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INDUSTRIAL DESIGN THESIS JESSICA MILLER

EMBALMING


3 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS THESIS_ The objective of the design thesis is to analyze a system within a profession, understand their process and improve user experience. EMBALMING_ The preservation of the dead. Many mysteries surround this profession. The funeral director disinfects and preserved the body to stop decomposition and the spread of disease. Seeing a loved one in a restf u l s l u m b e r p r o v i d e s g r e a t c o m f o r t t o a m o u r n i n g f a m i l y. D E S I G N S T A T E MENT_ By focusing on the role of an embalmer the process is understood and problems are identified. In the design process the embalming equipm e n t w i l l b e i m p r o v e d a n d t h e p r o c e s s o f e m b a l m i n g w i l l b e c o m e e a s i e r. T h e f u n e r a l d i r e c t o r s j o b i s a n e m o t i o n a l t o l l i n g r o l e . To i m p r o v e t h e p r o cess reduces stress and likelihood of shortcuts. Utmost respect for the deceased is upheld within this process.


5 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS EMBALMING_ Thesis Intent_ Definition_design Statement_ HISTORY_ Egyptian Period (3200 Bc - Ad 650)_ Period Of The Anatomists (Ad 650 - 1861)_ Modern Period (Ad 1861 - Present Day)_ RESEARCH_ Embalming Process And Equiptment_ FOCUS_ Autopsy Embalming Process, Problems And Equiptment_ D E S I G N _ F o c u s , I d e a t i o n , 3 D M o d e l , O v e r v i e w, C o m p o n e n t s , P r o c e s s _ S O U R C E S _ S i t e Vi s i t s _ I n t e r v i e w s _ B o o k s _ Vi d e o s _ F o r u m s _ E v e n t s _


7 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS

HISTORY


9 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS EGYPTIAN PERIOD (3200 BC - AD 650)_ In Egyptian preparation, the brain is removed with a hook or as spoon through the nose or eye socket. It is thought that is may be “stirred” up and then comes out as a “strawberry m i l k s h a k e ” l i k e c o n s i s t e n c y. N e x t i s e v i s c e r a t i o n , w h i c h m e a n s r e m o v a l o f organs. The heart and kidneys usually remained and the others were washed and packed in natron then put in jars. Natron is a salt obtained from the dry lakes of the desert. Because the salt is highly corrosive, the toes and fingernails had to be affixed to the body with copper or gold wire. After being immersed for 20 days in the salt it is then removed and dried in the sun. The body is then coated with resin inside and out then wrapped in bandages.. PERIOD OF THE ANATOMISTS (AD 650 - 1861)_ Preservation a t t e m p t s d i d n o t i n c l u d e v a s c u l a r i n j e c t i o n a r o u n d t h e 1 5 t h c e n t u r y, t h o u g h v a s c u l a r a n d h o l l o w o rg a n i n j e c t i o n w a s d o n e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e a n a t o m y ’s size and shape. There are five documented cases of embalming from 1410 to 1584. Physician Peter Forestus wrote about these embalmings which he accounted for two. These embalmings were of extreme elitists and were done in the room of residence where death occurred. Embalming in the dec e a s e d ’s h o m e w a s a p r a c t i c e c a r r i e d o n w e l l i n t o t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y e v e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Va r i o u s p r e s e r v a t i o n m e t h o d s a n d d e v i c e s w e r e u s e d towards the and of this period. Bodies were injected with wines and spirits using glass candela. There were also process such as burying the body in sawdust and powdered zinc-sulfate that deemed fairly successful. MODERN PERIOD (AD 1861 - PRESENT DAY)_ By 1861 the knowledge quotient on embalming between the US and Europe was fairly equal. With the onset o f t h e C i v i l Wa r i n 1 8 6 1 p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e d e a d w a s n e e d e d . A t t h e b e ginning of the war no provision was made for return of the dead to their homes. The family could retain the body by writing the Quartermaster General and sending a coffin capable of being hermetically sealed, the loved one would be returned as long as they could locate where it was buried on the battlefield.


