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Long Live Modernism: Massimo Vignelli Reaffirms His Faith in Form and Function Massimo Vignelli Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism Katherine McCoy Zombie Modernism Mr. Keedy

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2016 Jacob Poindexter All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the designer. Printed in Providence, ri


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Long Live Modernism: Massimo Vignelli Reaffirms His Faith in Form and Function

Upon the occasion of the major retrospective of Massimo and Lella Vignellis’ work exhibited at Parsons in 1980, New York Times critic Paul Goldberger characterized them as “total designers” who work together in two ways. He’s the visionary: “I talk of feelings, possibilities, what a design could be.” She’s the realist: “I think of feasibility, planning, what a design can be.” Eleven years later, Massimo, reflected on his “feelings” about Modernism, the “possibilities” of the role of the Modernist designer, and what that meant for what “design could be” in the AIGA Journal of Graphic Design ( Volume, 9 Number 2, 1991). His words then are relevant as ever ( and printed here in their entirety). I was raised to believe that an architect should be able to design everything from a spoon to a city. At the root this belief is a commitment to improve the design of everything that can be made — to make it better.

Long Live Modernism

To make it better not only from a functional or mechanical point of view, but to design it to reflect cultural and ethical values, ethical integrity. Integrity of purpose, materials and of the manufacturing process.

Flat Model flatware, Josef Hoffmann ca. 1904 – 1908

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04


Schützt das Kind, Josef MüllerBrockmann 1953

PM Magazine, Lester Beall 1937

Integrity of purpose implies a severe analysis of what the problem is: its meaning, what the possibilities for a range of solutions are: solutions that have to be sifted through to determine the most appropriate for the specific problem — not just alternatives I may like, but one that answers all the of the questions posed by the problem. The solutions to a problem are in the problem itself. To solve all the questions posed by the problem, however, is not enough. The solutions should reflect the approach taken, and by virtue of its configuration, stimulate cultural reactions in the viewer, rather than emotional titillations. In this process, nothing is taken for granted, no dogmas are accepted, no preconceived ideas are assumed or adopted without questioning them in the context of the project.

Long Live Modernism

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Rethinking Modernism,

Coy, Schützt McCoy,dasKatherine, Kind, Josef Müller‘Rethinking Modernism, PM Magazine, Lester Beall 1937 Brockmann 1953 Revising Functionalism,' ‘Looking Closer: Critical

Long Live Modernism

Functionalism

Revising

tural reactions in the viewer, rather than emotional titillations. In this process, nothing is taken for granted, no dogmas are accepted, no preconceived ideas are assumed or adopted without questioning them in the context of the project.

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

Writings on Graphic Design,' Bierut, Drenttel, Heller & of Holland, Allworth Press, New York, Integrity purposeeds., implies a severe 1994, p. of 49.what the problem is: its analysis When what I think the undercurrents that shape meaning, theofpossibilities for a my graphic design, I think of ideas range of solutions are: solutions that about language and coding and reading visual haveform. to be Ideas sifted about through to determine form, about challenging thespecific viewer to construct the most appropriate for the individual about problem  — ninterpretations, ot just alternatives I maylayers of form and meaning. like, layers but oneofthat answersThese all theare of at the forefront of mind, but behind that lie other deeper and themy questions posed by the problem. oldersolutions concerns go back The to that a problem areto in my the earliest years of design. Perhaps these what could be called problem itself. To solve all are the quesations philosophy anproblem, ethic, a personal posed byorthe however, set of values and thread that winds is notcriteria, enough.a The solutions shouldthrough the lifetime work and sustains its rigor, reflectofthe approach taken, and by vir-the continuity in cycles of change.stimulate cultuethe of its configuration,

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☻ ☻ ☻ ☻

Undergraduate school in industrial design was a very idealistic time.

The strong emphasis o and a a resonance with my p toward the opportuni of daily life.

form follows f

As a college junior, I enthusiastically embraced the rationalism of the Museum of Modern Art's Permanent Design Collection, abandoning the ambiguously intuitive territory of fine art.

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▩▤ 08


Lufthansa branding, Otto Firle 1918

Schützt das Kind, Josef MüllerBrockmann 1953

PM Magazine, Lester Beall 1937

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

problem-solving functionalism struck

on

Integrity of purpose implies a severe analysis of what the problem is: its meaning, what the possibilities for a range of solutions are: solutions that have to be sifted through to determine the most appropriate for the specific problem — not just alternatives I may like, but one that answers all the of the questions posed by the problem. The solutions to a problem are in the problem itself. To solve all the questions posed by the problem, however, is not enough. The solutions should reflect the approach taken, and by virtue of its configuration, stimulate cultural reactions in the viewer, rather This than somewhat emotional titillations. vague midwestern In this pro-American Modernistnothing ethic had its roots in the Bauhaus, and our cess, is taken for granted, no group ofare students gained a dim understanding dogmas accepted, no preconof its application by the Ulm School of Germany. ceived ideas are assumed or adopted Added this was athem reverence the insights of withoutto questioning in the for conGeorge Nelson, Marshall McLuhan and Buckmintext of the project.

personal approach ities and problems

ster Fuller. In hindsight I continue to appreciate the foundation built by those years of industrial design training. At that time, in the middle 1960s, even the best American education in graphic design not have gone much further than Long Livewould Modernism an intuitive ‘ah ha’ method of conceptualizing design solutions and an emulation of the design masters of the moment.

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Geodesic Dome patents, Buckminster Fuller 1954, 1965

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Schützt das Kind, Josef MüllerBrockmann 1953

PM Magazine, Lester Beall 1937

Integrity of purpose implies a severe analysis of what the problem is: its meaning, what the possibilities for a range of solutions are: solutions that have to be sifted through to determine the most appropriate for the specific problem — Marshmallow  not just alternatives Sofa, GeorgeI may Nelson 1956 like, but one that answers all the of the questions posed by the problem. The solutions to a problem are in the problem itself. To solve all the questions posed by the problem, however, is not enough. The solutions should reflect the approach taken, and by virtue of its configuration, stimulate cultural reactions in the viewer, rather than emotional titillations. In this process, nothing is taken for granted, no dogmas are accepted, no preconceived ideas are assumed or adopted without questioning them in the context of the project.

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

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Long Live Modernism

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Sitzmaschine Chair, Josef Hoffmann, c. 1905

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Schützt das Kind, Josef MüllerBrockmann 1953

PM Magazine, Lester Beall 1937

Integrity of purpose implies a severe analysis of what the problem is: its meaning, what the possibilities for a range of solutions are: solutions that have to be sifted through to determine the most appropriate for the specific problem — not just alternatives I may like, but one that answers all the of the questions posed by the problem. The solutions to a problem are in the problem itself. To solve all the questions posed by the problem, however, is not enough. The solutions should reflect the approach taken, and by virtue of its configuration, stimulate cultural reactions in the viewer, rather than emotional titillations. In this process, nothing is taken for granted, no dogmas are accepted, no preconceived ideas are assumed or adopted without questioning them in the context of the project.

Long Live Modernism

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Sitzmaschine Chair, Josef Hoffmann, c. 1905

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trary. At least use it's just language, and meaning is arbi we know betbeca it, read to id afra be to have t don' ve. But But you and deconstructivists want you to belie that is what those nasty postmodernists way to do everything. A good way and a bad way, a ratioter. There is a right way and a wrong a chaotic way, the modern way and the modern way. In graphnal way and a crazy way, a clear way and sm. To predate modernism is to be a commercial artist, printer ic design, there is no alternative to moderniwas born out of modernism. To postdate modernism is equally incomor scribe, not a designer, because the designer ts outside their realm of comprehension. In most areas of cultural proprehensible for most designers, because it exisliterature, modernism was just one more event in a continuing life cycle. duction such as art, architecture, music, and sufficient time to develop a mature sense of self—the umbilical cord Graphic design, on the other hand, did not haveernism died, many designers’ ideology died with it. Howevhad not been severed yet. So when moddark night. They refused to acknowledge their own ideologer, they did not go peacefully into thatt the living, moaning and groaning because they no longer beical demise, and they continue to haun the Zombie Modernist, the living dead who design among us. long to this world. That is the fate of to believe. But we ernists and deconstructivists want you a bad way, a ratiomod post y nast e thos t wha is that t and At leas wrong way to do everything. A good way know better. There is a right way and a a chaotic way, the modern way and the modern way. In graphnal way and a crazy way, a clear way and sm. To predate modernism is to be a commercial artist, printer ic design, there is no alternative to moderniwas born out of modernism. To postdate modernism is equally incomor scribe, not a designer, because the designer ts outside their realm of comprehension. In most areas of cultural proprehensible for most designers, because it exisliterature, modernism was just one more event in a continuing life cycle. duction such as art, architecture, music, and sufficient time to develop a mature sense of self—the umbilical cord Graphic design, on the other hand, did not haveernism died, many designers’ ideology died with it. Howevhad not been severed yet. So when moddark night. They refused to acknowledge their own ideologer, they did not go peacefully into thatt the living, moaning and groaning because they no longer beical demise, and they continue to haun the Zombie Modernist, the living dead who design among us. long to this world. That is the fate of

This It's is a abou ver t de y sc ath ary and essay denia . l.


