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Universidad Mariano Gálvez de Guatemala Escuela de Idiomas Teaching English Techniques II

Jaime Emmanuel Gómez Véliz 5076-13-10967


Introduction

This portfolio is a recompilation of all the information, tasks, and comments that during the class course Teaching English Techniques II, were the core and principal themes discussed and learned according to the alignments and contents of the course imparted in the University Mariano Galvez of Guatemala. A very notable change and worth of notice is the fact that the portfolio is presented in a digital form, the reason for this change is the necessity of applying the ICTs to our ever changing medium. In the same manner, we intend to share with our peers this important tool that is very useful for our profession as teachers. Every bit of information that you may find included into this portfolio has been gathered, researched and published under the sole desire learning and educating those who are interested in this kind of information. All the information included in this publication belong to the original authors, including images and cited text.


INDEX 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

First Stage Alignments and Content Traditional Education Innovation in Education Lesson planning Syllabus Design Instructional Materials Curriculum Project Work Five Techniques on Innovative Teaching Rubrics to Evaluate 21st. Century Students Competencies Homework Summary - Chapters 1,2,3 Mind-maps on Cooperative Learning Research Strategies to Incorporate CL Mind-map Summarizing Chapters 7 and 8

15 16

Second Stage CNB Research Project Summary on video "Connected"

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

Third Stage Task and Project Work Presentation Learning strategies vs Teaching strategies Presentation Teaching Grammar Presentation Teaching Speaking Presentation Teaching Listening Presentation Teaching Speaking Mind Maps Mind-map on Listening Presentation General comment about the Course Conclusion Annexes


COURSE CONTENT 2014 Code : 076433

COURSE DESCRIPTION Teaching Techniques Course II is far more concerned about context-sensitive teaching than its predecessors. This course has different new ideas which makes it significantly different from previous course describing the practice of English Language teaching as it exists right now. Incorporates recent changes in the concerns of methodology, along with updated theories on teaching techniques. Chapters have been added on teaching vocabulary, discovery techniques, and learner training. It is full of practical suggestions and samples from actual teaching materials.

OBJECTIVES 1. 2. 3.

Provide a comprehensive overview of the field of second and foreign language teaching, with a particular focus on issues related to the teaching of English. Provide a source of teaching principles and classroom activities which teachers can refer to in their work. Provide a source of readings and activities that can be used in TESOL teacher-education programs.

COMPETENCIES The scope of a teacher's professional role and responsibilities for student assessment may be described in terms of the following activities. These activities imply that teachers need competence in student assessment and sufficient time and resources to complete them in a professional manner. Domain 1 : The teacher knows the language.      

uses the language for instruction at any proficiency level in speaking. demonstrates comprehension of authentic texts of various authors through instruction. uses the skills of listening, speaking, and writing in instruction to reinforce the four skills in students. conducts class in the language at an appropriate level for all students. uses the language to the maximum extent possible, providing comprehensible input and strategies to facilitate comprehension. uses knowledge of the subsystems of the language, such as syntax (including grammar), lexicon, and phonology, to develop communication skills in students.

Domain 2: The teacher understands language pedagogy as it relates to the teaching of the student standards, the Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages.   

applies current research related to language learning pedagogy. presents a clear rationale for pedagogical choices that address students' differences, diversity, and special needs. selects, adapts, and creates materials and activities to support students' progress through Novice, Intermediate, and Advanced checkpoints.

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Domain 3: The teacher has a thorough understanding of the culture(s) associated with the language and knows about the connections among the practices, products, and perspectives of the culture(s).   

uses culturally appropriate materials (visuals, realia, oral and written texts); embeds appropriate cultural contexts into language instruction; conducts activities (discussions, role plays, presentations) that prompt an understanding of the culture(s) and of the impact this knowledge can have on the way students interact with members of another culture. applies knowledge of the culture(s) being studied to help students recognize how the practices (patterns of behavior) and products (tangible and intangible things people create) reflect the perspectives (attitudes and values) of the culture(s).

Domain 4: The teacher understands the relationship between the practices and the perspectives of the culture(s) being studied.       

integrates concepts of cultural practices into language instruction (e.g., everyday patterns of behavior that represent the knowledge of "what to do when and where" in the culture(s). promotes an understanding of cultural practices and of the relationship between cultural practices and perspectives through activities in which students: obtains information from visuals, realia, oral and written texts; participates in age-appropriate cultural activities (games, songs, storytelling, dramatizations); uses appropriate verbal and non-verbal behavior in common classroom interactions and in daily activities among peers and adults. identifies and describes cultural practices as experienced in a dramatization or as viewed in a videotape; finds information about how practices reveal perspectives (interviews, reading, etc.)

Domain 5: The teacher understands the universality of stereotyping and is familiar with the stereotypes associated with the culture(s) being studied.  

discusses the possible origins of specific stereotypes that cultures have about one another. creates and shares activities which enhance knowledge of the culture(s) and reduce stereotyping.

Domain 6: The teacher knows ways to access and use the language and its cultural resources beyond the school setting.  uses classroom and extra-classroom learning experiences and activities to practice using the language and culture in real-world situations.  creates opportunities to use the language beyond the school.  integrates technology (e.g., the Internet) into the curriculum to enable students to use the language in real-world contexts by connecting students to language users in other parts of the world.

METHODOLOGY The course is designed to give the student experience of participating in the course alongside a diverse group of beginning and expertise foreign language teachers. A rich, interactive experience is facilitated including multimedia content, footage of the actual strategies and techniques, videos of actual foreign language classrooms, self-correcting exercises, portfolios of sample activities, and interviews with beginning teachers.

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Teaching Techniques II Program 2014 P.E.M.I. Maria Elena Alvarez

Date Feb. 01 Feb. 08 Feb. 15 Feb. 20 Mar. 01 Mar. 08 Mar. 15 Mar. 22 Mar. 29 Apr. 05 Apr. 12 Apr. 19 Apr. 26 May 03 May 10 May 17 May 24 May 31 June 07 June 14

Content Introduction and alignments for the semester. Approaches to teaching. Lesson Planning Part I Lesson Planning Part II Classroom Management Classroom Dynamics: Cooperative Learning Classroom Dynamics: Mixed Level Teaching Syllabus Design PARTIAL I EVALUATION Instructional Materials Project Work EASTER HOLIDAY PARTIAL II EVALUATION Learning Strategies MOTHER`s DAY Teaching Grammar in Practice Teaching Speaking in Practice Teaching Listening in Practice LAST DAY OF CLASS – Portfolio presentation FINAL EVALUATION

Suggested Activities     

Lesson Discussion Teacher`s Direct Instruction Weekly Research (paraphrasing) Presentations Group Work

    

Partial I Partial II Final Evaluation Activities Minimum zona

Evaluation 10% 10% 30% 50% 31%

Bibliography Methodology in Language Teaching ( An Anthology of Current Practices) Edited by: Jack C. Richards and Willy A. Renandya ( mandatory - sold at UMG`s Bookstore ) The Practice of English Language Teaching th Edited by: Jeremy Harmer – Pearson – 4 . Edition (IGA) Essential Teacher Knowledge ( Core concepts in English Language Teaching ) Edited by: Jeremy Harmer – Pearson – 2012 (IGA) Internet as it is a Research-Based Programme

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TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR TEACHING & LEARNING


I. TRADITIONAL

1 Lecturing 2. Discussion 3. Questioning 4. Using Audio-visual


PURPOSES OF LECTURES


1. Efficient means of introducing learners to new topic and sets the stage of learning 2. Stimulates learner’s interest 3. Helps to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge 4. For clarification of difficult parts 5. To advance knowledge when textbooks are not available


ADVANTAGES OF LECTURING 1. It is economical. Great deal of information – shared. 2. Supplies and textbooks become true to life  „theater‟ 3. Teacher serves as model  students see a „creative mind at work‟ 4. Helps students develop their listening abilities.


DISADVANTAGES OF LECTURING 1. Puts learners in the PASSIVE ROLE of a sponge 2. Focuses on the TEACHING OF FACTS with little focus on analytical thinking or transfer of learning  results in SURFACE learning 3. Does not meet student‟s individual learning needs 4. Student‟s have little attention time span (15 minutes)


DISCUSSIONS


1. FORMAL DISCUSSIONS Announced topic

Reading, watching movie – done in advance

2. INFORMAL DISCUSSIONS Spontaneous


Learns problem solving method (groups)

Change in attitudes and values

PURPOSES and ADVANTAGES

Assists to evaluate beliefs/positions (professional, societal or ethical issues)

Opportunity to apply principles, concepts and theories

Clarifies information and concepts


Gathering of uninformed opinions

One person/few participants (monopolies)

Takes a lot of time


QUESTIONING Can be a teaching strategy Ask questions  higher order thinking


FUNCTIONS OF QUESTIONS 1. Places the learners in an active role  Simple recall  Helps students analyze concepts  Evaluate worth of ideas  Speculate “if” 2. Assesses baseline knowledge  retention


3. Helps review content – enlightens gray areas

4. Motivates students  Stimulates thinking & curiosity

5. Guides learner’s thought process


According to BARDEN A. LOWER-ORDER QUESTIONS ďƒ˜ Recall information, read or memorize B. HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS > Requires comprehension and critical thinking


HOW TO ENGAGE? Pair work – give ideas


USING VISUAL AIDS • Can enhance teaching • Can add interest to the classroom


ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES 1. 2. 3. 4.

Cooperative learning Simulations Problem based learning Self-learning modules


ROLE PLAYING

CASE STUDIES

PROBLEM BASED SOLVING


DIFFERENCES PBL

CASE STUDIES

> Conducted in small groups

> Used by individuals/groups

> Students have little backgrounds knowledge of subject matter

> Students hve most of the background learning theory to apply to the case

> Cases are usually brief & presenting problems are ill-structures

> Cases are often long & detailed, and their problems are well-defined


COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION


COMPUTER-MANAGED INSTRUCTION


• Any system of record keeping • Use of authoring systems – pre-developed software packages that guide the educator´s process.


THE INTERNET A mammoth complex of computer connections across continents, connecting many millions of computers.


EMAIL (electronic)  Greater collaboration between teachers vs. students and between students vs. students  Source of peer support  Means to seek referrals, for consultation and for post-discharge follow-up EX. LIST SERVS – a group of people who have similar interests and want to share information and experience regarding their interest in a type of discussion groups


NEWS GROUPS  Discussions groups of people with same interest  Messages appear in general mailbox

Ex. – group discussing all kinds of issues.  Also used for online support groups


3. World Wide Web  A collection of “documents” found on Web pages  A place to find specialized knowledge and multimedia presentations Criteria to choose WWW site 1. Purpose – audience? 2. Currency 3. Credibility 4. Content accuracy 5. Design


Provides home-based support. Tool for student management – part of information system Provides student teaching Supports mastery learning


> Maximizes time on task and helps develop overlearning (beyond mastery, responses becomes automatic) > Provides instant feedback > Develops cognitive residues (skills in researching ďƒ skills in managing information) > Promotes interactivity, institutional consistency, individualized instruction, time efficiency and cost-effectiveness (savings)


High-cost ďƒ initial outlay for hardware and software Negative effect ďƒ  personal and professional communication


st 21

Century Learning Design

UMG 2014 Teaching Techniques II


Learning Design Learning Goals Deepen understanding of innovative teaching practices Collaborate in analyzing and advancing our own Learning Activities Plan how to use this project for educator collaboration in our schools


What does “innovative teaching” mean to you?


Change and The Learning Process 20th Century

21st Century

Educator

Delivery of content and information

Guiding studentsâ€&#x; creation of knowledge-based products

Student

Content and information consumption

Creation of knowledge-based products


ITL Research Innovative Teaching and Learning A global research program that investigates how schools and systems can encourage innovative teaching practices and the impact innovative teaching practices have on students’ learning. ITL is the foundation for 21st Century Learning Design


Education System Change

School Leadership and Culture Innovative Teaching Practices

Individuals with skills for life and work today

2009-2012 Innovative Teaching and Learning

Research

2012-future From Research to

Practice

(today’s work)


SKILLS FOR LIFE AND WORK TODAY Knowledge building

Self-regulation & assessment

Problem solving & innovation ICT use

Collaboration

Skilled communication

Global awareness

www.itlresearch.com


Innovative Teaching Practices Student Centered Pedagogies • • • •

Personalized Collaborative Knowledge construction Self-regulation

ICT Integration

Extending Learning • • • •

Problem Solving 24/7 learning opportunities Global and cultural understanding Skilled communication

• • •

By educators By students Basic usage vs. higher-level usage


Schools from over 46 countries using these methods to build innovative teaching capacity


What school factor do you think is most associated with innovative teaching practices in schools?


What we learned Collaboration about teaching among educators in a school Strongly associated with Innovative Teaching Practices Innovative Teaching Practices

Low frequency

Medium frequency

High frequency


What type of professional development builds innovative teaching practices?


Professional Development and innovative teaching practices Practice a new teaching method Conducted research Planned or practiced using ICT in teaching

Reviewed and discussed student work Observed a demonstration of ICT use Developed or reviewed curriculum materials Received or delivered one-on-one coaching or mentoring Planned a lesson or a unit Observed a demonstration of a lesson Listened to a lecture


Learning Design: Project goals Develop shared understanding of important 21st Century skills, and how learning activities can provide opportunities to build them Use detailed definitions and rubrics as a collaborative framework to discuss and analyze learning activity designs Explore the link between learning activity design and the work that students do


Learning Design: 21C Skills Framework Rubric

Key Question

Collaboration

Are students required to share responsibility and make substantive decisions with other people?

Knowledge construction

Are students required to build knowledge? Is that knowledge interdisciplinary?

Use of ICT for learning

Do students use ICT to support knowledge building? Is ICT necessary to that knowledge building?

Self-regulation

Is the learning activity long-term? Do students plan and assess their own work?

Skilled communication

Did the student produce extended communication? Was the communication well-developed and organized around a thesis?

Real-world problem-solving and innovation

Does the learning activity require solving authentic, real-world problems? Are studentsâ€&#x; solutions implemented in the real world?


Learning Design: Let’s Do It For each 21st Century skill, we will: Learn and discuss common definitions and a rubric Apply these ideas to sample learning activities – how strong are the opportunities they give students to build this skill? Use the rubric to strengthen a learning activity Look at the relationship between learning activity design and student work


What does collaboration mean?


Collaboration In today’s interconnected world, real project work often requires collaboration across organizations (e.g. a collaboration between a pharmaceutical company

and a chemical engineering company to produce a new vaccine), or with people in a different part of the world. This type of working requires strong

collaboration skills to work productively on a team and to integrate individual expertise and ideas into a coherent solution.

Do your learning activities model this today?


The Learning Design Rubric: This rubric examines whether students are working with others on the learning activity, and the quality of that collaboration. (Research rubrics)

At higher levels of the rubric students share responsibility for their work, and the learning activity is designed in a way that requires students to make substantive decisions together. These features help students learn the important collaboration skills of negotiation, conflict resolution, agreement on what must be done, distribution of tasks, listening to the ideas of others and integration of ideas into a coherent whole. The strongest learning activities are designed so that student work is interdependent, requiring all students to contribute in order for the team to succeed.


Knowledge Construction‌.?


What is “knowledge work”?

Info and ideas

Solution

Creating • Social Programs • Policies & Laws • Web apps & Software • Strategies • Design


Knowledge Construction We often hear the term “knowledge.� More and more, people are expected to not only be intelligent consumers of information, but also to create information and ideas. Students are asked to do the same: to evaluate, synthesize, analyze and interpret information. We have overwhelming access to data so we must prepare students to be informed consumers and smart producers who can integrate information from multiple sources across multiple disciplines in order to further expand their learning and make sense of the world. Do your learning activities model this today?


The Learning Design Rubric: Knowledge construction activities require students to generate ideas and understandings that are new to them. Students can do this through interpretation, analysis, synthesis or evaluation. In stronger activities, knowledge construction is the main requirement of the learning activity.

The strongest activities require students to apply the knowledge they constructed in a different context, helping them to deepen their understanding further, and to connect information and ideas from two or more academic disciplines (for example, integrating learning from both science and literature).


