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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Table of Content Message From County Commissioner.............................................. 4 Event Guests................................................................................... 5 Message From Mayor...................................................................... 6 Message From Tampa City Council................................................... 7 President’s Message....................................................................... 9 Chairman’s Message....................................................................... 10 Event Chair’s Message.................................................................... 11 President Elect’s Message............................................................... 12 Editor’s Message............................................................................. 13 Fia Executive Committee Pictures.................................................... 14 Fia Board Pictures........................................................................... 15 Indian Constitution At A Glance ...................................................... 17 American Constitution At A Glance.................................................. 18 Gandhi........................................................................................... 20 George Washington........................................................................ 22 Dr. Ambedkar.................................................................................. 24 James Madison.............................................................................. 25 Unification Of India, Saradar Patel................................................... 27 Thomas Jefferson............................................................................ 28 Jacket Drive Pictures....................................................................... 31 Jawaharlal NehRu........................................................................... 33 Alexander Hamilton........................................................................ 36 Rajgopalachari................................................................................ 38 John Adams.................................................................................... 39 Dr. Rajendra Prasad......................................................................... 41 Benjamin Franklin.......................................................................... 42 Sarojini Naidu................................................................................. 43 Suffrage Movement........................................................................ 44 Cpr Pictures.................................................................................... 45 Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad............................................................ 47 The Test Of Naturalization............................................................... 48 People In News............................................................................... 50 Member Organizations................................................................... 54 Index.............................................................................................. 55

FIA OF TAMPA BAY

REPUBLIC DAY 2013 • SOUVENIR Editor: Manish Karod Editor: Jaimin Aimin Production: Karen Seeram (Executive Printing) Graphic Design: Julio A. Cortes

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Special Guest for India’s 64th Republic Day Celebration In Tampa

Al Higginbotham Commissioner District 4

Ken Hagan

Commissioner District 4

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

Lisa J. Montelione Councilwoman District 7

James W. Grant

Florida House of Representative

Mark Thornton

Hillsoborough County Parks, Recreation and Conservation Department

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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With the Best Compliments from Dr. Rao Emandi on behlaf of CCCF.

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


President’s Message Mr. Manish Kharod

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n behalf of the Federation of Indian Associations (FIA), welcome to the 64th Indian Republic Day Festival! This occasion is even more special this year, because it is also the 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda. Swami Vivekananda came to America in 1993 at a very young age of 30 and captivated the American People by addressing them as my “Sisters and Brothers of America” in his inspiring speech. Almost 120 years later, we are making every effort to win the hearts and minds of our American brothers and sisters by working side by side in every field.

This year, we at FIA, started our year off with a unique program and a unique drive, and w also had a hands on CPR session followed by a panel discussion with several Cardiologists. We are proud to report that our jacket drive culminated in the distribution of more than 310 Jackets to two under-served local schools. We started with a very modest goal, but our high school students and volunteers surpassed all of our expectations. Today’s program consists of dances and musical performances by high school students and adults, performing cultural items from all parts of India. We hope you will enjoy it thoroughly.

On the republic day, India adopted its constitution. This constitution was the product of the hard work of so many talented leaders and thinkers, and provided the citizens of India with fundamental rights - justice, equality, and liberty. When we left India to come to The United States, we were blessed with very similar fundamental rights that include freedom of religion and freedom of speech among other liberties. So this republic day is a celebration of the people of two democracies – the largest and oldest – to salute the constitution and the leaders and thinkers who framed these constitutions.

This year we are planning to do more unique events like the Jacket Drive and CPR sessions. Such programs cannot happen without the active support of the executive team.

With that thought in mind, we have come up with our first digital souvenir with articles on the Indian and US Constitution and leaders and thinkers who helped frame these constitutions. FIA’s focus has always been to encourage the youth, so this year, we invited high school students to write articles on various leaders and the constitution. We hope you will really enjoy these very informative and detailed articles.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

This has been a great team and it is my privilege to work with all of them. I do want to thank Mrs. Malti Pandya, Mr. Ravi Narayanan & Mr. Jaimin Amin for working very closely to make this event happen. I do thank Dr. Emandi for being very pro-active chairman and providing timely suggestions. I would also like to thank the Board of Directors for their support. I want to thank all the volunteers helping with this and other such events. I want to thank Mrs. Nila Patel, Mrs. Anjali Daga, Mrs. Nimisha Chheda, Mrs. Poonam Rangwala, Mrs. Neha Amin, Dr. Vipul Kabaria, Mr. Mahesh Modha and Mrs. Bharti Kankotia, who helped with Sports, Food, Rangoli Competition and Jacket Drive. Finally, I do want to thank my home team - Asha, Anant & Shivam for helping me as needed. We hope you enjoy this program, and as always, please send your suggestions to fiatampa@ gmail.com

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Chairma’s Message Dr. Venkata Emandi

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t is with pleasure and happiness to welcome all to the India Republic Day Function which will be held at India Culture Center, Tampa on January 27th 2013.. Republic Day means India adoption of Republic constitution on January 26, 1950, after getting independence from British in 1947.January 26th is a day when all Indian heart gets reinvigorated with renewed passion and appreciation of the democratic values provided by the constitution. .

This festival gives unique chance for individuals to see vibrant colorful and unique folk dances from the several places of the Nation. The main festival takes place in the capital, New Delhi. Traditionally the highlight is the Republic Day Parade accompanied by the contingent from the Army, Navy and Air Force. The Parade includes colorful floats from each of the India States. The Republic Day Celebration will be done at the India Culture Center, with our local community talents and at the same time to encourage our youngsters to create the spirit of India that cherishes freedom and equality for all – just the way it is done here in our homeland, United States of America. I am thankful for the support given by President, Manish Kharod, all the Executive members, volunteers, and all the vendors for the success of FIA Republic Day Function. I wish the FIA a great success.

Happy Republic Day Celebrations.

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Event Chair’s Message Mrs. Malti Pandya

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n behalf of the Federation of Indian Associations (FIA), welcome to the 64th Indian Republic Day Festival! This occasion is even more special this year, because it is also the 150th birth anniversary of Swami Vivekananda. SIt is a great honor to welcome you all to FIA of Tampa Bay’s celebration of India’s 64 th Republic Day.

My salutations to all of you who have roots throughout India; from north to south and east to west who are now proudly part of the Indian-American community here in the bay area. We work so hard to maintain our rich cultural heritage of arts and tradition by encouraging our children, as well as adults, to participate in our cultural activities. Because of this, we have a great entertainment program featuring our very talented local performers. I can hardly wait to enjoy these great performances and exhibits. I want to extend my thanks to all the parents who provide encouragement – and rides – to these amazing young participants; without you, we would not have this wonderful program. I would also like to say a special word of thanks to our volunteers and vendors who have worked relentlessly to make this immense event possible. My message could not be complete without conveying my special appreciation to President Manish Kharod and the executive committee members for bestowing upon me the great responsibility of chairing this event.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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President’s Elect Message Mr. Ravi Narayanan

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ith great pleasure, I would like to welcome you all to celebrate India’s 64 th Republic day. It is a privilege to be part of the FIA team working along with representatives from all the member associations. Though many of us are citizens of this great country, celebrations like this are instrumental in realizing India’s rich cultural heritage and diversity. Thank you for taking the time and joining us on this memorable occasion. We truly hope that you will enjoy the cultural events and the related festivities..

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Editor’s Message Mr. Jaimin Amin

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ampa Bay’s Federation of Indian Association (FIA) is celebrating its 64th Republic Day with great pomp and grace. This thrilling celebration is making full use of the opportunity to showcase our community. This year, we have taken a different approach in enhancing our event souvenir book by keeping it in a digital format so we can access it at any place and any time through our digital devices. The digital formatting has also allowed us to add video content which will provide another dimension to our souvenir book content going forward.

While there may be uncertainties in the minds of many on the difference between Independence Day and Republic Day, the most apparent difference is that while Independence Day dwells upon the past and remembers the struggles and achievements of the yore; Republic Day is an occasion for renewing of the pledges and the golden words in the Constitution. Our authors in this Souvenir book will take you through the journey and highlights of India’s and USA’s constitution and some of the great minds behind them. We are hoping that these articles will clear any doubts you may have on Republic Day celebration. We also have an article on Women’s right to vote and Citizenship tests. We would like to thank all the authors who have contributed their valuable time and effort to write these articles and bring it all together in this fantastic souvenir book. We would like to thank all of our sponsors and advertisers for supporting this fantastic community event. To provide additional values to our sponsors and advertisers, we will have their advertisement running on FIA website (www.fia-tampabay.com) for the next 6 months. I would like to thank my wife, Neha and my two daughters Monic & Heather for their continuous support on these FIA events. Please send us your valuable suggestions and feedback on this digital souvenir book and overall FIA Republic day celebration as for it will be very helpful. Let’s have fun by showcasing our community through this amazing and memorable event.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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FIA Executive Committee Mr. Manish Kharod

Mr. Ravi Narayanan

Mr. Jaimin Amin

President Elect & Co Chair

Vice President & Chair

Vice President & Co Chair

Dr. Kotha Sekharam

Dr. Gaurangi Patel

Mr. Satisk K Sharma

Mr. Jigar Jadav

Mrs. Jaya Reddy

Mr. Arabinda Banerjee

Mrs. Vidya Rao

Mr. Prasanna Meenakshi

Executive Vice President

Vice President

Secretary

Member

Mr. Lalji Goswami Member

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Mrs. Malti Pandya

President

Vice President

Secretary

Member

Member

Mr. Ashish Daga Member

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


FIA Board Dr. Emandi Rao

Dr. Krishan Batra

Dr. Ram Reddy

Dr. Madhavi Sekharam

Dr. Shyam Mohapatra

Mr. Rashmi Jakhotia

Chairman

Treasurer

Vice Chairman

Member

Secretary

Member

Dr. Chandrakant Patel First President

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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For More Info, Contact: Yashwant Belsare: 863-838-3636; americanacharya@yahoo.com Jaymin Kathiriya: 206-465-4047; jaymin.kathiriya@gmail.com

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


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Constitution of India At a Glance

he Constitution of India is the Supreme Law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world containing 463 articles, 12 schedules. It contains the good points taken from the constitution’s of many countries in the world. Besides the English version, there is an official Hindi translation. Dr B.R. Ambedkar is widely regarded as the father of the Indian Constitution. The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity among them. The words “socialist” and “secular” were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment. India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day. The Constitution, in its current form (September 2012), consists of a preamble, 25 parts containing 463 articles, 12 schedules, 2 appendices and 97 amendments to date (latest being related to co-operative societies added in part IX(B) in 2012). Although it is federal in nature it also has a strong unitary bias. Some of The Articles of Indian Constitution are, THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY CITIZENSHIP FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES India ie. Bharat is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 and came into force on 26th January 1950. The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. As per Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the council of the Parliament of the Union consists of the President and two Houses to be known as the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Article 74(1) of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with a Prime Minister as its head to aid and advise the President, who shall exercise his functions in accordance to the advice. The real executive power is thus vested in the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as its head. FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

By Mr. Lalji Goswamy The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the House of the People (Lok Sabha). Every State has a Legislative Assembly. Certain States have an upper House called State Legislative Council. Governor is the Head of a State. There shall be a Governor for each State and the executive power of the State shall be vested in him. The council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as its head advises the Governor in the discharge of the executive functions. The Council of the Ministers of a state is collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly of the State. The Constitution distributes legislative powers between Parliament and State legislatures as per the lists of entries in the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution. The residual powers vest in the Parliament. The centrally administered territories are called Union Territories. The constitution of India draws extensively from Western legal traditions in its outline of the principles of liberal democracy. It follows a British parliamentary pattern with a lower and upper house. It embodies some Fundamental Rights which are similar to the Bill of Rights declared by the United States constitution. It also borrows the concept of a Supreme Court from the US. The constitution has provision for Schedules to be added to the constitution by amendment. The 12 schedules in force cover the designations of the states and union territories; the emoluments for high-level officials; forms of oaths; allocation of the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha. A review of the constitution needs at least two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass it. The Indian constitution is one of the most frequently amended constitutions in the world. Infact the first amendment to it was passed after only a year of the adoption of the constitution and instituted numerous minor changes. Many more amendments followed, a rate of almost two amendments per year since 1950. Most of the constitution can be amended after a quorum of more than half of the members of each house in Parliament passes an amendment with a two-thirds majority vote. Articles pertaining to the distribution of legislative authority between the central and state governments must also be approved by 50 percent of the state legislatures. PREAMBLE OF THE CONSTITUTION: We, The people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do hereby Adopt, Enact and give ourselves this Constitution.