As time went on, the modernist ide spread into all areas of cultural produ ology eventually becoming the dominant estction, ic ideology. Design was an extremheteffective tool in converting the masseely to modernity; it spread modernism s from a few liberal thinkers to a conservative majority. Consequently, designers defined design as a modernist practice, and designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history and theory exist almost exclusively within the modernist paradigm.

Modernism, was an ideology of the fight, the ongoing battle to combat all the wrongs developed by industrialization during the last century. Modernism was and still is the search for the truth, the search for integrity, the search for cultural stimulation and enrichment of the mind. Modernism was never a style, but an attitude. This is often misunderstood by those designers who dwell on revivals of the form rather than on the content of Modernism. From the beginning, Modernism had the urgency

Long Live Modernism

of Utopianism: to make a world better by design. Today we know better. It takes more than design to change things. But the cultural thrust of the Modernist belief is still valid, because we still have too much trash around us, not only material trash but intellectual trash as well. In that respect, I value, endorse and promote the continued relevance of the Modern movement as the cultural mainstream of our century.

when

mode

rnism it was a was y oung tion to radical idea , that pos a more itioned i conser tse vative traditio lf in opposinalism .

New York Subway Map, Massimo Vignelli 1972

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trary. At least use it's just language, and meaning is arbi we know betbeca it, read to id afra be to have t don' ve. But But you and deconstructivists want you to belie that is what those nasty postmodernists way to do everything. A good way and a bad way, a ratioter. There is a right way and a wrong a chaotic way, the modern way and the modern way. In graphnal way and a crazy way, a clear way and sm. To predate modernism is to be a commercial artist, printer ic design, there is no alternative to moderniwas born out of modernism. To postdate modernism is equally incomor scribe, not a designer, because the designer ts outside their realm of comprehension. In most areas of cultural proprehensible for most designers, because it exisliterature, modernism was just one more event in a continuing life cycle. duction such as art, architecture, music, and sufficient time to develop a mature sense of self—the umbilical cord Graphic design, on the other hand, did not haveernism died, many designers’ ideology died with it. Howevhad not been severed yet. So when moddark night. They refused to acknowledge their own ideologer, they did not go peacefully into thatt the living, moaning and groaning because they no longer beical demise, and they continue to haun the Zombie Modernist, the living dead who design among us. long to this world. That is the fate of to believe. But we ernists and deconstructivists want you a bad way, a ratiomod post y nast e thos t wha is that t and At leas wrong way to do everything. A good way know better. There is a right way and a a chaotic way, the modern way and the modern way. In graphnal way and a crazy way, a clear way and sm. To predate modernism is to be a commercial artist, printer ic design, there is no alternative to moderniwas born out of modernism. To postdate modernism is equally incomor scribe, not a designer, because the designer ts outside their realm of comprehension. In most areas of cultural proprehensible for most designers, because it exisliterature, modernism was just one more event in a continuing life cycle. duction such as art, architecture, music, and sufficient time to develop a mature sense of self—the umbilical cord Graphic design, on the other hand, did not haveernism died, many designers’ ideology died with it. Howevhad not been severed yet. So when moddark night. They refused to acknowledge their own ideologer, they did not go peacefully into thatt the living, moaning and groaning because they no longer beical demise, and they continue to haun the Zombie Modernist, the living dead who design among us. long to this world. That is the fate of

This It's is a abou ver t de y sc ath ary and essay denia . l.

20


As time went on, the modernist ide spread into all areas of cultural produ ology eventually becoming the dominant estction, ic ideology. Design was an extremheteffective tool in converting the masseely to modernity; it spread modernism s from a few liberal thinkers to a conservative majority. Consequently, designers defined design as a modernist practice, and designâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history and theory exist almost exclusively within the modernist paradigm.

when

mode

rnism it was a was y oung tion to radical idea , that pos a more itioned i conser tse vative traditio lf in opposinalism .


ed a ere emerg ears has th challenge past few y to Only in the of work and writing This has nism. amount ign moder sufficient ony of des e-evaluate the hegem igners to r ear ernist des ant to app some mod m. They w is n prompted ne modern e privileged positio and re-defi g up th last ithout givin constructs. These a relevant, w m nd g a , to ersalist do p service that a univ ially pay li xity, ts superfic e, comple ditch effor vow, the importanc ulture. tly disa mporary c subsequen d diversity of conte an

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Design

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of “excellence” by a contrast canonizing of

“modernist

Long Live Modernism

lem solv-

larity,” ing,” “cib ” and “leg ility, and the paranoid attacks against anything that is pluralistic, de-centered, or. new

The cultural events of the 20 years have expanded and deepened the issues and values promoted by the modern movement. The revision of many of the Modernist issues has enriched our perception and contributed to improving the quality of work. The increased number of architects and designers with good training has a positive effect on our society and our environment. Much still has to be done to convince industry and government that design is an integral part of the production process and not a last-minute embellishment.

reveals itself in its countlesss annual show and publications that primarily function to establish a

Palace of Assembly (Chandigarh), Le Corbusier 1953 – 1963

masters” in 1 design , the absolutist, ration nalist, obsessiowith, “prob

e g he y n mo

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The c o f m o re p h ilos ode oph in i rn i st d nst y ru m esi p ra gn ent gm is al i s at i c th t, o oug r ht .

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In Europe we find, not surprisingly, that design critic Robin Kinross’s philosophical hero is the neo-pragmatist, Jürgen Habermas, the German hyperrationalist whose faith is that “language, however distorted and manipulative, always has consensus or understanding as its inner telos,”44 and that “the truth of statements is linked in the last analysis to the interpretation of the good and the true life.”55


ed a ere emerg ears has th challenge past few y to Only in the of work and writing This has nism. amount ign moder sufficient ony of des e-evaluate the hegem igners to r ear ernist des ant to app some mod m. They w is n prompted ne modern e privileged positio and re-defi g up th last ithout givin constructs. These a relevant, w m nd g a , to ersalist do p service that a univ ially pay li xity, ts superfic e, comple ditch effor vow, the importanc ulture. tly disa mporary c subsequen d diversity of conte an

24

q

:(

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Design

reveals itself in its countlesss annual show and publications that primarily function to establish a

univerasradl stand

of “excellence” by a contrast canonizing of

“modernist

lem solv-

masters” in 1 design , the absolutist, ration nalist, obsessiowith, “prob

larity,” ing,” “cib ” and “leg ility, and the paranoid attacks against anything that is pluralistic, de-centered, or. new

e g he y n mo

*

The c o f m o re p h ilos ode oph in i rn i st d nst y ru m esi p ra gn ent gm is al i s at i c th t, o oug r ht .

In Europe we find, not surprisingly, that design critic Robin Kinross’s philosophical hero is the neo-pragmatist, Jürgen Habermas, the German hyperrationalist whose faith is that “language, however distorted and manipulative, always has consensus or understanding as its inner telos,”44 and that “the truth of statements is linked in the last analysis to the interpretation of the good and the true life.”55