11 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS THE MODERN DAY EMBALMER_ typically plays the role of Funeral Dir e c t o r. T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a n d t i m e c o n s u m i n g t a s k i s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e mourning families of the deceased. This person must be caring, compass i o n a t e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a m i l y ’s n e e d s . T h e f u n e r a l d i r e c t o r i s also a salesperson and provided products and services to its customers. These include caskets, urns, moselium land, memory art, cremation and embalming services. THE FUNERAL HOME_ knows how much business they w i l l g e t e a c h y e a r. T h e o n l y w a y t o g e t m o r e b u s i n e s s i s t o e x p a n d t h e i r service area and uphold high ethical and quality service. With the legalizat i o n o n c r e m a t i o n i n t h e l a t e 9 0 ’s , e m b a l m i n g s e r v i c e s a r e d o w n a n d m a n y f u n e r a l h o m e s a r e l o o k i n g f o r o t h e r w a y s t o m a k e m o n e y. CREMATION_ has been a more attractive option for many because of price and knowledge of the process.


13 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS

RESEARCH


1. Set Features

2, Arterial Embalming

3. Cavity Embalming 4, Robing


15 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS P R E P _ Wa s h a n d s h a v e t h e b o d y _ P o s i t i o n t h e b o d y _ S e t t i n g t h e f e a t u r e s (eyes and mouth)_ Packing the orifices (vaginal, anal, ears)_ Assessment and treatment of any openings in the skin ARTERIAL EMBALMING_ Locate the carotid artery and secure the arterial tube_ Locate the jugular vein and inset forceps for drainage_ Prepare the arterial embalming fluid_ Secure arterial and drainage tubes_ Turn on the embalming machine_ Close the carotid and the jugular CAVITY EMBALMING_ Puncture skin with trocar and begin aspiration_ Start with thoracic cavity_ Next abdominal cavity_ Last pelvic cavity_ Inject cavities with cavity embalming fluid_ Close troc a r p o i n t s o f e n t r y w i t h t r o c a r b u t t o n _ Wa s h a n d d r y t h e b o d y _ A s s e s s f o r respiration and reinjection COSMETICIAN_ Disinfect, clean and condition skin_ Position the features and body_ Dress the body_ Apply cosmetics to restore natural appearance_ Do final steps for showing to family


Eye caps and cotton are placed in recessed eyes.

Needle injector inserts wire barbs into the maxilla and mandible.

Mouth formers give shape to the lips.


17 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS S E T T I N G F E A T U R E S _ Wa s h a n d s h a v e t h e b o d y _ P o s i t i o n t h e b o d y _ S e t t i n g the features (eyes and mouth)_ Packing the orifices (vaginal, anal, ears)_ Assessment and treatment of any openings in the skin


19 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS ARTERIAL EMBALMING_ Locate the carotid artery and secure the arterial tube_ Locate the jugular vein and inset forceps for drainage_ Prepare the arterial embalming fluid_ Secure arterial and drainage tubes_ Turn on the embalming machine_ Close the carotid and the jugular.


TROCAR_ organ vacuum

DRAINAGE_ aspiration generated by flow of water, fluids flow into flush drain REPLACE_

fluids replaced with high index embalming fluid


21 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS CAVITY EMBALMING_ Puncture skin with trocar and begin aspiration_ Start with thoracic cavity_ Next abdominal cavity_ Last pelvic cavity_ Inject cavities with cavity embalming fluid_ Close trocar points of entry w i t h t r o c a r b u t t o n _ Wa s h a n d d r y t h e b o d y _ A s s e s s f o r r e s p i r a t i o n a n d r e injection