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Basic Breakdown of the Bill of Rights

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Miss. Monic Amin

he Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments of the United States Constitution that gives us our personal liberties and rights. It is what differentiates the United States of America from all of the other countries in the world, making us the land of the free.

Before the Revolutionary War, when the British troops and government were enacting harsh laws, one of the laws passed was the Quartering Act of 1774. It allowed British troops to evict the owner and make residence wherever necessary regardless of the homeowner’s consent. The Third Amendment prevents that situation from ever happening again.

Furthermore, a bill of rights was a condition of ratification for many of the states. A representative at the time, named James Madison led the drafting of the first ten amendments of the Constitution, which became known as the Bill of Rights.

The Fourth Amendment states, “The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.” This amendment prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures of our private property. However, a warrant can be given to law enforcement officers if it is judicially sanctioned and supported by a probable cause.

After the Revolutionary War ended in 1783, the nation’s forefathers had to draft a constitution to govern the newly independent nation of the United States of America. However, before the constitution could take effect, it had to be ratified. At first the Constitution did not include a comprehensive bill of rights that clearly stated the rights of United States citizens.

The Constitution is written very eloquently and can be quite frankly difficult to understand, so here is the basic breakdown of the Bill of Rights: The First Amendment states, “Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.” The First Amendment allows 5 basic freedoms: freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and the right to peacefully protest, and the right to petition the government. The freedom of religion allows us to follow and practice any religion of our choosing without the government forcing a specific religion upon us. The freedom of speech allows us to say whatever we want and the freedom of the press allows us to write and publish whatever we want without being punished by the government. The right to peacefully assemble allows us to have peaceful protests and demonstrations and the right to petition the government allows us to complain to or to seek the assistance of our government without being punished by law. The Second Amendment states, “A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.” The Second Amendment allows us to possess firearms, which the amendment links to militia service. However, the Supreme Court later ruled the right to possess firearms unlinked to service in the militia, and allowed the use of firearms for lawful purposes, such as self-defense. This Amendment has been causing much controversy pertaining to the right to bear arms, and many major Supreme Court cases have been linked to the definition of this amendment: Robertson v. Baldwin (1897), United States v. Miller (1939), District of Columbia v. Heller (2008), and McDonald v. Chicago (2010). The Third Amendment states, “No soldier shall in time of peace, be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.”

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The Fifth Amendment states, “No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall nay person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without just compensation.” The Fifth Amendment basically prohibits the abuse of government authority in a legal procedure. You cannot have your life, liberty, or property taken away without due process of law, which is limiting the laws and legal proceedings so that judges can determine and define basic fairness, justice, and liberty. The Sixth Amendment states, “In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.” This amendment states the processes required for a criminal prosecution and rights related to the prosecution. The accused has a right to a speedy and public trial by a jury, the trial will take place in the state and district in which the crime was committed, the accused will be informed of the charges against him/her, the accused will go through a process to get a witness in his defense, and the accused has the right of a legal defender for the case. The Seventh Amendment states, “In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.” FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


The amendment states the right of a jury trial in certain civil cases, and also states that the case may not be reexamined in any court of the United States of America. The Eighth Amendment states, “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” This amendment prevents the government from imposing excessive bail, excessive fines, and cruel and unusual punishments. The Ninth Amendment states, “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” The Ninth Amendment says the basic rights that are unstated or not specifically stated in the Constitution will not be denied or taken away. The Tenth Amendment states, “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” This amendment simply states that the powers not given to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited to the States, are given to the States or to the people. These ten amendments are what set us, United States citizens, apart from the rest of the people in the world. Us, as citizens, should know what basic freedoms we possess and are entitled to. These amendments give us rights and freedoms unlike any other country, and make the United States of America known globally because of it.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of India

here is no god higher than truth.” Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in 1869 in British India. As a child, he read many Indian classics- the start of his passion for truth and love. In 1888, he travelled to England to study law in order to follow in his father’s footsteps. In London, Gandhi was able to study his religious tradition, mainly by reading the Gita as well as Edwin Arnold’s Light of Asia, which taught him about Hindu and Buddhist philosophies. Gandhi’s law practice in India failed because he was too shy to speak out in court. In 1893, he moved to South Africa. In South Africa Gandhi experienced many challenges as he was discriminated upon. When travelling from Durban to Pretoria, he was thrown out of a train for riding first-class. In a stagecoach to Johannesburg, he told to sit on the floor, and when he refused, he was beaten and almost thrown off of the coach. In South Africa, there were all sorts of discrimination against Indians. Gandhi planned to go back to India, but when hearing of the legislature planning to pass the Indian Franchise Bill (would take away Indian’s voting rights), he decided to stay to stop it. He helped reduce its severity, but his other attempts for reform had little to no effect. This led Gandhi to use his now well-known method of satyagraha, or nonviolent resistance. It involved peaceful picketing and accepting the given punishment. This first satyagraha was not as powerful as Gandhi hoped, so he followed it with another satyagraha with Indian women and miners, which had greater impact and led to the formation of the Indian Relief Act of 1914. Gandhi changed in his 21 years in South Africa. “To believe in something, and not to live it, is dishonest.” In 1914, Gandhi returned to India. He travelled around the country, following his mentor Gopal Krishna’s advice, “ears open and mouth shut”, to learn about the changes in India since he left. Seeing the violence occurring around him, he thought that satyagraha was India’s best hope. This led to the creation of his Constructive Program, which called for Hindu-Muslim unification, the removal of untouchability, a ban on alcohol, and the use of khadi (hand-spun cloth). It also included equality for women and economic equality, among other things. The spinning wheel became a symbol for change. It was an emblem of India’s unity and the first step to national regeneration. Gandhi’s satyagrahas changed in India with the addition of fasting. Gandhi fasted to touch other’s hearts and activate their consciences. It was also self-imposed suffering to purify oneself and to energize the consciences of those addressed by it. Within four years of his return to India, Gandhi had become a national leader. He held a satyagraha to protest for the Rowlatt Acts in 1919, but unexpectedly, there was violence. Losing his authority and public humiliation did not stop Gandhi from admitting his mistakes. Later, he launched a Noncooperation movement in 1920, in the goal of setting up alternate institutions

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Mr. Sameer Naik 11th Grade Student and withdrawing their support from the British. This movement alienated many Muslims, who thought that this was a Hindu conspiracy to hold back their progress. In 1924, Gandhi was elected President of the Congress. Gandhi’s biggest protest was his satyagraha against the salt tax in 1930. After his 24 day march, he encouraged others to make salt on the coastal village of Dandi. Many were beaten brutally and arrested for various periods of time. This protest told India that colonial rule was invulnerable, and that they could end it if they had the necessary will. It also internationalized the Indian struggle for independence and exposed the inhumanity of the British colonial government. Hindu-Muslim relations were still strained, however. The 1937 election for the Indian Congress attempted to gain support from Muslims in opposition to the Muslim League. Gandhi cancelled this after seeing how many Muslims were becoming insecure and fearful due to claims made by the Muslim League. Gandhi cancelled his program and asked Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League to do the same. However, Jinnah intensified his efforts to gain support. Jinnah introduced religious nationalism and pushed for the creation of Pakistan, a nation of Muslims. Congress eventually accepted the partition, though Gandhi opposed it. As Gandhi grew old, he used his life as a tool to awaken the morality within the people of India. This helped restore peace in many regions of India. Even after India’s independence in 1947, he rushed to Calcutta and performed a fast to the death, thus performing a miracle and stopping the violence singlehandedly. His last fast was in 1948, to get India to give its collective assets to Pakistan as it had promised previously. Gandhi succeeded once again after five days. A few days later, a Hindu shot Gandhi, killing him instantly. His assassination shocked everyone into stopping the fighting. Even in death, Gandhi helped bring about peace. Overall, Gandhi was extremely important in India’s independence. His peaceful protests and his truthful ideologies helped reduce much of the conflict. Gandhi tirelessly travelled across the country, preaching peace and independence in India, remaining steadfast in his morals.

He lived out his own motto:

“You must be the change you want to see in the world.”

-Sameer Naik, Junior, Robinson IB High School, Tampa, FL FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Best Compliment to FIA of Tampa Bay on 64th Independence Day Celebrations

From: Kharod Family FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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“The Constitutional Father of Our Nation!”

ur great nation has been governed by a myriad of presidents, such as Roosevelt, Lincoln, and Eisenhower, although none were as illustrious and revolutionary as President Washington. Much of our younger generation knows little about Washington, other than that his face adorns the dollar bill. However, there is more to that face than meet the eye. Though renowned for being the first president of the United States, George Washington had numerous other pioneering roles. He was a primary Founding Father of the country, commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and most importantly, made a profound impact on the writing of the Constitution. Born in colonial Virginia, Washington followed the powerful footsteps of William Fairfax from a tender age. It was Fairfax who inspired Washington’s first occupation – being a senior officer of the Continental Army during the initial stages of the French and Indian War. In this position, Washington became renowned for his excellent leadership, morale and collaboration skills. Some of his most successful captures were of Saratoga in 1777 and of Yorktown in 1781. Though he fought diligently and resiliently, Washington was outmaneuvered by the British in 1783. He then made a decision that no one anticipated: He chose to resign rather than seize additional military power, thus displaying his opposition to becoming a dictator and his allegiance to republicanism. The overbearing power of the federal government, along with citizens’ desire for universal rights, set the stage for the National Convention consulting on the best way to govern the United States. After achieving freedom from Great Britain, the Articles of Confederation served as the mechanism to regulate power; in spite of this, the Convention intended to revise the document, as it granted minor power to the federal government. During this meeting, disputes ensued, such as election of the Senate and the president’s role pertaining to executive power. The legislature was undecided regarding the election of representatives and allocation of votes. As part of the Convention now at odds, what was a young Washington to do? Despite the Convention’s ongoing predicaments, Washington surpassed all odds and went to unparalleled lengths for his nation. Presiding over the Convention, he helped resolve several issues, such as providing rights for Congress and forging an impartial relationship between Congress and each state.