IIss t ppllyy thhaat ddeess bbeec i ssiisst iggnn t ssiille ss oof en sseer ntt c c r m maa vvaatti Habe jjoor i r F an u mas’s a F o o n llllo riitt n par t likely so d Dewey tth w ii n hee ow ic u ’ n how ularly di rce of in s pragm h h i cca i s atism e-ha tere our s a t l t o l s r p ard R or d mo t for ragm m is no mo r od d eea d ar e e mati or ty, Am atist cri ernists designer t l r l l ly o . ti y,, s of e s ssiic idea t) philos rica’s b cs overl I wonder , c c c l a l a a e s of o asDew opher, w st know oked Ri lat ll, ey a c h n a h o e ( n n m nd D e d ods er rid akes us o-pragper e of , a. the c a t I wou im o e g o r i ld der ze id e o nist in lo g ic gr a y as: d es ph i ing sta gn rt the wit h (eea pr a ra r ag r lly)) gm a ar att i y a rtt m hiiss i cc,, iicca all h ttoor r-m m r a a oo d d cla ” o o f o s. ff PP gg-RRaan ice ue . vo val eory ndd,, aauull the ily's gn th gized o o i i am fam esi olo t n s n s I “ s gg ii is r d th a : me f th fo my t th n nttoo siiffyy-sa e o ed nd ac the the ( ( c c he harg pass ed a he f and and t llaass is c tth s liz . T e s hee ge in ay dea nts urop litic s s t t ssa “I am s alw en i t eve ar E r, po i i r r e c c e n t-w wa a ,b m nd a a h a e a e u os he th ” a ey art eq aallii ddiittii ll)) tly, ss, lon st bs in p by t rea rogre t” ba the by su bility red ss oo g s m i e s t fer d p -be fro led red at rraa tt,, hhyypp nn-dif ty an ows has, evea its c e, sh s n t i , r r ttiioo k us n s eerr-ed irag rni ho re iissm de aut the uha be anc m n n mo e of is “fa e Ba has enh h and m a e a s ic th th m ve yt the vo use, ce, ealis y ha a m KKiinn ooff RRoo ll-of he a la rk am t ur ho rth p ch id m m was o rrooss bbiinn i u is w I ty o he ,” “ to d b f s sc ali t t s s o h t son aus llege os o y Fa ivers o , , g o o u h a nn ho re auh s a at d b un Alt and he B sign’ he p roye al of ty.” iinntt ddiissssiipp llyy ity m t c de rs. “T dest s ide ocie o Fro aphi igne was ut it er s oorr otthhee(l(laattee Gr des ool es, b sum n h t y b sc Sta f co the ited ds o ddeec rrooccooaattee Un man co cc de m moo orraattii oo) ) vv is ismm ddeerr ee, , FFrri ooff nn- ieedd DDaann mmaa nn. .6 6

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att s sim eccaau im-ussee ccoon But n--after a few years of striving to design as off “purely” employing a minimalist aa as possible, vocabulary, strongly gridded page ccoontypographic n-and contrast in scale for visual interest, iivvestructures e tyy? ? n n gg r rii-offto view this desire for De Stijl, Theo van Doesburg IBM logo and rebus, Paul Rand 1972 -ness” & Vilmos Huszar as1919not much

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han housekeeping.

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

The cultural energy of the Modern movement is still burning, fueling intellects against shallow trends, transitory values, superficial titillations brought forward by the media, whose very existence depends on ephemera. Many of the current modes are created, supported and discarded by the very media that generates that change and documents it to survive. It is a vicious circle. It has always been, only now it is bigger than ever. As seen in a broad historical perspective, Modernism’s ascetic, Spartan look still has a towering position of strength and dignity. Modernism’s inherent notion of timeless values as opposed to transient values still greatly appeals to my intellectual being.

Long Live Modernism Typographic Process, Nr 5. Typography as

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(Painting), Wolfgang Weingart 1971

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IIss t ppllyy thhaat ddeess bbeec i ssiisst iggnn t ssiille ss oof en sseer ntt c c r m maa vvaatti Habe jjoor i r F an u mas’s a F o o n llllo riitt n par t likely so d Dewey tth w ii n hee ow ic u ’ n how ularly di rce of in s pragm h h i cca i s atism e-ha tere our s a t l t o l s r p ard R or d mo t for ragm m is no mo r od d eea d ar e e mati or ty, Am atist cri ernists designer t l r l l ly o Iy,,came . ti s of e s ssiic idea t) philos rica’s b cs overl I wonder , c c c l a l a a e s of o ll, asDew opher, w st know oked Ri lat “cleanlin ey a c h n a h o e ( n n m nd D e d ods er rid akes us o-pragper e of , a. the c a t I more wou i-th e g o r ld mo der ize id e o nist in lo g ic gr a y as: d es ph i ing sta gn rt the wit h (eea pr a ra r ag r lly)) gm a ar att i y a rtt m hiiss i cc,, iicca all h ttoor r-m m r a a d d cla ” o A number of us, mainly graphic designers o f ooff gg-- in e o es. RR a a oic valu eory. P v P the “Swiss” method, began to search a more n n a dd,, oo auulfor the ily's n th ized l i i am fam esig olog t n s expressive design, paralleling a similar movement n s I “ siffy gg ii is r d th a : me f th fo my t th yModernism. nttooassiPost sa e o ed nd ac the the in architecture now n known -( ( c c he harg pass ed a he f and and t l l T s c z e t i i t s a . a l s p h e in ay ea nts uro litic h s s g e d ttrra ssiicc e ssa am alw n i eve r E , po me d “I as bee nt -wa ar a a he ,” an ney h tart, eque post the w t , s y aallii ddiittii a ll)) atl gress balo the s sub ity in d by e r ss ” oo by ibil tere s g ro st m fer d p -be fro led red at rraa tt,, hhyypp nn-dif ty an ows has, evea its c e, sh s n t i , r r ttiioo k us n s eerr-ed irag rni ho re iissm de aut the uha be anc m n n mo e of is “fa e Ba has enh h and m a e a s ic th th m ve yt the vo use, ce, ealis y ha a m KKiinn ooff RRoo ll-of he a la rk am t ur ho rth p ch id m m was o rrooss bbiinn i u is w I ty o he ,” “ to d b f s sc ali t t s s o h t son aus llege os o y Fa ivers o , , g o o u h a nn ho re auh s a at d b un Alt and he B sign’ he p roye al of ty.” iinntt ddiissssiipp llyy 28 ity m t c de rs. “T dest s ide ocie o Fro aphi igne was ut it er s oorr otthhee(l(laattee Gr des ool es, b sum n h t y b sc Sta f co the ited ds o ddeec rrooccooaattee Un man co cc de m moo orraattii oo) ) vv is ismm ddeerr ee, , FFrri ooff nn- ieedd DDaann mmaa nn. .6 6

t abso sts, bu theori modern of post st.* ri cs eo ti t th poli dernis ftist the mo and le sm of rxist ervati the Ma ng cons bed by wi ur tst gh e di the ri ers ar id of design been sa *Many g has nothin ly te lu

7


◉ But after a few years of striving to design as “purely” as possible, employing a minimalist typographic vocabulary, strongly gridded page structures and contrast in scale for visual interest,

to view this desire for ness” as not much han housekeeping.

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

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▱ Typographic Process, Nr 5. Typography as (Painting), Wolfgang Weingart 1971

29


IIss t ppllyy thhaat ddeess bbeec i ssiisst iggnn t ssiille ss oof en sseer ntt c c r m maa vvaatti Habe jjoor i r F an u mas’s a F o o n llllo riitt n par t likely so d Dewey tth w ii n hee ow ic u ’ n how ularly di rce of in s pragm h h i ca i s atism e-ha tere Summer programs poster c for Southern California our s a t l t o l s r p ard R or d mo t for ragm m is no mo r Institute of Architecture, Greiman 1991 od d eea d aApril e e r mati or ty, Am atist cri ernists designer t l r l l ly o Iy,,came . ti s of e s ssiic idea t) philos rica’s b cs overl I wonder , c c c l a l a a e s of o ll, asDew opher, w st know oked Ri lat “cleanlin ey a c h n a h o e ( n n m nd D e d od Eventually what came to be er rid akes us o-pragper s e of , a. called “New lack of i-th more the c a Wave”,Ifor w oul a better term,temerged in the e d gor m 1970s as ao new mode ize d operating e i d design. r of graphic nincluded ist e o toThis a new inpermission l employ o g historical y ic and vernacular gr elements, something prohibiteda byp“Swiss” has: d einsthe mid Modernism. Then i g n a i1980s stawe found ng at Cranbrook r t language tnew heinterest in verbal w well in graphic design, asit as fine h (eebea pr a r r art.a can animated aText r lly gm g y)) with mimages a ar a a rvoices and can tt ttiicc be read, h h iicca as well as seen, an,, emphasis i issttwith all o o r r on audience interpretation -- and m ma ra d d cla ” o participation in the construcA number of us, mainly graphic designers o f ooff gg-- in e o es. RR a a oic valu eory. P v P tion of meaning. as the “Swiss” method, began to search for anow, more n n a dd,, oo auuBut the ily's n th ized l l i i am fam esig olog t n the cycles of change continue, s expressive design, paralleling a similar movement n s I “ siffy gg ii is r d th a : me f th fo my t th n yModernism. nttooassiPost sa e o ed nd ac the the in architecture may be nowModernism known -- reemerging ( ( c c he harg pass ed a he f and and t l l T s c z e t i i t s a . a l s p h e in ay ea nts uro litic h somewhat, a renewed s s g e d ttrra ssiicc e minimalssa am alw n i eve r E , po me nd “I has , bee uent t-wa war a ism is aacalming e a ney tart eq pos the h ll)) down the ittthat s y, t ,” aallii ddivisual atl gress balo the s sub ity in d by i outburst i e r sstt,, y oonn - of activity of the il g pro st” m re e ro rs d b dib tte r h h r iffe and ws-b as, f veale s cre , sha past fifteen d yyppee years. aatt o y t h s ist orit -kn s, n re d i age r i i r ern auth ather uhau bee ance d mir o o i d issm “f Ba as enh an mo of m oo nnaall se ice this the m h ve yth the e vo use, ce, ealis y ha a m K f Kiinnr ff RRoo -o th ho pla id ma as rk h bbiinn rooss wo “I am our birth suc cism lity w e f a to d s h ,” t t s s o h t son aus llege os o y Fa ivers o , , g o o u h a nn ho re auh s a at d b un Alt and he B sign’ he p roye al of ty.” iinntt ddiissssiipp llyy 28 ity m t c de rs. “T dest s ide ocie o Fro aphi igne was ut it er s oorr otthhee(l(laattee Gr des ool es, b sum n h t y b sc Sta f co the ited ds o ddeec rrooccooaattee Un man co cc de m moo orraattii oo) ) vv is ismm ddeerr ee, , FFrri ooff nn- ieedd DDaann mmaa nn. .6 6 30

