;BsBa bfhz;oUf;Fk; vd;gJjhd;, nA;F tpsf;f Kw;gLk; bra;jpahFk;.

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mHt[k;, rphpf;ft[k; Md euk;gpay; tpidfs; g[jpa Btjpkr; rA;BfjA;fshy; tHp elj;jg;gl Btz;Lk;. fdt[fSf;fhd tpq;qhdk;, Btl;iffSf;fhd Mw;wy;, bjhlh;g[ bfhs;tjw;fhd g[ydwpt[ vd mj;jida[k; g[jpa jsj;jpy; naf;fkila Btz;Lk;. ne;j naf;fk; kWf;fg;gLk;BghJ, thH;jypd; typia czh;e;jgo bgUk;Bghh;fspd; mHpt[ Fwpj;j epidt[fSk;, fdt[fSk;, a{fA;fSkhf cs;Sf;Fs; cile;J, rpije;J, mjd; td;Kiwapy; clypd; nUj;jYf;fhd epahag;ghl;ilj; jUk; njj;ij nHe;J kdpjh;fs; thH;e;J rht[k; mtyk; jtph;f;f nayhj bjhlh;epfH;thfptpLk;.

gFjp -2 g[idt[ -2 bghUs;fspd; jd;ikfisa[k;, vz;lugpiaa[k; bfhz;like;j g[idit, bfhq;rk; gs;spepiy mwptpay; K}yk; tpsf;fg; gLj;jpf; bfhs;Bthk;. 





jplepiyapy; xU bghUs; xGA;fiktpy; nUf;Fk;, mjd; mZf;fSf;F nilapyhd J]uk; rkkhft[k;, Fiwthft[k; nUg;gjhy; mZf;fs; beUf;fkhf (tightly packed) mike;J nUf;Fk;. ne;j mZj;-jpzpBt jpl totkhf ekJ g[yDf;F czh;j;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. jput epiyapy; cs;s bghUl;fSf;F mZf;fSf;F nilapyhd J]uk; tpyfp (lossly packed) nUf;Fk;, Mdhy; rk epiyapy; nUf;Fk;. mjdhy;jhd; ePh;k epiyg; bghUl;fSf;F totk; nUg;gjpy;iy, Mdhy; ve;j ghj;jpuj;jpy; nUf;fpwBjh mjw;Fs; epiwa[k;, XLk; jd;ik bfhz;ljhf nUf;Fk;. kpf vspjpy; btg;gk; Vw;Fk; jpwd; bfhz;lJ, mjhtJ rhjuz btg;gepiyapy; Tl mZf;fs; vspjhf tpyfptpLk;. mjdhy; epiyj;jd;ik vd;gJ kpff;Fiwt[. ekJ tpHpg;g[yd; njid czu xU fsk; mtrpag;gLfpwJ. tha[epiy, njpy; mZapilj;J]uk; rkkw;W jhWkhwhf (randomly distributed) nUf;Fk;, mjdhy; ng; bghUl;fSf;F totk;/cUtk; nUg;gjpy;iy. kpf vspjpy; btg;gk; Vw;Fk; jd;ik bfhz;lJ. nit xGA;fw;W miye;J jphptJk;, epiyj; jd;ikaw;Wk; nUg;gJk;, njdhy;jhd;. ekJ tpHpg;g[ydhy;, njid czuKoahJ.

nitjhd; nd;iwa cyfpd; kpf mog;gil 3 bghUs; totA;fshf Vw;fg; gl;Ls;sd. Mdhy;, ehd;fhtjhf xU bghUs; totk; nUf;fpwJ, mJ 'gpsh^;kh' (PLASMA) vdg;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ, xU mZ vd;gjpy; nuz;L tpjkhd kpd;jd;ika[s;s bghUl;fs; cs;sd. mjid Beh;(+) kw;Wk; vjph;(-) kpd;mZ my;yJ madpfs; (IONS) vd;ghh;fs;. nt;thW nUtif kpd;mZf;fs; Beh;/vjph; nuz;Lk;, rkepiyapy; xU mZtpw;Fs; epytpdhy; jhd; mJ epiyj;j mZthf nUf;fKoa[k;, nit nuz;oy; xd;W mjpfkhdhy; mg;bghUs;; jdJ kpd;jd;ikia rkd;gLj;j KaYk;, mjdhy; mjd; epiyj;jd;ik kpff;Fiwthf nUf;Fk;. mj;jifa mZf;fs; clBd gpwpbjhU bghUspd; mZt[ld; tpidg[hpe;J rkepiy mile;JtpLk;. nt;thW mZf;fs; tpidg[hpe;J epiyj; jd;ik miltijBa K}yf;TW (molecular reaction) tpid vd;fpBwhk;. cjhuzk;-2 K}yf;TW tpidf;F cjhuzkhf, ehk; Rthrpf;Fk; Mf;^p$d; (caph;kk;) ekJ clypd; g[ujA;fspy; cs;s fhh;gDld; (fupkk;) tpidg[hpe;J fhh;gd;-il-Mf;i^lhf btspg;gLfpwJ. cz;ikapy;, ekJ clypd; Mw;wy; cw;gj;jp vd;gJ Mf;^p$dhy; (K}yf;TW tpidf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L) g[ujA;fs; vhpf;fg;gLtJk;, mg;go vhpf;fg;gLk;BghJ kpq;Rk; fhpjhd; fhh;gd;-il-Mf;i^L vd;gjw;F Bkyjpf tpsf;fk; Btz;oaJ ny;iy. nt;thW, ehk; jpdKk; cs;Sf;Fs; vhpf;fg;gLtjd; K}yk;jhd; caph; thH;fpBwhk;.♣ g[idt[-2 bjhlh;r;rp.. Mf, xU bghUis mjd; madp epiyf;F bfhz;L brd;W tpl;lhy; fpilf;Fk; bghUs; totj;jpd; bgah;jhd; 'gpsh^;kh' vd;gJ. mjhtJ, gpsh^;kh kw;w bghUl;fisg;Bghy mZf;fshy; kl;Lk; MdJ my;y xBu kpd;jd;ika[s;s madpfshy; MdJ. (njid xU bghUs; totkhf Vw;gjh? ny;iyah? vd tpthjk; ele;J ♣

ne;j fByhhpr; rf;jp cw;gj;jpiaBa, ytha;^pah; vd;w tpq;qhdp 'bky;y vhpjBy caph;j;jy;' -vd;whh;.