Knowledge Construction


Review example learning activities


Steps to Lesson Planning Teaching Techniques II


What happens during a lesson? The steps to lesson planning have stood the test of time. Here is a brief description of each. Understanding these components will add to your understanding of how to plan a lesson.


Anticipatory Set Opportunity for the minds of learners to bring forward previous learning. An effective set will focus the learners on task, provide meaning and engage the learners.


Anticipatory Set (focus) Examples: Review main ideas of yesterday’s lesson which will be extended today. Give synonyms for words, when the objective is improvement of creative writing. A short activity or prompt that focuses the students' attention before the actual lesson begins. – demo

Used when students enter the room or in a transition. – A hand-out given to students at the door – review question written on the board – "two problems" on the overhead are...


Objective Purpose States what the student will be able to do and why it is important. – In behavioral terms

The vocabulary, skills, and concepts the teacher will impart to the students – the "stuff" the students need to know in order to be successful.

An instructional objective is a picture of the learners after instruction.


Objective Purpose Examples: The purpose of today's lesson, why the students need to learn it, what they will be able to "do", and how they will show learning as a result are made clear by the teacher. Given a decimal fraction, the learner will demonstrate understanding of the decimal fraction by writing an equivalent proper fraction.


Input What you are going to teach. Somehow students need to get some information. Two important questions to ask yourself. – What information is needed? – How will the information be delivered?


Input Examples Teacher Talks – Notes

Videos Books Magazines News Paper Internet

Independent work Small group work Demonstrations


Modeling Using visual techniques. – Matching visual to the verbal.

Students need to see an accurate example of the product or process being taught. The teacher shows in graphic form or demonstrates what the finished product looks like. – Shows students how to do a particular technique – A picture is worth a thousand words


Modeling Examples Demonstrations Examples in everyday life Pictures or video


Guided Practice Time should be provided in class for the student to practice the concept or skill while the teacher is present and can monitor the students. The teacher leads the students through the steps necessary to perform the skill using the tri-modal approach. – hear/see/do.


Independent Practice This is the time outside of class when the student will work on the learning without teacher assistance. Students work on their own. – Sometimes in class or not

Homework


Monitor and Adjust Teacher needs to plan for some means to check the understanding of individual students as well as the entire class. – Check for understanding

The teacher uses a variety of questioning strategies to determine "Got it yet?" and to pace the lesson - move forward?/back up? – Sampling the class, oral quizzing – Signaling private responses Read student cues – “Deer in the headlight eyes”

Direct Observation


Closure A review or wrap-up of the lesson. – "Tell me/show me what you have learned today".

Students summarize the essential learning that took place during the class. Set up the anticipator set for the next day. – Future directive


Lesson Design When to use all the steps or not to use all the steps


Lesson design is one way a teacher might plan a lesson. Only the teacher can decide whether this is an appropriate plan for a particular lesson. Prerequisites: – – – –

Students have been diagnosed Can be formal, informal, intuitive A clear objective is in mind A task analysis has identified critical attributes of the learning


The following may be situations in which the teacher might choose to use all the steps just described.

New learning Not familiar with students’ abilities, background, or experience Students who don’t catch on as readily as most. Learning is of the high thinking levels Learning is at a high degree of difficulty Remedial teaching


The following may be situations in which the teacher might not choose to use all the steps just described. Review, maintenance, practice Building on previous learning (transfer) Students are operating at an independent level. Students are using the inquiry method. Previous student performance indicates not all steps are needed. Lesson is extended over more than one day


Competences are commonly assumed to represent more than the levels of knowledge and skills and to account for the effective application of available knowledge and skills in a specific context.

It is assumed that ‘competence’ transcends the levels of knowledge and skills to explain how knowledge and skills are applied in an effective way. They are easily identified with valued capabilities, qualifications and expertise


Ideas about competence The concept of ‘linguistic competence’ represents the cognitive structure and rules that are necessary to produce speech; in contrast, ‘linguistic performance’ represents the way speech actually functions in practice when it is contaminated by external factors.


Competence ……….. Competence is a highly-valued qualification that accounts for the effective use of knowledge and skills in specific , usually complex, contexts: The mastery of relevant knowledge and skills alone is no guarantee of successful performances in complex environments; individuals should be able to select from their available knowledge and skills in such a way that efficient and effective behaviour occurs.


Competence: the need for a distinct concept From a theoretical perspective, competence is conceived as a cognitive structure that facilitates specified behaviours. From an operational perspective, competences seem to cover a broad range of higher-order skills and behaviours that represent the ability to cope with complex, unpredictable situations (includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, metacognition and strategic thinking, and intentional decision making.


The problem of competence standards

When competences are chosen as the ultimate objectives of education, they should be described in terms of well-expressed behaviours in wellexpressed situations. If someone is labelled as ‘competent’ , his or her performances meet a standard.


COMPETENCE Refers to one´s underlying knowledge of a system, event or fact. It is the no observable ability to do something, to perform something. A cluster of related knowledge, skills and attitudes that affects a major part of one`s job (a role of responsibility) that correlates with performance on the job, that can be measured against wellaccepted standards, and that can be improved via training and development.


PERFORMANCE Is the overtly observable and concrete manifestation or realization of competence. It is the actual doing of something. In reference to language, competence is the underlying knowledge of the system of a language. Performance is actual production ( speaking, writing) or the comprehension (listening, reading) of linguistic events.


COMPETENCY

The state or quality of being properly or well qualified.


Competence Brainstorm Competency models are highly useful in ensuring that students are doing the right things, clarifying and articulating what is required for effective performance. Being able to demonstrate that the behaviours and skills you identify and develop are proven.


Competence

A

KNOWLEDGE

B

SKILL

C

COMMITMENT


KEY WORDS

OBSERVED BEHAVIOR


ACTIVE VERBS Discuss

Memorizes

Integrates

Comprehends

Assures

Proporcionates

Formulates

Comunicates

Plans

Calculates

Interprets

Enjoys

Evaluates

Programs

Facilitates

Express

Directs

Supervises

Develops

Follows

Coordinates

Designs

Specifies

Follows

Respects

Shows interest

Appreciates

Increases

Participates

Assigns

Certifies

Obtains

Controls

Analyzes

Informs

Participates

Answers

Distributes

Consolidates

Produces

Uses (information)

Organizes

Names

Reads

Administrates

Approves

Interviews

Registers

Establishes

Authorizes

Sends

Revises

Transmits

Amplifies

Takes

Revises

Listens

Experiments

Recognizes

Shares

Faces

Tells

Paraphrases

Tracks

Speaks

Reviews

Cooperates

Undesrtands

Determines

Installs

Examines

Verifies

Monitors

Consults

Identifies

Writes


EXAMPLES OF COMPETENCES  Uses communication as a mean to express thoughts, feelings and emotions in and out of his/her school and family community.  Understands and studies the different cultures using English as a second language.  Uses his/her English language knowledge to improve his /her communication skills (oral and written)


Examples of achievment signs •Names medieval social roles •Describes life in a castle •Identifies European imports and exports •Tells about the journeys of Marco Polo •Describes the Andes Mountains •Explains hypotheses scientists have about …………….. •Tells about cause and effect in a paragraph.


COMPETENCE: It is the ability to do something, to perform something.


PERFORMANCE: It is the concrete manifestation or realization of competence. It is the actual doing of something.


In reference to language, competence is the underlying knowledge of the system of a language. Performance is actual production ( speaking, writing) or the comprehension (listening, reading) of linguistic events.


FORMAT 1.

Begins with a present tense action verb.

2. Each action verb requires an object.

(Example: Identifies the prepositional pharses.) (Verb followed by object)


3. Each competence is measurable. 4. Each competence is based on performance.


5. Includes systematic, critical, and creative processes. 6. Reinforces critical thinking and oral communication


FORMULA 1. ACTION VERB (third person) + 2. WHAT (OBJECT) + 3. IN WHAT CONTEXT (WHERE)+ 4. HOW (BY DOING WHAT ACTIVITY OR PROJET)


EXAMPLES Uses and applies communication as a mean to express thoughts, feelings and emotions in and out of his/her school and family community when presenting an oral speech. Action verbs: uses and applies

What or object: communication Where or context: in and out of his-her school and community How: when presenting an oral speech


Understands and studies the different cultures using English as a second language in a variety of contexts when creating a PowerPoint presentation about those cultures . Action verbs: understands and studies What or object: different cultures

Where or context: in a variety of contexts How: when creating a PowerPoint presentation


Uses and produces his/her English language knowledge to improve his /her communication skills in real conversations when doing an interview to native speakers. Action verbs: uses and produces

What or object: English language knowledge Where or context: in real conversations How: when doing an interview to native speakers.


COMPETENCES / ACTIVE VERBS LIST

Discuss Assures Plans Evaluates Directs Coordinates Respects Participates Controls Answers Uses (information) Administrates Establishes Transmits Listens Faces Speaks Determines Monitors

Memorizes Proporcionates Calculates Programs Supervises Designs Shows interest Assigns Analyzes Distributes Organizes Approves Authorizes Amplifies Experiments Tells Reviews Installs Consults

Integrates Formulates Interprets Facilitates Develops Specifies Appreciates Certifies Informs Consolidates Names Interviews Sends Takes Recognizes Paraphrases Cooperates Examines Identifies

Comprehends Comunicates Enjoys Express Follows Follows Increases Obtains Participates Produces Reads Registers Revises Revises Shares Tracks Undesrtands Verifies Writes


CREATE THIS CHART FOR EACH COMPETENCE SUBJECT TOPIC ACTION VERB(s) WHAT WHERE HOW

HERE WRITE THE COMPLETE COMPETENCE!


Syllabus Writing


Principles of Syllabus Construction A syllabus is a tool  It exists to serve a purpose  You have to define that purpose  I suggest that there are two large purposes  The syllabus should make a PROMISE  The syllabus should provide a PLAN 


The Syllabus as Contract 

The syllabus should serve as a contract between you and your students It should say to the students This is what you must do This is when it must be done This is how it will be graded This is how your grade for the semester will be determined


The Syllabus as Contract The syllabus should also say to your students This is what I will do This is when I will do it In other words, the syllabus makes clear to the students what their obligations are to you, and what your obligations are to them 


The Syllabus as Contract The syllabus should present this information in a way that is  Simple  Clear  Unambiguous  Straightforward, and  Easily found 


The Syllabus as Contract Reasons to make this promise  First, it is the kind and humane thing to  Second, it implies an attitude. It says, I have planned this carefully and I expect that you will plan your participation in this course carefully, too. 


The Syllabus as Contract Objections  We can’t perfectly predict what will happen down the road  You may be absent  Students may be more or less advanced than you thought  Work may take longer or shorter than you predicted 


The Syllabus as Contract These are not mere concerns  They are predictions: teachers know that these things happen  Is it possible to write a syllabus that is clear and specific, and still have flexibility?  Yes, if you have a PLAN 


The Syllabus as the Explanation of the Plan  What

is a “plan”?  We use the word in a wide variety of ways, depending on the context  What is the context here?  What is meant by a teaching and learning plan?


The Syllabus as the Explanation of the Plan 

First, a word or two about what does not qualify as a plan: Plowing through the textbook one chapter after another is not a plan Picking out the three chapters that you really like and concentrating on them is not a plan Deciding at the end of class what will be done in the next class is not a plan


The Syllabus as the Explanation of the Plan 

 o o o

A plan requires a PURPOSE, a clear and specific goal The question is, What do I want to accomplish in this course? This requires Careful thought Precise definition Imaginative organization


Careful Thought  Who

are my students?

 What

is their background in this area?

 What

are the most important elements of this course for these students?


Precise Definition  What

are the main goals of this course?

 Why

are these goals important?

 What

are the main ideas that I want to thread throughout the course?


Imaginative Organization ď Ž How

do I arrange the materials and activities of the course so that the students have the best chance of achieving the goals of the course: ďƒ˜ How do I order the readings? ďƒ˜ How do I incorporate other sources, like videos, speakers, trips, etc.?


Imaginative Organization How do I inter-relate the materials and activities of the course so that everything we do is aimed at achieving the stated goals of the course?  Reading and Writing  Discussing  Group work  Research  Observation 


The Necessity of Reflection To organize imaginatively, you must have clear goals for the course  Choose materials, activities, teaching methods, evaluation methods, etc., that are appropriate to the goals of the course  Create a rhythm for the course that encourages achieving the goals of the course  Choose attendance policies, etc., that are appropriate 


The Necessity of Reflection 

To determine the goals of the course takes time, but it will be the most valuable time you spend on your course Ask yourself Who are my students?  What do they need from this course?  What do I think is the purpose of this course?  How can I best organize to achieve these goals? 


The PLAN Allows for the PROMISE 

Reflecting on the purpose of the course, and organizing everything in a way that will help achieve that purpose, will help you stick to the contract AND be flexible First, because this process helps you edit down the material, choosing what is necessary, what is important, and what can be ignored  Second, because the content of any particular class is not discrete but a part of an organic whole 


The PLAN Allows for the PROMISE  But

most important, going through this process forces you to be realistic  About who your students are  About what their capabilities are  About what their interests are  About what their needs are


The PLAN Allows for the PROMISE   

Syllabi do not exist in a vacuum A syllabus exists in a context In this case, the most important element of the context is the nature of the students Their intelligence  Their motivation  Their background  Their interest 


The PLAN Allows for the PROMISE  The

PLAN should be appropriate to the students  The reading  The writing  The methods of instruction  The methods of evaluation


The PLAN Allows for the PROMISE ď Ž

ď Ž

If you will define purpose and goals in light of a full and rich understanding of who your students are, you can write a syllabus that will not have to be changed as you go along. A syllabus that manifests a PLAN and makes a PROMISE encourages both good teaching and good learning


Encouraging Teaching and Learning   

It encourages good teaching by forcing you to think carefully about what you want to accomplish forcing you to think carefully about how to inter-relate the materials and activities of the course forcing you to think carefully about how most effectively to organize the materials, activities, and evaluation procedures of the class


Encouraging Teaching and Learning  

 

It encourages learning by informing the students about the purpose and goals of the course, so that they have a context in which to put the materials and activities of the course informing the students about exactly what they are required to do, and when, and how demonstrating to the students that there is coherence and meaning to the course


Self-Diagnosis for Your Syllabus 

Ask yourself this question: Does my syllabus provide students with all the information they need to navigate this course, or will students have to guess, or ask me questions along the way, or make mistakes, because the syllabus was not clear or not complete? If you can answer “yes,” you have an effective syllabus.


Specific Elements of the Syllabus  Basic

Course Information

 Course

Number and Course Title  x Semester Credits  Semester, Year, Day, Time  Classroom


Specific Elements of the Syllabus   

 

Instructor: Name Office: Location Phone: Number E-mail: Address Office hours: Days and times If you have a disability that requires an accommodation, please contact me immediately.


Specific Elements of the Syllabus  Course

Description

 Catalogue

Course Description  Course Plan and Rationale  Course Goals


Specific Elements of the Syllabus 

Assignments and Grades

Required Readings and Learning Resources Recommended Reading and Resources Graded Assignments Grading Policy Course Schedule

 


Basic concepts of language learning & teaching materials


What is materials? • Anything used by teachers or learners to facilitate the learning of a language or to increase Ss’ knowledge or experience of the language, e.g. cassettes, videos, CD´s, dictionaries, grammar books, readers, workbooks, photographs, live talks by invited native speakers, instructions given by a teacher, etc.


Materials development • Anything done by writers, teachers or learners to provide sources of language input and to exploit those sources in ways in which maximize the possibility of intake (= to promote language learning)


Materials evaluation • Attempts to measure the value of materials • Attempts to predict whether or not the materials will work, that is, learners will be able to use them without too much difficulty and will enjoy the experience of doing so


Teaching • Anything done by materials developers or teachers to facilitate the learning of the language • Teaching can be direct (=transmitting information overtly to the learners) or indirect (=helping learners to discover things for themselves).