▚ ≋ ≋ ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋ ≋ ≋ ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋ ≋ ≋ ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋

7

Typography As Disclosure, lecture poster, Allen Hori 1989

t abso sts, bu theori modern of post st.* ri cs eo ti t th poli dernis ftist the mo and le sm of rxist ervati the Ma ng cons bed by wi ur tst gh e di the ri ers ar id of design been sa *Many g has nothin ly te lu


≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋ ≋ ≋ ≋ ≋ ≋ ≋ ≋   ≋   ≋ ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋ ≋ ≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋   ≋   ≋ ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋ ≋ ≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋≋  ≋ ≋ ≋ ≋ 


Zombi The Zomimb that the s

Although this emphasis o nalism would seem to be with recent experimenta Cranbrook, in fact it has b provocation to question a norms in graphic design, ulating the search for new munications theories and languages. I have never l faith in rational function spite of appearances to th trary. The only thing lost absolute dedication to m My aim in this essa My aim in this essayy is is to to exa exam ine mod form, which is a complet min ernis e mo me ten nism me m in der ten ye in des year desig arss ag ignn,, not agoo tha not ma that mak t II wo kee aa cas wo uld case uld sti e for stillll be pos fo tm be r ma ode po m kin rni stm ak sm g ing a od lie ca er ve a beliebe se ca nis d itca se fo m.. If ved it be be forr po If you e to you wo usee po postm stmod would thelitipo usca uld hav oder e th ernis have nism cape m in l im t in de caliti n pe desig in l im ra sig 19 tiv 95 n and I assumed de in e , ra I th 19 pr tiv ent issue from rationalis at 95 ob e dr , ab th I ive at pr ly wo ob drives mod sm uld ab od n’t sign would move ly er wo ha nis uld m er -a n’ nis t-a t havv m-at-all-c along wi osll-c t ost in de

where

th othe and I assumed design would move along with other r cultura cultural practices. l practices.

in design sig notev wans wa aside nost as ev ntide men e t, tontmto e th

r, and sexuality, e from differences in subjectivity, gendeions and disloca“the multiple forms of otherness as they emerg locat aphic geogr al spati sensibility) and race and class, temporal (configurations of 13 tions.”

....................


al e v m e s r i n y r e e h d t o e m s t u s a o c h of p nd deconstruction be ing to stink. s e fl g n i v i l e h t g eatin are postmodernism a is long dead and start y b e v i v r u s s t s i ie Modeerrnnist’s biggest enemielisst modernism of design bie Modc, rationalist/universa mplisti Through these years of continual change and new

where does the ethic lie? Does not the on possibilities, ratioidea of ethic imply some sort of unshakable bedrock e atimpervious oddsto the winds of change? For me, there seems to be a habit of functionalism that shapes my process at the beginning of every design project, the ation at rational analysis of the message and the audience, the objective been thestructuring of the text. Each cycle of change during the passing years seems to have added another visual or conceptual layer laid upon accepted that foundation of functionalism, but inside of every project it is always there. , stimw comd visual lost my t istoe,inmseis,mtet).ha ry o e h t t s nalism, in li ra u m ike ruct tiotnoomfepgoaslotsmtaniacoduers“igconmersmo(lnsocniedttyh.”eHe za ri e t c ra a h c beyo tion ulous erof he conintnosfehnisserimdeicanttobderatwheaqtutaelintycoenvterorsloefefmictomakheetfhiresirtwtaoysay,“G!”ee, o p le o h w e h t t to bin dno tha bet atn alrehaadoysk,noobwscsurantciskmw,hlioehsa,satnakenitloognichaimlasnedlfformiealtvya’slu“ecsotmhmonfolk,”letme thanks,Ro s s ro in K r. t was an M t u c o B ismallits Erathrowba ”setofide soneofsoc witKhinourotsmsoisdearnnEnligiththeandmeecnidtedly“unn,-fcinome,mcoonllectablebooks.A minimalist Rgoobeinsaboutthisustwasokrlwdoflimitededitio ndprecio tely differ-posha old to ld process. st ve ve

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

is aning se ay. Me impov u itrar o b T is r . a is tly e text14 k eren aning e. Meread difsfhould meaaders.” g a u ang willsigners of the r n m of l eader e e. Dh ights it dow mediu ch re ssivc t er nock . h theader. Ea r t g p u p e o o can k ders sp a hr the re n and e e t e h r R y o l o w n y up sd Fello arias a way t ld oe ade b orito ple rops e wor b mis m, a title auth t peo oss p ow th as to e rs t to fath rant Kinr-c d tha y is . n n k d in o “We kbnle and h a c a b , l a e o e u w n at R a he r , neo iffic tabl hat isconditio unst unse t onotus and d ism thh-seeking as. W ing is dern e tex this g on any t toy meanr wackyrid stmolist, trut in singllly ambigu c a o t h a p g a t e h f in t o n m a n o ationa age, ical signerssingle aer, assuc w mais n,r angurdly rad “stra e” a . Howev make a o al t ist d“ie a ugh l mpos is the ivers ay iled to ativist an throtly are hstmodern o n w t u d t ” This h l a e is r h e wo ifferen f how poppressivnutty t s has fa (too relmake the wit h e nd th a s d o “o rsta hings cy ar abermost textsense tro. tions ” and underpret te reta itarian democrvaen Mr. Hn e p de any w r t in m t e e in upid (e inhere s Tha d to int ious int “authorl makee the rea v ’t ie n ten ’s hilare as a bite who be plain st gs arem), it doe tely hat in s l t u m d s is p s l o ike s. Peo t is ju e reaabsolut Kinre abso s str ice m a tex t multipls its nless you It dol e cho ro en tha h” lose o m” u . I ik ing f t h d iv u t a G onel r a e of e “t er nt). singg argumes becausifficult t in Kinros more “d vincf n r e o v e idea text

?

then,

.....

The Modern Poster, April Greiman 1988

does the ethic lie?

st, entali fundalmling arf o e v ntati most compeversion“ eprese pean prresents thee “Europeayn is the o r u E as thres, but he oncerns, thcal strategay by “bad nross Mr. Keire are othte cultural tc the politiing led astfrrom the d e d u mos incl e be “ bu . Th away I haviest thinkingis. As wictahn versionh,t is: We atreering uslfish gain“ moder,n such as itthe “Amerithe far ridg they arehesir own “sreow the bums gumenatssier“ tharnty line ofrverts), arnity) for t track“ (th is “cTlhe usual p,a pinkos, ,peorder, clna the “right same.“ (academiclsues, Jesus get back o peopl“e (family vear). We muosnt). “truthh, fame, pobwuy my visi (wealotte for me, out, v

33


▦▩▨

Zombi The Zomimb that the s

Although this emphasis o nalism would seem to be with recent experimenta Cranbrook, in fact it has b provocation to question a norms in graphic design, ulating the search for new munications theories and languages. I have never l faith in rational function spite of appearances to th trary. The only thing lost absolute dedication to m My aim in this essa My aim in this essayy is is to to exa exam ine mod form, which is a complet min ernis e mo me ten nism me m in der ten ye in des year desig arss ag ignn,, not agoo tha not ma that mak t II wo kee aa cas wo uld case uld sti e for stillll be pos fo tm be r ma ode po m kin rni stm ak sm g ing a od lie ca er ve a beliebe se ca nis d itca se fo m.. If ved it be be forr po If you e to you wo usee po postm stmod would thelitipo usca uld hav oder e th ernis have nism cape m in l im t in de caliti n pe desig in l im ra sig 19 tiv 95 n and I assumed de in e , ra I th 19 pr tiv ent issue from rationalis at 95 ob e dr , ab th I ive at pr ly wo ob drives mod sm uld ab od n’t sign would move ly er wo ha nis uld m er -a n’ nis t-a t havv m-at-all-c along wi osll-c t ost in de

where

th othe and I assumed design would move along with other r cultura cultural practices. l practices.

in design sig notev wans wa aside nost as ev ntide men e t, tontmto e th

r, and sexuality, e from differences in subjectivity, gendeions and disloca“the multiple forms of otherness as they emerg locat aphic geogr al spati sensibility) and race and class, temporal (configurations of 13 tions.”