4


bfhz;oUe;j BghJk;, mjid 4tJ totkhfBt bfhs;Bthk;).

cjhuzk;-3 nt;totj;jpw;F cjhuzj;jpw;F Bkfj;ij Fwpg;gplyhk;. g[hpe;J bfhs;tjw;fhfj;jhd; ne;j cjhuzk; jtpu Bkfk; vd;gJ gpsh]kh my;y. Bkfk; KGf;f madpfshy; MdJ, mjw;F totk; cz;L jplg;bghUs; my;y CLWt[k; Mdhy; tha[g;bghUs; my;y, CLWt[k;BghJ ePh;j; Jsph;g;ig czuyhk;, Mdhy;, mJ ePh;kKk; my;y. Bkfk; Beh;/vjph; madpfshd kpd;Jfshf gphpe;jpUg;gjhy; mit xd;iw xd;W vjph; bfhs;Sk; BghJ Vw;gLk; kpfg;bgUk; kpd;flj;jyhy;, xsp Mw;wiya[k; (kpd;dy;), xyp Mw;wiya[k; (nor; rj;jk;) btsp tpLfpwJ vd;gJk;Tl mwpe;jitBa. g[idt[-2 bjhlh;r;rp.. gpsh^;kh vd;gJBt, jw;rkak; bghUspd; nWjp epiyahf mWjpaplg;gl;Ls;sJ my;yJ mwpag; gl;Ls;sJ. ne;epiyia xU bghUs; mila, mg;bghUis 3000째-btg;g epiyf;F cl;gLj;j Btz;Lk;. nJ fw;gidf;Fk; mg;ghw;gl;l, czu Koahj xU kP-btg;gkhFk;, nJ Bjhuakhf r{hpa btg;gepiyia beUA;FtjhFk;. Mf, bghUspd; btg;gepiy cah;t[ mjd; xGA;fpd;ikia mjhtJ vz;l;ugpia mjpfg;gLj;JfpwJ. ne;j vz;l;ugp my;yJ xGA;fpd;ik my;yJ FHg;gBk bghUspd; mog;gilahd mikg;iga[k; tsh;-rpij khw;wA;fisa[k; cUthf;FfpwJ. a{fk; - 2 nd;W ehk; ghh;f;Fk;, gHFk; bghUl;fs; midj;Jk; xU epiyapy; gpsh^;khthf nUe;jpUg;gjw;fhd tha;g;g[ cs;sJ. mjd;gpwF, cUthd btg;g nwf;f epiyfspy; eilbgw;w K}yf;TW tpidfspd; K}yBk nd;iwa gpugq;rk; totike;Js;sJ vdyhk;. Kot[-2 jplk; FHk;gpdhy; jputkhft[k;, jputk; FHk;gpdhy; tha[thft[k;, tha[ FHk;gpdhy; gpsh^;khft[k; khWfpwJ. FHg;gk; vd;gJ mLj;j epiyf;F bghUis vLj;Jr; bry;Yk; xU tpjpahFk;. njd; kWjiy, xGA;fikt[ vd;gJ bghUis naf;fkw;w epiyf;F bfhz;L bry;fpwJ vdyhk;. rpijjy; vd;gJ bghUis naf;f epiya[Yk;, tsh;epiyapYk; itj;jpUf;fpwJ vdyhk;. jh;f;fk;-2 nt; btg;gnaf;ftpjp czh;t[jsj;jpy; bray;gLk;BghJ, xU bghUs;gw;wpa czh;t[fspd; btg;gkhdJ mjpfhpf;f mg;bghUs; nUg;g[ FHk;gj; JtA;fp g[hpahik vd;fpw Kjy; epiyia milfpBwhk;. xU tp&aj;Jld; ehk; bfhz;oUf;Fk; czh;t[g{h;tkhd bjhlh;ig bghUj;J nt;btg;gk; mikfpwJ. czh;t[g{h;t bjhlh;g[ vd;gJ, kdpj K}isapy; epfGk; Btjptpidfs; btsptpLk; btg;gk;, cUthf;Fk; tpisbghUs;fs;, euk;g[fSf;F flj;Jk; xU kpd;mjph;t[ fpsuiy MFk;. mjhtJ g[hpahky; vt;tst[ FHk;g[fpBwhk; vd;gijg; bghUj;Bj mwptpd; tsh;epiy, rpe;jidapd; jh;f;f mikg;g[ Mfpad cUthFfpwJ. xd;iw g[hpe;J bfhs;s vLf;Fk; jd;Dzh;t[kpf;f Kaw;rpBa, rpe;jid mikg;gpd; rpf;fyhd got[fis cUthf;fp mjid gHf;fg; gLj;JfpwJ, my;yJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l btg;gepiyia jhA;Fk; rf;jpia bgWfpwJ. mf;Fwpg;gpl;l btg;g epiyBa, mr;rpe;jidf;fhd tpidia epfH;j;Jtjw;fhd fhuzpahfpwJ. nt;thwhf, gHf;fg;gLj;jg;gl;l xw;iwr; rpe;jidKiw cUthf;fk; vd;gJ xButif mwpjiy fl;likj;J xButif g[yd;fis cUthf;FfpwJ. bkhj;j rK}fKk;, xU Fwpg;gpl;l btg;g naf;fj;jpw;F (xw;iw mwpjy;Kiwf;Fk;, g[yd; rA;BfjA;fSf;Fk;) cl;gLj;jg;gLtjd; K}yk;, nt;tpaf;fj;ij jhA;Fk; cly;fshf xt;bthU jdpj;j cly;fSk; gjg;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ, xt;bthU rK}f mjpfhuKk;, mr;rK}f Bkyhz;ikf;fhd g[yd; rA;BfjA;fis g[idt[fs; tHp cUthf;fp, g[yd; cWg;g[fis fl;likj;J, mt;t[Wg;g[fspd; bjhFg;gpizthf cly;fis cUthf;Ffpd;wd. me;j cly;fBs mjpfhuk; vGjpr;bry;Yk; tiuj;BjhyhfpwJ. njdpd;W tpyfpa cly;fs;, BtW tpjkhd btg;gg; gpuBjrj;ijf; fz;L mA;F naf;fkilfpd;wd. nitfs; mjPj g[idt[fspd; K}yKk;, thH;jypd; K}yKk;, g[yd; cWg;g[fspid, xw;iw mwpjy; jsj;jpypUe;J tpyf;fp fhj;Jte;Js;sd. nitBa, cyf mstpy; epfH;e;j fyfr; brhy;yhly;fs;, g[idt[fs; kw;Wk; naf;fA;fshFk;.