23 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS

FOCUS


Viscera bag

Autopsy filler

Autopsy suture


25 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS AUTOPSY EMBALMING_ Locate the SIX vessels for arterial injection_ Remove the bag of viscera from the body cavity_ Treat viscera with high index autopsy fluid_ Disinfect all cavity wall and coat with autopsy gel_ Begin arterial injection by doing vessel one at a time (left leg, right leg, left a r m . . . ) _ R e p l a c e o r g a n s i n t o b o d y c a v i t y, u s i n g a u t o p s y f i l l e r i f n e e d e d t o retain shape_ Suture PROBLEMS_ Five extra injection sights_ Finding a way to get all the organs back in_ Autopsy filler is expensive_ Suturing is time consuming and causes hand cramps_ Odorous embalming fluid pools into body cavity_ Lengthy process can result in unethical shortcuts


Arterial tubes_ Forceps_ Ligatures

Respirator

Suture needles

Hydro-aspirator_ Flush drain


27 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS ARTERIAL TUBES_ FORCEPS_ LIGATURES_ Because of the six vessels used in autopsy embalming these are important devices. The main diffic u l t y i s t h a t e a c h e x t r e m i t y m u s t b e e m b a l m e d s e p a r a t e l y. T h e l i g a t u r e s o n the vessels must be secure to insure minimal leakage. RESPIRATOR_ The fluids and chemical used are much more odorous than typical embalming. Even with secure ligatures fluid can still pool in the body cavity causing more fumes. SUTURE NEEDLES_ The sutures from the medical examiner must be removed before the process begins. After the process is complete the embalmer sutures the same area once again. Embalmers take extra care in their sutures to endure they are water tight. The process takes at least a n h o u r e v e n f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e d e m b a l m e r. H Y D R O - A S P I R A T O R _ F L U S H DRAIN_ The hydro-aspirator is used to create a vacuum for removing fluids. It is very load is often heard throughout the funeral home even with sound-proof embalming rooms. The flush drain is quite often a simple commode. The fluids are flushed periodically during embalming. The fluids are released into the septic system.


29 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS

DESIGN


31 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS RESPIRATION_ The designs confront the issues of respiration that was f a c e d d a i l y b y t h e e m b a l m e r. T h e f l u s h d r a i n a l s o g o t a r e d e s i g n t o t u r n i t into a more pleasing device.


33 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS IDEATION_ A collection of sketches investicating respiration solutions.


35 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS 3D MODEL_ The entire model and components built in rhino.


37 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS


39 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS


41 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS


43 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS

SOURCES


45 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS SITE VISIT_ William Gill_ Starks & Menchinger Funeral Home_ Saint Joseph, Michigan AUGUST 19TH 2008_ This was my first exposure to the embalming process, more or less to make sure I could handle the topic. Bill pretty much filled me in on everything a funeral director does. The most i m p o r t a n t t o o l , o r p e r h a p s h i s f a v o r i t e , i s t h e t r o c a r. T h e t r o c a r i s u s e d t o puncture the internal organs and aspirate the fluids, much like a vacuum. He laid out all of the instruments used in the embalming process on the embalming table, which was still pink from embalming fluid. He also explained many things to me about how the body changes after death. It was w e e k s b e f o r e I s u r p a s s e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n h e g a v e m e t h a t d a y.


47 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS S I T E V I S I T _ M i k e G a s p e r _ B a s s & G a s p e r F u n e r a l H o m e _ We s t p o r t , I n d i a n a SEPTEMBER 13TH 2008_ Mike is a family friend and the county coroner f o r m y h o m e t o w n . M i k e i n f o r m e d m e a b o u t c r e m a t o r y l a w. I h a d n o i d e a i t was legalized as recently as eight years ago. I also got a closer look at the vaults sold for crematory remains which are essentially blow molded boxes made to look like marble. Before this meeting I had a false impression of arterial embalming. He informed me it was a seamless process in that when you inject the embalming fluid it replaced the blood in the vessels. Also, cavity embalming requires a higher index of embalming fluid. He explained to me the difficulties in embalming when there had been organ procurement or an autopsy preformed. He said the that the typical embalming process ( not autopsied) takes about three hours. The body is left on the embalming table overnight to let the chemical “set:. The next day he will build features and do the final preparation and cosmetizing.