.................... 34


al e v m e s r i n y r e e h d t o e m s t u s a o c h of p nd deconstruction be ing to stink. s e fl g n i v i l e h t g eatin are postmodernism a is long dead and start y b e v i v r u s s t s i ie Modeerrnnist’s biggest enemielisst modernism of design bie Modc, rationalist/universa mplisti

on ratioe at odds ation at been the accepted , stimw comd visual lost my t istoe,inmseis,mtet).ha ry o e h t t s nalism, in li ra u m ike ruct tiotnoomfepgoaslotsmtaniacoduers“igconmersmo(lnsocniedttyh.”eHe za ri e t c ra a h c beyo tion ulous erof he conintnosfehnisserimdeicanttobderatwheaqtutaelintycoenvterorsloefefmictomakheetfhiresirtwtaoysay,“G!”ee, o p le o h w e h t t to bin dno tha bet atn alrehaadoysk,noobwscsurantciskmw,hlioehsa,satnakenitloognichaimlasnedlfformiealtvya’slu“ecsotmhmonfolk,”letme thanks,Ro s s ro in K r. t was an M t u c o B ismallits Erathrowba ”setofide soneofsoc witKhinourotsmsoisdearnnEnligiththeandmeecnidtedly“unn,-fcinome,mcoonllectablebooks.A minimalist Rgoobeinsaboutthisustwasokrlwdoflimitededitio ndprecio tely differ-posha st process.

.....

is aning se ay. Me impov u itrar o b T is r . a is tly e text14 k eren aning e. Meread difsfhould meaaders.” g a u ang willsigners of the r n m of l eader e e. Dh ights it dow mediu ch re ssivc t er nock . h theader. Ea r t g p u p e o o can k ders sp a hr the re n and e e t e h r R y o l o w n y up sd Fello arias a way t ld oe ade b orito ple rops e wor b mis m, a title auth t peo oss p ow th as to e rs t to fath rant Kinr-c d tha y is . n n k d in o “We kbnle and h a c a b , l a e o e u w n at R a he r , neo iffic tabl hat isconditio unst unse t onotus and d ism thh-seeking as. W ing is dern e tex this g on any t toy meanr wackyrid stmolist, trut in singllly ambigu c a o t h a p g a t e h f in t o n m a n o ationa age, ical signerssingle aer, assuc w mais n,r angurdly rad “stra e” a . Howev make a o al t ist d“ie a ugh l mpos is the ivers ay iled to ativist an throtly are hstmodern o n w t u d t ” This h l a e is r h e wo ifferen f how poppressivnutty t s has fa (too relmake the wit h e nd th a s d o “o rsta hings cy ar abermost textsense tro. tions ” and underpret te reta itarian democrvaen Mr. Hn e p de any w r t in m t e e in upid (e inhere s Tha d to int ious int “authorl makee the rea v ’t ie n ten ’s hilare as a bite who be plain st gs arem), it doe tely hat in s l t u m d s is p s l o ike s. Peo t is ju e reaabsolut Kinre abso s str ice m a tex t multipls its nless you It dol e cho ro en tha h” lose o m” u . I ik ing f t h d iv u t a G onel r a e of e “t er nt). singg argumes becausifficult t in Kinros more “d vincf n r e o v e idea text

st, entali fundalmling arf o e v ntati most compeversion“ eprese pean prresents thee “Europeayn is the o r u E as thres, but he oncerns, thcal strategay by “bad nross Mr. Keire are othte cultural tc the politiing led astfrrom the d e d u mos incl e be “ bu . Th away I haviest thinkingis. As wictahn versionh,t is: We atreering uslfish gain“ moder,n such as itthe “Amerithe far ridg they arehesir own “sreow the bums gumenatssier“ tharnty line ofrverts), arnity) for t track“ (th is “cTlhe usual p,a pinkos, ,peorder, clna the “right same.“ (academiclsues, Jesus get back o peopl“e (family vear). We muosnt). “truthh, fame, pobwuy my visi (wealotte for me, out, v


nserva e as co at their t a n g a o st t th l only t with the fac hts al idea s sive rig y r m e lu r b c i e l t x e a o t n o h t e w w a at is l ide o com hey o radica oesn’t want t (they think t as reality. Th ld never a m o u t fr w td ay one sho esign) dernis gn wen lize aw rest of us kno d le), and in desi e Zombie Mo ng to rationa n e y r t h m e t s s d i n o (a n f tryi nditio postm alism s o ( Moder . Because th c y m t Much o a I r n . “ o r t f : e lw x s ma t tmod e thi are a mpty conte g s u e k l y i o o o s l a e d p h r a h g e e u t it d n , h i lt e tiv n cu dead nal) t meth xpos , yet w o s e o e i io n s d t d a r y s, s a n t h a g r e a t is g o o s ant Futur ther , it g hat i dited ideol pically l solutions ra the 1920’s av pographic havoc of the ring to thing t ust be discre y y r T e .” v e to refer d by idua mm rnism ters, the ty dernis d indiv alized by ioneere d Mode Kurt Schwit postmo t to go beyon echniques an vocabulary p und-object collages of nism are often re d 1920s.”15 t fo p r l an he 1910s “attem tes on visual uses a visua informed the ond Mode o go bey garde design of t a t n t r a t s ig t h n s p t e e m c s e d con rn’ vantur att ution stmode icality: a l instit tivists. O this ‘Po ue of cultura of the Construc ht represent rad g iq ign been tau only makes sense the crit lly engaged des context. But the idea we have t ia a c h we accept detail or any actual o t s s e e h u modernism. Even if 't think about it in any iq ign don des n or t of you h if xt’ se c onte sen e tac es l tald Reagan , this mak the ’me witters’ colv’isofuaRon or past and present’in itzky’s prouns and Sch

isible Lan guage, De sign

ble talk and design 0s), ial discourse (as if Liss Like the smooth ’dou inction between art 0 through the 192 ective as critical soc , where there is no dist museums from 191 an structivism were eff in a contextless void ing art galleries and of subversion is nts like dada and con visit gy of ate eme ry str mov luxu art The the that g art for somehow had its clients”? the dubious claim illiterate masses who t as much sense as criticizin institutions, or tly abou al mos es tur the mak cul ed que” hten its criti e lages really enlig n for its lack of “cultural of it. Design exists insid ition to “critique ed to be cri tical n practice. To criticize desig was design's amb ause they think y and is expect whoever said it relevance to desig bec iet ign, tle soc des lit ) and has ove art t een side (ab sion tha postor any distinction betw art world preten .” Art exists out Actually, most that simple distinction, “solve problems in ART schools). of today refuse to accept its inability to is very critical Many young designers t design is taught it. e ign tha serv t des to d fac rn ecte ode the exp h sly, postm to do wit (below) society and is titution. Obviou are of postmodernism. (I think it has something ins y ign toda ral des rs tu gne than cul desi ter” st a “bet erni afraid the mod art is somehow in a critique of criticism is evident in how s and is engaged The effectiveness of its modern design wa gn’s cultural institution. modern design—desi