5


nilaPL-2  "g[hpahj g[idt[fis cUthf;fptpl;L, vd; g[yd; gjptpd;kPJk;, g[yd; cWg;g[fspd; kPJk; Fiw TWfpwhah?" tpist[[-2 ndpa[k;, 'g[hpatpy;iy vd;W TWtjd; K}yk;, vdf;F g[hpa[k;gojhd; eP vGj Btz;Lk;'- vd;fpw midj;Jk; bjhpe;j mwpthspfs; vd;fpw etPd khiaia cUthf;fpf; bfhz;oUf;f KoahJ. mg;gog;gl;l khia cUthf;fk; vd;gJ, 'K}is Fsph;uj;jA;fshy; epiwe;jJ' -vd;w mhp^;lhl;oypa rpe;jidfspd; Fsph;epiyia my;yJ ke;jj;ij btspg;gLj;JtjhFk;. Vbddpy;, FHg;gk; ny;yhjtd; vjpYk; bjsptilaKoahJ vd;gJld; FHg;gk; vd;gJ kdpjDf;F kl;LBkahd tpBr& FzKky;y, bghUl;fspd; kw;Wk; gpugq;rj;jpd; mog;gil mikg;gpYk; tpjpapYk; cs;s xU jh;f;fk; vd;gJBt, nA;F JtA;fpa btg;g naf;ftpaypd; tpjpapd; K}yk; brhy;y Kad;wjhFk;.

gFjp -3 xg;gPL- 1. btg;g naf;ftpjpia mLj;j jsj;jpw;F efh;j;jpdhy;, 'vz;lugp'-gw;wpa tpjpahdJ kdpj rpe;jidg; got[fs; gw;wpa xU khjphpiaj; jUfpwJ. kdpj rpe;jidg;got[, bghUspd; 4 totA;fSld; xg;gplj; jFe;jjhf cs;sJ. mjhtJ, kdpjr; rpe;jidg;got[fspd; naf;fj;ij jplepiyr; rpe;jid, jputepiyr; rpe;jid, tha[epiyr; rpe;jid kw;Wk; gpsh^;kh my;yJ madp epiyr; rpe;jid vd;gjhf cUtfg;gLj;jpf; bfhz;L ne;j bkhHptpisahl;il efh;j;jyhk;. nilaPL-5  ‘bkhHptpisahl;L Bghd;w bghpa thh;j;ijfs; K}yk; kPz;Lk;, kPz;Lk; cd; nayhikia, cdJ Mtypd; mtruf;FLf;ifj; jdj;ij btspg;gLj;Jfpwha;. cdJ miuBtf;fhl;Lr; rpe;jidfis mA;Fk;, nA;Fkhf bjspj;Jk;, Bkw;fj;jpa tpq;qhdj;jpd; tul;Lj; jdj;ij mog;gilahf bfhz;Lk; cUthd cdJ cUtfj;ij bfhz;L Bgha; cilg;gpy; BghL. kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; ek;ik mwpahky;, ek; vr;rA;fis cUthf;fp jdJ g[jph; tl;l RHw;rpapy; xt;bthU jiyKiwiaa[k; rpf;fitf;Fk; bkhHpapd; td;KiwapypUe;J vd;ida[k;, cd;ida[k; jg;gitf;f vd;d bra;ag; Bghfpwha;?’ rpe;jid-00 bghJthf kdpjkdk; jplepiyr; rpe;jidapByBa jpUg;jpa[k; xUika[k; milfpwJ. bgUk;ghyhdth;fs; vg;bghGJk; vjhtJ xd;wpy; jdJ rpe;jidia epiyg;gLj;jp tpLthh;fs;, mth;fs; vy;yhtw;wpYk; xU xGA;if Bjo miltJk;, bfhq;rk; rpf;fyhd tp&aA;fisf;Tl K}isapy; Vw;wpf; FHk;gpf; bfhs;shky; vg;bghGJk; bjspt[, vspik vd;ghh;fs;. nJjhd; nd;iwa rK}fj;jpd; ruhrhp rpe;jidepiy. nr;rpe;jidepiyBa ghrprk; Bghd;w rpj;jhe;jA;fspd; epiyf;fsdhf nUf;fpwJ. nJth? mJth? vd;fpw vspikg;gLj;jg;gl;l jPh;t[fSk;, mjd; tpist[fSk; fz;Kd;dhy; epfHBtz;oa mtrpaj;ij typa[Wj;Jk; rpe;jid ahFk;. ng;bgUk;ghz;ik rpe;jidahdJ jplg;gLj;jpf; bfhs;tijBa tpUk;g[k;, mt;tif tp&aA;fs; kl;LBk kfpH;t[k;, jpUg;jpa[k; jUk;. my;yJ mt;tif czh;t[fs; cUthf;Fk; btg;gk; kl;LBk jpUg;jpf;fhd, Rfj;jpw;fhd Btjptpidia epfH;j;j BghJkhdjhf gHf;fg; gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjhtJ mjpfhuj;jpd; gyjug;gl;l brhy;yhly;fisa[k;, g[idt[fisa[k;, fw;gpjA;fisa[k; Vw;fg; gHfpa kBdhtpay; MFk;. a{fk; -1 mDf;fs; jdJ gpugq;rhPjpahd nUj;jypy; nWjp epiyahfBt, jpltotk; milfpwJ. nit jUk; a{fk;, xU g[uhjd kdpjdpd; rpe;jid jh;f;fk;, nd;iwa kdpjdpd; rpe;jid jh;f;fj;ijtpl rpf;fyhdjhf nUe;jpUf;f Btz;Lk;. mtd(s)J rpe;jidbtsp mtd(s)J cly;btspia ikakhff; bfhz;L mikt[w;wpUe;J. mjdhy; mtd;(s;) bfhs;Sk; rK}f tpidghLfspy; cUthFk; czh;t[fs;, mtd;(s;); rhh;e;j bkhj;j rK}fj;jpd; czu;t[ld; bfhs;Sk; xUtif gpugq;r czh;tiyfshf nUe;jpUf;fyhk;. mA;F jdpkdpj clypw;fhd kfpH;t[ btspfs; vd;gJ bghJ clYf;fhd btspahfBt nUe;jJ, mtd(s)J rpe;jidapd; jh;f;f tpidapd; btg;gepiy mst[k;, mjd; czh;t[jUk; RfKk;, nd;iwa epiyapYk; ghh;f;f Bkyhdjhf nUe;jpUf;f Btz;Lk;. mth;fs; jPh;t[fis, g[jpatif czh;t[fis, rpe;jidfis Bjor; bry;tijBa thH;jypd;; njkhf