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Miss. Niritta Patel 11th Grade Student The addition of new rights eventually led to the development of a new document known as the Constitution. Washington facilitated the Convention in basing the House’s state power on population, while the Senate would largely depend on state legislature action. He also addressed representation of slaves through the ThreeFifths Compromise, which permitted three-fifths of the enslaved population to be counted for representation. These amendments successfully carried out their role of harmonizing the American population and stabilizing the government. Citizens now had civil rights, such as free will regarding speech and religion, as well as adequate protection in courts. In the future, this Constitution would lead to a stronger Federal System, division of the government’s powers, and encouragement of citizen participation. Washington’s vital role in the development of the Constitution greatly contributed to his unanimous election as the first president of the United States. As a newly appointed leader, his achievements only increased due to his immense vision of making the nation powerful. He appointed bodies such as the Supreme Court and Cabinet, as well as collaborated with Congress to create the Bill of Rights and founded the U.S. Navy. He and Alexander Hamilton jointly devised a tax system and national bank to help pay off state and national debt. In an effort to protect the nation, Washington maintained tranquility by proclaiming the United States to be neutral during ongoing wars in Europe. This in turn enabled him to avoid war with Britain and ensure peace for a long time to come through the Jay Treaty. Enacted in 1795, this treaty received brutal opposition from the Jeffersonians, yet proved successful in maintaining balance within the nation. His “Farewell Address”, which heavily influenced republican virtue, marked an end to his groundbreaking term as president. Following his presidency, Washington was also able to emancipate three hundred slaves through his final will and is the only Founding Father known to have done so. To this day, President Washington is still hailed as “first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen”. His resilience and leadership enabled him to carry out his vision of constructing a dominant country that wielded federal power. He paved the way for America to become the most successful – albeit not the largest – democracy in the world. Above all, his name and deeds became known as a global phenomenon, one that will still be valued for many years to come.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Best Compliments on India’s 64th Republic Day Celebration

axon circuit, inc. Personalized High-Quality PCB Solutions 424 Ware Blvd, Tampa FL 33619 813-623-5200

Chandrakant Patel Suresh Patel Bipin Patel Jayan Sanghani Manish Patel

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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DR. B.R.( BABASAHEB) AMBEDKAR

D

By Dr. Satish Anklikar

r. Bhimrao ( Babasaheb) Ambedkar , a great socio-political reformer, can be aptly called the Father of Indian Constitution. He rose from a very humble and meager childhood ,to great prominence in the fields of politics, economics and law.

He was born in 1891, into a very poor Marathi family, of the “untouchables” caste. In his quest for a good education, as a child and later as an adult, he faced severe social discrimination. He lost his mother at an early age. He was the only “untouchable” , in his high school class. One can only imagine the taunting and difficulties he must have faced. In 1912, he got a bachelor’s degree in Economics and political science. He then came to the US in 1913, studied at Columbia University, and got a Master’s degree in Economics. In 1916, he went to London, and took the Bar exam (law). He attended the London School of Economics, and got a Doctorate in 1918. He then returned to India and became the professor of political economy at the Sydenham College in Mumbai. He wrote several books on economy, and also practiced law. In 1934, the Reserve Bank of India was formed, based on many of his ideas. Dr.Ambedkar worked tirelessly for the upliftment and improvement of the “untouchable” peoples of India, who had suffered hundreds of years of a terrible social existence. He even advocated a separate electorate for “his” people, so their sociopolitical needs would be adequately met. Gandhiji, rightly felt , that creating a separate electorate would fracture Hindu society along caste lines. It was better for the downtrodden people of India, to stay in the overall political system, and bring about a change from within. Dr. Ambedkar saw the wisdom of Gandhiji’s point of view, and changed his mind. After several hundred years of foreign rule (British and Islamic) India became a free and independent country in 1947. Almost immediately ,he was appointed the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. He commanded the respect of the political establishment in India at that time, because of his knowledge of law, his wisdom and his strength of character. The committee, under his leadership did a very difficult and complicated task, of writing a new constitution, for a new country of over 400 million people (1947). The constitution was adopted on 26 November, 1949. He was India’s first Minister of Law. The Indian Constitution is a social document that provides guarantees, protection of civil liberties, freedom of religion, abolition of untouchability and outlaws all forms of discrimination. Extensive social and economic rights are given to women. It also advocates separation of “ church and state “, like most developed countries and unlike most other countries including India’s neighbors. Today, India is governed , by the Indian Constitution, and not by Hindu scriptures ( wonderful as they are ). Dr. Ambedkar continued to fight for social justice for all Indians, till his death in 1956. He was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna award, India’s highest civilian honour. Last year, he was voted the Greatest Indian. We are all lucky that he was born in India, and it is our collective responsibility to carry his great legacy forward.

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“A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is ready to be the servant of the society”. -B.R. Ambedkar

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


James Madison:

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The Father of the American Constitution

n May of 1787, a group of the finest leaders from the young nation of the United States of America assembled in the Pennsylvania State House. The group entered that day, filled with ambition, to revise the Articles of Confederation that loosely governed the emerging nation. The goal was to create a stronger national rule within the Articles; providing it with a backbone that would strengthen the nation as a whole and avoid domestic turmoil. There was one man, who among them all, played a uniquely robust role in personifying this goal. He not only provided the backbone that was needed, but also became a strong force in the construction of the Constitution. He is none other than James Madison, the Father of the American Constitution. Born and raised in Virginia, Madison arrived at the Constitutional Convention as the Virginia delegate. His prior experience in writing legal scriptures came eleven years earlier when he played a significant role in tailoring Virginia’s constitution. Madison remained a Federalist, supporting a strong, central government. He recognized that simply revising the current Articles of Confederation would not suffice. A new constitution was imminent. He was an avid note taker at the meetings and an ardent floor leader, carrying on debates where he repeatedly emphasized the importance of a unified central government. At the convention, Madison was also recognized for introducing the Virginia Plan. Devised by Virginia’s governor, Edmund Randolph, the plan called for a bicameral legislation, with representation based on population size. However, smaller, less populated states opposed and presented the New Jersey plan that included a legislative body with equal representation for each state. Finally, through the Great Compromise, the ideas of both plans were merged. In the new constitution that was created, Madison’s ideas became fundamental. The implementation of a bicameral legislation still exists today and the idea of representation based on size became the foundation of the House of Representatives. However, Madison proved himself to be instrumental in more ways than one while drafting the new constitution. He also proposed the notion of a three branch government, including an executive,

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

By Miss. Chaya Bhat 10th Grade Student legislative, and judicial sector. This separation of powers has remained in practice since. Along with the separation of powers, Madison introduced the implementation of checks and balances to ensure that power was not usurped by one branch. All three of the elements discussed above are core parts of the Constitution today. It is what helps makes the USA’s constitution unique and representative of the righteous ideals the nation stands for. However, once the Constitution was fully drafted, it was not accepted as easily by all the members of the convention. Ratification of the constitution required the individual approval of 2/3 of the thirteen states that were a part of the nation at the time. Madison went hard at work to encourage states that were wary of this new legal structure. His efforts are visibly evident through his writing, known as the Federalist papers. These papers were a compilation of eighty five essays penned by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison. Madison himself wrote 29 under a pen name where he used his literary eloquence to campaign for the ratification. His works proved to be successful as the Constitution was ratified and accepted in June of 1788. Nevertheless, Madison’s great contributions to the Constitution did not end there. He was elected into the House of Representatives in 1789, the legislative body that he had envisioned. There, Madison re-evaluated the Constitution and felt it lacking in regards to the rights and freedoms granted to American citizens. This became the impetus behind the Bill of Rights. Madison played a profound role in the construction of the Bill of Rights, a series of ten amendments added on to the Constitution. His continuous support for rights protecting freedom of speech, protection against unreasonable searches, and an individual’s right to a speedy trial went on to become parts of the Bill of Rights and is still a vital part of our Constitution today. James Madison’s political career only transcended from there. He continued to become president as he served two terms from 1809-1817. His role in framing the Constitution will never be forgotten. As the Father of our Constitution he helped write the legal scripture that continues to guide us today. As said by Madison himself, “The union of these states is a wonder; their Constitution a miracle; their example the hope of Liberty throughout the world.”

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


I

How Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel

United India

t has been over six decades since India became independent from the British rule. Every year on this glorious republic day we remember our great leaders who sacrificed their lives for our nation. Among those who were the architects of this newly born nation was great Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. He is highly regarded as the “Iron man of India”, and yet, he was the most practical personality compared to any other cotemporary national leaders of his time. Sardar Patel had undertaken a monumental task of merging more than 550 scattered princely States of huge diversity into the Union of India. Such a work of unification and stability has never been accomplished in the history of civilized society. It was much bigger in both scope and diversity than German unification of 1871 and was executed in a very short time period. Due to his strong leadership and practical vision, the peasant movement in Gujarat resulted in a great success which made Sardar Patel famous for his leadership qualities. He took over as the nation’s home minister at a very crucial juncture in history of India and devoted himself whole heartedly to ensure that country already partitioned, remained intact and united. British government announced that its paramountcy would lapse not only over British territory but even over the native States. This meant that as many as six hundred small and big native States would become independent like individual nations and consequently country would divide into large number of units. Before embarking this mammoth task, Sardar sought to ensure the stability by forging a bridge of faith and confidence within the administration. Most of the ICS officers suspected the Congress leaders, particularly Sardar in view of his past experiences with them however Sardar rose to the occasion and reposed total trust in their capabilities to serve the nation. He was thus, able to win their unwavering support in the endeavors of nation building. Obviously, none of these individual native states would give up their power and willingly join the union but Sardar knew what strategy had to be employed on case by case basis. Attempts were in progress for finalizing the standstill agreements with the States which provided that the Central Government would be vested with powers of defense, foreign policy and communication over the States. Travancore, Hyderabad and some other States declared themselves sovereign states and created road blocks in the agreement. On the other end, Jinnah with FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

By Mr. IIesh Patel a view to tempt Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and other border States, made them an unconditional offer to align with Pakistan on their terms. Every day if not an hour was full of uncertainties and ambiguity with long list of counter demands never seemed to be exhausted. To find amicable solution, Sardar issued a statement to the princes wherein he appealed to their sense of patriotism and reiterated that the new States department in no way, desired to have supremacy over them. “If at all, any sense of supremacy is required, it would be with common understanding and for common good. We are at a momentous stage in the history of India. By common endeavor, we can raise the country to new greatness, while lack of unity will expose us to unexpected calamities. I hope the Indian States will realize fully that if we do not cooperate and work together in the general interest, anarchy and chaos will overwhelm us all great and small and lead us to total ruin”. This statement reflected his statesmanship and political acumen, removed whatever doubts lurked in the minds of princes. The intricacy of the situation can perhaps be gauged by the fact that there were twenty six small states in Orissa and fifteen in Chhattisgarh, fourteen in Saurashtra which warranted skillful diplomacy on the part of Sardar Patel. One after another, Gwalior, Indore, Dhar and Dewas and Rajputana started acceding to the Indian Union however Hyderabad seemed to be aloof. Lord Mountbatten himself started negotiations but Sardar had no choice other than military action. In less than five days, Nizam surrendered and Hyderabad acceded and merged with India. A man of iron will and absolute valor, Sardar Patel tackled the question of six hundred states, territories and principalities in such a strategic manner which left even his wildest critics in complete amazement. Almost within a year he redrew the map of India with every princely State joining the Indian union. Thus “Yagna” of united India undertaken by Sardar concluded with definite and secured boundaries. Besides the unification of India, Sardar Patel found solutions to many other problems like safeguarding nation against chaos and violence during partition, maintaining law and order, Indianization in bureaucracy and administration including police and civil services. India will always remember this great leader for his unmatched contribution in framing union of the largest democracy in the world. Jai Hind.