Language Learning • Conscious process consisting of the committing to memory of information relevant to what is being learned • Subconscious development of generalisations about how the language is used and skills to apply them to acts of communication


Language Learning (cont.) • Implicit (learners are not aware of when and what they are learning) • Explicit (learners are aware of when and what they are learning) • Explicit learning of both declarative and procedural knowledge is valuable in helping learners to pay attention to salient features of language input and in helping them to participate in planned discourse.


Materials should achieve impact. • Impact achieved when materials have a noticeable effect on learners. • Materials can achieve impact through: • • • •

Novelty Variety Attractive presentation Appealing content

• Choice of topics, texts and activities = achievement of impact


Materials should help Ss to feel at ease. • Materials with lots of white space • Texts and illustrations that relate to Ss own culture • Materials that try to help Ss learn rather than testing them or causing humiliation • Materials that relate the world of the book to the world of learners


Materials should help Ss to develop confidence. • Relaxed and self-confidence learners learn faster. (Dulay, Burt & Krashen, 1982) • Activities which try to ‘push’ Ss slightly beyond their proficiency • Stimulating tasks • Problematic tasks • Achievable tasks


Relevant and useful materials • Relating to known learner interests • Real-life tasks that Ss need to perform in the target language • Relating teaching points to interesting and challenging classroom tasks • Presenting tasks in ways which could facilitate the achievement of task outcomes desired by Ss


Materials should require and facilitate Ss self-investment. • Requiring Ss to make discoveries for themselves • Helping Ss to make efficient use of resources in order to facilitate selfdiscovery • Learners profit more if they invest interest, effort and attention in the learning activity.


How to facilitate Ss’ selfinvestment • Getting Ss interested in a written or spoken text • Getting them to respond to it globally and affectively • Helping to analyse a particular linguistic feature in order to make discoveries for themselves • Involving them in mini-projects • Involving them in finding supplementary materials etc.


Learners must be ready to acquire the points being taught. • Instruction can facilitate natural language acquisition processes if it coincides with learner readiness and can lead to increased speed and frequency of rule application and to application of rules in a wider range of linguistic contexts. (Pienemann, 1985)


Krashen’s comprehensible input • The need for roughly-tuned input which is comprehensible (what Ss are familiar with) but which also contains the potential for acquiring other elements of input which Ss might or might not be ready to learn = i + 1


How to achieve Ss’ readiness • Materials which create situations requiring the use of variational features not previously taught • Materials which ensure that Ss have gained sufficient mastery over the developmental features of the previous stage before teaching a new one


How to achieve Ss’ readiness (cont.) • Materials which roughly tune the input so that it contains some feature which is slightly above each learner’s current proficiency level • Materials which get Ss to focus attention on features of the target language which they have not yet acquired so that they might be more attentive to these features in the future input


Materials should expose learners to language in authentic use. • Through the advice given to Ss in the materials • Through instructions for activities • Through spoken and written texts included in the materials • Through the activities However, the input must be comprehensible enough for Ss to respond to it.


• The input should vary in style, mode, medium and purpose and rich in features which are characteristic of authentic discourse in the target language. • The materials should stimulate learner interaction with the input rather than just passive reception of it. • Ss should do something mentally or physically in response to the materials.


Ss’ attention should be drawn to linguistic features of the input. • Either conscious or subconscious • It’s important that Ss become aware of the gap between a particular feature of their interlanguage (Ss’ output) and the equivalent feature in the target language (input). Such noticing of the gap can act as an ‘acquisition facilitator’.


Opportunities to use the target language for communication • Using language for communication involves attempts to achieve a purpose in a situation in which the content, strategies and expression of the interaction are determined by the learners.


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Definition(s) of Curriculum • Curriculum – is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that

educators usually call goals and objectives. ( Howell and Evans THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

1995) • Curriculum – is the “what” of teaching. • Curriculum – listings of subjects

to be taught in school.

Definitions of Curriculum

• Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-ofschool situations. • It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.

CURRICULUM • A document which describes a

structured series of learning objectives and outcomes for a given subject matter area • Includes a specification of what

should be learned, how it should be taught, and the plan for implementing/assessing the learning

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Curriculum Planning

• A curriculum Plan is the

advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. • A Curriculum guide is a written curriculum.

Curriculum Planning

Curriculum Planning

• It is the process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding upon goals and emphases, determining curriculum content, selecting learning resources and classroom procedures, evaluating progress, and looking toward next steps.

Curriculum Development

• It is defined as the process of • A Curriculum Planning is the process whereby the arrangement

of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created.

selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community.

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Curriculum Laboratory • Curriculum laboratory is a place or

workshop where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum. • Resource Unit is a collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing, and evaluating a learning unit.

Two Schools of Thought Predominated Throughout History of Curriculum Development:

• The Essentialist School • The Progressive School

The Essentialist School

TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

• It considers the curriculum as something rigid consisting of discipline subjects. • It considers all learners as much as the same and it aims to fit the learner into the existing social order and thereby maintain the status quo • Its major motivation is discipline and considers freedom as an outcome and not a means of education.

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The Essentialist School

• Its approach is authoritative and the teacher’s role is to assign lessons and

to recite recitations. • It is book-centered and the methods recommended are memory work , mastery of

facts and skills, and development of abstract intelligence.

The Essentialist School

• It has no interest in social

action and life activities. • Its measurement of outcomes are standard tests based on subject matter mastery.

Traditional Points of View of Curriculum • Body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. • Synonymous to “course study”. • “Permanent studies” where the rule of grammar, reading, rhetoric, logic and mathematics for basic education emphasized.(Hutchins) • Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals.

The Progressive School • It conceives of the curriculum as something flexible based on areas of interest. • It is learner-centered, having in mind that no two persons are alike. • Its factor of motivation is individual achievement believing that persons are naturally good.

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The Progressive School

• The Role of the teacher is to

stimulate direct learning process. • It uses a life experience approach to fit the student for

The Progressive School

• Its measurement of outcomes are now devices taking into consideration subject matter and personality values.

future social life.

The Progressive School

Progressive Points of View of Curriculum

• Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of teaching and learning are imperatives in curriculum development in order to create independent thinking, initiative, self-reliance, individuality, self-expression and activity in the learner.

• Listing of subjects, syllabi, course of study and list of courses or specific discipline can only be called curriculum if these written materials are actualized by the learner. • Total learning experiences of the individual. • All experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. – Caswell & Campbell • Experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher, and also learned by the students. – Marsh and Willis

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Different Theories • Conflicting philosophies of education have influenced curriculum principles and practices. • A NUMBER OF “self-evident educational truths” in the past are now seen to be rather educational myths; such as teachers know, children or learners don’t; all learners should be treated

Different Emphases • There is the curricular emphasis on the subject matter for the mind, with priority in value to literature, intellectual history, ideas of religion, philosophy, studies. • There is the curricular emphasis on the observable facts, the world of things.

alike.

Different Theories • The fundamental concepts of some curricula have changed. • In many areas, new methodologies: programmed instruction, Computer Assisted Instruction, Tutorials, Large and Small Group Instruction, and a variety of individualized instruction procedures have been developed.

Different Emphases

• Another curricular emphasis is the school’s dependence on Scholasticism, • Another curriculum stresses the importance of experience – process.

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Different Emphasis

Hilda Taba : Grassroots Approach 1. Diagnosis of learners needs and

• A recent curricular emphasis is that of existing choice.

• The learner must learn skills,

acquire knowledge, and make decisions.

Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principle

1. Purposes of the school 2. Educational experiences related to the purpose 3. Organization of the experiences 4. Evaluation of the experiences

expectations of the larger society. 2. Formulation of learning objectives. 3. Selection of the learning content. 4. Organization of learning content. 5. Selection of the learning experiences. 6. Organization of learning activities. 7. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it.

Steps in Curriculum Development •Tyler’s Questions of Curriculum Development will provide 4 steps: •What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? •What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? •How can these educational experiences be effectively organised? •How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

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Steps...

Curriculum Development

• In answering Tyler’s questions, we arrive the following basic steps of curriculum development: • • • •

Selection of aims, goals and objectives; Selection of learning experiences and content; Organisation of learning experiences; and Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved.

• The 4 steps above are basic, because they can be more than 4

Curriculum Development • Some curriculum experts like Tyler say that the steps

are followed in a sequence or a straight line. • This model that assumes that curriculum decision making follows a straight line is called linear model

Aims, Goals & Objectives

Evaluation

Organisation & Integration of Learning Experiences & Content

Selection of Learning Experiences

Selection of Content

Curriculum Development • Selection of Aims

1

2

• Selection of Content & Learning Experiences

3

• Organizsation of content & Learning Experiences • Evaluation of Learning outcomes

4

• Other scholars argue that curriculum decision making is not a simple linear process that necessarily starts with aims. • One of them is Wheeler (1978) who believes that curriculum decision making can start from any point and can come back to any of the points e.g. like a cycle

• Kerr (1968) also believes that curriculum process is a very complex set of activities and decisions and they interact a lot. • Changes made in content may necessitate changes in experiences, which may again bring about changes in evaluation etc.

Objective

Evaluation

Content

Learning Experience

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Selection of Aims and Objectives • Every curriculum is aimed at developing in the learners certain competencies or abilities. The curriculum process must therefore clearly identify the aims that the curriculum is intended to achieve. • Curriculum aims range from the very broad to the more specific. In fact, that is why we use the terms aims, goals and objectives to refer to them.

Aims are broad statements which cover all of the experiences provided in the curriculum; goals are tied to specific subjects or group of contents within the curriculum; while objectives describe the more specific outcomes that can be attained as a result of lessons or instruction delivered at the classroom.

Factors in Selecting Aims • Analysis of our culture: we should take into account our cultural values, norms and expectations when selecting aims, • The present status of the learner: what has the learner already known? What are his/her characteristics? What is he/she ready for? • The state of our knowledge of the subject matter or content: We should examine new developments in knowledge to see if they contain things that are of real value to the learner and society. • Relevance to school’s philosophy of education: each nation has its own philosophy of education which its schools try to implement. Nigeria’s philosophy of education is contained in its National Policy on Education. We should ask whether the objectives we select are relevant to this philosophy; • Consistency with our theory of learning: at any time in any society, there is a dominant conception of learning i.e. our understanding what learning is and how it takes place. For instance, the National Policy on Education anticipates that the

Selection of Content & Learning Experiences • Content is what we teach; learning experience is an activity which the learner engages in which results in changes in his behaviour; • We should select those contents and learning experiences that will in attaining the goals of the curriculum; • There are some factors to consider in selecting both learning experiences and content. • We shall first examine those criteria for

selecting learning experiences

Factors in Selecting Learning Experiences • Validity: this refers to the relevance of the stated learning experience to the stated goals of the curriculum; • Relevance to life: learning experience must be related to the learner’s real life situations in and out of school; • Variety: learning experiences must cater to the needs of different types of learners by providing different types of experiences; • Suitability: learning experiences must be suitable to the learners present state of learning and characteristics:

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Selection of learning experiences… • Cumulation: even though experiences provided may be different, they should all lead to the attainment of the same goal; subsequent experiences should build on earlier ones; • Multiple Learning: a single learning experience may bring about multiple outcomes. Such learning experiences are important because of their multiple benefits.

Research for a CURRICULUM SAMPLE CNB

Factors in Selecting Content • Validity: means two things, is the content related to the objectives, and is the content true or authentic; • Significance: is the content significant or will lead it to the more mastery or more understanding of the course or subject; • Utility: here the question is whether the content selected is useful i.e. will lead to the acquisition of skills and knowledge that are considered useful by society? • Interest: is the content interesting to the learner? Or can the content be made interesting to learners? • Learnability: is the content selected such that learners can learn and understand given their present level/

Curriculum Development

• Touched on the religion, economic, political, and social influences and events that took place in the country.

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The Need for Curriculum Framework • What learning objectives should be included? • What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? • Will the choice be based on the learners’ needs and interests, or rather on the needs of the society? • Will the selection depend on tradition, the nature of knowledge, or the learners’ characteristics? • What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature of learners as well as the learning process will underpin the organization of the content? • Will the choice of methodology be in line with accepted teaching-learning principles? • Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning that is taking place?

• • Program for Decentralized Educational Development - Content Based (not on the learner and learning process) •

The Basic Education Curriculum and Secondary Education Development Program in Guatemala addresses the learner and learning process? (Research)

Determinants of Learning in Guatemala (Research)

Cultural Values Visible • Rules • Food • Dress • Language • Music • Dance • Means of Livelihood • Political Behavior • Family • Community Norms

Knowledge of the Learner

Non-Visible • Philosophy • Beliefs • Value System

• Educational Development Project reveals that community and home variables have greater impact on learning than school factors. Does this exist in Guatemala?????????

Factors: • Use of electricity • Parental education • Parents’ perception of academic abilities and interests of the children • Parents’ attitude • Geography (Region) • School Type • Socio economic status of the Family

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Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Principles

• Behaviorism • Cognitive Development Psychology • Cognitive Field Psychology

In Guatemala, does CNB demonstrate inclusion of behaviorist psychological principles through the use of behavioral objectives, drills, practices, and homework reinforces learning. (RESEARCH)

HISTORICAL CONTEXT • Research on Guatemala´s Historical Context. • Create a timeline. - Pre-Spanish Curriculum …… - Expansion and reform in the Guatemalan curriculum. - Liberation Period Curriculum

CURRICULUM APPROACHES

Curriculum Approaches • 1. Technical – Scientific Approaches • 2. Behavioral-rational Approach • 3. System-managerial Approach • 4. Intellectual –Academic Approach • 5. Non-Technician / Non-Scientific Approach • 6. Humanistic – aesthetic Approach • 7. Re-conceptualist Approach • 8. Reconstructionism • 9. Eclectic Models

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Technical – Scientific Approach • The curriculum developers which may include specialists, superintendents, principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use

instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures, and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation

Behavioral-Rational Approach • It is a means-end approach. Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process. • Viewing the curriculum as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation.

Bases of Technical Scientific Approach Systems-Managerial Approach • 1. The curriculum will improve as the professional competence of teachers improves. • 2. The competence of teachers will improve when they participate in curriculum development • 3. When teachers share in shaping the goals and selecting the content and method of instruction as well as evaluating results, their involvement is assured. • 4. When people interact during face-to-face sessions, they will better understand one another.

• 1. Motivate interest. • 2. Encourage participation and involvement . • 3. Synthesize divergent viewpoints • 4. Monitor curriculum implementation • 5. Create a climate of innovation and change

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Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach Intellectual- Academic Approach

• Emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. • This model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey

Non-Technical / Non-Scientific Approaches

• Flexible and less structured without predetermined objectives to guide the learning-teaching process • Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be known in all cases.

• Argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal aspects of curriculum and instruction. • It is rooted in progressive philosophy which promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers.

Reconceptualist Approach • Criticizes the technocratic – scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and experience of individuals. • Reflects on existentialist orientation. • The aim of education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order.

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Reconstructionism

• The school is an institution of social reform. • Criticizes the progressivisms for putting too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.

Eclectic Models • Oftentimes, educators, in particular, prefer eclectic models which are a combination of several approaches, rather than commit themselves to one particular approach only. • Eclectic models are not mere patchwork but a synthesis where desired features from several models are selected and integrated into a new whole.

•Analyze CNB and if working on own English Curriculum and decide which of the models is applied.

Curriculum Design

• The Subject-Area Design • The Integrated Design • The Core-Curriculum Design • The Child-Centered Design • The Social Reconstruction Design • The De-schooling Design

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Subject – Centered Design • FOCUS - A group of subjects or subject matter that represent the essential knowledge and values of society that have survived the test of time. • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Essentialism • PROPOENT / S – Adler, Hutchins

Integrated Design

• FOCUS - the integration of two or more subjects, both within and across disciplines, into an integrated course. • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Experimentalism

• PROPONENT / S – Broudy, Silberman

Core Curriculum Design • FOCUS – a common body of curriculum content and learning experience that should be encountered by all students – The great books • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Perennialism • PROPONENT /S – Goodlad / Boyer

Child-Centered Design • FOCUS – Learning activities centered around the interests and needs of the child, designed to motivate and interest the child in the learning process. • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Progressivism • PROPONENT / S – Dewey , Eisner

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Social Reconstructionist • FOCUS – critical analysis of the political, social, and economic problems facing society; future trends; social action projects designed to bring about social change. • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Social Reconstruction • PROPONENT / S – Shane , Bramald

Deschooling • FOCUS – in-school experiences, primarily in the social sciences, designed to develop the child’s sense of freedom from the domination of the political, social, and economic systems; out of school experiences of equal value. • PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION – Social Reconstructionism • PROPONENT /S - Freire , Goodman

IMPLEMENTATION

IMPLEMENTATION MODELS

1. Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORC) 2. Leadership Obstacle Course (LOC) 3. Linkage Model 4. Organizational Development (OD) 5. Rand Change Agent Model

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ORC

* Focuses on overcoming staff resistance to change that is present immediately before, or at the time of the introduction of the innovation.