6


czh;e;jth;fs;. nd;iwa kdpjidg;Bghy mjpfhuk; jd; nUg;gpw;fha; Kd;itj;Js;s jPh;t[fis Bjh;e;J bfhs;gth;fshft[k;, mjid Bjh;e;Jtpl;l fhuzj;jpdhByBa epahag;gLj;jp njk; milgth;fshft[k; ny;iy vd;gJ ftdj;jpy; nUj;j Btz;oajhf cs;sJ. njd; bghUs;, ehfhPfj;jpd; cr;r tpisthf xU cly; bgw;wpUg;gJ - kfpH;t[gw;wpa jd; cly;rhh; mDgtk; nd;wp Kd;Bg totikf;fg;gl;l khjphp mDgtA;fisa[k;, czh;t[fisa[k;jhd;. khw;W mDgtbtspfSk;, czh;t[fSk; rhj;jpakw;w, ghpBrhjpj;J ghh;f;f Koahj mtyKk;, Kd;Bg fl;likf;fg;gl;l Kd;khjphp mDgtA;fisBa ek;gp naf;fkila[k; xU goj;jhd thH;jYBk, nd;W epyt[k; Mfg;bgWk; td;KiwahFk;. ne;j td;Kiw czug;glhj fl;oWf;fg;gl;l xU rpe;jidBa jplepiyr; rpe;jid vd;fpBwhk;. njid nsf;f kpfg;bgWk; btg;gepiyfs; my;yJ czh;tiyfs; cUthf;fg;gl Btz;oajhf cs;sJ vd;w Koita[k; jtph;f;f nayhky; nA;F mila Btz;oa[s;sJ. bray;ghL-1 nj;jplepiyr; rpe;jidia nsf;Ftjw;fhd Kaw;r;rpahfBt, etPd bkhHpapay; kw;Wk; fyhr;rhu bray;ghLfs; mtrpag;gLfpd;wd. njd; btspg;ghlhf, g[jpatifg; g[idt[fSk;, gokA;fSk;, cUtfA;fSk; bfhz;l xU bkhHpapd; bray;fsk; BjitahfpwJ. murpay;, nyf;fpak;, jj;Jtk;, tuyhW cs;spl;l midj;J fUj;JUt khjphpfisa[k; rpijj;J g[jpa bkhHp myFfisf; bfhz;L, mjd; btspfspd; epyg; gpuBjrA;fs; fz;Lgpof;fg;gl;L, mjd; td;Kiwj; bjhHpy;-El;gj;ij btspg;gLj;jp, mtw;iw brayw;wjhf Mf;fBtz;oa[s;sJ. rK}fj;jpd; xw;iw mwpjy;Kiwf;F gjpyhf gy mwpjy;Kiwfis mA;fPfhpg;gJk;, Ez; mstpyhd rpW fyhr;rhu R{Hy;fis cUthf;FtJk;, naf;fkiltij fz;L mA;fPfhpg;gJk;, xw;iwf; fUj;JUt g[idt[fspd; nlj;ij miya[k;, rpija[k;, befpH;thd gy g[idt[fshy; gjpyPL bra;tJk;, tuyhw;wpd; g[idt[fis rpijj;J, mjPj (surrealistic) g[idt[fs; K}yk; clypd; g[yd;gjpt[ ve;jpuA;fisa[k;, mtw;wpd; naf;ftpaiya[k; khw;wp mikg;gJk;, clypw;Fs; gjpt[Wj;jg;gl;l, kwj;jyhf bray;gLk; kuzj;ij, thH;jypjk; bfhz;L gjPyPL bra;tJk; mtrpag;gLfpwJ. Ez; mstpyhd nr;bray;ghLfshy;jhd;- mHpf;fg;gl;l cliy, mjd; g[yd;tHp njj;ij kPl;L vLj;J jplepiyr; rpe;jidia nsf;fp - mLj;jepiyf;F efh;j;j Koa[k;. nilaPL-3  "vd; tpHpg;g[yj;ija[k;, czh;t[g; bghl;Lfisa[k;, xBu ehspy; cd;dhy;, mHpj;bjGjptpl KoahJ? Rfk;, njk;, kfpH;t[ -gw;wpa vd; mwpjy;fisa[k;, euk;gpaf;fA;fisa[k; kpd;dDitg; gha;r;rp khw;wptpl Koa[kh cd;dhy;?" rpe;jiz-01 jputepiyr; rpe;jid, ePh;kj; jd;ikf; bfhz;l rK}f mf;fiw, kdpjBeak; bghd;wtw;wpy; ftdk; bfhs;Sk; rpe;jid MFk;. nr;rpe;jid vg;BghGJk; xGfpBahLk;; jd;ik tha;e;jJ, mjdhy; VBjDk; rpkpHpy; milf;fg;gl;Bl MfBtz;Lk;, mjhtJ khh;f;rpak;, kjek;gpf;if... ng;go, VBjDk; xU Bfhl;ghl;ow;Fs; milgl;L, mij ek;gp naA;FtJ mtrpag;gLfpwJ. mg;bghGJjhd; nr;rpe;jidfis xGA;F gLj;j Koa[k;, my;yJ nr;rpe;jid Mjpf;fk; cs;stUf;F gpugq;r hPjpahd xU ghh;itr; rl;lfk; (Frame of Reference) fpilf;Fk;. tHpe;BjhLk; nr; rpe;jidahdJ, bjhlh;e;J xUtif epiyapd;ikia, kBdhtpay; td;Kiwia brYj;jpf; bfhz;oUf;Fk;, nk; kdepiyBa gilg;ghspapd; kdr;rpijt[ epiyahf cstpayhsh;fshy; tiuaWf;fg;gl;ljhf bfhs;syhk;. jdf;Fs; czh;tpd; btg;gk; jfpf;Fk;BghJ nr;rpe;jidahdJ, mjid gilg;ghf jskhw;wk; bra;fpwJ, mj;jskhw;wk; epfH;e;j gpwF, kPz;Lk; jplepiyf;fhd Fiw btg;gepiyia milfpwJ. njidBa ghh;j; (Barth) Bghd;wth;fs; thh;j;ijfspy; Twpdhy;, 'xU gilg;g[ cUthfpa gpd; mjd; Mrphpah; (mg;gilg;ghsp) nwe;J Bgha;tpLfpwhd;'. njd; bghUs; rpe;jid vd;gjd; btg;g khw;w tpidBa, xUtid gilg;ghspahf gpwf;f itj;J gpd; kuzpf;ft[k; bra;fpwJ, my;yJ rpe;jid vd;gJ epiykhw;whPjpahd tot BtWghL mile;J, xU nilepiyf; fhyk; thH;e;J gpd; giHa epiyf;F jpUk;g[fpwJ. nr;rpe;jid Mjpf;fk; cs;sth;fs;jhd; czh;t[fspd;, kfpH;tpd;, njj;jpd; Kd;khjphp totikg;g[fis cUthf;ft[k;, my;yJ epytptUk; czh;t[g; gokA;fis nay;ghf;ft[k; bra;gth;fshft[k; nUg;gth;fs;. nth;fs; mjpfhuj;Jld; epfH;j;Jk; ciuahlypd; gf;f-tpisthfBt, nth;fs; Kd;itf;Fk; my;yJ RtLfshf tpl;Lr; bry;Yk; kfpH;r;rpf; Fwpj;j tpidfs;, rK}fj;jpy; brhy;yhly;fshf gjpt[w;W nUj;jiylfpd;wd. nth;fisBa mjpfhuk; jdJ