49 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS P H O N E I N T E R V I E W _ R o r y G l i c k _ B a r k e s , We a v e r & G l i c k F u n e r a l H o m e _ Columbus, Indiana SEPTEMBER 13TH 2008_ Rory is a high school friend of my father and aunt. He is a first generation funeral director which is fairly a t y p i c a l i n t h e i n d u s t r y. H e b r o k e d o w n t h e p r o c e s s i n s i m p l e s t e p s a n d i t became really clear to me how it actually worked. He really got to the nuts and bolts of the issues in the embalming process. he expressed frustration with the cavity suturing process. He said it takes him over an hour to complete the process. Other issues he stated were that drugs that keep us alive longer cause the vessels to harden, therefor increasing dificulty in arterial embalming. He also stated that obesity and moving the bosy is difficult, a one person job becaome a two or three person job.


51 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS P H O N E I N T E R V I E W _ To n i R i s s _ F o u n d e r O f B l u e L i p s . c o m _ G a r l a n d , Te x a s S E P T E M B E R 2 2 N D 2 0 0 8 _ To n i R i s s c r e a t e d t h e B l u e L i p s w e b s i t e f o r a MBA project in 1999. At that time she had recently been diagnosed with t e r m i n a l b r e a s t c a n c e r. A f t e r b e i n g r e l e a s e d f o r m t h e h o s p i t a l s h e w a s contacted by several funeral homes. Bewildered by the business of death she hired a private investigator to understand how these funeral home got her name. She has uncovered many secrets in the funeral industry and has been involved in lawsuits where she has been the plaintiff and the defendant. She was sued for selling the videos that I have used for my research, t h e j u d g e r u l e d i n h e r f a v o r. S h e f i l e d a l a w s u i t a g a i n s t a f u n e r a l h o m e f o r u s i n g F r e s h - S t e p c a t l i t t e r i n a n a u t o p s i e d b o d y. S h e c o u l d s m e l l i t ! . She is still undergoing chemotherapy and has a funeral pre-arrangement of $250,000 in the same moselium that Mary Kay Ash and Mickey Mantle are laid to rest.


53 _ID_ EMBALMING THESIS B O O K S _ E m b a l m i n g : H i s t o r y, T h e o r y & P r a c t i c e ( R o b e r t G . M a y e r, 1 9 9 0 ) _ A History: Michigan Funeral Directors Association (MFDA, 1980)_ Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers (Mary Roach, 2003)_ An Atlas to H u m a n A n a t o m y ( S t r e t e / C r e e k , 2 0 0 0 ) _ G r a y ’s A n a t o m y ( H e n r y G r a y F. R . S., 1995) FORUMS_ Nation Funeral Directors Association (nfda.org)_ Bluelips.com VIDEO_ Unlocking The Mysteries to Embalming (William Ellenburg, VHS)_ Contemporary Embalming (DVD) FUNERAL DIRECTORS_ William Gill; S a i n t J o s e p h , M I _ M i k e G a s p e r ; We s t p o r t , I N _ R o r y G l i c k ; C o l u m b u s , I N M E N T O R S _ S t e v e J o h n s o n , C a r r o l l D e s i g n , We s t f o r d , M A O T H E R S _ To n i G i s s , b l u e l i p s . c o m _ D o d g e C h e m i c a l C o m p a n y ( P r o - L o g i n ) E V E N T S _ Wa y n e S t a t e M o r t u a r y S c i e n c e O p e n H o u s e ( O c t o b e r 2 3 r d )


Design Thesis on Embalming Equiptment  

My senior Industrial Design thesis looked at the embalming process in fumeral homes. This is not for weak stomachs.

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