LOC

• Extends the ORC model and puts emphasis on the gathering of data to determine the extent and nature of the resistance in order to deal with it appropriately.

The Linkage Model

• The linkage process involves a cycle of diagnosis, search, retrieval, formulation of solution, dissemination and evaluation.

OD

• This model is an informationprocessing change strategy that enables the system to improve its operations and the quality of interactions among its members to facilitate the introduction of change.

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Rand Model • The Rand Model is based on the assumption that the success of the implementation of new program depends on: • A. The characteristics of the proposed change • B. Competencies of the teaching and administrative staff • C. The support of the local community • D. The School organizational structure

Factors Affecting the Choice of Implementation Model

1. Level of Resistance 2. Type of desired change 3. Available expertise 4. Available resources 5. Urgency of the situation

EVALUATION

DEFINITION OF EVALUATION Curriculum evaluation is a systematic process of determining whether the curriculum as designed and implemented has produced or is producing the intended and desired results.

It is the means of determining whether the program is meeting its goals, that is whether the measures / outcomes for a given set of instructional inputs match the intended or prespecified outcomes. (Tuckman, 1979)

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Types of Evaluation

1.Humanistic approach – goal free 2.Scientific approach – purpose driven

Research: Evaluation Studies in Guatemala

Objectives of Evaluation 1. Scope – (teaching –program-cost effectiveness) 2. Timing – (formative, summative, impact) 3. Method – ( quantitative, qualitative) 4. Level – (classroom, school, national) 5. Personnel involved – (individual teachers, committees, consultants)

Monitoring and Evaluation of CNB

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CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES Bilingual Education (L3)

Research project must be sent to teacher´s mail by April 26th, 2014 Must be presented in a formal and professional way. All in red must be answered. http://www.oakmeadow.com/curriculum/curriculum-samples.php

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UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA Escuela de Idiomas TEACHING ENGLISH TECHNIQUES II

21st Century Skills Rubrics to assess 21st Century Skills Activities to learn 21st Century Skills

Jaime G贸mez 5076-13-10967


What Are 21st-Century Skills? i Learning to collaborate with others and connect through technology are essential skills in a knowledge-based economy. Ways of thinking. Creativity, critical thinking, problem-solving, decision-making and learning Ways of working. Communication and collaboration Tools for working. Information and communications technology (ICT) and information literacy Skills for living in the world. Citizenship, life and career, and personal and social responsibility Putting Concepts Into Practice The ATC21S project has now moved from conceptual to practical, working with two skills that span all four categories: Collaborative problem-solving. Working together to solve a common challenge, which involves the contribution and exchange of ideas, knowledge or resources to achieve the goal. ICT literacy — learning in digital networks. Learning through digital means, such as social networking, ICT literacy, technological awareness and simulation. Each of these elements enables individuals to function in social networks and contribute to the development of social and intellectual capital.


What should assessment in the 21st century be like? ii a) Assessment should be balanced, inclusive of all students and designed to support improvement at all levels. b) Assessment should be responsive, feedback and formative assessment provide opportunities for self reflection and revision. c) Assessment should be flexible, responses of students need to be flexible, keeping in mind that their decisions, applications and actions vary. d) Assessment needs to be integrated, it needs to be incorporated on a day to day basis, stimulate thinking build prior to knowledge, construct meaning and metacognition. e) Assessment should include a spectrum of strategies. The process and product of learning is emphasized. Multiple methods for assessment should be used. f) Assessment should be communicated, results should be routinely posted on a database. Students should receive feedback routinely, recognizing achievements beyond test scores. g) Assessment should be precise and technically sound, producing accurate information for decision making in all circumstances.

21st Century Assessment Strategies Skills like problem solving, critical thinking, metacognition and creativity can be effectively assessed only with thoughtfully matched measures.

Rubrics1 They are the most specific 21st century measures as they are closely aligned with standards and outcomes . They include explicit indicators of achievements at multiple levels. 1) Checklists: These can be used when the students are in the process of learning or on the completion of an activity. These may include traits such as: Listening quietly when others speak, Shares ideas clearly and concisely, is respectful of divergent ides, etc. 2) Reflections: Self-assessments. These are lifelong skills that can be developed and supported in the classroom. Essential elements may include review learning, identifying confusion, providing evidence of learning, evaluating progress, planning and improving outcomes. 3) Peer-review: It should be non-judgmental. A checklist that pinpoints specific learning outcomes can be helpful for the students. 4) Teacher Observation: It may include informal observation as in group discussion or a formal observation as in a Socratic seminar. It provides an assessment of students understanding and ability to use 21st century skills.

1

http://rubistar.4teachers.org


5) Logs: This helps students to keep track of work towards a target. They can be used the teachers or students to show progress towards specific benchmarks. 6) Concept Maps: Graphic organizers can be used to assess student knowledge, understanding and critical thinking. Assessment can be based on depth of knowledge, ability to sort and organize information and other targets. 7) Journals: They provide a window into students thinking and learning. They can be used to express creative ideas on a topic, reflect on controversial topics or describe points of confusion. 8) Questioning: Formal and informal questioning can be used to help students move beyond recall to higher cognitive levels. It can be used to assess previous learning and establish mindset for a new learning.

Example of learning activities of 21st century skills Learning Activity 01 - Primary School Language Arts - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZJp1j_IxiKY Learning Activity 02 - Primary School Math - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEiXmZeUGgI Learning Activity 05 - Middle School Language Arts - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zBuy63AyUqI Learning Activity 08 - High School Language Arts - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RK3FaY6585s Learning Activity 09 - High School Math - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=htKJ8VHnDHc i

ii

What Are 21st-Century Skills. http://atc21s.org/index.php/about/what-are-21st-century-skills/

Youtube. Assessing 21st Century Skills. Harleen Singh. Publicado el 31/10/2013. http://youtu.be/6qqWsHBeRfM


Independent Reading - Beginner : Reading

Teacher Name: Mr. Gomez

Student Name: CATEGORY Respects others

________________________________________ 4 Student reads quietly and stays in one place in the reading area.

Stays on task

Student reads the entire period. This may be independent reading or done with adult or peer Chooses Appropriate Student chooses a Books book which s/he has not read before, which is at or above grade level, or has Focus on story/article Student is lost in the story. There\'s no looking around or flipping through the pages. Tries to understand Stops reading when it doesn\'t make sense and reads parts again. Looks up words s/he doesn\'t know. Understands story Student knows the elements title of the story as well as the names and descriptions of the important characters. Thinks about the Student accurately story/article describes what has happened in the story and tries to predict \"what will happen Thinks about the Student describes characters how different characters might have felt at different points in the story and points Date Created: Feb 18, 2014 10:20 pm (CST)

3 Student reads quietly. S/he moves around once or twice but does not distract others. Student reads almost all (80% or more) of the period.

2 Student makes 1-2 comments or noises when reading, but stays in one place in reading area. Student reads some (50% or more) of the time.

1 Student reads loudly, makes repeated comments or noises OR fidgets and moves about often, Student wastes a lot of reading time.

Student chooses a book which s/he has never read before and which is slightly below his/her reading level. Student seems to be enjoying and moving through the story, but takes some short breaks. Stops reading when it doesn\'t make sense and tries to use strategies to get through the tricky Student knows the names and descriptions of the important characters and where the story Student accurately describes what has happened in the story.

Student chooses a book s/he has read once before that is close to his/her reading level and was Student seems to be reading the story, but doesn\'t seem to be very interested. Takes a few short breaks. Stops reading when it doesn\'t makes sense and asks for assistance.

Student chooses a book that s/he has read many times before or which is more than one grade Pretends to read the story. Mostly looks around or fiddles with things.

Student knows the names OR descriptions of the important characters in the story. Student accurately describes most of what happened in the story.

Student has trouble naming and describing the characters in the story.

Student describes how different characters might have felt at different points in the story, but does

Student describes how different characters might have felt at different points in the story, but does

Student cannot describe how different characters might have felt at different points in the

Gives up entirely OR plows on without trying to understand the story.

Student has difficulty re-telling the story.


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA Escuela de Idiomas TEACHING ENGLISH TECHNIQUES II

COMPETENCES ACTIVITY

JAIME EMMANUEL GOMEZ VELIZ 5076-13-10967


Subject English I Topic Greetings and leave-takings Action Verb(s) Uses and Comprehend What Greetings and leave-takings Where In real conversation How When meeting or introducing new people. Uses and comprehends greetings and leave-takings in real life conversations in a diversity of contexts.

Subject Topic Action Verb(s) What

English II Shopping Analyzes and Communicates Where and what to buy for his/her family members. Where In his/her family or community How When writing down a Christmas shopping list. Analyzes and communicates by applying prior knowledge on best places to buy gifts for his/her family members or peers. Subject Topic Action Verb(s) What

English II Shopping II Interviews and Calculates A shop clerk of a store to find out the price of a given item on his/her shopping list. Where In real life conversation. How When speaking to a shop clerk. Interviews a shop clerk applying prior English language knowledge and calculates if he/she is able to buy an item on a list. Subject Topic Action Verb(s) What Where How

English I Community places Names and Identifies Community places In his/her community When presented with a picture of the building or place. Names and identifies diverse community places in his/her community by looking and analyzing buildings.


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA Escuela de Idiomas Teaching English Techniques II

Summary of Chapters 1-2-3 Methodology of in Language Teaching An Anthology of Current Practice

Jaime Emmanuel G贸mez V茅liz 5076-13-10967


Chapter I English Language Teaching in the "Post-Method" Era: Toward Better Diagnosis, Treatment, and Assessment Introduction There has been search for an ideal method, that may be generalizable across audiences that would teach students a foreign language. Edward Antony came up with three elements to describe a method, they are Approach, Method, and Technique. Approach is then a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language, learning and teaching. Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based on a selected approach. Techniques are specific classroom activities consistent with a method, and therefore in harmony with an approach as well. However for a practicing teacher, method is the set of theoretically unified classroom techniques that work and get the job done across a wide variety of context and audiences.

Methods: A Century-Old Obsession These are some possible reasons why methods are no longer the milestones of language teaching journey: 1. Methods are too prescriptive and over generalize their potential in the application of practical situations. 2. Methods are distinctive in the early and beginning stages of language course but later on classrooms can look like any other learner-centered curriculum. 3. Methods tried to verify language pedagogy through empirical validation or scientific quantifications. 4. Methods were often used to carry political agendas, or "interested knowledge". David Nunan summed it up in this way: There never been and probably never will be a method for all, and the current focus is on developing tasks and activities to help second language acquisition be dynamic in the classroom.

A Principled Approach We didn't need new methods, what we needed is unifying our approach to language teaching and designing more effective tasks and techniques based on our current approach. We need to learn to make enlightened choices of teaching practices that are grounded in the best we know about learning and teaching a second language, because we have enough research on learning and teaching in many contexts to formulate an integrated approach to language pedagogy.


Our approach to language teaching is where everything happens in the classroom, and the knowledge and principles that makes us teachers, turns us into "technicians" in the classroom, to diagnose the needs of students and to treat students with the successful pedagogical techniques, and to assess the outcome of such treatments. This is the reason an approach to language pedagogy is a dynamic composition of energies within a teacher that are in continuous change according to the experience in learning and teaching. There is many new findings and that are pouring in to assume a teacher knows everything that is needed to be known about language teaching. That is why two reasons for the variation of the approach must be applied: 1. An approach is dynamic and needs tinkering according to the observation and experience of the teacher. 2. Research in second language acquisition and pedagogy yields evidence to interpretation and not to conclusion. That is why the interaction between one's approach and classroom practice is the key to dynamic teaching. Inspiration and innovation come from the approach level, but real feedback that reshapes and modifies learning and teaching comes from implementation of new ideas.

Twelve Principles Viable current approaches to language teaching are "principled", that is a finite number of general research-based principles on which classroom practice is grounded. These principles are: 1. Automaticity: The way a student allows his knowledge of second language to become automatic without searching for forms or rules while communicating in the second language. 2. Meaningful Learning: This kind of learning will lead toward long term retention than rote learning will. 3. Anticipation of Reward: Keeping the student engaged in the classroom is necessary to allow learning of the second language to occur and this can be achieved by creating a moment to moment anticipation of rewards. 4. Intrinsic Motivation: Before meaningful learning may occur the student must be motivated to receive this learning. 5. Strategic Investment: The student has to make an effort to practice and understand inside and outside the classroom what he/she has learned. 6. Language Ego: Students may become defensive when their current knowledge of the language is not enough to fully communicate. 7. Self-Confidence: A student needs self-esteem to attain success in learning the second language.


8. Risk Taking: To produce and interpret a language must be willing to gamble to become successful language learners. 9. The Language-Culture Connection: To teach a language is to teach the culture where that language comes from. 10. The Native Language Effect: It is the way the student uses his mother language to anticipate how to produce the second language. It has both a positive and negative effect on the learning of the second language. However interfering effects are the more salient and the teacher should know them to address them early on. 11. Interlanguage: The "in-between" combination of the second language being learned and the mother language already known when the intermediate level student uses the second language to communicate in non rehearsed situations. 12. Communicative Competence: What learning a second language is all about, being able to use the second language to communicate to others ideas in a clear and effective way.

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Assessment The use of a principled approach encourages the engagement of a process of diagnosis, treatment and assessment to account for a communicative and situation diagnosis of the appropriate way to assess what went right or want went wrong in a lesson and to evaluate the accomplishment of the objectives.

Diagnosis The first phase of diagnostic of second language teaching begins with the creation of a curricular plan and continues with the ongoing assessment of students achievements in the classroom. The teacher then must plan with a diagnostic already made, however this is not something easily accomplished as there are complex questions to answer and the teacher does not possess the tools or methods to find these answers.

Treatment The teacher may think that "treatment" is the appropriate stage for the application of methods, however, treatments are actually sets of learning experiences, designed to target learner needs exposed by diagnostic assessments. The huge amount of controlled, semi-controlled and free practice language techniques is at the teacher disposal. It is the teacher's task to carefully and deliberately choose among these options to formulate a pedagogical sequence of techniques in the classroom, this is where the principles to use must be chosen by the teacher. One way to do this is by to recognize what principle promotes the desired goal. By careful delivery of techniques that incorporate principles to achieve goals, the teachers can be more assured of offering treatments that are specifically designed to accomplish such goals. This is far more effective than just grabbing the more sophisticated approach or method and programming it into a course of study regardless of diagnosed student needs. The next ten considerations are good language learning/teaching characteristic that would be wise to foster among students of second language classrooms.


1. Lower inhibitions: Play games, use group work, have them share with each other in small groups. 2. Encourage Risk Taking: Praise students for making sincere effort to try the language. 3. Build student's self-confidence: Tell students explicitly that you do indeed believe in them. 4. Help students develop intrinsic motivation: Remind students about the rewards for learning English. 5. Promote cooperative learning: Direct students to share their knowledge. 6. Help students to use right-brain processing: Get them to talk or write a lot without being corrected. 7. Promote ambiguity tolerance: Encourage to ask the teacher or each other. 8. Help students use their intuition: Praise students for good guesses. 9. Get students to make their mistakes work for them: Get them to identify their errors and work on them. 10. Get students to set their own goals: Encourage students to go beyond the classroom goals.

Assessment The methods of old offered nothing in the way of assessment techniques; at the very best they may have implied a continuing process of assessment as the method is being practiced. With formative process of assessment in place, teachers can make appropriate midcourse pedagogical changes to a more effectively reach goals.