The other half-baked idea, expressed in the quote above, is how those postmodern designers stole their forms from early modernist artists and are therefore less original (Never mind that the modernist designers also stole their forms from modern art). The modern art paradigm of originality or—Who Did it First?—assum es to be the most important factor in evaluating design (even though the art world itself has discredited that as a primary criteria years ago). Obviously the art world did it first because, at the time, graphic design as a discipline didn’t even exist. So if we judge design by modern art standards (as most of our so-cal led design critics do) then the design can’t possibly go beyond (art) modernism. It can only catch-up, at best. Using art world paradigms for graphic design criticism not only renders postmodern design useless, but the validity of design practice itself is always in question. essay sm. In an se are Fu moderni ated to ojects such as ition, ug bj be su at pr rt trad ediately sues indicate th st tradition (a ni he advo ust imm is e moder le project. Is erent, m e underlying or diff ng in th , ho th nism.” ui , w w in er e ne sm nt od ni e th ’m ol st s to be post-moder just co d ba is en ol m at se “g to la at Fu just e of r thre ts out th f modern art) sign, is still surfac hateve ck poin egated de (o pt it. W to co-o the vari iliar? Michael Ro odern critique ything else in ey try assume m m er s th st fa ev rm en po ds e fo ’s th sm, the .”16 Soun salind Krauss that Fuse, lik moderni rites: “While iginality dit post kw tistic or es (Art critic) Ro d to make is t discre , Michael Roc lle n and ar entatio goes on and us feels compe sts can’ se ni rim Fu er t, pe od ec ex int he e then w proj ombie M t-garde ntext). H t. The main po If the Z ille Brody’s ne goals of avan co gn si ev nist e de se no about N oted in Moder ists in th ism? Of cour Fuse ex ro itic deeply ind that Art cr Never m modernism? that is. st po cating

I er f th n ba de e he s si g ou Mr. bee gn emo n ir s Y Ro d th ny fu res al ck isp eor of ul nc pon e p ’s o ens y? mo en ti sib rof wn ing Wh de ce on le es , “ h ere rn s i p i an , s wor or P eda s “g sho st d d pe k i au nt oo ul esi us ak s t l R ica d- d w gn el o he an lly old e l th es nl ov d, c -b oo eo sn y erd M orr oy k f ry es to es ich ec ,” “ or is a ig a t, co t s f e re oth ned l R ” “m mm hem ant ve er , o oc idd on ? C as ve k l l se e y, in des rpr wri e-o nse rta whe o t f , i a ign du es i -th ” m nly re a le er ced n t e- od no re v s , h ro er t a

a y is gh a r o the rou rld st ce th the wo i n dern der lan hat Mo ory g idea t to mo s the eou urs ory now gen n a c ld dash ive the ly ly o m e u t lar tine o a o v u n h h E c r s ou ti y rs lte t“ le, ar re r ec s ing s tha rty yea f an a p s a , i r a a o y r f th e ro o p all ism p t ch at e t ff c d s t i o n n t la tha hol be lis der e a a h h gle act, m the17 But is mp tmo r f e t t n i a s f d os u o r s t n.” fro he str an y p c n s e u he f of t azine inatio ? T y b s “ l e n b : o g om w d ism ro aise ob is ic o h, ues s pro r ma tican d r n i t A e la na r e s p It vo h “O ). o con asy.” popu al Helv ( ” k to ssue u . T c t r ! b ign en i g ce w . s n’ . Ro ’s fan nual o of Glo s r y e e i i M e h r d k a e in , w in t f it n g e m e brin ign m era g c y n o n des hous on th s i d a u t a n t e d h er is e r r typ tottere od dern r p e mm is c m r v n o e v d g e m o r a t n yin ra ist y r e c e rt on b a e n d e po visi o r of re st rn b ig m a e d s e i se th n e v e e y cu d d e ac ere r o ha d r h e e nt e , a t b m e d e ir r , ill ve I w ha mo iner t e es e n w no w as s h e ev im I k that med nt t e w t i cla de at h o t h e th , g e in v a h


a r a n As d rela our c e tha racte ky lib ti urr n a riz e e v e o f r u al ist/ nt si ew v d as rse ag lib tua oca a g lf t e e tio l y en n h da ral a n as oung erati i sq s, ge the mo ona ue b d l n b s u t t I da. ackla ernis split ion g D sh ts, bet (A : ) u C I e w o f e Ne ss sig of an as we een tion mplain it n en ll th w i n a n t d postm g about Gin 's jus is ce trenc as a fe e olde the od g t r he w r e r n ist de “visual p rich a ba tainl d con older moder (B) Wr sig ol a d y se p nis it l o u in b n r g t s i t v a b o ut nen w idnecasentri ion,” “dtyRpiume ig e atism tmod t and t s a e h n t o d s f p g w o u oranpoh h r k binlicsm u cagain rnist e you ataiolln erscLrirliim stsut n s (E nge bceulagihti a o b l t t d n i r s k p r r o , u ” e a F b po a e li a c I a e u a l h lti sD ln lio ekemÉmig a,odnssttmh eIsv,gsP hordisn, lto, o,rr C eruelw de pAeA CfD ,or e de anyre, and ac r y S n ta a te d i entss?hortc ademic public w erseig grha a’sxn eA A ations lik omin he n r p mple thst.m e re e aps o ). s IGA gs r J o h s u n r inclydIt nal? of decon ow Or w stru . o u l d the c y be: Mo I h st of wo ave the lu d b point curre e m ed o nt d o u e w im re t i ba ith agi accu n this te in co ned rate ess grap n se th to ch ay, th hic d rv re ar er es a tiv at, o acte e are ign is e f a rize mo ch

about in .B e nders a tand ecause d s; they a g only to rchitect s, do esign to ke r that ctors is no e experts themselve ep pr actic professio , tap , spe s r n in ciali . Of cou ofess als h g at the c rse sts, a ion, 19 ave a the h redibil nd de ighe respo ity a nsibil signers do prond th st level. ity Th n e val ue of at is how to each o ot their t profe they pro her tect ssion .

le s Ya ome a t ld c en t shou r r righ cu he far d of t an etoric er they rh termth. e nuismbtr gr e ea ade ed”thpetwi an h . Th s ork is,l be w i ll eir th t e bs ibl uofessi p r jo ei re access vaonal as a design k r secure th at the mo c o th re pr i e mo ity a al e t no p s ), th e ment is e y! ad o . n tr il wh s al e da on th Rock c essil co rved , have p tiof Michael ed, pr llion se , however one like r one bi Designers d, accred eit ign cri is stil ice (ove from some a degree can serv ic coming ucator, h on ed ir an s is as y t t de tism er, but mentalit a a of fact th nserv o n he ,c io 20 but t design p r ” m e, ,o ha elit etics “c ral aesth , is tu mics th cul econo o “ cs, wh he politi is ss s t ther it e gu der e. Whe s y l nsi surpri n o o no n r c a c o e ss On ofe pr

h s t a ex vel a t e A oad rni in ll ce o nd yp I ,” st p I. the m o ss f e t g G o ap D .” co he ra A der fo . ma ssay 18 ns c ph Jo ni r y ga s a um ul ic ur sm ea zin nd pt tu s na . S rs, e, bo io ra tu l: “ oun on wh ok n l nt Pe di ly er s o th el s rh ng to e R n at it th aps a l be alp po s a r gl e, t the ot l epl h C tmo or an se m ik ac apl dif d rv ost e p ed an ie th e s re by s ro no oci vial f u ly I doiun gh re b at if oMr.al engin eersn, R ciandps- ock would they ta cie co fessio lk toat lhemselnvtists speamkplain nals u

ld er s , wo u esi gn

be

: the y


ndy?) comnt through a new (tre l universally releva stil is gy olo ide p. ir the zenshi mitment to good citi

ental flaws in modt there were fundam rassingly obvious tha started to redefine ers ign des e som , As it became embar ign lly functioned in des hy. ona sop ed, and inexhausti diti hilo tra tap it as me ll ism s-a ern entially open-mind ogy-fit a one-ideol ign as a broad, pot des in m modernism“Ias nis der mo view es today century and continu the mid-nineteenth in ans to an me g beg t stin tha exi g 21 nding ible way of thinkin t we should use all in the world.” Sou of us who believe tha resh our condition ref and , t contesnge ean cha among the majority pag e, uty bea by de ma es understand, improv ech that to the ingratiating spe igners try to prove suspiciously similar ce,” modernist des I wish for world pea tants, as in “… and


✠✚✠✢☩†

that design is important, that it matters in life, not just mine, but in the lives of our audiences and users of designed communications.

Rethinking Modernism, Revising Functionalism

Part of this ethic is a strong conviction and enthusiasm

Graphic design can be a contribution to our audiences. It can enrich as it informs and communicates. And there is a faith in not only the possibility, but the necessity for advancement and growth in our field, an imperative for change.