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“W

Thomas Jefferson and his role in Declaration of Independence

eholdthesetruthstobeself-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” When we read or hear these words, we immediately reminisce Thomas Jefferson, our founding father. Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Shadwell, Virginia. Jefferson played a momentous role in building the pillars of the new nation. He attended William and Mary, where he met a law professor, George Wythe, who introduced him to the writings of the British Empiricists, including Francis Bacon and John Locke. Throughout his life, Jefferson depended on books for his education, which resulted in the collection of thousands of books in his library at Monticello. Jefferson was a lawyer in colonial Virginia from 1768 to 1773, but his real political career started in June 1775, when he became a delegate in the Second Continental Congress (where delegates from colonies met to discuss course of action against British laws). When Congress began considering a resolution of independence in June 1776, Adams ensured that Jefferson would be appointed to the five-man committee to write a declaration in support of the resolution. Drafted between June 11 and June 28, 1776, the Declaration of Independence is the nation’s most cherished symbol of liberty and Jefferson’s most enduring monument. Here, in exalted and unforgettable phrases, Jefferson expressed the convictions in the minds and hearts of the American people. The political philosophy of the Declaration was not new; John Locke and the Continental philosophers had already expressed its ideals of individual liberty. What Jefferson did was summarize this philosophy in “self-evident truths” and set forth a list of grievances against the King in order to justify before the world the breaking of ties between the colonies and the mother country. The Declaration would eventually be considered as one of Jefferson’s major achievements; his preamble has been considered an enduring statement of human rights. “All men are created equal” has been called “one of the best-known sentences in the English language”, containing “the most potent and consequential words in American history”.

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By Miss. NIrja The passage came to represent a moral standard to which the United States should strive. This view was notably promoted by Abraham Lincoln, who based his philosophy on it, and argued for the Declaration as a statement of principles through which the United States Constitution should be interpreted. After Independence, Jefferson returned to Virginia, and was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates for Albemarle County. In 1779, at the age of thirty-six, Jefferson was elected Governor of Virginia by the two houses of the legislature. Jefferson served as a wartime governor, as the united colonies continued the Revolutionary War against Great Britain. As a member of the committee formed to set foreign exchange rates, he recommended that American currency should be based on the decimal system; his plan was adopted. Later he was appointed as a minister to France where he corresponded with many people who had important roles in the imminent French Revolution. In September 1789 Jefferson returned to the US from France when President Washington asked him to accept a seat in his Cabinet as Secretary of State. Jefferson accepted the appointment. As the Democratic-Republican (then called Republican) presidential candidate in 1796, Jefferson lost to John Adams, but had enough electoral votes to become Vice President. Jefferson rallied his party and ran for the Presidency in 1800 and became third president of the United States. In the midst of the Napoleonic wars between France and Britain, Thomas Jefferson authorized the Louisiana Purchase, a major land acquisition from France that doubled the size of the United States and removed a foreign presence from the nation’s borders. After the purchase of the Louisiana Territory Jefferson now needed to have this mostly unknown part of the country explored and mapped. In 1804 he appointed Meriwether Lewis and William Clark as leaders of the expedition (1804–1806), which explored the Louisiana Territory and beyond, producing a wealth of scientific and geographical knowledge, and ultimately contributing to the European-American settlement of the West. He had often argued for as small a federal government as possible. The vision and leadership of Jefferson has contributed immensely in the success of America and its experiment with democratic society. On July 4 at ten minutes before one o’clock, this great leader died at the age of 83, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence and a few hours before John Adams, whose last words were, “Independence forever” and “Thomas Jefferson survives”.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


COME ENJOY AWARD WINNING INTERNATIONAL CHEFS AND TALENTED LOCAL AMATEURS TASTE YOUR WAY AROUND THE DELICIOUS WORLD OF CURRY AT THIS FAMILY FRIENDLY EVENT

SATURDAY APRIL 20TH, 2013 11 AM – 8 PM $5.00 Admission

INDIA CULTURAL CENTER (ICC) 5511 Lynn Rd. Tampa, Fl 33624

ENTER THE GRAND CURRY COMPETITION 1st Prize for Professional $5,000 1st Prize for Amateurs $2,500 For more information on how to participate in this competition or to learn about sponsorship opportunities visit our website www.tbicf.com or visit us on Facebook Contact: Dr. Sadhana: 727-798-4258 • Randa Singh: 813-810-9320 Ram Jakhotia: 813-863-3048 • Phil: 727-698-8145 or call toll free (855) LUV-CURI

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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Best Wishes to India’s 64th Republic Day Celebration From: Mr & Mrs Vijay & Shilpa Gandhi Shashank & Ankit

Best Wishes to FIA of Tampa Bay 5101 E Busch Blvd Suite 7 Tampa, FL 33617 Tel: 813-401-9820

On the 64th Republic Day Celebration

From: Julio, Karen, & Staff Members

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Jacket Drive FIA Sponsored Jacket Drive was very successful, thanks to all of you who actively participated in sponsoring/collecting jackets for elementary school students of B C Graham Elementary and West Tampa Elementary School. We started with modest goal of 50 jackets. At the end of the three week drive, we handed off 230 jackets to B C Graham Elementary and another 80 jackets to West Tampa Elementary – total of 310 jackets.

We appreciate the enthusiasm with which the high school students pursued this cause and collected money for new jackets and usable jackets. Assistant Principal Ms. Stacie Kagel , Ms. Debbie Allan and Ms. Santana came to ICC on Sunday (12/16) for the handoff ceremony. They were all very appreciative of our effort. They have sent us a big card signed by students, the picture of which is enclosed here.

We appreciate India Cultural Center (ICC) Management for allowing us to use ICC facility.

FIA Team & Volunteers Mr. Manish Kharod • Dr, Emandi Rao • Mrs. Malti Pandya • Mr. Jaimin AminMrs. Asha Kharod • Mrs. Gaurangi Patel Mr. Ravi Narayanan • Mrs. Vidya Rao • Mr. Prasanna Meenakshi • Mrs. Rashmi Jhakotia • Mrs. Bharati Kankotia Dr. Kotha Sekharam • Mrs. Neha Amin • Mr. Satish Sharma • Mr. Jigar Jadav • Mr. Ashish Daga • Mr. Arabinda Banerjee Mr. Lalji Goswami • Dr. Madhavi Sekharam • Mrs. Jaya Reddy• Dr. Krishan Batra • Dr . Shyam Mohapatra • Dr. Ram Reddy

Thank You! FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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Best wishes to FIA of Tampa Bay on the occasion of Republic day celebrations From: Charvi, Vineet Geetha and Nagaraj Sharma

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Constitution of India A Tribute to Jawahar Lal Nehru

By Satish K Sharma

H

ow correctly and famously the first Prime Minister of India - Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru had stated “…who indeed could afford to ignore science today? At every turn we have to seek its aid... The future belongs to science and those who make friends with science”. His predictions not only have come so true as of today but also owing to the exponential advancements in science and technology globally, India is super powered now as one of the fastest developing Information technology hub in the world. The level of investment that India made over the last decade in science has resulted in commercial and societal benefits. The dreams and predictions of one of the founding fathers of the Constitution of India – Nehru, which began to take shape a decade ago, have now put India as outstanding contributor to the world economy and Information Technology fields. According to a report from the Business Insider “the Indian economy is one of the world’s four largest developing economies, with a massive services sector providing much of the developed world with information technology and outsourced business services”.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru - one of the foremost leaders of Indian freedom struggle was the favorite disciple of Mahatma Gandhi. Being the first Prime Minister of India is widely regarded as the architect of modern India. He was born on November 14, 1889 in Allahabad in British India. His father, Motilal Nehru, a wealthy barrister who belonged to a Pandit community from Kashmir served twice as the President of the Indian National Congress during the Indian national Struggle for the freedom of India from British. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family was Motilal’s second wife, first having died during child-birth. Jawahar Lal had two younger sisters, the elder Vijaya Lakshmi who became the first female President of the United Nations General assembly and the younger sister - Krishna Hutheesing who became the noted writer and who authored several books on her brother. Having graduated with honors in Natural Science from Trinity College, Cambridge in 1910, he passed his bar examinations in London in 1912 and was admitted to the English bar. Nehru had developed interests in Indian politics while in Britain and was attracted by the ideas of liberalism, socialism and nationalism. Within months of his return to India in 1912, he attended the annual session of the India National Congress in Patna, although he had also joined the Allahabad High Court Bar. Having been elected as the President of the Allahabad Municipal Corporation in 1924, he served as the city’s chief executive for two years but resigned in 1926 owing to the lack of cooperation from the civil servants and the obstruction from the British authorities. Nehru served as the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee and presided the Indian National Congress party’s annual session in Lahore on 29 December 1929 and it was in this session that he introduced a successful resolution calling for complete independence.

Everyone remembers him fondly. Apart from his immense qualities as the most popular national leader, Nehru’s love and affections towards children was so great that he was known and addressed as “Chacha Nehru” by the children and his birthday – November 14 is celebrated as ‘Children’s’ Day’ in India. During his three terms of having been the Prime Minister, he had great respects towards all parliamentarians - Congress and other opposition parties. In 1957 when Atal Bihari Vajpayee was 3 first elected to the Lok Sabha, Jawahar Lal Nehru, being the Prime Mister was so impressed by the oratorical skills of Vajpayee that Nehru commented to his fellow parliamentarians that this young MP would lead the nation one day. However, it took 39 years for Nehru’s prophesy to come true since Vajpayee was Prime Minister of India from May 16June 1, 1996, and a second time from March 19, 1998 to May 13, 2004. As destiny would have it, Vajpayee has been the only Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to occupy the office of the Prime Minister of India through three successive mandates. Nehru commanded such a great love and respect from the public of India that the famous singer Mohd. Rafi sang a song – “Karti Hai Fariyaad Yeh Dharti, Kayi Hazaaron Saal, Tab Hota Hai Jaa Kar Paida, Ek Jawahar Lal” (meaning - The earth begs for thousands of years, only then a person like Jawahar Lal is borne. The “Nehru Report” This was a memorandum in August 1928, outlining a proposed new Dominion constitution for India. It was prepared by a committee of the All Parties Conference chaired by Moti Lal Nehru with his son Jawahar Lal Nehru acting as secretary.