Chapter II Theories of teaching in Language Teaching Science-Research Conceptions These conceptions of language teaching are derived from research and are supported by experimentation and empirical investigation.

Operationalizing learning principles This approach involves developing teaching principles from research on memory, transfer, motivation, and other factors believed to be important in learning. Proponent of other approaches believe the process of negotiating with the speaker of the target language, the learner receives the kind of input needed to facilitate learning, while other cognitive styles and learning strategies use the introspection of their learning strategies and the probing of learners in other ways, to successfully create learning strategies that are identified and can be taught to other learners.

Following a tested model of teaching it applies the results of empirical or experimental research to teaching, with a view of good teaching developed through logical reasoning and previous research; good teaching is defined in terms of specific acts. This research has established the contribution of these to the quality of classroom interaction in second language classrooms. Teacher's question use and wait time before


and after training and it was found that the training modules affected teaching behaviors, and that the new behavior affected students participation patterns i ways believed to be significant for these students language acquisition, with approaches of this kind, specific teaching behaviors such as questioning pattern bring about second language acquisition a conception of good teaching identified and validated.

Doing what effective teachers do To develop a theory of teaching is to derive teaching principles from studies of the practices of effective teachers. This involves identifying effective teachers and then studying their practices. These teachers are typically defined as those whose students perform better on standardized achievement tests. These teachers have such abilities as to clearly specify the instruction and belief that student can achieve accuracy in tasks, organization and delivery of instructions in the tasks that must be accomplished, and being able to get the intended outcomes. Twelve characteristics of effective teaching are identified(Blum, 1984): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Instruction is guided by a preplanned curriculum There are high expectations for student learning. Students are carefully oriented to lessons. Instruction is clear and focused. Learning progress is monitored closely. When students do not understand, they are retaught. Class time is used for learning. There are smooth and efficient classroom routines. Instructional groups formed in the classroom fit instructional needs. Standards for classroom behavior are high. Personal interactions between teachers and students are positive. Incentives and rewards for students are used to promote excellence.

Theory-Philosophy Conceptions Teaching conceptions which are derived from what ought to work are essentially theory-based or rationalist in approach, whereas those which are derived from beliefs about what is views as morally right are values-based approaches.

Theory-Based Approaches Conceptions underlying many teaching methods can be characterized as theory-based or rationalist in approach. This suggest that the theory underlying the methods is ascertained through the use of reason or rational thought. Systematic and principles thinking, rather than empirical investigation, is used to support the method. Methods such as Communicative Language Teaching, the Silent Way, are examples of such approaches.

Values-Based Approaches Certain approaches are viewed as politically justifiable and other seen as not morally, ethically, or politically supportable. Values-based approaches in education are not hard to identify.


Humanistic approaches in language teaching refer to approaches which emphasize the development of human values, growth in self-awareness and in the understanding of others, sensitivity to human feelings and emotions, and active student involvement in learning and in the way human learning takes place. Learned-centered curriculum is one of a number o f terms used to refers to approaches to language teaching which are based on the belief that learners are self-directed, responsible decision makers, they are seen to learn in different ways, and to have different needs and interest. Reflective teaching is an approach to teaching which is based on a belief that teacher can improve their understanding of teaching and the quality of their own teaching by reflecting critically on their teaching experiences.

Art-Craft Conceptions Another way of conceptualizing teaching is to view it as an art or craft, and as something which depends on the teacher's individual skill and personality, the essence of this view of good teaching is invention and personalization, a good teacher is a person who assess the needs and possibilities of a situation and creates and uses practices that have promise that situation. Such approaches to teaching seek to develop teaching as a unique set of persona skills which teachers apply in different ways according to the demands of specific situations. Teacher decisionmaking is an essential competency in this approach, because a good teacher is seen as one who analyses a situation, realizes a that a range of option is available on particular circumstances.

The essential skills of teaching The different principles underlying the three conceptions of teaching can be summarized in terms of the following statements: 1. Science-Research Conceptions a. Understand the learning principles. b. Develop tasks and activities based on the learning principles. c. Monitor students' performance on task to see that desired performance is being achieved. 2. Theory-Philosophy Conceptions a. Understand the theory and the principles. b. Select syllabi, materials, and tasks based on the theory. c. Monitor your teaching to see that it conforms to the theory. 3. Values-Based Conceptions a. Understand the values behind the approach. b. Select only those educational means which conform to these values. c. Monitor the implementation process to ensure that the value system is being maintained. 4. Art-Craft Conceptions a. Treat each teaching situation as unique.


b. Identify the particular characteristics of each situation. c. Try out different teaching strategies. d. Develop personal approaches to teaching.

Chapter III Lesson Planning Why plan? Lessons plans are systematic records of a teacher's thoughts about what will be covered during a lesson. Lesson plans help the teacher think about the lesson in advance to resolve problems and difficulties, to provide a structure for a lesson, to provide a map for the teacher to follow, and to provide a record of what has been taught. There are internal and external reasons for planning lessons. Internal reasons in order to feel more confident, to learn the subject matter better, to enable lessons to run more smoothly, and to anticipate problems before they happen. External reasons in order to satisfy the expectations of the principal of supervisor to guide a substitute teacher in case the class needs one. Lesson planning is important for pre-service teachers because they may feel more of a need to control before the lesson begins. The benefits for English teachers are in the following way: a) A plan can help the teacher think about content, material, sequencing, timing, and activities. b) A plan provides security in the sometimes unpredictable atmosphere of a classroom. c) A plan is a log of what has been taught d) A plan can help a substitute to smoothly to take over a class when the teacher cannot teach.

Models of Lessons Planning The dominant model of lesson planning is Tyler's(1949) rational-linear framework. Tyler's model has four steps. 1. Specify objectives 2. Select learning activities 3. Organize learning activities and 4. Specify methods of evaluation. It is still used widely in spite of evidence that suggest that teacher rarely follow the sequential linear process outlined in the steps. Yinger (1980) developed an alternative model in which planning takes place in stages. The first stage consists of "problem conception" in which planning starts with a discovery cycle of the integration of the teacher's goals, knowledge, and experience. The second stage sees the problem formulated and a solution achieved. The third stage involves implementing the plan along with its evaluation. An interesting study by Bailey(1996) of six experienced English language teachers came with the following reason why teachers deviate from the original lesson plan. 1. Serve the common good. 2. Teach to the moment. 3. Further the lesson. 4. Accommodate students learning style. 5. Promote students involvement. 6. Distribute the wealth. These findings show that a teacher


decision making is a dynamic process involving teachers making choices before, during, and after each lesson.

How to plan a lesson Developing the plan An effective lesson plan starts with appropriate and clearly written objectives. An objective is a description of a learning outcome. Objectives describe the destination we want our students to reach. The first step in daily lesson planning are clear, well-written objectives. These help state precisely what we want our students to learn; they also give teachers a way to evaluate their students. It is necessary to describe what students will be able to do in terms of observable behavior and when using the foreign language, that is the reason why a teacher uses stating objectives is important. Action verbs such as identify, present, describe, explain, demonstrate, list, contrast, and debate are clearer and easier for teachers to design a lesson around. Use of these action verbs also makes it easier for the students to understand what will be expected from them in each lesson. After writing the lesson objectives, teachers must decide the activities to procedures they will use to ensure the successful attainment of these objectives. Planning at this stage means thinking the purposes and structures of the activities. A generic lesson plan has five phases: a) b) c) d) e)

Perspective or opening: The preview of the lesson. Stimulation: Engaging students about the content of the lesson. Instruction/participation: Presentation of the activities. Closure: Check for understanding. Follow-up: Reinforce concepts, re-teach in a small degree.

English language teachers should also realize that language lessons are different from other content lessons because the same concepts may need to be reinforced time and again using different methods.

Implementing the plan Implementing the plan is the most important and difficult phase of the daily lesson planning cycle. The lesson plan itself will retreat into the background as the reality of the class takes over. Experienced teachers know, it is easy to get sidetracked by unplanned events, Teachers should remember that the original plan was designed with specific intentions in mind and the plan was based on the teacher's diagnosis of the learning competence of the students. Teachers may need to make certain adjustments to the lesson at the implementation phase. When the lesson is obviously going baldly and the plan is not helping to produce the desired outcome or when something happens during an early part of the lesson that necessitate improvisation the teacher should make changes to the original plan immediately. Teachers should also try and monitor two important issues, lesson variety and lesson pacing.


Brown (1994) suggest the following guidelines for activities: 1. Activities should not be too long or too short. 2. Various techniques for delivering the activities should "flow" together. 3. There should be clear transitions between each activity. Teachers should remember to benefit their students instead of benefiting their own, then they can avoid falling into a the trap of racing through different activities just because they have been written on the lesson plan.

Evaluating the plan The final part of daily lesson planning happens after the lesson has ended however evaluation can take place during the lesson too, when the teacher evaluates the success or failure of the lesson. Brown(1994) says that without an evaluative component in the lesson, the teacher has no way of assessing the success of the students or what adjustments to make for the next lesson. Even though it may be difficult to judge how much has been learned in a lesson, Ur says that we can still make a guess based on our knowledge of the class, the type of activity they were engaged in, and some informal tests activities that give feedback on learning. for evaluation lesson effectiveness Ur offers the next criteria: 1. The class seemed to be learning the material well. 2. The learners were engaging with the foreign language throughout. 3. The learners were attentive all the time. 4. The learners enjoyed the lesson and were motivated. 5. The learners were active all the time. 6. The lesson went according to plan. 7. The language was used communicatively throughout.


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Chapter I English Language Teaching in the "Post-Method" Era: Toward Better Diagnosis, Treatment, and Assessment Introduction There has been search for an ideal method 1 , that may be generalizable across audiences that would teach students a foreign language . Edward Antony came up with three elements to describe a method , they are Approach, Method, and Technique. Approach is then a set of assumptions dealing with the nature of language , 1


learning and teaching . Method is an overall plan for systematic presentation of language based on a selected approach . Techniques are specific classroom activities consistent with a method , 2 3 4 and therefore in harmony with an approach as well . However ( However\ ) for a practicing teacher , method is the set of theoretically unified classroom techniques that work and get the job 5 done across a wide variety of context and audiences . Methods : A Century-Old Obsession These are some possible reasons why methods are no longer the milestones of language teaching journey : 1. Methods are too prescriptive and over generalize their potential in the application of practical situations . 2. Methods are distinctive in the early and beginning stages of language course but later on classrooms can look like any other learner-centered curriculum. 3. Methods tried to verify language pedagogy through empirical validation or scientific quantifications. 4. Methods were often used to carry political agendas , or " interested knowledge ". David Nunan summed it up in this way : There never been and probably never will be a method for all , and the current focus is on developing tasks and activities to help second language acquisition be 6 7 dynamic in the classroom. A Principled Approach We did n't ( did not ) need new methods , 8 what we needed is unifying our approach to language teaching and designing more effective tasks and techniques based on our current approach . We need to learn to make enlightened choices of teaching practices that are grounded in the best we know about learning and 9 teaching a second language , ( ___ ) because we have enough research on learning and teaching in many contexts to formulate an integrated approach to language pedagogy . 11 10 Our approach to language teaching is where everything happens in the classroom, 12 13 and the knowledge and principles that makes ( make ) us teachers , ( ___ ) turns us into " technicians " in the classroom, to diagnose the needs of students and to treat students with the successful pedagogical techniques , and to assess the 14 outcome of such treatments . This is the reason an approach to language pedagogy is a dynamic composition of energies within a teacher that are in continuous change according to 15 16 the experience ( experience ) in learning and teaching . There is ( are ) many new findings 17 and ( \, and ) that are pouring in to assume a teacher knows everything that is needed to be known about language teaching . That is why two reasons for the variation of the approach must be applied : 1. An approach is dynamic and needs tinkering according to the observation and experience of the teacher . 2. Research in second language acquisition and pedagogy yields evidence to interpretation and not to conclusion . That is why the interaction between one's approach and classroom practice is the key to dynamic teaching . Inspiration and innovation come from the approach level, but real feedback that reshapes and modifies learning and teaching comes from implementation of new ideas . Twelve Principles Viable current approaches to language teaching are "principled", that is a finite number of general research-based principles 18 on which classroom practice is grounded . These principles are: 1. Automaticity: The way a student allows his knowledge of second language to become automatic without searching for forms or rules while communicating in the second language . 2. Meaningful Learning: This 19 kind of learning will lead toward long term retention than rote learning will. 3. Anticipation of Reward: Keeping the student engaged in the classroom is necessary to allow learning of the second language to occur and this can be achieved by creating a moment to moment anticipation of rewards . 4. Intrinsic Motivation: Before meaningful learning may occur the student must be motivated to receive this learning . 5. Strategic Investment: The student has to make an effort to practice and understand inside and outside the classroom what he/she has learned . 6. Language Ego: Students may become defensive when their current knowledge of the language is not enough 20 to fully communicate . 7. Self-Confidence: A student needs self-esteem to attain success in learning the second language . 8. Risk Taking: To produce and interpret a language must be willing to gamble to become successful language learners . 9. The Language-Culture Connection: 21 To teach a language is to teach the culture where that language comes from. 10. The Native Language Effect: It is the way the student uses his mother language to anticipate how to produce the second language . It has both a positive and negative effect on the learning of 22 23 the second language . However interfering effects are the more salient and ( \, and ) 24 the teacher should know them to address them early on. 11. Interlanguage: The "in2


between" combination of the second language being learned and the mother language already known when the intermediate level student uses the second language to communicate in non rehearsed situations . 12. Communicative Competence: What learning a second language is all about , being able to use the second language to communicate to others ideas in a clear and 25 effective way . Diagnosis , Treatment, and Assessment The use of a principled approach encourages the engagement of a process of diagnosis , treatment and assessment to account for a communicative and situation diagnosis of the appropriate way to assess what went right or want went wrong in a lesson and to evaluate the accomplishment of the objectives . Diagnosis The first phase of diagnostic of second language teaching begins with the creation of a curricular plan and continues with the ongoing assessment of students achievements in the classroom. The 26 teacher then must plan with a diagnostic already made , however this is not something easily 27 accomplished as there are complex questions to answer ( complex questions to answer\ ) and the teacher does not possess the tools or methods to find these answers . Treatment The 28 teacher may think that ( ___ ) " treatment " is the appropriate stage for the application of methods , however , treatments are actually sets of learning experiences , 29 designed to target learner needs exposed by diagnostic assessments . The huge amount of controlled, semi-controlled and free practice language techniques is at the teacher disposal . It 30 is the teacher 's task to carefully and deliberately choose among these options to formulate 31 a pedagogical sequence of techniques in the classroom , this is where the principles to use must be chosen by the teacher . One way to do this is by to recognize what principle promotes the desired goal . By careful delivery of techniques that incorporate principles to achieve goals , the teachers can be more assured of offering treatments that are specifically designed to accomplish such goals . This is far more effective than just grabbing the more sophisticated approach or method and programming it into a course of study regardless of diagnosed student needs . The next ten considerations are good language learning/teaching characteristic that would be wise to foster among students of second language classrooms. 1. Lower inhibitions : Play games , use group work , have them share with each other in small groups . 2. Encourage Risk Taking: Praise 32 students for making sincere effort ( the sincere effort, a sincere effort ) to try the language . 33 3. Build student 's self-confidence : Tell students explicitly that you do indeed believe in them. 4. Help students develop intrinsic motivation : Remind students about the rewards for learning English. 5. Promote cooperative learning : Direct students to share their knowledge . 6. Help students to use right-brain processing: Get them to talk or write a lot without being corrected . 7. Promote ambiguity tolerance : Encourage to ask the teacher or each other . 8. Help students use their intuition : Praise students for good guesses . 9. Get students to make their mistakes work for them: Get them to identify their errors and work on them. 10. Get students to set their own goals : Encourage students to go beyond the classroom goals . Assessment The methods of old offered nothing in the way of assessment techniques ; at the very best they may have implied a continuing process of assessment as the method is being practiced . With formative process of assessment in place , teachers can make appropriate midcourse pedagogical changes to a more effectively 34 reach goals . Chapter II Theories of teaching in Language Teaching Science-Research Conceptions These conceptions of language teaching are derived from research and are supported by experimentation and empirical investigation . Operationalizing learning principles This approach 35 involves developing teaching principles from research on memory , transfer , motivation , and other factors believed to be important in learning . Proponent of other approaches believe the process of negotiating with the speaker of the target language , the learner receives the kind 36 of input needed to facilitate learning , ( ___ ) while other cognitive styles and learning strategies use the introspection of their learning strategies and the probing of learners 37 in other ways , to successfully create learning strategies that are identified and can be 38 39 41 40 taught to other learners . Following a tested model of teaching it ( It ) applies the results of empirical or experimental research to teaching , with a view of good teaching developed through logical reasoning and previous research ; good teaching is defined in 42 terms of specific acts . This research has established the contribution of these to the quality of classroom interaction in second language classrooms. Teacher 's question use and wait time 3