39


ndy?) comnt through a new (tre l universally releva stil is gy olo ide p. ir the zenshi mitment to good citi

Art direction magazine cover, David Carson 1993

ental flaws in modt there were fundam rassingly obvious tha started to redefine ers ign des e som , As it became embar ign lly functioned in des hy. ona sop ed, and inexhausti diti hilo tra tap it as me ll ism s-a ern entially open-mind ogy-fit a one-ideol ign as a broad, pot des in m modernism“Ias nis der mo view es today century and continu the mid-nineteenth in ans to an me g beg t stin tha exi g 21 nding ible way of thinkin t we should use all in the world.” Sou of us who believe tha resh our condition ref and , t contesnge ean cha among the majority pag e, uty bea by de ma es understand, improv ech that to the ingratiating spe igners try to prove suspiciously similar ce,” modernist des I wish for world pea tants, as in “… and

That only through

change can we continue to push ahead in knowledge and expertise, theory and expression, continually building our collective knowledge of the process of communication. These convictions were formed early and sustain me today.

40

©1998 High Ground Design. Reprinted from www.2011_highgrounddesign.com


1

We must allow ourselves to look at design in new and challenging ways, we must look for— ourof vernacular ephemera (the “other”). ters (the canon), and “fun” collections ist mases modern famous on aphs monogr lv “serious” se types, two into d o Press, 1995). divide Chicag be of can sity design Books on dge and Authority (Chicago: Univer

of Knowle Pragmatism: Modernism and the Crisis John Patrick Diggins, The Promise of 3 Ibid. Aesthetic, Basil Blackwell, 1990. 4 Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the n, 1978), p. 273. new s of life.” However his al Theory of Jürgen Habermas (Londo Critic The hy, 5 e—affects all aspect McCart Thomas to be a Quoted in subject—design and cultur of an artist whose it local bookstore), and he continues my position as that design section of my the define in to chosen found (I seen. have be “I book to er. yet design 6 design a has a art world ed and received as Dan Friedman is not was substantial; his impact on the l Modernism, has beena review book, Dan Friedman: Radica here as designer. His impact on design design educator, so I am treating him 180. p. 1985), , Dutton (E. 7 Gillian Naylor, The Bauhaus Reassessed 8 Ibid. Press, 1993), p. 212. (New Haven and London: Yale University 9 114. Paul Rand, Design, Form, and Chaos : Yale University Press, 1994), p. London and Haven (New ism Modern l 10 Dan Friedman, Dan Friedman: Radica 33 (Winter, 1995), p. 35. no. , Émigré Keedy, Mr. by ,” Poynor 11 Rick Poynor, “An Interview with Rick 12 Ibid. dernity (Blackwell, 1990), p. 113. 13 David Harvey, The Condition of Postmo Press, 1994), pg. 5. on Multiplied Language (London: Hyphen Notes 14 , Huh? Robin Kinross, Fellow Readers: is a reference to George Bush. Ironic title The . (1992) 2, vol. 8, no. Eye, ” 15 Mike Mills, “The (layered) Vision Thing, 31. p. 1994), r (Winte 4 Eye, no. 15 , vol. 16 Michael Rock, “Beyond Typography,” 17 Ibid., p. 27. vol. 10, no. 1 (1992). rds of employment and rd of the Nineties,” AIGA Journal, 18 sionals establish standa ited univer Michael Rock, “Responsibility: Buzzwo by their peers. Profes ng that is regulatedmost receive degrees fromorsaccred traini and skill, dge, practicing designersortoday knowle lized ce. Although Design educat are, however, the ng. practi 19 professional is someone who has a specia teachi that r ce furthe to practi for ion, rds A educat pment, and regulated standa no develo are ch, there resear and ce, ce, practi practi to ement, advanc have a degree tely no necessity toare far, his sities, there is absolu professional educators. of anti-elitism. Soexplai e they ity in the rhetorichistor ned in only professionals in design, becaus of ways to dress author ian, Gingrich House ous demonstrations his I think appointment of a newwho furnish many ingeniWhen to ted tials… es ill-fa creden promis mate made House, legiti the first of has he r ic Speake 20 ctive. macy select an academ to legiti the “Newt Gingrich, the newas a former professor has proved the most instruy,’ right ing the have ablish I re-est think in ‘I l he said, be helpfu handling of his status pro. ‘As a Ph.D. ininhistor to make a selection that I think will he was, in fact, ahave ana public appearance that been Speaker, a legitimate position who e, he was quick to putis,hisfrankl Colleg rdt Reinha at y, y histor an I may be peculiarly, of all the people Americ enced, which teaching his courseoneonyears of age, based on everything I’ve experi of history.’ about his qualificatioensoffor ic after all. He’s a citizen appearance he was asked my thoughts at fifty“But when at the same gless.’ He’s not a professional academ which is an outlinn twenty meanin course a are that teach ‘I books y. -two displa on ti-professionalism tenured faculty,’ he noted. ‘I haven’t writte rather more than most to see more of them.” (March 5, 1995), p.43. professor. We’re going ism as emblematic of sionalism,” New York Times Magazine favorable reviews of Radical Modern Louis Menand, “The Trashing of Profes p. 114. I consider the consistently 1994), Press, sity Univer (Yale ism an: Radical Modern the general dumbing-down of America. 21 Dan Friedman, Dan Friedm press, and the myopic, New-York-biased design p. 48. Is Hell,” Émigré, no. 33 (Winter 1995), 22 Steven Heller, “Design (Or Is It War?) (1990). ssed,” AIGA Journal, vol. 7, no. 4 Reasse s Bauhau The Myth: and ity 23 Dietmar R. Winkler, “Moral r 1995), p. 48. (Winte 33 no. , Émigré Hell,” Is 24 Steven Heller, “Design (Or Is It War?) (E. P. Dutton, 1985), p. 180. 25 Gillian Naylor, The Bauhaus Reassessed 1995). g (Sprin 34 no. From Émigré,

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Long live the Modern movement!

43


1

We must allow ourselves to look at design in new and challenging ways, we must look for— ourof vernacular ephemera (the “other”). ters (the canon), and “fun” collections ist mases modern famous on aphs monogr lv “serious” se types, two into d o Press, 1995). divide Chicag be of can sity design Books on dge and Authority (Chicago: Univer

of Knowle Pragmatism: Modernism and the Crisis John Patrick Diggins, The Promise of 3 Ibid. Aesthetic, Basil Blackwell, 1990. 4 Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the n, 1978), p. 273. new s of life.” However his al Theory of Jürgen Habermas (Londo Critic The hy, 5 e—affects all aspect McCart Thomas to be a Quoted in subject—design and cultur of an artist whose it local bookstore), and he continues my position as that design section of my the define in to chosen found (I seen. have be “I book to er. yet design 6 design a has a art world ed and received as Dan Friedman is not was substantial; his impact on the l Modernism, has beena review book, Dan Friedman: Radica here as designer. His impact on design design educator, so I am treating him 180. p. 1985), , Dutton (E. 7 Gillian Naylor, The Bauhaus Reassessed 8 Ibid. Press, 1993), p. 212. (New Haven and London: Yale University 9 114. Paul Rand, Design, Form, and Chaos : Yale University Press, 1994), p. London and Haven (New ism Modern l 10 Dan Friedman, Dan Friedman: Radica 33 (Winter, 1995), p. 35. no. , Émigré Keedy, Mr. by ,” Poynor 11 Rick Poynor, “An Interview with Rick 12 Ibid. Mr. Keedy dernity (Blackwell, 1990), p. 113. 13 David Harvey, The Condition of Postmo loves you Press, 1994), pg. 5. on Multiplied Language (London: Hyphen Notes 14 Huh? , Ironic Bush. Robin Kinross, Fellow Readers: George to nce is a refere title The . (1992) 2, vol. 8, no. Eye, ” 15 Mike Mills, “The (layered) Vision Thing, p. 31. Eye, no. 15 , vol. 4 (Winter 1994), 16 Michael Rock, “Beyond Typography,” 17 Ibid., p. 27. vol. 10, no. 1 (1992). rds of employment and rd of the Nineties,” AIGA Journal, 18 sionals establish standa ited univer Michael Rock, “Responsibility: Buzzwo by their peers. Profes ng that is regulatedmost receive degrees fromorsaccred traini and skill, dge, practicing designersortoday knowle lized ce. Although Design educat are, however, the ng. practi 19 professional is someone who has a specia teachi that r ce furthe to practi for ion, rds A educat pment, and regulated standa no develo are ch, there resear and ce, ce, practi practi to ement, advanc have a degree tely no necessity toare far, his sities, there is absolu professional educators. of anti-elitism. Soexplai e they ity in the rhetorichistor ned in only professionals in design, becaus of ways to dress author ian, Gingrich House ous demonstrations his I think appointment of a newwho furnish many ingeniWhen to ted tials… es ill-fa creden promis mate made House, legiti the first of has he r ic Speake 20 ctive. macy select an academ to legiti the “Newt Gingrich, the newas a former professor has proved the most instruy,’ right ing the have ablish I re-est think in ‘I l he said, be helpfu handling of his status pro. ‘As a Ph.D. ininhistor to make a selection that I think will he was, in fact, ahave ana public appearance that been Speaker, a legitimate position who e, he was quick to putis,hisfrankl Colleg rdt Reinha at y, y histor an I may be peculiarly, of all the people Americ enced, which teaching his courseoneonyears of age, based on everything I’ve experi of history.’ about his qualificatioensoffor ic after all. He’s a citizen appearance he was asked my thoughts at fifty“But when at the same gless.’ He’s not a professional academ which is an outlinn twenty meanin course a are that teach ‘I books y. -two displa on ti-professionalism tenured faculty,’ he noted. ‘I haven’t writte rather more than most to see more of them.” (March 5, 1995), p.43. professor. We’re going ism as emblematic of sionalism,” New York Times Magazine favorable reviews of Radical Modern Louis Menand, “The Trashing of Profes p. 114. I consider the consistently 1994), Press, sity Univer (Yale ism an: Radical Modern the general dumbing-down of America. 21 Dan Friedman, Dan Friedm press, and the myopic, New-York-biased design p. 48. Is Hell,” Émigré, no. 33 (Winter 1995), 22 Steven Heller, “Design (Or Is It War?) l, vol. 7, no. 4 (1990). ssed,” AIGA Journa44 Reasse s Bauhau The Myth: and ity 23 Dietmar R. Winkler, “Moral p. 48. Is Hell,” Émigré, no. 33 (Winter 1995), 24 Steven Heller, “Design (Or Is It War?) 180. p. 1985), , Dutton (E. P. 25 Gillian Naylor, The Bauhaus Reassessed From Émigré, no. 34 (Spring 1995).