At the midnight of the New Year eve 1929, the tri-color flag of India was hoisted by Jawahar Lal Nehru upon the banks of the Ravi River in Lahore. A pledge of the independence was reverberated. The vast majority of the massive gathering of public, who were attending the ceremony, raised their hands in support of the Independent India. The Congress asked the people of India to observe 26 January as Independence Day. The flag of India was hoisted publicly across India by Congress volunteers, nationalists and the public. The British promulgated the Government of India Act 1935, the Congress Party decided to contest elections. Though, Nehru had stayed out of these elections, yet campaigned vigorously nationwide for the party. The Congress had formed governments in almost every province, and had won the largest number of seats in the Central Assembly. Nehru was elected President of the Congress party in 1936, 1937 and 1946 and thus earned to occupy a position in the national freedom movement second only to that of Mahatma Gandhi. During Quit India movement, the entire congress working committee including Mahatma Gandhi and Jawahar Lal Nehru was arrested. Nehru could be released, his ninth and last detention, only on June 15, 1945. Nehru took a leading part in the negotiations with respect to the freedom of India which culminated in the emergence of the dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947. As the first Prime Minister of free India, elected in 1947, Nehru played a key role in building modern India. His contributions include setting up a Planning Commission, development of science and technology, launching of three successive five-year plans, which resulted in the sizable growth in agricultural and industrial production. He also played a major role in developing independent India’s foreign policy. Jawahar Lal Nehru breathed his last when he died of a heart attack on May 27, 1964.

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


There were nine other members in this committee including two Muslims... • “India should be given the status of a dominion. • There should be federal form of government with residuary powers vested in the center • India should have a parliamentary form of government headed by a Prime Minister and six ministers appointed by the Governor General. • There should be a bi-cameral legislature. • There should be no separate electorate for any community. • System of weightage for minorities was as bad as that of separate electorates. • Reservation of Muslim seats could be possible in the provinces where Muslim population was at least 10 percent, but this was to be in strict proportion to the size of the community. • Muslims should enjoy one/fourth representation in the Central Legislature • Sindh should be separated from Bombay only if the certified that it was financially self-sufficient. • The N.W.F.P should be given full provincial status. • A new Kanarese-speaking province Karnatik should be established in South India. • Hindi should be made the official language of India”

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA On August 29, 1947, a Drafting Committee was appointed, with Dr. B R Ambedkar as the Chairman along with Acharya Kriplani, Pandit Nehru, Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant, Maulana Azad, Sardar Patel and Dr Rajendra Prasad and many others as members. The prepared Draft Constitution was prepared and submitted by the committee to the Constituent Assembly on November 4, 1947. 4 The Assembly met, in sessions open to public, for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days before adopting the Constitution. After many deliberations and some modifications, the 308 members of the Assembly signed two hand-written copies of the document (one each in Hindi and English) on the January 24, 1950. Two days later, on January 26, 1950, the Constitution of India became the law of all the Indian land. ***

“A leader or a man of action in a crisis almost always acts subconsciously and then thinks of the reasons for his action.”

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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A

Mr. Alexander Hamilton

lexander Hamilton was an inspiring man. He lived a tumultuous life as an orphan in which he studied at King’s College (now known as Columbia University), fought for the government in the Whisky Rebellion, and led a successful practice as a lawyer. Although Hamilton was a man of many talents, the purpose of this article is to focus on a particular facet of his career, the part that affected and continues to affect many Americans to this day. Alexander Hamilton was one of the founding fathers of America, and played an integral role in shaping the new American country.                 Alexander Hamilton is synonymous with the old Federalist Party. He was a big believer in big business, and was dissatisfied with the initial system of government known as the Articles of Confederation. He believed this system of government to be too limited and restrictive, and was an advocate of change. He wrote 51 of the 85 federalist papers that advocated a new system of government, the constitution. He then presided over the Annapolis convention in which federalists voiced their concern over the current government system. This convention was a basis for the Philadelphia convention that created our constitution as we know it.

By Mr. Nikhil Chari 11th Grade Student caused Jefferson to win the presidency. Incidentally, Hamilton angered Burr who challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton lost and was killed in the duel and Burr fled as he had committed murder.                 In conclusion, Alexander Hamilton was one of the greatest people to ever live. He made innumerable contributions to this country like the national bank, and the financial plan.  He is one of the reasons that America was and still is a dominant democratic superpower in which anyone can succeed. Alexander Hamilton is truly an American.

After the constitution was created,Hamilton sought to build America into a country with a strong central government.  George Washington appointed him  as Secretary of Treasury, a position he presided over for a long time. He wittingly used the Implied Powers clause of the constitution to write a bill for the creation of a national bank. This greatly angered the opposing political party, the old Democratic Republicans. They argued the constitutionality of the bank, and the fact that it supported the Northerners, not the Southerners.  In order to convince the Democrats to pass the bill, Hamilton decided to make a compromise and said he would move the capital of the Country from New York to Washington DC, if the bill was passed. This convinced democratic politicians to pass the bill creating the National Bank. The bank played a big role in the formation of the country in its early days. The bank was first and foremost a place where the government could store money. Also, the government could regulate taxes, issue bonds, and loans, and have a national currency backed by gold and silver.                 The most important contribution Hamilton made to this country was his financial plan. The basic tenant to his plan was that a little debt was good, so long that America could pay the debtor back. He wanted America to have good credit, so that they could borrow money when they needed it. In this plan Hamilton decided to protect American manufacturing by incorporating a tax on imports. He then decided to utilize the national governments considerable power by taking all state debts on, and given the states a clean slate. He decided to exchange old bonds for new ones that paid the investor better, convincing more people to buy bonds and give immediate cash to the government helping American pay off its war debts.                 In the latter part of his career, Hamilton spent his days advising the Federalists. In the election of 1796, the Democratic candidates Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr faced off for the presidency. Hamilton threw his support for Jefferson, and this

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RAJAGOPALACHARI By Shreya Shivan 9th Grade student

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hakravarthi Rajagopalachari, popularly known as Rajaji or C.R., was a multifaceted leader par excellence. He was an Indian lawyer, a brilliant statesman, an efficient administrator, a Freedom fighter ,an excellent orator ,an eminent scholar ,a polished writer and a Hindu spiritualist.

Born in Tamilnadu in 1878 ,this successful lawyer left his legal practice and became an ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi when Gandhi became part of the Indian Independence movement. A member of the Congress party to begin with, he actively participated in Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement , the Vaikom Satyagraha for the rights of the oppressed classes and the famous Dandi march of Gandhi against salt tax. During the pre-independence years he was considered as one of the top five leaders of the congress along with Jawaharlal Nehru ,Rajendra Prasad,Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad.Of the five Rajaji ,Nehru and Patel were Christened the “Head, heart and hands of Gandhi . Mahatma fondly dubbed Rajaji as “The Keeper of my conscience”. Rajaji occupied several important positions during his public life. He became the Premier of Madras Presidency in 1937. He was appointed Governor of Bengal from 1947 to 1948.He succeeded Lord Mountbatten and was the Governor general of India from 1948 to 1950 .In December 1950 he seucceeded Sardar Patel as Home minister of India .He was the Chief Minister of Madras State from 1952 to 1954. Rajaji was a reformer who fought for equality of all people.While serving as the premier of Madras presidency he issued the Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act 1939, under which Dalits were allowed to enter Hindu temples. In the same year, the Meenakshi temple at Madurai opened to the Dalits. He also introduced prohibition , a ban of alcohol. With his political acumen and sharp intellect he contributed widely to the political scenario of pre-Independence era .He was an important authority of the constituent assembly which was formed to draft the Indian constituition by the elected members of the provincial assembly.

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In the early stages of the Constitution, a major problem that the country was facing was the partition of the Muslims and Hindus. Rajaji’s formula (The C. R. formula) was a proposal formulated to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress after independence of India from the British. The League’s opinion was that the Muslims had the right to their own nation when India gained independence. The Congress which included both Hindu and Muslim members didn’t approve of partitioning India. Rajaji was the first leader of the congress that acknowledged that the partitioning of India was inevitable. It was also he who had told Gandhi that collaboration with the British was better for an eventual transfer of power rather than the oppositional “Quit India” movement. Rajaji’s advice on both counts though rejected by the Congress leadership at that time was resoundingly confirmed to be wise by later events .Rajaji was a futurist “who could see six months ahead “ as rightly pointed out by Gandhi himself. Unable to resolve the increasing differences with the party leadership , Rajaji reigned from the Indian national congress in 1957 and founded the Swatantra Party and opposed the Congress, though not successfully. He was held in high esteem not only by national and international leaders but even by is adversories. Nehru wrote in his autobiography that Rajaji’s “brilliant intellect, selfless character, and penetrating powers of analysis have been a tremendous asset to our cause”.Many british leaders of those times in India openly admired him.Being a passionate advocate of disarmament , he tried influencing international leaders with his views .During U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon’s nineteen country Asian tour, Rajaji lectured him on the consuming emotional quality of nuclear weapons and on spiritual topics such as reincarnation and destiny. Nixon caimed in his memoirs thirty-six years later that the afternoon “had such a dramatic effect on me that I used many of his thoughts in my speeches over the next several years.” In 1962 He was invited to the White House by President Kennedy as a member of Gandhi peace foundation.Rajaji impressed upon the President the folly of an arms race - even one which the US could win . At the end of the meeting Kennedy remarked “This meeting had the most civilizing influence on me. Seldom have I heard a case presented with such precision, clarity and elegance of language”. Rajaji was one of the finest writers India has to offer.He made enduring contributions to Indian English literature. He translated the great Indian epics Ramayana and Mahabharata in simple English which remain popular till date.He is also credited with composition of the evergreen carnatic song Kurai Onrum Illai. During his life Rajaji received great honor as well as strong criticism .He has the honor of being the first recipients of the Bharat Ratna, the Indian government’s highest civilian award. Many people including his own colleagues find many views of Rajaji unacceptable. But none can deny that Rajaji was by far the most brilliant leader of India in the twentieth century , one who spoke fearlessly for the wellbeing of India and the World. A person of great courtesy, kindness, simplicity ,daring and sparkle ,Rajaji passed away on December 25, 1972 at the age of ninety-four.