43

before and after training and ( \, and ) it was found that the training modules affected 44 teaching behaviors , ( ___ ) and that the new behavior affected students participation patterns i ways believed to be significant for these students language acquisition , with approaches of this kind , specific teaching behaviors such as questioning pattern bring about second language acquisition a conception of good teaching identified and validated . 45 Doing what effective teachers do To develop a theory of teaching is to derive teaching principles from studies of the practices of effective teachers . This involves identifying effective teachers and then studying their practices . These teachers are typically defined as those whose students 46 perform better on standardized achievement tests . These teachers have such abilities 47 48 as to clearly specify the instruction and belief that student ( the student, a student ) can achieve accuracy in tasks , organization and delivery of instructions in the tasks that must be accomplished , and being able to get the intended outcomes . Twelve characteristics of effective teaching are identified( Blum, 1984): 1. Instruction is guided by a preplanned curriculum 2. There are high expectations for student learning . 3. Students are carefully oriented to lessons . 4. Instruction is clear and focused . 5. Learning progress is monitored closely . 6. When students do 49 not understand , they are retaught . 7. Class time is used for learning . 8. There are smooth and efficient classroom routines . 9. Instructional groups formed in the classroom fit instructional needs . 10. Standards for classroom behavior are high . 11. Personal interactions between teachers and students are positive . 12. Incentives and rewards for students are used to promote excellence . Theory-Philosophy Conceptions Teaching conceptions which are derived from what ought to 50 work are essentially theory-based or rationalist in approach , whereas those which are derived from beliefs about what is views as morally right are values-based approaches . Theory-Based Approaches Conceptions underlying many teaching methods can be characterized as theory-based or rationalist in approach . This suggest that the theory underlying the methods is ascertained through the use of reason or rational thought . Systematic and principles thinking , rather than empirical investigation , is used to support the method . Methods such as Communicative Language Teaching, the Silent Way, are examples of such approaches . Values-Based Approaches Certain approaches are viewed as politically justifiable and other seen as not morally , ethically, or politically supportable . Values-based approaches in education are not hard to identify . Humanistic approaches in language teaching refer to approaches which emphasize the development of human values , growth in self-awareness and in the understanding of others, sensitivity to human feelings and emotions , and active student involvement in learning and in the way human learning takes 51 52 place . Learned-centered curriculum is one of a number o f terms used t o refe ( refer ) rs to approaches to language teaching which are based on the belief that learners are self-directed, 53 responsible decision makers , they are seen to learn in different ways , and to have different needs and interest . Reflective teaching is an approach to teaching which is based on a belief 54 that teacher ( the teacher, a teacher ) can improve their understanding of teaching and 55 the quality of their own teaching by reflecting critically on their teaching experiences . ArtCraft Conceptions Another way of conceptualizing teaching is to view it as an art or craft , and as something which depends on the teacher 's individual skill and personality , the essence of this view of good teaching is invention and personalization, a good teacher is a person who assess the needs 56 and possibilities of a situation and creates and uses practices that have promise ( promised ) that situation . Such approaches to teaching seek to develop teaching as a unique set of persona skills which teachers apply in different ways according to the demands of specific 57 58 59 situations . Teacher decision-making is an essential competency in this approach , ( ___ ) because a good teacher is seen as one who analyses a situation , realizes a that a 60 61 range of option ( the option ) is available on particular circumstances . The essential 62 skills of teaching The different principles underlying the three conceptions of teaching can be summarized in terms of the following statements : 1. Science-Research Conceptions a. Understand the learning principles . b. Develop tasks and activities based on the learning principles . c. Monitor students ' performance on task to see that desired performance is being achieved . 2. Theory63 Philosophy Conceptions a. Understand the theory and the principles ( principles ) . b. Select syllabi, materials , and tasks based on the theory . c. Monitor your teaching to see that it conforms 4


to the theory . 3. Values-Based Conceptions a. Understand the values behind the approach . b. Select only those educational means which conform to these values . c. Monitor the implementation process to ensure that the value system is being maintained . 4. Art-Craft Conceptions a. Treat 64 each teaching situation as unique . b. Identify the particular characteristics of each 65 situation . c. Try out different teaching strategies . d. Develop personal approaches to teaching . Chapter III Lesson Planning Why plan ? Lessons plans are systematic records of a teacher 's thoughts about what will be covered during a lesson . Lesson plans help the teacher think about the lesson in advance to resolve problems and difficulties , to provide a structure for a lesson , to provide a map for the teacher to follow , and to provide a record of what has 66 been taught . There are internal and external reasons for planning lessons . Internal reasons in order to feel more confident , to learn the subject matter better , to enable lessons to 67 run more smoothly , and to anticipate problems before they happen . External reasons 68 in order to satisfy the expectations of the principal of supervisor ( the supervisor ) to guide a substitute teacher in case the class needs one. Lesson planning is important for pre-service 69 teachers because they may feel more of a need to control before the lesson begins . The benefits for English teachers are in the following way : a) A plan can help the teacher think about content, material , sequencing, timing, and activities . b) A plan provides security in the sometimes unpredictable atmosphere of a classroom. c) A plan is a log of what has been taught d) A plan can help a substitute to smoothly to take over a class when the teacher cannot teach . 70 71 Models of Lessons Planning The dominant model of lesson planning is Tyler 's ( 's ) (1949) rational-linear framework . Tyler's model has four steps . 1. Specify objectives 2. Select learning activities 3. Organize learning activities and 4. Specify methods of evaluation. It is still used widely in spite of evidence that suggest that teacher rarely follow the sequential linear 72 process outlined in the steps . Yinger (1980) developed an alternative model in which planning takes place in stages . The first stage consists of " problem conception " in which planning starts with a discovery cycle of the integration of the teacher 's goals , knowledge , and experience . The second stage sees the problem formulated and a solution achieved . The third stage involves implementing the plan along with its evaluation. An interesting study by Bailey(1996) of six experienced English language teachers came with the following reason why teachers deviate from the original lesson plan . 1. Serve the common good . 2. Teach to the moment . 3. Further the lesson . 4. Accommodate students learning style . 5. Promote students involvement . 6. Distribute the wealth . These findings show that a teacher decision making is a dynamic process involving teachers making choices before, during, and after each lesson . How to plan a lesson 73 74 Developing the plan An effective lesson plan starts with appropriate and clearly written objectives . An objective is a description of a learning outcome . Objectives describe the destination 75 76 we want our students to reach . The first step in daily lesson planning are clear , well-written 77 objectives . These help state precisely what we want our students to learn ; they also give teachers a way to evaluate their students . It is necessary to describe what students will be able to 78 do in terms of observable behavior and ( \, and ) when using the foreign language , that is the reason why a teacher uses stating objectives is important . Action verbs such as identify , present , describe , explain , demonstrate , list , contrast , and debate are clearer and easier for teachers 79 to design a lesson around . Use of these action verbs also makes it easier for the students ( students ) to understand what will be expected from them in each lesson . After writing the lesson objectives , teachers must decide the activities to procedures they will use to ensure 80 the successful attainment of these objectives . Planning at this stage means thinking the purposes and structures of the activities . A generic lesson plan has five phases : a) Perspective or opening : The preview of the lesson . b) Stimulation: Engaging students about the content of the lesson . c) Instruction/participation: Presentation of the activities . d) Closure: Check for understanding . e) Follow-up: Reinforce concepts , re-teach in a small degree . English language teachers should also realize that language lessons are different from other content lessons because the same concepts may need to be reinforced time and again using different 81 82 methods . Implementing the plan Implementing the plan is the most important and difficult phase of the daily lesson planning cycle . The lesson plan itself will retreat into the background as 83 the reality of the class takes over. Experienced teachers know , it is easy to get sidetracked 5


by unplanned events , Teachers should remember that the original plan was designed with specific intentions in mind and the plan was based on the teacher 's diagnosis of the 84 learning competence of the students . Teachers may need to make certain adjustments to the 85 lesson at the implementation phase . When the lesson is obviously going baldly ( badly ) 86 and ( \, and ) the plan is not helping to produce the desired outcome or when something happens during an early part of the lesson that necessitate improvisation the teacher should 87 make changes to the original plan immediately . Teachers should also try and monitor two 88 important issues , lesson variety and lesson pacing. Brown (1994) suggest ( suggests ) the following guidelines for activities : 1. Activities should not be too long or too short . 2. Various 89 techniques for delivering the activities should " flow " together . 3. There should be clear transitions between each activity . Teachers should remember to benefit their students 90 91 instead of benefiting their own , then they can avoid falling into a the ( a ) trap ( trap ) of racing through different activities just because they have been written on the lesson plan . Evaluating 92 the plan The final part of daily lesson planning happens after the lesson has ended however 93 evaluation can take place during the lesson too , when the teacher evaluates the success or failure of the lesson . Brown(1994) says that without an evaluative component in the lesson , the teacher has no way of assessing the success of the students or what adjustments to 94 make for the next lesson . Even though it may be difficult to judge how much has been 95 learned in a lesson , Ur says that we can still make a guess based on our knowledge of the class , the type of activity they were engaged in, and some informal tests activities that 97 96 98 give feedback on learning . for ( For ) evaluation lesson effectiveness ( for evaluation lesson effectiveness\ ) Ur offers the next criteria : 1. The class seemed to be learning the material 99 well . 2. The learners were engaging with the foreign language throughout. 3. The learners were attentive all the time . 4. The learners enjoyed the lesson and were motivated . 5. The learners were active all the time . 6. The lesson went according to plan . 7. The language was used 100 communicatively throughout. Writing issues in this paragraph: 1 Comma splice separates two independent clauses instead of conjunction or semicolon. 2 Comma-mark missing where expected. 3 Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. 4 Comma-mark missing where expected. 5 Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. 6 Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. 7 Contraction use 8 Personal pronoun may not be appropriate for formal or academic writing. 9 Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. 10 Squinting modifier 11 Personal pronoun may not be appropriate for formal or academic writing. 12 Verb does not agree with subject. 13 Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. 14 Infinitive phrase unnecessary, replace with finite verb or noun phrase. 15 Review this sentence for article use 16 Verb does not agree with subject. 17 No comma before coordinating conjunction. 18 Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. 19 Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. 20 Infinitive verb split by modifier. 21 Preposition is placed at the end of sentence. 6


22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67

Superlative may not require use of word "more". No comma before coordinating conjunction. Preposition is placed at the end of sentence. Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Comma-mark missing where expected. No comma before coordinating conjunction. Conjunction "That" used incorrectly before quotation marks. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Infinitive verb split by modifier. Comma splice separates two independent clauses instead of conjunction or semicolon. Review this sentence for article use Personal pronoun may not be appropriate for formal or academic writing. Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Comma splice separates two independent clauses instead of conjunction or semicolon. Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. Infinitive verb split by modifier. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Sentence is excessively wordy Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Review this sentence for capital letters. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. No comma before coordinating conjunction. Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. Sentence is excessively wordy Incomplete comparison. Infinitive verb split by modifier. Review this sentence for article use Comma splice separates two independent clauses instead of conjunction or semicolon. Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. Punctuation misused in this sentence. 'to' + non-base form Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. Review this sentence for article use Sentence is excessively wordy Verb in perfect tense is not in the right verb form (missing a past participle). Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Comma misuse: unnecessary, unexpected or excessive use of comma. Review this sentence for article use Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Review this sentence for article use Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Infinitive phrase unnecessary, replace with finite verb or noun phrase. Infinitive phrase unnecessary, replace with finite verb or noun phrase. 7


68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100

Review this sentence for article use Incomplete comparison. Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Spelling Comma-mark missing where expected. Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Personal pronoun may not be appropriate for formal or academic writing. Noun and Verb Number Agreement Personal pronoun may not be appropriate for formal or academic writing. No comma before coordinating conjunction. Review this sentence for article use Dependent phrase may not properly modify subject in main clause of this sentence. Sentence is excessively wordy Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Comma splice separates two independent clauses instead of conjunction or semicolon. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Commonly confused words No comma before coordinating conjunction. Sentence is excessively wordy Noun and Verb Number Agreement Review your work for missing verbs. Two consecutive articles, e.g. 'the a' Review this sentence for article use Sentence is incomplete or is a sentence fragment. Comma-mark missing where expected. Comma-mark missing where expected. Personal pronoun may not be appropriate for formal or academic writing. Determiner or modifier is potentially unnecessary. Review this sentence for capital letters. Comma-mark missing where expected. Preposition is placed at the end of sentence. Preposition is placed at the end of sentence.

8


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA Escuela de Idiomas TEACHING ENGLISH TECHNIQUES II

COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRUCTURES COOPERATIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES TO INCORPORATE COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN CLASSROOMS

Jaime G贸mez 5076-13-10967


Kagan Structures There are over 150 Kagan Structures. Structures have different functions. Some are designed to produce master of high consensus content, others to produce thinking skills, and yet others foster communication skills. A few favorite Kagan Structures are described in the table: Sample Kagan Structures.

Advantages of Kagan Structures for English Language Learners.


Techniques on Cooperative Learning 1. Group Discussion: This is the simplest of all cooperative learning structures. At various times during a presentation, ask the participants to discuss the topic with someone sitting near them. It's a two step process . . talk it over and share your ideas. 2. J i g s a w : This structure can be used in a variety of ways for mastery, concept development, discussion and whole group projects. The simplest form, Within Team Jigsaw, has three basic steps. a. Each participant from a team works alone, mastering a bit of information. b. Participants do a round robin within teams to share their knowledge with teammates. c. There is an assessment of all students on all material. 3. Guess-the-Fib: This can be played either within teams or within the class. When played within teams, participants try to fool their teammates; when played within the class, teams try to fool other teams. The idea is simple. In Guess-the Fib students state two rather unbelievable facts and one believable fib. They announce all three as facts, and it is the job of the teammates, or other teams to guess which one is the fib. Finger responses can be used with Guess-the Fib. Students simply hold up one, two, or three fingers, depending on which statement they believe is the fib. 4. Inside-Outside Circle: Participants stand in two concentric circles, with the inside circle facing out and the outside circle facing in. They make a quarter right turn. The facilitator tells them how many to rotate, they face a partner and share information, such as name, where born, favorite book. Inside-Outside Circle is an excellent activity for sharing information in pairs. It is a nice closing activity to share one highlight and one thing they will do as a result of the workshop. 5. Spend-A-Buck: When students must reach a decision quickly, Spend-A-Buck can be used. Each student is given four quarters to spend any way they wish on the choice alternatives. Each student must spend his/her quarters on more than one item. The team then tallies the results to determine the team decision. Spend-A-Buck, unlike voting, does not produce clear winners and losers. To make the decision even less polarized, have the teams spend ten dimes. With this version each member is obliged to spend something on at least three items.