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'fs;skw;w' bkhHpf;Fs; g[HA;ftpl;L fz;fhzpj;J, jdJ epfH;gug;g[ Clfkhf khw;wpaikf;fpwJ. cjhuzk;-3 nr;rpe;jid Mjpf;fk; cs;stu;fs;, ekJ gz;ghL kw;Wk; thH;f;ifKiwfis fhydPa vGj;Jf;fshYk;, gilg;g[fshYk; khw;wpaikj;j tuyhWk;, nd;Wtiu fhydPa vGj;J totA;fis jhz;lhj vGj;J KiwfSk;, mijjtph;j;J gpw Kaw;rpfis g[hpe;J bfhs;s Koahj ekJ thrpg;g[Kiw cUthf;fKk; njw;F ey;y rhd;WfshFk;. nj;jifath;fs; Kjypy; kdpj thij gw;wpa[k;, mjd; kPJ Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;s td;Kiw gw;wpa[k;, KGKjyhd kdpjBeak; gw;wpa[khd jdJ czh;btGr;rpfis Bgrj;JtA;fp, gpd; rK}f khw;wk;, tpLjiy vd;gjhf jskhw;wk; Mfp naA;fj; JtA;Fthh;fs;. Mdhy;, nth;fis mjpfhukhdJ jdJ brhy;yhly;fsj;jpw;Fs; g[GA;ftpl;L, mjd; naf;f vy;iyf;Fs; nth;fsJ czh;t[fis miyatpl;L, gpd; jdJ mwpt[Uthf;f ve;jpuA;fspd;, Jizepiy cWg;g[fshf cs;thA;fpf; bfhs;fpwJ. nd;Wtiu Bgrg;gl;l gy g[jpa tpLjiy jj;JtA;fis ftdg;gLj;jp ghh;j;jhy;, nJ g[hpa[k;. nth;fs; Vfj;Jtk;, KGik, XUz;ik Bghd;w ikag;gLj;jg;gl;l rpe;jiz Kiwa[ld; naA;Fgth;fshf nUg;gjhy;, mA;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l brhy;yhly; btspia jhz;l nayhky;, mjw;Fs; KlA;fp jhd; Vw;gtw;iwBa, cz;ikahf ek;gp, mjd; naf;fj;jpw;Fs; jpUg;jpa[Wk; cly;fshf kpq;rpg;Bghfpwhh;fs;. nth;fis mwpahkByBa, rK}f mA;fPfhpg;ig Behf;fp efh;e;J bry;gth;fshft[k;, mjd; epfH;gug;g[ ClfA;fspy; gA;fspj;J, jA;fis mjpfhu tpidghLfspd; fUtpfshf khw;wpf; bfhs;fpwhh;fs;. nj;jifa ClfA;fSf;Fs;, bkhHptpisahl;il epfH;j;jhj xU official discourse-y;, my;yJ mjid nay;ghf;Fk; vjph; epiyg;gug;gpy;, naA;Fgth;fs;. xUg[wk; fhyzPa ajhh;j;jthj bkhHp mikg;iga[k;, gpwpbjhU jsj;jpy; Bkw;fj;jpa mwpt[thjj;ija[k;, cyfg;bghJ xGf;ftpay; kw;Wk; mwtpaiya[k; mog;gilahff; bfhz;l xU rpe;jid mikg;gpy; naA;fpf;bfhz;L, bghJtpLjiy, kdpjBeak; vd;W Bgrpf;bfhz;L nUg;gth;fs;. rpe;jid-10 K}d;whtJ rpe;jid, mjhtJ tha[epiyr;rpe;jid, kdr;rpijt[ my;yJ kdBehahsp vd;fpw rpe;jid tifahff; bfhs;syhk;. xU epiyapy; rpe;jidia xUikg;gLj;j KoahJ, mjd; miyitf;Tl czuKoahj tifapy; cs;s totpypepiyr; rpe;jidg;Bghf;fhFk;. nJ xUtif cah;mGj;j btg;gepiyapy; cUthFfpwJ, njd; bghUs; xU cly;;kPJ epfH;j;jg;gl;l rK}f kw;Wk; jdpkdpj td;Kiwapd; cah; btg;gkhFk;. kdr;rpijt[k;, kdBeha[k; nd;iwa kdpj nUg;gpd; mh;j;jg;ghLfSf;Fs; Fwpaplg;gl;Ls;s xUtif 'Beha;f;Twh'Fk;. nd;iwa mwpt[thjj;jpd; my;yJ jpl kw;Wk; jputepiyr; rpe;jidapd; nay;gha; cUthd bkhHpj;jsj;jpy; kl;LBk, nJ Behahf Fwpaplg;gl;Ls;sJ, Mdhy;, nJ rK}f td;KiwapypUe;Jk;, nUj;jypd; thijapypUe;Jk; jg;g clypd; Btjpj;jsk; fz;lile;j xU tHpKiwahFk;. mjthJ rK}f tif khjphp clypw;Fs; g[ijf;fg;gl;Ls;s caph;-ciw-clypd;♠ btspg;ghlhdJ, clypd; gJf;fg;gl;l K}yf;Tw;W tpidfspd; rA;Bfjk;bgw;W cUthFk; g[jpa Btjpj;jsj;jpdhyhd bkhHpapd; naf;fkhFk;. nJ murpay; cUthf;fj;jpd; xU gf;ftpisthf jz;lid kw;Wk; fz;fhzpg;gpw;F chpajhf Mf;fg;gl;L, cly;fspd; nay;g[gw;wpa xU g[idt[ cUthf;fg;gLfpwJ. mg;g[idit njk; jUk; jskhf khw;wp, 'kdpjd;' vd;fpw fUj;jikg;igf; fl;likj;J, mjpfhuk; jdJ K}h;f;fkhd nUg;ig epiy epWj;jpf; bfhz;l KiwahdJ gpwpbjhU jsj;jpy; tpthjpf;f Btz;oa xU ePz;l tuyhwhFk;. a{fk;-3 nr;rpe;jid Mjpf;fk;bfhz;l cly;fs;, Mjpepiyr; rK}fj;jpy; 'rhkd;^;' vdg;gLk; ke;jputhjpfs;, 'g{rhhp'fs; vd;fpw khpahijf;Fhpa nlj;ijg; bgw;wpUe;jdh; vd;gJld; nth;fBs, mr;rK}fj;jpd; vjph;fhy kw;Wk; epfH;fhyA;fspd; fjpia jPh;khzpg;gth;fshft[k; nUe;jdh;. rK}fj;jpy; nd;wst[k; epfGk; rhkpahly;, ke;jpuk;, Bga;gpoj;jy; Bghd;wtw;iw, MH;kdjpy; g[ija[z;l, fyf cly;fspd; btspg;ghl;oy; cUthFk;, nilepiyapyhd (meta-stable) tha[epiyr; rpe;jidg;Bghf;fhf bfhs;syhk;. nth;fs; kW xGA;fikg;gpw;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L jplepiyf;F bfhz;Ltug;gLjiyBa 'rpfpr;irfs;' vd;fpw epfH;t[fs; Fwpf;fpd;wd.