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President John Adams By Mr. Maaz Ali 12th Grade student

ohn Adams was the second President of the United States, and the first Vice President of the United States. He is best remembered as a Founding Father and Enlightened politician who was instrumental in both the development of the Constitution but as well as American foreign policy. As the second President of the United States, John Adams would carry the strong federal government precedent into his administration where political feuds, calls for war, limitations of individual freedoms, and sectional interests threatened to pull at the new nation. John Adams first hinted at his political career in response to the Stamp Act of 1765. Amid the general outrage voiced by the public, Adams wrote succinctly and clearly about two major points that elucidated the main problem caused by the tax-- that the tax violated the colonists basic rights as Englishmen. The basic rights were the right to be taxed only by consent and to be tried only by a jury of one’s peers. John Adams argued that colonists did not owe their allegiance to Parliament, and their original charter was with the person of the king and their allegiance was only to him. If a workable line could not be drawn between parliamentary sovereignty and the total independence of the colonies, he continued, the colonies would have no other choice but to choose independence. John Adams was a huge influence in the early Continental Congress. He was sent by Massachusetts for both Congresses, and he was an advocate for separation from Britain.He nominated George Washington as commander-in-chief. Adam’s ideas for government, published in the pamphlet “Thoughts on Government”, were used as the framework for the new constitutions being written across colonial America.vAdams advised that the form of government should be chosen to attain the desired ends, which are the happiness and virtue of the greatest number of people.He also suggested that there should be a separation of powers between the executive, the judiciary, and the legislative branches. Adams set the stage for the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. He worked closely with Thomas Jefferson in order to create and perfect the document.Although the first draft was written primarily by Jefferson, Adams continued to occupy the foremost place in the debate on its adoption. As President of the United States,Adams would continue the policies set forth by Washington and Hamilton. He continued the Federalist plan of Hamilton, by supporting the National Bank and continuing to support tariffs and industrial advances. In terms of foreign policy, President Adams continued the policy of Washington. In his inaugural address he pledged “peace, commerce and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none...”. However he would not be successful,because Jay’s Treaty violated the Franco-American treaty and France began to attack American ships. This led to quasi warfare and the XYZ affair. The Convention of 1800 solved this when Napoleon and Adams organized an agreement in which the Franco-American Treaty was nullified and that France was to pay back damages for ship seizures. Adams did everything in his power to save the US from war after he inherited a foreign debacle from Washington. Adams successfully prevented war with France and prolonged it with Great Britain.

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Dr. Rajendra Prasad: The First President of India

r. Rajendra Prasad was an Indian politician who became the first President of India. He was one of the architects of the Indian Republic, In July 1946, when the Constituent Assembly was established to frame the Constitution of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected its President. Two and a half years after independence, on January 26, 1950, the Constitution of independent India was ratified and Dr. Rajendra Prasad was elected the nation's first President. Dr. Prasad transformed the imperial splendor of Rashtrapati Bhavan into an elegant "Indian". Prasad was the only president to have been elected twice for the office. During the independence movement, he left his practice of law and joined the Congress Party, playing a prominent role in the Indian Independence Movement. Before serving as the president of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the constitution, he had served as Minister of Food and Agriculture in the year 1946 in the Interim national Government. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, son of Mahadev Sahai, was born in Zeradei, Bihar on December 3, 1884. Being the youngest in a large joint family "Rajen" was greatly loved. He was strongly attached to his mother and elder brother Mahendra. In Zeradei's diverse population, people lived together in considerable harmony. Rajendra Prasad's earliest memories were of playing "kabaddi" with his Hindu and Muslim friends alike. In keeping with the old customs of his village and family, Rajen was married when he was barely 12 years old to Rajvanshi Devi. Dr. Rajendra Prasad was an extremely brilliant student. He was the topper student in the entrance examination of Calcutta University and achieved the scholarship of Rs. 30 per month, in the year of 1902. He went to presidency college of Calcutta where he got the chance of learning science under the great Indian scientist Jagdish Chandra Bose. Later, he selected arts as his subject instead of science and In 1915, Rajen passed the Masters in Law examination with honors, winning a gold medal. Subsequently, he completed his Doctorate in Law as well. He initiated swadeshi movement by the inspiration of his brother mahendra Prasad. He became the member of the dawn society which was being run by satish Chandra mukherji and sister nivedita at the time.

By Mr. Lalji Goswamy

raised his profile considerably. Dr. Prasad presided over the Bombay session of the Indian National Congress in October 1934. Following the resignation of Subhash Chandra Bose as the President of the Congress in April 1939, Dr. Prasad was elected President. He did his best to heal the rifts created between the incompatible ideologies of Subhash Chandra Bose and Gandhiji. Rabindranath Tagore wrote to Dr. Prasad, "I feel assured in my mind that your personality will help to soothe the injured souls and bring peace and unity into an atmosphere of mistrust and chaos..." Dr. Prasad visited many countries on missions of goodwill, as the new state sought to establish and nourish new relationships. He stressed the need for peace in a nuclear age. In 1962, after 12 years as President, Dr. Prasad retired, and was subsequently awarded the Bharat Ratna, the nation's highest civilian award. With the many tumults of his vigorous and accomplished life, Dr. Prasad recorded his life and the decades before independence in many books, among the more noted of which are "Satyagraha at Champaran" (1922), "India Divided" (1946), his autobiography "Atmakatha" (1946), "Mahatma Gandhi and Bihar, Some Reminisences" (1949), and "Bapu ke Kadmon Mein" (1954). He lived 79 successful years with great zeal, strengthening the foundation of our country, in a nice way. He served the nation for a long time with his extremely strong leadership. The great leader contributed a lot to motivate the Indian citizens to attain freedom and live the life with full liberty. That’s why; he was admired by the people as the first president of India after freedom. He was proved as an intelligent motivator for young people and proved as a role model for them. He died on February 28, 1963. In her first citizen, India had imagined a life of possibilities, and seen an unsurpassed dedication to making them real.

Whenever the people suffered, Dr. Prasad was present to help reduce the pain. In 1914 floods ravaged Bihar and Bengal. Dr. Prasad became a volunteer distributing food and cloth to the flood victims. In 1934, Bihar was shaken by an earthquake, which caused immense damage and loss of property. The quake, devastating by itself, was followed by floods and an outbreak of malaria which heightened misery. Dr. Prasad dove right in with relief work, collecting food, clothes and medicine. His experiences here led to similar efforts elsewhere too. In 1935, an earthquake hit Quetta. Dr. Prasad was not allowed to lend a hand because of Government restrictions. Nevertheless, he set up relief committees in Sind and Punjab for the homeless victims who flocked there. His service on the various fronts of the movement for independence

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Benjamin Franklin: Man of the Yankees By Ms. Anjana Menon 11th Grade student

enjamin Franklin. A founding father that can be considered has held many prestigious titles: inventor, politician, satirist, and even a prominent abolitionist. With these titles, he has been able to accomplish so much in each field. This is a man that has shown true patriotic spirit and homage to his country. One who can be considered a true Yankee along with his fellow mates during the Revolutionary War. However, what comes across even more astonishing is his participation in the framing of the Constitution. Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston Massachusetts on January 17, 1706. Though his parents wanted him to be part of the church, they only had enough money for their son to attend school till he was ten years old. When Franklin was twelve years old, he became an apprentice to his brother, James, a printer. His older brother taught him the printing trade and at seventeen, he went to Philadelphia in order to pursue his dreams in this field. He was not satisfied when he reached and was recommended to go to London in order to acquire necessary knowledge and equipment to start a newspaper. It was also during this time that he proposed to fifteen year old Deborah Reed. After spending sometime in London, in 1732, Franklin came back and started his first newspaper company; however it failed after a year. In 1734, Benjamin Franklin became Grand Master, indicating his rapid rise in society, through all of this, Franklin remained a Patriot. It was during the Revolutionary War when Benjamin Franklin showed true Patriotic spirit. Franklin, at the time was in London at the time. In 1765, the Patriots were on the verge of revolution when the British imposed the Stamp Act on them. The Stamp Act declared that the citizens must pay taxes on all papered goods. Benjamin Franklin opposed and soon began writing articles and protest letters to Parliament. It was through this, he emerged as the leading spokesperson for Colonial resistance. He became involved in the Revolution, on event that seemed to cause tension between America and England: The Hutchinson Affair. In 1781, the Patriots won against the British in the Battle of Yorktown. Now it was time for America to create their own country. In 1787, fifty five delegates came together in Philadelphia to address the problems and a plan in governing America. This was known as the Continental Convention (or the Philadelphia Convention). Out of these fifty five, twenty six went to college: Benjamin Franklin was one of them. He was also the oldest, being the age of eighty one. He was one of the few delegates to take a public stand against slavery and even served as the President of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery. He held a very prominent role in this plan: though he was ill at the time, he held a high position and participated in the debate. Benjamin Franklin is also considered one of the Founding Fathers who have signed all four major documents: The Declaration of Independence, Treaty of Paris, Treaty of Alliance, and The Constitution. It was also during the same year, when a college was named after Franklin in his honor. Benjamin Franklin is a man that shows true patriotic spirit. He is one Founding Father that has done so much for America and its course in the Revolution and the aftermath when planning the Constitution. At any age, he was still the same committed and ambitious person who has accomplished so much in terms of politics and framing the Constitution.

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Sarojini Naidu

arojini Naidu (maiden name Sarojini Chattopadhyay) was among the most prominent women leaders of India’s struggle. She contributed in drafting of the Indian Constitution and became first governor of Uttar Pradesh. She was also an accomplished poet.

Her father Aghorernath Chattopadhyay was a scientist, educated from Edunburgh University. He founded the Nizam College in Hyderabad. Sarojini’s mother, Barada Sundari Devi, was also a poet. Born on February 13 1879, Sarojini showed remarkable intellect and wisdom at an early age. She authored a play titled “Maher Muneer” (in Persian language). Her father showed it to the Nizam of Hyderabad. The Nizam was so impressed that he gave a scholarship for Sarojini to study abroad. Sarojini went to the prestigious King’s College in Cambridge, UK. There she came in close contact with eminent literary figures English authors like Arthur Simon and Edmond Gausse, who inspired and influenced her to write more about Indian life and themes. After returning to India in 1898, she got married to Muthyala Govindarajulu Naidu. They had a happy married life and had five children. Her first book of poems, “The Golden Threshold,” was published in England in 1905. She continued to write and publish her works. She earned many accolades and the nickname “Nightingale of India” for her literary work. But gradually, she got more and more immersed into India’s freedom movement.

By Ms. Arabinda Bernerjee Sarojini worked tirelessly during the plague epidemic. Her work was recognized by the British government with a “Kesar-i-Hind” medal. She also led the 1930 Dandi March for Salt Satyagraha after Mahatma Gandhi was arrested, which resulted in her own incarceration. She was again arrested during the 1942 Quit India movement, this time for 21 months. After India’s independence, she helped draft the constitution. She represented the five female members of the Constitution Drafting Committee.  She also became the first governor of its most populous state, Uttar Pradesh. Sarojini fell ill in early 1949. It is said that her doctor gave her a sleeping pill, upon which she smiled and said “Not eternal sleep I hope”. But that night, on March 2, 1949, she died in her sleep. Memorable quotes of Sarojini Naidu: “We want deeper sincerity of motive, a greater courage in speech and earnestness in action.” “When there is oppression, the only self-respecting thing is to rise and say this shall cease today, because my right is justice. If you are stronger, you have to help the weaker boy or girl both in play and in the work.” “Nay, do not weep; new hopes, new dreams, new faces, The unspent joy of all the unborn years, Will prove your heart a traitor to its sorrow, And make your eyes unfaithful to their tears.”