Strategies to Incorporate Cooperative Learning in classroom Cooperative learning is more than merely having students sit together, helping the others do their work. Directing students who finish their work early to assist others isn't a form of cooperative learning either. Neither is assigning a group of students to "work together" UNLESS you assure that all will contribute their fair share to the product. A true cooperative learning experience requires that a number of criteria be met. They are: a) Division of labor among students in the group b) Face-to-face interaction between students c) Assignment of specific roles and duties to students d) Group processing of a task e) Positive interdependence in which students all need to do their assigned duties in order for the task to be completed f) Individual accountability for completing one's own assigned duties g) The development of social skills as a result of cooperative interaction h) Provision of group rewards by the teacher

The introduction of "learning teams" into the classroom is an effective method for increasing the number of students willing to make an effort to learn in school. The teams usually work together on long-term assignments, although sometimes students remain together in duos, triads or quadrants for the entire day. In these groups, each individual is responsible for assuring that the other team members learn the assigned material. Those who understand the lesson/material are responsible for teaching it to the others. Groups progress to a new unit of study when all members of the group have mastered the lesson. Group members are also responsible for the behavior of all members. If a team member displays inappropriate behavior, it is the duty of fellow members to remind that student to `check' him/herself. The members attempt to refocus the misbehaving student by offering help and suggestions. Initially, temporary grouping can help students to grasp the concept of long-term learning teams, and practice responsibilities while the teacher sharpens his/her skills and receives feedback from the students regarding how to improve assignments.

Steps for setting up group learning experiences 1. Develop a positive classroom environment. Devise ways for students to become acquainted early in the year. Have them work on a mural, newsletter, play or other project. Model and encourage polite, respectful behavior toward others. Reward students for such social skills as helping others, giving and accepting praise, compromise, etc.


2. Previous to organizing collaborative groups and assigning academic tasks, develop a cooperative climate in the classroom. This can be accomplished by engaging students in fun team-building activities in which they support each other in a team effort to achieve non-academic or easily achieved academic goals. These activities might take the form of non-competitive, active games such as those described in the books like the one titled Play Fair. 3. Consider upcoming academic tasks and determine the number of students who will be assigned to each group. The size of the group will depend on the students' ability to interact well with others. Two to six students usually comprise a group. 4. Decide how long the groups will work together. It may range from one task, to one curriculum unit, to one semester, to a whole year. Most often the teacher will vary the composition of groups every month or two so that each student has a chance to work with a large number of classmates during the term or year. 5. Determine the academic and behavioral/interpersonal objectives for the task. 6. Plan the arrangement of the room for the upcoming group-oriented tasks. Arrange group seating so that students will be close enough to each other to share materials and ideas. Be sure to leave yourself a clear access lane to each group. 7. Prepare materials for distribution to the group. Indicate on the materials that students are to work together. Avoid work activities that don't really encourage (or require) students to actively collaborate in a group. When student are working on independent tasks, simply clustered at tables, a revision is necessary. 8. Determine roles for group members. In addition to cooperating and "brainstorming" with others, each group member should be assigned a duty to perform during the project. For example, the positions of "starter" (first person to use the materials; supervises any assembly of materials), "encourager/taskmaster" (motivates others to work their hardest and contribute to the discussion), "reader" ( responsible for seeing that all members begin with the same information and understand the nature of the task; reads print instructions and reviews record sheets aloud to the group), "praiser" (reinforces the responses of others), "researcher/getter" (locates and obtains needed materials and information; returns materials after use; in charge of inventory), "summarizer/reporter" (periodically explains what has occurred and later presents group findings to the entire class), "recorder" (writes down all important data, decisions, contributions, accomplishments, etc.; writes results on the board when sharing with the entire class), "understanding coach" (makes sure that everyone understands what has occurred to this point), and "checker" (assures that all have completed their task and looks for errors in data, writing, etc.) might be appropriate to the assignment. The teacher may have to explain and demonstrate/practice these roles previous to and during projects. Our junior scholars need to know what the roles actually look and feel like in order to play each role well, and re-direct their teammates when necessary in order to ensure productive performance.


9. Explain what will occur. Explain the rules which include; contributing to the team effort; listening to teammates; helping other team members; and asking the teacher for help only if it is a question of everyone in the group. Previous to this, you should have devised a way to eliminate groans and complaints from high achievers and socially popular students who may not approve of the composition of their group. Arrange students into teams at tables or where desks have been pushed together. 10. Present and clearly explain the assignment that will probably take several class periods to complete. (e.g.. Make a collage of items that start with the letter "M"; Plan and act out a play demonstrating how Thomas Jefferson might react if he were to be brought through time to see the United States as it exists today; Using an unabridged dictionary, make a list of words which can't be rhymed with other words etc.) Emphasize that positive interaction and cooperation will result in a group reward, and that meeting a set standard of performance beyond expectations will result in bonus points. Perhaps those points can be awarded frequently during the activity to motivate further cooperation. 11. Avoid the temptation to "lead" the groups. Your role has changed from transmitter of knowledge to mediator of thinking. Praising and encouraging the less academically skilled team members is still indicated however. 12. Monitor and assist as needed. Move among the groups to assure that they are actively engaged in their roles and following designated procedures (unless free-form creativity is desired). Do not answer student questions unless the group members are unable to resolve the issue by themselves. Intervene as necessary to promote positive interdependence among group members. Frequently reinforce positive group interaction. 13. Evaluate each group's performance/product. Grades might be assigned based upon the average performance of the group (thus promoting positive interdependence) or the effort/quality of performance of individual members in the execution of their duties. In many cases, each group decides how it will demonstrate what has been learned. Each group's work is judged on its own merit rather than in comparison with the outcomes of other groups. If inter-group competition is involved, perhaps the winning and most improved teams will receive a prize. Recognition might also be given to groups that were the quietest, quickest, neatest, most creative, etc. 14. Have the learning groups assess how well they worked together and discuss how they can improve their functioning and performance.


E-GRAPHY http://www.behavioradvisor.com/CoopLearning.html http://www.kaganonline.com/free_articles/dr_spencer_kagan/279/Kagan-Structures-for-EnglishLanguage-Learners http://www.mainesupportnetwork.org - Q:\workshops\Singapore\November 2005\Singapore Handout - Cooperative Learning - Structures.doc


Helpful •Decision best made by someone else. •Published Materials are better. •Negotiation: Roles - Teaching activities. •Accountability: Shows who are the stakeholders. •Orientation: Focuses on standards

Dora Leal

5076-13-12459

Jaime Gómez

5076-13-10967

Role of materials in the language classroom Effective Teaching Material •Functional and contextualized. •Learner engaged in use of language. •Realistic and use of authentic language. •Includes A/V component. •Fosters learners autonomy. •Felixible materials for contextual differences. •Engages learners affectively and cognitively.

Debilitating •Each group is unique and needs cannot be met by materials designed for other groups. •It reduces the teacher's role. •Cultural differences. •Fail to present proper and realistic language. •Fail to contextualize language activities.


Curriculum Project 1

UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ DE GUATEMALA Escuela de Idiomas ENGLISH TEACHING TECHNIQUES II

Curriculum Project 2 Table of Contents Curriculum Development ......................................6 Selection of Content & Learning Experiences .................7 CURRICULUM SAMPLE CNB - Bachillerato en computación.........9 Comunicación y Lenguaje L3 (Inglés Técnico) 4 .............9 Description .............................................9 Components .............................................11 The need for curriculum framework ..........................26 What learning objectives should be included? ...............27 What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? .......27

CURRICULUM PROJECT Will

the

choice

be

based

on

the

learners'

needs

and

interests, or rather on the needs of the society? ..........27 Will

the

selection

depend

on

tradition,

the

nature

of

knowledge, or the learners’ characteristics? ...............28 What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature

of

learners

as

well

as

the

learning

process

will

underpin the organization of the content? ..................28 Will

the

choice

of

methodology

be

in

line

with

accepted

teaching-learning principles? ..............................29 Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning Jaime Emmanuel Gómez Véliz - 5076-13-10967

that is taking place?......................................30

Curriculum Project 3 Cultural Values ............................................31

Curriculum Project 4 objectives,

drills,

practices,

and

homework

reinforces

Visible ..................................................31

learning? ..................................................38

Rules ..................................................31

John Dewey.................................................38

Food ...................................................31

Synopsis .................................................39

Dress ..................................................31

Early Life ...............................................39

Language ...............................................32

Teaching Career ..........................................40

Music ..................................................32

Philosophy ...............................................41

Dance ..................................................32

Education Reform .........................................42

Means of Livelihood ....................................33

Writing ..................................................43

Political Behavior .....................................33

Evaluation Studies in Guatemala............................44

Family .................................................33

Evaluation as tool for administration: ...................44

Non-Visible ..............................................34

Evaluation as an object of psychometric analysis: ........44

Philosophy .............................................34

Evaluation as a source of pedagogical information: .......45

Beliefs ................................................34

Monitoring and Evaluation of CNB ...........................45

Value System ...........................................34

Current trends and issues ..................................48

Education

Effective Planning of Curriculum .........................48

Development Program in Guatemala addresses the learner and

Changes Brought About By Science and Technology ..........48

learning process? ..........................................35

Reflection

Determinants of Learning in Guatemala ......................36

Curriculum ...............................................48

In Guatemala, does CNB demonstrate inclusion of behaviorist

Empowerment

psychological

Teachers .................................................49

The

Basic

Education

Curriculum

principles

through

and

the

Secondary

use

of

behavioral

of

and

National

and

Continuous

Universal

Professional

Culture

in

Development

the

of


Curriculum Project 5

Curriculum Project 6

Staff development of Curriculists ........................49

Curriculum Development

Emphasis on Learner Needs and Development Levels .........50

There is a need in our schools to achieve basic education through the means of systematically teaching basic knowledge

Effective Implementation of the Curriculum design ........51 and stress work and discipline. The knowledge that we must Monitoring and Evaluation of Curriculum Implementation ...51 teach Establishment of Evaluation Procedures and Needs .........52

should

students

Bilingual Education (L3) ...................................52

consist

should

of

facts,

master

concepts

through

and

different

skills

that

techniques

and

activities.

References and Bibliografy .................................57

Knowledge

is

more

than

a

product

to

be

mastered,

it

is

actually a relevant part of the curriculum. Students interact with the world

around them and they need to

be

able to

interpret it. The aim of a curriculum is to help any student to interpret the world they live in. The greater challenge is to help humanity through education in achieving a just and compassionate society. A

curriculum

student

has

should to

focus

establish

on

the

meaning

human for

being,

their

and

lives

each

of

the

knowledge taught to them. A well structured curriculum will help a student to understand and interpret knowledge. There is an ongoing interaction between teachers and learners that is addressed in the curriculum. This interaction does not

only

stays

with

the

teacher

and

student.

Another

interaction occurs between learners and learners and between the curriculum content and the learner. The proper planning

Curriculum Project 7

Curriculum Project 8

of these interactions allow the focus of teaching to be more

Learners must be trained into setting their own objectives,

about meaning through learning than that of just transmitting

in this way students will have a realistic idea of what they

knowledge,

can achieve. If they are capable of achieving different goals

concepts

and

skills

from

the

teacher

to

the

student.

then

learning

becomes

the

process

that

they

will

use

to

achieve such goals. One important fact to take into account about curriculum development

is

that

are

Students can recognize their role as learners with the proper

Curriculum are documents that are guides

content because they gain sensitivity to the concepts and

and the real weight sits upon the shoulders of the teachers

notions learned. Self evaluation becomes the tool to use when

that need to use their professional judgment to determine

content is something that the students finds a necessity to

what is the best course of action to take for any particular

learn. The activities carried on in class focus real life

reason.

needs and develop competences that can gradually be increased

complex subjects.

human

nature

and

human

learning

by further guiding the student into deepening the knowledge Curriculum

development

is

then

the

ongoing

dynamic

and in the content.

constantly changing way to plan learning experiences in a learning

environment,

this

helps

promote

cultural

As

for

learning

experience

the

curriculum

has

to

engage

reproduction in a structured way, together with independent

students into learning while doing something new. This is

thinking in the context of various social responsibilities.

achieved

It

Instructor-lead teaching, interactions with the instructor

is

a

continually

systematic by

the

process

that

educational

should

be

organization

carried to

which

on we

belong.

To assist assessment and evaluation in a student centered curriculum

clear

criteria

for

content

helps

selection of materials and learning activities.

us

in

the

different

activities

that

must

include:

and students, reading, visiting online websites, answering Comment [M1]: You need to cite as: Some parts of your document match the text from http://www.emtlife.com/showthread. php?t=14330

Selection of Content & Learning Experiences

through

quiz like material, working on tasks and assignments, etc. A well designed learning experience has characteristics that must

be

learning activities

fulfilled:

Activities

in

and

time

that

include

that

engage

effectiveness, a

good

mix

of

and

blended online

optimize learning activities


Curriculum Project 9 together

with

teacher

interaction

and

student

to

Curriculum Project 10

student

materials

interaction.

needed

to

implement

in

the

field

of

their

specialty, therefore it is of utmost importance to help them maintain

a

high

level

of

motivation.

Therefore;

a

An effective learning experience is that in which at the end Communicative approach to teaching and assessment develops of such experience the student demonstrates a high level of communicative competence in students the ability to use the knowledge retention of the essential knowledge together with language

system

appropriately

in

any

circumstances,

it

the ability to apply this new knowledge to future problems, comprises: this later is confirmed when the student can use this new Listening: Make sure that students know exactly what they are

knowledge and skills in real-world problems.

expected CURRICULUM SAMPLE CNB - Bachillerato en computación.

to

vocabulary

listen

items,

for:

grammatical

specific

cues,

information,

particularly

overall

meaning.

Comunicación y Lenguaje L3 (Inglés Técnico) 4

Before they begin be sure to give them an opportunity to ask

Description

any question about the drill.

Students realize that learning a foreign language could be

Speaking: Make sure your students understand what they are

easy if they engage in meaningful activities requiring the

saying.

use of the language and its components.

grammar, or context cues.

Throughout each

task, learning English should be fun, so students may get an

This means that you may need to preview vocabulary, Give students a chance to discover

and correct their own errors.

authentic, contextualized and interesting learning process. Reading: This is a very important part of communication in a The language practice and skill development activities have

new

been

input in the form of vocabulary and grammar thus acquired

designed

to

involve

students

in

all

aspects

of

the

contents, making them active participants in the learning

language.

Through

reading,

students

receive

language

when they speak, listen and write.

process. The learning process is centered on the learners to Writing: Model and help students identify key elements used encourage them to express their own realities in English, in writing sentences and paragraphs. Make sure that students especially to interpret manuals, directions and any other

Curriculum Project 11 include

these

key

elements

when

they

write

their

Curriculum Project 12

own

Interpersonal

sentences and paragraphs.

Communication

Interpersonal

Students'

Communication:

speech

1.

production

exchanges

write in longer phrases and complete sentences and they use a of

general

and

technical

vocabulary.

Engages

conversations

improves in both quantity and quality. Students speak and/or

range

Offers

responds

Components

wide

1.1.1. 1.1

information

Besides,

learners speak and write in connected and unified paragraphs about most situations.

Using

and standard greetings, to farewells,

in greetings, and compliments, invitations, and introductions,

and

expressions

of

courtesy orally and in writing. and 1.1.2.

Introducing

opinions orally and farewells.

one self.

in writing.

1.1.3. Taking one’s leave: good byes.

Interpretive

Communication:

Students

communicate

with

1.1.4.

gestures and actions. They build receptive vocabulary and

Greeting

people.

refine their listening skills. During this phase, called the

1.1.5. Apologizing.

“silent period," students try to make sense of what they 1.2

Identifies 1.2.1. Using basic

hear, but they do not engage in language production. Even appropriate

words

and

short

though they do not speak, language acquisition has begun. language Presentational

Communication:

Students

speak

and/or

write

using yes/no answers, one or two words, lists of words, or short

phrases.

vocabulary.

They

continue

to

expand

their

receptive

Competency

Performance indicator

Contents

phrases

informational

during interactions

purposes

orally

and

in

writing.

Students engage in conversations and produce

connected narratives orally and in writing.

for learned

1.2.2. Comment [M2]: For further works if necessary to include like the CNB English Program just write the link. No need to copy everything.

parts

Reviewing of

pronoun, noun,

speech: verb,

adjective,


Curriculum Project 13

Curriculum Project 14

adverb, article.

1.3.5.

Talking

1.2.3.

about

ongoing

Giving

activities.

command instructions.

1.4

1.2.4. Giving basic

appropriately

personal

classroom commands

Responds 1.4.1.

1.2.5.

Responds 1.3.1.

appropriately common

personal about

feelings

using

learned

questions

material orally and

sports.

in writing.

1.4.5.