cliy ‘caph;-ciw-cly;’ vdt[k; ‘caph;-rpij-cly;’ vd kpfmog;gil epiyapy; ghFgLj;jp BgRfpwJ gpBukpd; fl;Liu xd;W. nA;F caph;-ciw-cly; vd;gJ nUj;jypd; my;yJ caph; thH;jypd; mog;gilahd Btl;iffshy; naf;fg;gLk; cly; vd;gjhf Msg;gLfpwJ.

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rpe;jid-11 ehd;fhtJ tifia, thH;tpd; nay;g[fspy; nUe;J tpyfpr;brd;W jdpj;Jtkpf;f thH;itj; Bjo clypd; cs;ciwe;j BtjpkA;fspd; btspg;ghl;lhy; njk;jUk; btspfisj;Bjo miye;J, thH;f;ifia khw;wpaikj;Jf; bfhs;sj; Jof;Fk; rpe;jidahFk;. xUtif kpd;jd;ikkpf;f madp epiyr;rpe;jidahd nJ, xU tp&aj;jpy; MH;e;J mjd; rfy ghpkhzA;fisa[k; ghh;f;fj;jtpf;Fk;; kBdhtpay; MFk;;. Vw;Wf;bfhz;l thH;tpw;F mg;ghw;gl;l epfH;t[fs; rpyBtis nr; rpe;jidahy; rpij-rA;Bfjj;jpw;FTl (decode) cl;gLj;jg;gLtJ ny;iy. nr;rpe;jidahdJ, epytp tUk; brhy;yhly; btspfSf;F mg;ghyhd naf;f rhj;jpaA;fisf; bfhz;oUg;gjhy;, njd; mu;j;jkhf;Fk; mikg;Bg Kw;wpYk;; BtWgl;l naA;fpaiyf; bfhz;L mikfpwJ. cjhuzk;-4. nr;rpe;jid Mjpf;fk; bgw;wth;fspd; tuyhW mHpf;fg;gl;Ltpl;l xd;W. bjhlh;r;rpaw;w gy kh;ktpidfisa[k;, brhy;yhly;fisa[k; cUthf;fp, jA;fSf;Fs; fl;likj;Jf; bfhz;l ufrpar; rK}fA;fis cUthf;fp, mjd; naf;fbtspfspy; naA;Fk; fyf cly;fisf; bfhz;l, nth;fspd; tuyhW gpujpfSf;Fs; Bksdg;gLj;jg;gl;l, Mjpf;f mikg;g[fspd; fLikahd mlf;F KiwfSf;F Mshf;fg;gl;l uj;jk; rpe;jpa fijfshFk;. nf;fijahly;fspy; btspg;gl;l rpy fyf cly;fspid mwpKfg; gLj;JfpwJ Ma;t[ njHpy; te;j uBk&;:gpBuk;-d; 'vGj;JU ve;jpuA;fSk;, miyt[W ve;jpuA;fSk;' fl;Liu. mBjBghy;, yak; njHpy; btspahd jh;K} rptuhkpd; ‘R{|gpap^k;’ gw;wpa fl;Liu xd;W, jkpH;r; rK}fj;jpy; naA;fpa nj;jifa rpe;jizg; Bghf;fhsh;fis Rl;of; fhl;LfpwJ. xg;gha;tpd; Kot[fs; my;yJ 'yhk;'-Fwpg;g[fs;: ne;j ehd;Ftifr; rpe;jidfSk;, jdpj;jdpahf tpsf;fg;gLj;jg;gl;l BghjpYk;, nit btg;g khWghLfspd; mog;gilfisf; bfhz;lit, cly;fspd; vz;l;ugp my;yJ xGA;fpd;ikf; fhuzpapd; mstPl;ilg; bghWj;J nit miktjhff; bfhs;syhk;, my;yJ xU clYf;Fs; g[ija[z;oUf;Fk; caph;-ciw-clypd; jtpg;gpy; cUthFk; naf;fepiyf;fhd btg;gkhff; bfhs;syhk;. me;j clypd; fyfj;jd;ikiag; bghWj;J ne;j btg;g khw;wk; xBu clYf;Fs; epfHyhk;. mjthJ, ne;j ehd;Ftif cUtf epiyfSk;, mjd; btg;g epiyfSk;, xGA;fpd;ikf; fhuzpfSk; xBu clYf;Fs; gy jsA;fspy;, gy mLf;Ffspy; goe;jpUf;fyhk;, xU clyhdJ, xU Fwpg;gpl;l btg;g epiyf;F Vw;g, my;yJ clypd; btspg;ghl;ow;F Vw;g, mJ epfH;j;Jk; rpe;jid tpidfSf;F Vw;g me;j Fwpg;gpl;l epiyapy; naA;fyhk;. njd; bghUs; xU clyhdJ, vy;yhtif Mw;wy;fisa[k; bfhz;lJ, nA;F ghku cly;, mwpthu;e;j cly;, Mjpf;f cly;, moik cly; ng;goahf cs;s vz;zw;w clypaf;f totA;fis, mtw;wpd; khWgl;l epiyfisa[k;, ne;j btg;gtpidfspd; mog;gilapy; gFj;Jzu Koa[k;. ne;j MLfsj;jpw;Fs; Kw;Bghf;F cly;, gpw;Bghf;F clyhft[k;, kj vjpu;g;g[ cly;, Mjut[ clyhft[k;, g[ul;rp cly;, rkur clyhft[k;, nd;dgpw cly;fs;, nd;dgpw cly;fshft[k; Ml;lj;ij khw;wp, khw;wp epfH;j;Jtjd; mwptpayhft[k; nij thrpf;fyhk;. Mf, xU clYf;Fs; vd;d btg;g khw;wk; epfH;fpwJ vd;gij mjd; bkhHp btspg;ghl;od; btg;gtpaf;fj;jpd; K}yKk;, thH;jYf;fhd mjd; Btl;ifapd; K}yKk;, mwpa Koa[k; vd;gjhf xU Kotpw;F tu Kayyhk;, jw;fhypfkhfBtDk;. fPH;fz;l tiuglk;, ekJ cUtfj;ija[k;, cly;fspd; MLfsj;ija[k; BkYk; tpsf;fp tphpt[k; gLj;jyhk;... ghku kf;fs; kw;Wk; ruhrhp thH;epiyia Bkw;bfhz;lth;fs;