Moved by the 1905 partition of Bengal, she became involved in the freedom movement and began to communicate with veteran leaders and thinkers like Gokhale, Nehru, Malavya, Annie Besant, Tagore, and Jinnah. She met Mahatma Gandhi for the first time in 1914 in London, where she had accompanied Gokhale for a “Roundtable” conference with the British. Gandhi had not returned to India yet, but he was already well-known for the successful civil rights movement he led in South Africa. After Gandhi’s return to India in 1915, Sarojini developed even closer relationship with him, along with other national leaders of the time. She traveled throughout India, and spoke on various occasions on topics like women’s emancipation, nationalism, youth welfare and dignity of labor. She took part in the protest movement at Champaran (Bihar) for the indigo workers. She had a way with words and was able to electrify and inspire audiences all across India. In 1917, she helped establish the Women’s Indian Association (WIA). She became the President of the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1925, becoming the second woman to hold that position. She participated in the civil disobedience protests and non-cooperation movement. She traveled extensively and campaigned against several British policies, like the Rowlatt Act. Sarojini and Gandhi developed a very cordial and warm relationship during this time. It is said that when Mahatma Gandhi needed a break, he used to turn to Sarojini. Sarojini gave him the nickname “Mickey Mouse”! He enjoyed it and apparently asked many questions about Mickey, whom he had never seen on screen. FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

Sarojini Naidu and Mahatma Gandhi on their way to the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931.

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A Woman’s Right to Vote

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By Ms. Maya Patel 9th Grade student

n November 6th, 2012, history was made with the re-election of the 44th President of the United States, President Barack Obama. A large part of his victory at the polls was attributed to an often overlooked group, women. For the first time ever, a presidential candidate who was supported by a male majority lost. One hundred years ago, the mere thought of a woman casting a ballot was absurd. A woman’s right to vote, also known as suffrage, was a hard earned privilege. The controversy of a woman holding the right to vote has started since the founding of our country. In 1776, delegates from all 13 colonies came together to draft the declaration of Independence. Of course, none of the delegates were women but women did want to play a role in the founding of our country. This was the case of Abigail Adams, wife of John Adams (the Massachusetts delegate and a future president.) She was an early activist and was upset at the gender inequality in education. In a letter to her husband, she said “remember the ladies”, reminding him that all citizens, including women helped in the war of Independence and should therefore receive basic rights. Yet, it wasn’t until 144 years later that women earned their most basic right, the right to vote. In 1848, women activists from all across the US met at the Seneca Falls convention in New York. The women drafted a document stating their problems and solutions to the problems, including the right to vote. The Seneca Falls convention got the suffrage movement national attention but there still was no federal action. Activist such as Elizabeth Stanton and Susan B. Anthony picketed, petitioned and wrote countless letters to congress, but were instead shunned by the community. Susan B. Anthony even got arrested in 1872 for trying to cast her ballot in the presidential election. Progress was made in 1869, when Wyoming became the first state to grant women the right to vote, however no laws on the federal level. With the forthcoming of the 20th century, women stepped their powerful movement. In 1917, the US entered the “great war” or World War I. Women contributed significantly in the war effort, boosting their status with men. Protestors such as Alice Paul stood outside the white house and aggressively tried to convey their message. The world was watching and pressure was mounting. Seventy one years after the Seneca Falls convention, in 1919, President Woodrow Wilson signed the 19th amendment into law, granting women the right to vote. It is interesting to note that although the United States has had a long history with slavery, black men earned the right to vote (the 15th amendment, 1870), 50 years prior to women! While many people think that US has been a pioneer with equal voting rights, other countries have had these rights given to women many years prior to the US. In 1890, New Zealand was the first country to give women suffrage rights. The world’s largest democracy, India was also progressive for its time, by giving women the right to vote in 1950, the same year men were granted that right. Not all states ratified the 19th amendment immediately. It took the state of Mississippi 64 years to accept women’s right to vote, which finally happened in 1984. Huge strides have been made in the years following this historical victory for women. In fact, just this month, with swearing in of the 113th congress, women had a notable presence. Over one hundred members of congress sworn in are female. This will also be the first time 20 members of the Senate are women, making them 1/5th of the senate!

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Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

aulana Azad was one of the most prominent leaders of the Indian freedom movement. He was one of the key members of the Constitutional Committee. He was also among the most prominent Muslim leaders who strongly opposed the partition of India. Maulana Azad’s father was Maulana Khairuddin, a Bengali Muslim of  Afghan origin, while his mother was an Arab, daughter of a Sheikh. Maulana Khairuddin left Bengal after the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny and settled in Mecca (Saudi Arabia), where Maulana Abul Kalam was born on November 11, 1888. Soon after his birth, his family moved to Calcutta. Maulana was precocious as a child, learning many languages including Hindi, Urdu, Arabic, Bengali, Persian and English. He also learned extensively topics like world history, science, philosophy and mathematics. He is known to have started a library and a debate club by the time he was twelve. He started contributing to some of the famous magazines of the time and even started a monthly magazine of his own Nairang-e-Alam. At the age of thirteen, he got married to young Muslim girl by the name of Zulaikha Begum. He was being educated to be cleric, but his natural bent of mind made him more of a radical. The cultural renaissance of the time influenced his young mind as well, as Calcutta was the cultural capital of India at that time. Through his own effort, he studied Western philosophy, history and literature. Increasingly doubtful of religious dogma, Azad developed a taste for rationalism. In his quest to learn more about pan-Islamic doctrines, he traveled far and wide, to countries like Afghanistan, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Turkey and France. He met several influential leaders and thinkers in these countries. Even though he went to these countries to learn more about pan-Islamic doctrines, he was moved by the anti-imperialist and nationalist struggles in some of these countries. This set him apart from most other Muslim leaders, who considered him too radical. He became a full-fledged Indian Nationalist. He openly and fiercely criticized British for racial discrimination. He also criticized the Muslim leaders for focusing on communal issues and rejected the All India Muslim League’s call for communal separatism. He was against the 1905 partition of Bengal, which was supported by most Muslim leaders of the time. Back in Calcutta, he came into close contact with prominent Bengali revolutionaries like Sri Aurobindo Ghosh and Shyam Sundar Chakraborty, who were among the prominent revolutionaries of the time. He even got involved in their secret revolutionary activities for some time. His passion for political activism and journalism resulted in his starting a Urdu weekly newspaper “Al-Hilal”. He used his pen to highlight the plight of the common man, and to unite Hindus and Muslims for the common quest of Indian independence. Increasingly wary of the popularity of such writings, the British government banned the newspaper in 1914. Unperturbed, Azad started another publication, entitled “Al-Balagh”. The British Raj banned that one. Too, and arrested him, He remained incarcerated in a Ranchi jail till end of 1919.

By Mr. Arabinda allowed detention for a period up to two years, along with severe restrictions on political publications and activities. One of the protests held in Amritsar on April 13, 1919 was indiscriminately fired upon by a platoon under the command of General Dyer, killing about one thousand civilians. This infamous incident is often referred to as the “Jalianwal Bagh Massacre”. During early 1920’s, Azad led the Khilafat movement, which was supported by Indian National Congress (INC). This is when he first met Gandhi and he was immensely influenced by his calls for Satyagraha, and non-cooperation. He worked with his pen and his speeches to mobilize thousands to boycott British goods, especially clothes. During this time he also got closer to other leading freedom fighters of the time, including Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose. Maulana Azad was arrested again under the Rowlatt Act and remained in prison till 1922 when the Rowlatt Act was repealed. By this time, he had established himself as an important leader with broad appeal. In 1923 he became the youngest leader to be President of the Indian National Congress. During the late 1920s, Azad remained very active in Congress and served it in various other capacities as well. During Mahatma’s Dandi March, he led a separate march on Dharsana, for which he was arrested again. In fact, he went in and out of British prison many times during the 1930’s. When Mahatma Gandhi started the “Quit India” movement during the World War II, Maulana Azad travelled across the country, giving fiery speeches, mobilizing thousands of people and inspiring Congress party workers. After such a speech in Bombay, Azad was arrested again on August 9, 1942, along with the entire Congress leadership. This time Azad was imprisoned for about four years! After the war ended, British agreed to transfer power. Azad led the Congress in elections for Constituent Assembly of India, which was tasked with drafting the new constitution. Vehemently opposed to the partition of India, he made a fervent appeal to Muslims not to leave India. His speech from the Jama Masjid can be found on YouTube. After independence, he became India’s first Minister of Education. He is credited with setting up the University Grants Commission and the Indian Institutes of Technology. Azad passed away on February 22, 1958. His autobiographical book, India Wins Freedom, is a must-read for anyone interested in history of the time and the life of this great Indian. He was posthumously awarded the highest civilian honor “Bharat Ratna” in 1992.

MEMORABLE QUOTES OF MAULANA AZAD: "I am proud of being an Indian. I am part of the indivisible unity that is Indian nationality. I am indispensable to this noble edifice and without me this splendid structure is incomplete. I am an essential element, which has gone to build India. I can never surrender this claim." “We must not for a moment forget, it is a birth right of every individual to receive at least the basic education without which he cannot fully discharge his duties as a citizen.”

The British had passed the Rowlatt Act in March 1919, which FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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A

The Test for Naturalization By Dilip Patel, Esq. A Board Certified Expert on immigration law. www.shutts.com

s we celebrate India’s Republic Day in USA, many Indian citizens residing here as Lawful Permanent Residents (with “Green Card” status) desire to become naturalized US citizens but some have difficulty with the test which is administered at the required interview. The greatest difficulty is faced by those for whom English is a new language, especially the elderly and those without a formal education. This Article will focus on the test requirements, the exemptions available and provide some tips on how to prepare for and pass the test. The test is actually made up of two main components: One is the English test, and the other is the Civics test. The English test has three components: reading, writing, and speaking. The civics test covers important U.S. history and government topics. The tests (both the English and the Civics knowledge) can be waived for medical reasons (often called the disability exception). The disability exception is only available if a licensed medical professional certifies that the applicant is not able to meet either the language requirements or the knowledge requirements or both due to a medical disability which interferes with the applicant’s capacity to learn. To request this exception, the applicant must submit the Form N-648 properly completed by a licensed medical or osteopathic doctor, or licensed clinical psychologist. A large number of disability exception applications are denied because the certification fails to prove that there is an actual medical disability which prevents the applicant from learning what is necessary for the test. The medical disability needs to be explained in good detail and well documented. There is an exemption from the English language requirement for people who are over 55 years old but only if they have had their Green Card status for at least 15 years. An exemption is also available for applicants older than 50 years if they have had their Green Cards for at least 20 years. There is another rule, the 65/20 rule, which provides that applicants who are older than 65 and have had their Green Card status for 20 years are administered a simplified test with regard to the civics knowledge requirement. This provision is particularly useful to people who, although exempted from the English requirement have difficulty in learning the required information about U.S. government and history. An applicant who qualifies for the exemption from the English requirement would take the test in her own language but must provide an interpreter.