2


Po (mo) Jacob Poindexter Typography 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Fall 2016 Jacek Mrowczyk & Philip Glenn Graphic Design Rhode Island School of Design Set, in order of appearance, in Helvetica Neue, Garamond Premier Pro, Grueber, Xentype, Rotis SemiSerif Std, Agfa Rotis Serif, Young Frankenstein, Moderna Disco St, Modula


1

We must allow ourselves to look at design in new and challenging ways, Round ot, Karmatic Arcade, Amador, sf Archery Black sc, we Acroterion jf, Scala Hands, Kaiserzeit Gotisch, Hobo Std, must din 30640 Std, Balloon Drop Shadow d, ocr a Std, ocrb, look Alternate Gothic No1 d, Agreloy, Humanoid, mb Forever Raw, Lexia, Back to 1982, Matrix ii Inline ot, Calluna Sans, for— Bangla Sangam mn, Hobeaux Rococeaux, Bajern, Lady ourular ephemera (the “other”). tions of vernac collec “fun” and , Radical, vcr osd Mono, Brothers ot, Minecraft, Menlo, Lust, canon) ters (the ist mases modern lv “serious” monographs on famousse types, 1995). two into Press, d o divide Chicag be of can sity design Books on dge and Authority (Chicago: Univer

of Knowle League Gothic, Mohave, Minion Pro, Phantom Fingers, Pragmatism: Modernism and the Crisis John Patrick Diggins, The Promise of Cardeaotce, Pepperwood Std, Zapfino, Modesto Poster, 3 Ibid. Aesthetic, Basil Blackwell, 1990. 4 Museo, Muscle, Porter Sans Block, MrsEavesFractions, Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the n, 1978), p. 273. new s of life.” However his al Theory of Jürgen Habermas (Londo 5 e—affects all aspect ues to be a Quoted in Thomas McCarthy, The Critic continPoplar he subject—design and cultur and whose ore), artist bookst an of local my that Orator Std, Otomo, Std, Scala, din 1451 Std, Adobe of as on my positi in the design section er. “I have chosen to define 6 a design book (I found it art world has yet to be seen. ed and received asdesign Dan Friedman is not a design was substantial; his impact on the l Modernism, has beena review on impact His er. book, Dan Friedman: Radica design as here Caslon Pro, and Determination Mono him design educator, so I am treating (E. Dutton, 1985), p. 180. 7 Gillian Naylor, The Bauhaus Reassessed 8 Ibid. Press, 1993), p. 212. Printed on Cordenons Malmero Perle' Emeraude 92 cover, (New Haven and London: Yale University 9 114. Paul Rand, Design, Form, and Chaos : Yale University Press, 1994), p. London and Haven (New ism Modern Neenah Classic Crest Antique Gray 80 text, Staples Pastels l 10 Dan Friedman, Dan Friedman: Radica 33 (Winter, 1995), p. 35. Poynor,” by Mr. Keedy, Émigré, no. 11 Canary 20 text, and Brighter White Coated Gloss Xerox Rick Poynor, “An Interview with Rick 12 Ibid. paper text with a laser printer 113. p. M80 dernity (Blackwell, 1990), r. K 13 eedy loves you David Harvey, The Condition of Postmo n: Hyphen Press, 1994), pg. 5. (Londo ge Langua lied Multip on Notes 14 , Huh? Robin Kinross, Fellow Readers: is a reference to George Bush. Ironic title The . (1992) 2, vol. 8, no. Eye, ” 15 Mike Mills, “The (layered) Vision Thing, p. 31. Eye, no. 15 , vol. 4 (Winter 1994), 16 Michael Rock, “Beyond Typography,” 17 Ibid., p. 27. vol. 10, no. 1 (1992). rds of employment and rd of the Nineties,” AIGA Journal, 18 sionals establish standa ited univer Michael Rock, “Responsibility: Buzzwo by their peers. Profes ng that is regulatedmost receive degrees fromorsaccred traini and skill, dge, practicing designersortoday knowle lized ce. Although Design educat are, however, the ng. practi 19 professional is someone who has a specia teachi that r ce furthe to practi for ion, rds A educat pment, and regulated standa no develo are ch, there resear and ce, ce, practi practi to ement, advanc have a degree tely no necessity toare far, his sities, there is absolu professional educators. of anti-elitism. Soexplai e they ity in the rhetorichistor ned in only professionals in design, becaus of ways to dress author ian, Gingrich House ous demonstrations his I think appointment of a newwho furnish many ingeniWhen to ted tials… es ill-fa creden promis mate made House, legiti the first of has he r ic Speake 20 ctive. macy select an academ to legiti the “Newt Gingrich, the newas a former professor has proved the most instruy,’ right ing the have ablish I re-est think in ‘I l he said, be helpfu handling of his status pro. ‘As a Ph.D. ininhistor to make a selection that I think will he was, in fact, ahave ana public appearance that been Speaker, a legitimate position who e, he was quick to putis,hisfrankl Colleg rdt Reinha at y, y histor an I may be peculiarly, of all the people Americ enced, which teaching his courseoneonyears of age, based on everything I’ve experi of history.’ about his qualificatioensoffor ic after all. He’s a citizen appearance he was asked my thoughts at fifty“But when at the same gless.’ He’s not a professional academ which is an outlinn twenty meanin course a are that teach ‘I books y. -two displa on ti-professionalism tenured faculty,’ he noted. ‘I haven’t writte rather more than most to see more of them.” (March 5, 1995), p.43. professor. We’re going ism as emblematic of sionalism,” New York Times Magazine favorable reviews of Radical Modern Louis Menand, “The Trashing of Profes p. 114. I consider the consistently 1994), Press, sity Univer (Yale ism an: Radical Modern the general dumbing-down of America. 21 Dan Friedman, Dan Friedm press, and the myopic, New-York-biased design p. 48. Is Hell,” Émigré, no. 33 (Winter 1995), 22 Steven Heller, “Design (Or Is It War?) l, vol. 7, no. 4 (1990). ssed,” AIGA Journa44 Reasse s Bauhau The Myth: and ity 23 Dietmar R. Winkler, “Moral p. 48. Is Hell,” Émigré, no. 33 (Winter 1995), 24 Steven Heller, “Design (Or Is It War?) 180. p. 1985), , Dutton (E. P. 25 Gillian Naylor, The Bauhaus Reassessed From Émigré, no. 34 (Spring 1995).

2

Profile for Jacob Poindexter

po(mo)  

Publication for Jacek Mrowczyk's Typography III class, Fall 2016—a print interpretation of Massimo Vignelli's Long Live Modernism, Katherine...

po(mo)  

Publication for Jacek Mrowczyk's Typography III class, Fall 2016—a print interpretation of Massimo Vignelli's Long Live Modernism, Katherine...

Profile for jaketp
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