bghJthd MH;kd mikg;g[. ehd;F epiyfSk; Bkw;bghUe;jp cs;s epiy.

tha[ epiy

jpl epiy

kdg; gpwH;r;rpahsh;fs;(?), Fw;wthspfs;(?) mazp[ epiy

jput epiy

qhdpfs;, rpj;jh;fs; kw;Wk; mjpfhuj;jpw;F vjpuhd thH;f;if epiy-fis Bkw;bfhz;L thH;gth;fs;. mwpt[$`tpfs;, gilg;ghspfs; rK}f czh;t[ kpf;fth;fs;, bghJ eyk; bfhz;lth;fs;.

gLf;if Bfhl;oy; nUf;Fk; jpl kw;Wk; mazp epiyBa rK}f thH;epiyahf nUf;fpwJ. kw;w nU fpilf; Bfhl;L epiyfSk; Bjhd;wp kiwa[k; nilepiyahf nUg;git. xU cly; ruhrhp clyhf, mjpfhuj;ij

9


Vw;Fk; clyhf thHyhk; (jplepiyapy;) my;yJ mjpfhuj;jpypUe;J tpyfpag; gug;gpy; xU thH;it Bkw; bfhz;L gpwpbjhU Kd;khjphp thH;epiyia cUthf;fyhk; (mazp epiyapy;). mJ gpwpbjhU rK}fj;jpd; jplepiy thH;thfkhwp naA;fyhk;. (cjhuzkhf g[j;jh;, Kfk;kJ egp, nBaR, uhkypA;fh; Bghd;wth;fs; cUthf;fpa md;iwa rK}f mjpfhuj;jpw;F vjpuhd mazpepiy thH;Bt, nd;iwa mjpfhuj;jpw;fhd jplepiy thH;thf nUg;gijf; Twyhk;.) Mdhy;, nilepiyahd tha[ kw;Wk; jput epiyfs;, xt;bthU clypw;fhd MLfskhf nUe;J kiwgit. nr;rpe;jid epiyfs; xU rK}fj;jpw;fhd epidtpypg;g[yj;ij fl;likg;gjpy; bgUk; gA;F tfpg;git. ne;ehd;F rpe;jid tifikfSk;, xU clypw;fhd kdg;g[yj;jpy; got[w;wpUg;git. nit ve;j jpirapy; naf;fg;gLfpwBjh, mjidg;bghWj;J, rpe;jid Kiw vd;gJ mikfpwJ. Mf, xU clypd; Ml;lk; Kd;Dk;, gpd;Dkhf epfH;tjid nt;thwhf g[hpe;J bfhs;syhk;. ng;goahfj;jhd; caph;fs; TLtpl;L, TLgha;e;jgoahf jA;fsJ Ml;lj;ij epfH;j;jpf; bfhz;Ls;sd. ne;j caph;fspd; Ml;lj;jpw;F Vw;g tuyhw;iw, vGJtJk;, mHpg;gJkhd bray;ghLfs; g[idtJk;, fiytJkhf epfH;e;jtz;zk; nUe;Jbfhz;oUf;fpwJ. BkYk; ng;goahfj;jhBd, rpjk;guj;jpy; khL Bka;j;J jphpe;j K}ydpd; clypy;, tlf;fpUe;J te;j irtr;rhkp TLtpl;L TL g[Fe;J ‘jpUke;jpug;’- ghl;blYjpa tuyhwk; epfH;e;jJ Kd;bdhUfhyj;jpy;. nilaPL -6  ‘cly;fis msf;f xU bju;khkPl;lh; Btz;Lk; vd;gjhf vijBah vGjpf; bfhz;oUf;fpwha;, mwptpay; xU g[idt[ vd;W Twpa eP cly;fis mwptpay; mstPl;ow;Fs; epWj;j Kay;fpwha;, my;yJ nJ mwptpay; K}isfis gpoj;jhl;Lk; yhg;yhrpa eph;zathj Bgapd; tpisth? ‘ nilaPl;ow;fhd nilbtl;L.  Koatpy;iy, vy;yhtw;iwa[k; fyitahf;fp xU epwkw;w bkhHpahy; vGj Koatpy;iy, xg;g[f; bfhs;fpBwd;. nJ yhg;yhrpa eph;zathjk; my;y, mij kWjypj;J tpl;Bld; vdJ Kjy; thf;fpaj;jpByBa. Vbddpy;, yhg;yhirg; bghWj;jtiu tpq;qhdk; vd;gJ xU bka;k;ik, niwapaiyg; Bghd;wJ. mij cz;ikahff; bfhz;L vy;yhtw;iwa[k; eph;zapj;JtplKoa[k; vd;fpw xU mwpt[thj ek;gpf;if. mJ fhyhtjpahfpg; Bgha;tpl;lJ, etPd tpq;qhdj;jpd; tUifahy;. Fwpg;gha;, epr;rakpd;ikf; Bfhl;ghl;lhy; (uncertinity principal), mjdhy; tsu;e;j Fthz;lk; ve;jputpayhy; (quantum mechanics);.  g[upahky; vGJtij td;Kiw vd;fpwha;, mg;gobadpy;, gog;gwptw;w vz;zw;w $df;Tl;lk; cs;s nlj;jpy; gog;gJk;, vGJtJk;Tl td;Kiwj;jhd;.  