Only words from those lists are tested. The list is not that long and with some reasonable effort can be learned by anyone. As to the speaking part, the applicant should fully understand the application form and the questions on the form. During the interview, as long as the applicant is able to show that they understand the form and can confirm the answers to the questions, most USCIS Officers will pass the applicant’s speaking ability. Preparing for the civics test requires some learning. The focus is on making sure that the applicant understands the basic information. While all of the questions are available online, trying to just memorize the answers “parrot” style does not work. However, if the applicant is taught the basic history and the principles of government (even in their own language) it will be a lot easier to understand and answer the questions correctly. During the test, 10 questions are asked and only 6 need to be answered correctly to pass. The questions are preselected randomly by computer from the 100 which are on line. The most important link is www.USCIS.Gov This is the USCIS home page. This can lead to the citizenship resources page where all of the information is available (learning guides, videos of interviews, and much more). The direct link to the list of words for the writing is: http://www. uscis.gov/USCIS/Office%20of%20Citizenship/Citizenship%20 Resource%20Center%20Site/Publications/PDFs/writing_vocab. pdf The direct link to the list of words for reading is: http://www.uscis.gov/USCIS/Office%20of%20Citizenship/ Citizenship%20Resource%20Center%20Site/Publications/PDFs/ reading_vocab.pdf

As stated above, there are three parts to the English test: the ability to speak, to read and to write English. The ability to speak English will be determined by a USCIS Officer based on whether the applicant can answer questions about the application. To show an ability to read, the applicant must read one out of three sentences correctly. For the writing part, the applicant must write one out of three sentences correctly. Learning English for Naturalization is not as difficult as it might initially seem. We have seen a large number of elderly applicants with no prior education prepare for and pass the tests. Tips for success: The actual words that an applicant needs to learn for the reading and writing part are available online.

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


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A P u b l i c at i o n f o r I n d i a n A m e r i c a n s i n F lo r i da

No. 101

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Publication for the Indian American community in Florida. Khaas Baat is a monthly publication that presents exclusive information and relevant news about the Indian American community in Florida, including Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater, Fort Lauderdale/Miami, Orlando/Casselberry, Jacksonville, Gainesville, Lakeland, Ocala, Melbourne, Fort Myers, Sarasota-Bradenton, and Tallahassee.

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26.


People in the News Bombay Jayashri (aka) Jayashri Ramnath

More recently she has harnessed her skills towards composing music as a powerful catalyst in promoting our rich legacy in literature and other art forms which have opened up new vistas for exploring her creative instincts. Her composition for the operatic ballet based on the Tamil Epic – ‘Silapadhikaaram’ is an example of this. In her voyage as a cultural ambassador of India’s rich heritage, Jayashri has performed extensively in India and abroad in the most prestigious fora, drawing critical acclaim wherever she performed. Another dimension to music which Jayashri is focused on is in exploring the therapeutic and healing value that music can generate.She has been working closely with institutions caring for autistic children to help open up their senses through the medium of music. This is a deep and long commitment which she has taken on and a very laudable one at that. Jayashri represents the model emerging new generation musician India is proud of. A seamless blend of uncompromising adherence to the core tradition of classical carnatic music as well as a ceaseless quest for quality music in any form would best personify Jayashri. “The contemplative quality, her expository technique giving space for creativity, her intuitive and melodic approach; all these lend a spiritual tone to Bombay Jayashri’s music”- states a renowned critic in The Hindu.

Jayashri Ramnath (popularly known as Bombay Jayashri) is an Indian Carnatic music vocalist and music composer. She is currently nominated for Best Original Song at the 85th Academy Awards for the song “Pi’s Lullaby” from Life of Pi.[3] Born into a family of musicians with rich lineage and steeped in pedigree music, Bombay Jayashri Ramnath represents the fourth generation of music practitioners in her family. Jayashri has been groomed under the guidance of legend Shri Lalgudi G Jayaraman and Smt T R Balamani. Jayashri, today not only bears the torch of the Lalgudi tradition, but has also evolved a distinct style of her own. Jayashri has deployed the essence of the classical idiom most effectively in her search for avenues beyond the concert format.

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The singer, who straddles multiple genres of music, has been nominated for the best original song for her lullaby in Life of Pi. The song has been written in Tamil, composed and sung by Jayashri for the Canadian composer Mychael Danna, who scored the music for the film. There are five nominees in the best original song category; Jayashri has a minimum chance of 20 percent in winning the award. The soundtrack of Life of Pi has won considerable acclaim across the world and Jayashri’s mellifluous title track has become a sort of signature tune of the movie. Jayashri is the 2nd Musician from South Indian Film Industry to be nominated for the Oscars. In 2009, Music Composer A.R.Rahman won 2 Oscars for Best Original Music Score and Best Original Song and Resul Pookkutti won an Oscar for Best Sound Mixing for the movie “Slumdog Millionaire”.

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


People in the News Dr. Shyam S. Mohapatra, PhD, MBA, FAAAAI, FNAI Immediate Past Chairman of the FIA of Tampa Bay Director, FIA-TB Board

President of the USF chapter of the NAI, which has ~260 members and about ~300 affiliate/honorary members. The minimum qualification for the membership of the NAI by a faculty is award of one US patent by the US Patents and Trademark organization, Washington, DC. The NAI Charter Fellows will be inducted as Fellows by the U.S. Commissioner for Patents, Margaret A. Focarino, from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), during the 2nd Annual Conference of the National Academy of Inventors, on Feb. 22, 2013, in Tampa, Fla., at the Embassy Suites Hotel in the University of South Florida Research Park. Fellows will be presented with a special trophy and a rosette pin. Drs. Kiran Patel & Pallavi Patel Dr. Kiran Patel and Dr. Pallavi Patel announced a $12-million donation to the University of South Florida in Oct 2012. The donation will be used to expand the Patel School of Global Sustainability.

Dr. Shyam S. M ohapatra, immediate past chairman of the FIA of Tampa Bay, currently holds the position of a distinguished Health Professor and vice chair of Research and Director of the Division of Translational Medicine-Nanomedicine Research Center at the USF Morsani College of Medicine. Dr. Mohapatra has recently been elected as a Chartered Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors (NAI). Election to NAI Fellow status is a high professional distinction accorded to academic inventors who have demonstrated a highly prolific spirit of innovation in creating or facilitating outstanding inventions that have made a tangible impact on quality of life, economic development, and the welfare of society. Included in the Charter class are eight Nobel Laureates, two Fellows of the Royal Society, 14 presidents of research universities and non-profit research institutes, 53 members of the National Academies (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine), 11 inductees of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, five recipients of the National Medal of Technology and Innovation, four recipients of the National Medal of Science, and 31 AAAS Fellows, among other major awards and distinctions. Dr. Mohapatra has served as a founding Vice President of the NAI and currently serves as a Member of the 2013 Board and Secretary of the NAI. Also, he is the 2013 FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

Dr. Akshay Desai Republican presidential candidate Mr. Mitt Romney named top party fundraiser Dr. Akshay Desai, Chief Executive Officer of St. Petersburg, Fla.-based Universal Health Care Group, Inc., one of seven national co-chairs of his newly formed “Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders for Romney� committee.

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Doctors, Store Owners & Hotel Owners BP HAS BILLIONS OF DOLLARS AVAILABLE TO PAY TO GULF COAST & KEYS BUSINESSES BECAUSE OF THE OIL SPILL

DEEPWATER HORIZON SETTLEMENT PROGRAM OPPORTUNITY What is it? On June 4th, 2012 the new Deepwater Horizon Settlement Program ("DHC-SSP") replaced the unfair compensation program presented by the Gulf Coast Claims Facility ("GCCF").

Who Qualifies? Every non-excluded business in Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama qualifies for this Program and it is now a strict Financial Test that determines their eligibility. Lost revenue claims can be filed by a physician, hotel owner, rental property owner, retail etc. If they lost revenue in the Post-Spill period of May 1 - December 31, 2010 (under the new rules) and can produce all of the required documentation, they will get paid.

What we need from you to see if you Qualify Please Fill out the Confidential Trend Sheet Below by entering your monthly gross revenue figures for the 5 years of 2007 thru 2011. This data is analyzed to see if it qualifies. Business Name: __________________________________ Business Tax ID: ____________________________ 2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Gross Income

Gross Income

Gross Income

Gross Income

Gross Income

January February March April May June July August September October November December Totals

If you have any questions, please feel free to call or contact me anytime. Satya Shaw, CPA, MBA Office: (813) 960-7429 Fax: (813) 908-1601 Cell: (813) 842-0345 Email: Satyashawcpa@aol.com

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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


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FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

53


FIA Members FIA Past Presidents Mr. Chandrakant Patel – 2003 Dr. Pawan Rattan – 2004 Dr. G Ramappa – 2005 Dr. Shyam Mohapatra – 2006 Dr. Rao Emandi – 2007

Dr. Krishan Batra – 2008 Dr. Ram Reddy – 2009 Mrs. Rashmi Jakhotia – 2010 Mrs. Bela Sharma - 2011 Dr. Madhavi Sekharam - 2012

FIA Member Organizations Asian American Convenient Stores Assoc Bengali Association of Tampa Brahaman Samaj Tampa Brahmakumaris Tampa Chinmaya Mission Tampa Ekal Vidyalaya Tampa FAPI Gujarati Samaj of Tampa Bay Gurukulam of Tampa Bay Hindu American Foundation Hindu Students Council Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh Hindu Temple of Florida Indo-American Pharmacy Association Indo-US Chamber of Commerce U.P.Association of Tampa Jain Society Tampa Marathi Mandal Tampa Malayalee Association of Tampa Bay Malayalee Association of Gulf Coast Pratham of Tampa Bay

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Punjabi Association of Tampa Bay Orissa Association of Tampa Bay Overseas Friends of BJP Rajasthani Association of Tampa Bay Rath Yatra Association SASTA Sanatan Mandir Tampa Sikh Religious and Education Sindhi Associon of Tampa Bay Srigandha Kannada Koota Students of India Association Swami Narayan (BAPS) Tampa Tamil Association of USA Tamba Bay Indian Muslim Alliance Tamil Sneham Association Telugu Association of Florida Vicas Group of Tampa Bay Vishu Mandir Tampa W. Indies Indo-Carribbean Association Yamuna Preeti Seva Samaj

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com


Index Satya Shaw ..............................Inside cover Rao Emandi........................................... 14 Dr Gaurangi Nikunj................................ 17 Axon Circuit........................................... 21 Anoop Reddy......................................... 24 Curry Festival......................................... 27 Vijay Gandhi.......................................... 28 Executive Printing.................................. 28 Dr Alok Singh......................................... 30 Dr raj Sharma......................................... 30 Central bank.......................................... 35 Dr Graff.................................................. 35 Dilip Patel.............................................. 35 Apex Travel............................................. 38 Kishan Batra.......................................... 38 New York Life......................................... 44 kotha..................................................... 44 Khaas Baat............................................. 47 Ritti Couture........................................... 47 Doctors Store Owners ............................ 50 Your One Souce Solution........................ 51 Meera Menon........................................ 51 Bay Cities Insurance............................... 51

FIA of Tampa Bay | January 2013 | www.fia-tampabay.com

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“A man is but the product of his thoughts what he thinks, he becomes” MOHANDAS

Gandhi

www.fia-tampabay.com


64th India Republic Day Celebration