nyf;fpaj;jpy; Nuk; nUg;gjhff; TWfpwha;, fhg;gpaA;fSk;, njpfhrA;fSk;, brt;tpay; nyf;fpaA;-fSk; vGjg;gl;l rK}fj;jpy;jhd; cly;fis moikg;gLj;jpa tuyhWk; epfH;e;jJ. ng;bghGJ brhy;, cd; tpHpfspy; bts;isepwkpfs; goe;jpUf;ftpy;iyah? cd; fdt[fspy; btz;zpw cly;fs; tisa tutpy;iyah? tYthd Bju;e;bjLf;fg;gl;l cly;fis Behf;fpajhf cd; gpk;gA;fs; cUthftpy;iyah? cd;id vjd;kPJk; mjpfhuk; brYj;Jk; chpik bgw;wtdhf fw;gpj;Jf; bfhz;L nUf;fpwhah? ny;iyah? bts;is, Rj;jk; Mfpatw;iw kl;LBk Vw;ft[k;, cd; tpUg;gA;fis, mij Behf;fp jpUg;gt[k;, cd; Btl;iffis mJthf mikj;Jf; bfhs;st[k; cdf;Fs; fl;lisfs; gpwf;ftpy;iyah? nitjhd; cdJ g[yd; cWg;g[fs; vd;W eP ek;g[fpwhah? nWjpahf, vd;K}is btg;g uj;jA;fshy; tHpfpwJjhd;, vdf;Fj; Bjit rpe;jidfis mLj;j epiyf;F khw;wpf;bfhs;sf; Toa mjPj btg;gk;jhd;. cd; Tw;Wg;go vdf;F nyf;fpak; vGj;jhfhky; nUf;fpwjh? my;yJ vd;dhy; ng;gogl;l, eP Twpa, twz;l bkhHpf; fsd;jhd; rhj;jpag;gLfpwjh? bjhpatpy;iy. Mdhy;, njpYk;Tl ehd; vijBah brhy;y Kad;W nUg;gjhfj;jhd; epidf;fpBwd;. cdf;F xU Kuizr;brhy;yl;Lkh? bkhHpg;gw;wpg; BgRk; nyf;fzk;, bkhHpahy; mJTWk; nyf;fztpjpf;F cl;gl;Bl vGjg;gLfpwJ. mjhtJ, tpjpahft[k;, mt;tpjpahy; Msg;gL tjhft[k;, mt;tpjpf;fhd rhd;whft[k;, mt;tpyf;fz E]By nUf;fpwJ. mjhtJ, Kjd;Kjy; nyf;fzj;ij vGJgtd; xU nyf;fzj;ij gpd;gw;wpahf Btz;Lk;, me;j nyf;fzj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp, mijBa vGJgtdhf nUf;fpwhd;.

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nt;btGj;Jk; ne;j rpe;jidg; Bghf;fpd; tpjpahft[k;, tpisthft[k;, tpsf;fkhft[k;, mjw;F cjhuzkhft[k; nUf;fpwJ. nt; btGj;J ve;j epiyapypUe;J ve;j epiyf;Fs; Clhof; bfhz;oUf;fpwJ vd;gijj; jPh;khzpg;gtdhf nUf;fpwha; eP, my;yJ cd;tHpahf BgRk; rK}fk;. nWjpahf, Vd;? xU kdpjd; nU filf;Bfho epiyapy; Ml;lk; BghLfpwhd;. Kw;Bghf;fhsd; gpw;Bghf;fsdhf khwpg; Bghfpwhd;. g[ul;rpahsd; vjph;g;g[ul;rpahsdhf khwpg;Bghfpwhd;. gFj;jwpt[thjp kjthjpahfpg; Bghfpwhd;. ng;goahd xU cly; gpwpbjhU clyhf (TLtpl;L TL) khwpr;bry;Yfpd;w khw;wj;jpw;fhd mwptpaiy Bgr Kay;fpBwd;. xU clypd; MH; kdjpd; bkhHpg; gpd;dy;fis mjd; g[jph;r;RHy; cUthf;Fk; btg;g naf;fj;ij fz;LzUk; Kaw;rp mt;tst[jhd;. vdf;F bjhpe;j gs;spepiy mwptpaYld;, rpe;jizfis nizj;J ghh;f;f Kad;wpUf;fpBwd;. cdf;Fj; bjhpa[kh? bkhHpahy; brhy;yg;gl;l midj;Jk;, mJ cyfpd; vt;tst[ bghpa jj;Jtkhf nUe;jhYk; rhp, vt;tst[ bghpa tpq;qhd fUJBfhyhf nUe;jhYk; rhp, vt;tst[ bghpa nyf;fpakhf nUe;jhYk; rhp, midj;Jk; cly;fSf;F nilapyhd xU tpisahl;L (game) my;yJ Ml;lk;jhd; (play). ne;j bkhHp tpisahl;Lk; RfkhdJjhd;. mjdhy;, eP Twpa 'nayhik' vd;gij Vw;fKoahJ, Vbddpy;, 'nayf;Toajh’d vy;iyfis bksdpf;Fk; xU brhy; mJ. mg;go xU vy;iy epu;zak; rhj;jpakh, my;yJ mg;go xd;W nUf;fpwjh, vd;d?’ - $khyd; (01/05/95(01/05/95-y; vGjg; vGjg;gl;lJ 18/10/98 jpUj;jp vGjg;gl;lJ)

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கூடுவிட்டு கூடுபாயும் உடல்கள்