1.3.2.

warnings.

Identifying

Asking

for

2.1

Communication

Compares/contrast

interprets

Asking

and

in

the

of

2.1.2. physical

target

characteristics

changing

Listening details

in

2.1.4.

follows

not oral

and

of

compares

to

their

equivalents.

them 2.2.2.

Expressing of

knowledge

2.3.4.

written.

of

locations and means of transportation. Locates 2.4.1.

2.4 the

Using

prepositions

and

ways languages are

Using

buildings,

of something.

differences in the

2.2.3.

Describing

places:

lack

Recognizing

Spanish similarities

and

2.3.2.

2.3.3.

written

translate literally questions. and

commands,

services.

linguistic Demonstrating

do

written

requests.

cultures.

that

Following and

printed directions,

from

Comparing

elements of English understanding

and 2.3.1.

directions oral

2.2 Identifies and 2.2.1. use

present

tense. Reads

materials and maps.

short readings.

and

verbs:

past,

2.3

2.1.3. for

from oral

2.2.4. Using stem-

or

things.

of

Curriculum Project 16

people, animals and

language.

Comprehension

written texts .

written and spoken

Describing

topics

Giving

simple

the

Curriculum Project 15 a

favorite

sentences

Understands and customs

2.

1.3.4.

Talking

about

and words, phrases, and

languages

yes/no questions.

1.4.4.

2.1.1.

Interpretive

with

giving directions.

variety

Expressing

opinions in class.

information

information

on

Making

1.4.3.

and

questions

possessions

language

personal

suggestions.

Asking

1.3.3.

and

activities

1.4.2.

numbers

to answer

leisure

interest.

Using

and colors. 1.3

daily

and

information.

cardinal

Speaking

to about

information

for about

Talking recreational

activities activities,

days and the months

leisure

in context

(in oral or written offering


Curriculum Project 17 form).

suggestions

Curriculum Project 18

and

2.5.3 Putting tasks

advice.

in logical order.

2.4.2.

2.5.4 Talking about

Conversations about

oneself

daily

experience.

and

leisure

activities

and

and

one’s

personal interests: favorite

sports,

movies and music. 2.4.3.

2.4.4.

Asking

things

with

of and

Presents

3.1.2.

to

of

parts

or

reflexive

an

audience

readers.

visual

past,

3.1.4.

3.3.3.

and

movements:

3.3.4. main

body

from short stories.

body

her Expressing

with

relationships uses others

understanding

3.2.3.

cultural

Describing embarrassing

others her own.

situation.

of greetings,

practices idiomatic than

skits, dealing

and greetings,

and

idiomatic

his/ expressions of the expressions. language.

4.1.2.

Using

pictures to predict

daily

activities

the

4.1.3.

Performing speech

role-play skits.

Using

language

and

of

to

body infer

meaning: past tense of irregular verbs

with 3.3.2. Participating

language

situation.

poetry popular songs.

familiar topics.

gestures,

Describing

simple short or

Recognizing

use

3.2.4.

Dramatizes 3.3.1.

songs,

gestures, and

his manners, behaviors, manners, behaviors,

and routines. 3.3.

characters

4. Applies in his/ 4.1. Recognizes and 4.1.1.

likes and dislikes.

an

Identifying

role

parts. 3.2.2.

or

disagreement.

expressions

playing

Expressing

agreement

and through

nonverbal means

Describing

Curriculum Project 20

activities

Expresses 3.2.1. Interpreting through oral

one’s

age and birthday.

terms.

verbal

Describing

experiences:

and routines.

humor

and

progressive

3.1.3.

Discussing

Curriculum Project 19

3.2.

verbs,

tense in context.

history

daily

speech:

present

future

about

or the meaning of new

auditory cues.

Reviewing of

reflexive commands,

Exchanging

and 2.5.2

and

imagination.

and lifestyle.

intonation,

using

brainstorming

concepts, and ideas

enthusiasm.

accompanying personal

Generating

in ideas

creative

information,

listeners

presented information

Expresses 3.1.1.

different tenses

expressing

Interprets 2.5.1

gestures,

other

actions

3.

for

identifications

phrases

3.1.

Communication

Telling

where objects are

2.5

Presentational

including

in

changes

in spelling.

simple 4.2.

Compares 4.2.1.

Identifying


Curriculum Project 21 and symbols

products

services advertised on in

and

dictionary

advertisement

Spanish- and

the

English language.

Curriculum Project 22

signs

written

of words.

materials. 4.2.2.

4.3.3. Using charts

Asking

and

and

offering

and

of awareness

perspectives

products. Asking

and

giving

information

in

interrogative

print,

and

through capitals

map

electronic materials,

commands.

cultural artifacts.

fine

print

in

globe

major

and their

geographical

4.4.2.

comparing

Skimming

articles

for

general meaning.

polite requests.

own.

or

features.

his/her products and making

including

by

and identifying

Identifies

ads,

target

non-print, locating them on a

imperative

digital 4.3.1.

the

target countries and their

the

cultures

price:

an

of

life different

contemporary

4.2.3.

about

information

and Demonstrating

practices

supermarket

resources to locate the

to

Explores 4.4.1.

4.4.

market,

Uses

graphics

record information.

merchandise:

4.3.

and

finding the meaning

4.4.3.

Making

inference about the 4.3.2.

Using

meaning.

Curriculum Project 23 4.4.4.

Curriculum Project 24

Applying

cultures.

technology to task.

5. Uses

4.4.5.

the basic technical technical texts in of Technical basic

Making

comparison,

vocabulary

including

application

differentiation, sorting

software and

Creates 5.1.1

correctly 5.1

with English,

according vocabulary

and key words.

5.1.2

hardware

the

perspectives lead generalizations

with

vocabulary:

products, Participating

practices,

Construction glossary

specific

Identifies 4.5.1.

cultural

in

in to the translation computation.

classifying items. 4.5.

Compilation

in

software, hardware,

and activities

and

word

that celebrations

and

operating

system,

their

database,

and

to discussing impact

on

the

others.

culture. 4.5.2.

5.1.3

sentences

about

English

one’s country.

discussing patterns

5.2 Implements the 5.2.1

of

functions

interaction the

or among

target

with technical

in computation.

4.5.3. Learning and

behavior

Translation

oral and written of

Giving

information

processor,

of

Identifying

word technical

processing with the vocabulary use

of

technical functions

of word


Curriculum Project 25 vocabulary

Curriculum Project 26

in processing.

English.

5.2.2

advice. 5.4 Applies English 5.4.1

Translate

technical

with functions for

design formats for information

the

documents.

design

of

in

5.4.2

5.2.3

in

manuals of English.

texts.

Translation

from

Discussing

English

Spanish

terms

versa in the design

in

5.3

Expresses 5.3.1

orally

and

writing

ideas

in

5.4.3 oral

English

and related with design

concepts to design slides,

vice

of text formats.

Creation

in texts

and

to

the meaning of new

informatics.

images, animation effect.

animation

effects 5.3.2 Applying the

Following and

written

instructions in the development

images,

slides,

and other.

Localization

the specific

manuals in English

of

projects.

technical The need for curriculum framework vocabulary to guide A curriculum framework is obtained in a process that finds

the work. 5.3.3 the

Talk

about

passwords

security

of

offering

suggestions

and

the

best

content

of

learning

within

a

system,

using

an

established set of organizing principles. The primary purpose of a Curriculum Framework is to make visible the skills, knowledge, and behaviors that students need to fulfill real life situations. The use of a competency based approach helps

Curriculum Project 27

Curriculum Project 28

practitioners and learners clarify the connections between

Will

the

selection

depend

on

tradition,

real life tasks, learning, and community contexts.

knowledge, or the learners’ characteristics?

the

nature

of

It will depend on the nature of knowledge. What learning objectives should be included? Those that describe what a student will be able to do as a

What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the

result of learning. They should be: Active, that is those

nature

that describe what students should be able to do at the end

underpin the organization of the content?

of the session, course, or degree program. Aligned, that is

The philosophical theories that are most underpinned into

they should be aligned with the rest of the curriculum, this

curriculum development are

means

a

learning

session

outcome

will

contribute

to

of

learners

as

well

as

the

learning

process

will

the Idealism: The doctrine of idealism suggests that matter is an

achievement of the course outcome. Achievable, they describe illusion and that reality is that which exists mentally what a student needs to be able to do in order to pass a course. Assessed, there is many ways to assess objectives but they should be able to be assessed otherwise

it is not

Realism: rather

Realists than

consider

speculation.

Education

a

matter

Application,

The

of

reality

paramount

responsibility of the teacher, then, is to impart to learners

possible to know if there was a learning outcome.

the knowledge about the world they live in. What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? Pragmatism:

It

gives

importance

to

change,

processes

and

It depends on the curriculum objective. The main objectives relativity, as it suggests that the value of an idea lies in of the curriculum should provide the information about what its actual consequences. The actual consequences are related skills or knowledge will be necessary

for the competition of to those aims that focus on practical aspects in teaching and

the course or degree. learning. Will

the

choice

be

based

on

the

learners'

interests, or rather on the needs of the society? It is based on the learners' needs.

needs

and

Existentialism: This doctrine emphasizes that there are no values outside human beings, and thus, suggests that human


Curriculum Project 29

Curriculum Project 30

beings should have the freedom to make choices and then be

extending and challenging their current ways of thinking and

responsible for the consequences of those choices.

acting.

The psychological theories that are most underpinned into

Action and reflection: Learning experiences should encourage

curriculum development are

both action and reflection on the part of the student.

Behaviorism:

Behaviorist

theories

which

deal

with

various

Motivation

and

purpose:

Learning

experiences

should

aspects of stimulus-response and reinforcement scheme.

motivating and their purpose clear to the student.

Cognitivism: Cognitive theories which view the learner in

Inclusivity

relationship with the total environment.

respect and accommodate differences between learners.

Phenomenology:

Which

emphasizes

the

affective

domain

of

and

difference:

Learning

experiences

be

should

Independence and collaboration: Learning experiences should encourage students to learn both independently and from and

learning.

with others. Will

the

choice

of

methodology

be

in

line

with

accepted Supportive

teaching-learning principles? The choice of methodology should be inline with the teachinglearning

principles,

however

no

matter

what

choice

of

methodology is accepted the principles should comply with the following list: Opportunity students

to

to

environment:

observe

Learning and

experiences

practice

the

and

classroom

setting

that is taking place? about

student

learning

is

gathered

for

this

enable

purpose, using a variety of assessment strategies depending

processes,

on the case. Student assessment are a way to facilitate the

should

actual

school

Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning

Information learn:

The

should be safe and conducive to effective learning.

teaching/learning

products, skills and values that are expected of them.

process

(formative

assessment),

diagnose

areas of a student’s learning strengths and weaknesses, and Connection and challenge: Learning experiences should connect make

decisions

about

a

student’s

progress

(summative

with students’ existing knowledge, skills and values while

Curriculum Project 31

Curriculum Project 32

assessment). Student evaluation occurs when a teacher uses

express

the results of assessment and other relevant information to

cultural background through wearing clothes that carry a deep

make

cultural meaning.

a

decision

about

the

quality,

value

or

worth

of

a

themselves

through

clothing,

or

to

express

their

student’s response during the learning process or a student’s Language overall performance for placement and reporting purposes. It allows students to respect life, personal items, rights and security of themselves by allowing norms and rules that

Cultural Values

express

liberty

of

expression

but

with

responsibility,

Visible honesty and practice of equity and justice to achieve proper Rules

communication goals without harming their peers.

Develops values, attitudes and behaviors that strengthen the Music ethical sense of life, through the expression of solidarity, It develops expressive and interpretative abilities that will equal

distribution

of

responsibilities

and

obligations facilitate the mutual trust among the participants under the

together with the welfare and growth of the family and its inspiration of sound that will guide them to a more human members. development. Food Dance Education for the proper consumption should facilitate the It will develop a corporal conscience, the knowledge of the students in the knowledge and exercise of their rights and principles of movement, the exploration of space, the dynamic obligations as consumers. So that a capability to relate to of movement and personal interrelations, with the purpose of the

products

and

services

they

should

utilize

to

prefer achieving

the

creation

and

composition

of

esthetical

natural products for their nutrition. productions that will be shared with the public and peers. Dress A personal value that gives sense to life of each human being by

allowing

them

to

develop

the

needed

capabilities

to


Curriculum Project 33

Curriculum Project 34

Non-Visible

Means of Livelihood It develops the being and its faculties to achieve personal

Philosophy

satisfaction

The purpose of education is to bring personal, social and

competent

and

proper

performance

social in

development

economical

through

production

having in

the

civic values together with spiritual, cultural and ecological

student's community.

philosophies

Political Behavior

different currents of thinking and behavior that are focused

This value helps and promotes students' participation in the

into

the

base

of

the

development

of

the

upon the social diversity, human rights, and peace culture.

construction of a progressive, solidarity and just society.

Beliefs

Family

It helps students respect life, to have responsibilities,

This value focuses the responsibilities and functions of an

honesty, perseverance and to practice justice. Goals take

effective communication among the family with the purpose to

into consideration if they will hurt others by completing

strengthen family values, family stability, family attitudes,

them and to help their peers into achieving their own goals.

and behaviors related to the economic areas of family life.

Value System

Community Norms

Personal values are capabilities, qualities, and conceptions or ideas that give sense to life for each human being and

It develops harmonic lifestyle with the social and natural allows them to develop competences that are necessary for environment by the use of understanding of personal, family their

proper

satisfactory

function

in

society.

(MINEDUC,

and social reality. 2007)

Curriculum Project 36

Curriculum Project 35 The

Basic

Education

Curriculum

and

Secondary

Education

Development Program in Guatemala addresses the learner and

and short term planning that answer to different expectations of the country's need.(CNB, page 41)

learning process? The

Basic

Education

Curriculum

addresses

the

learner

and

learning process in the following ways: Axis Areas

It takes into account the mother language as a mean to learn

Competences Achievment indicators

and as object of study(CNB, page 36).

Contents:

Macro Competences

Systematizes

the

knowledge

according

to

the

basic

Declaratives Procedures

needs,

Attitudes

characteristics, ethnical components, cultural and linguistic needs

of

the

region

to

promote

significative

learning

Investigation-Planning

Students

Activities

Teachers

situations that are relevant and coherent to the reality of

Parents

the student's community. (CNB, page 37) Establishment teaching materials

-

of

feedback

learning

for

the

of

mechanisms,

different

creation

of

Methodology

Context

Community

Resources Classroom Ecology

Educational administrators

methodologies

languages

educational

and

Assessment

of

critical

resources

that

promote the pertinent application of the curriculum in the region. (CNB, page 37)

Determinants of Learning in Guatemala Educational Development Project reveals that community and home variables have greater impact on learning than school

The curriculum provides the teachers and educative centers

factors. Does this exist in Guatemala?

the guidelines to plan different curricular activities that give sense to activities that are related to the learner and learning processes that allow establishment of long, middle

According

to

Guatemala(2008

the -

study 2021)"

"Mas there

y are

mejor some

educaci贸n very

en

important

determinants of Learning in Guatemala, these are listed next:


Curriculum Project 37 a) Students

characteristics:

learning.

In

some

Age

has

grades(lower)

a

great

greater

impact

age

has

Curriculum Project 38

in

Because there is little to no control upon home variables to

an

change them, so teachers should focus on changing themselves

improved learning, while middle grades show little to

and

negative

2007)

improvement

in

age

difference(over

age

school

environment

to

help

students

learn.

(MINEDUC,

students). Sex has little to no impact upon learning. b) Home

characteristics:

cause

a

people

positive living

learning.

at

Home

Education

level

improvement

in

home

a

cause

resources

also

of

the

learning. negative show

parents

Number

impact a

of

upon

positive

show a great deal of difference. A single extra year of the same grade shows a great

principles drills,

through

practices,

the

and

use

of

homework

behavioral reinforces

learning?

d) School characteristics: School environment showed that a number(greater

than

common

actually more inclusion of cooperative learning techniques, collaborative learning, task and project work, and meaningful learning. However the only place where behaviorist principles are applied are on the physical education activities.

difference in learning among students of that grade.

critical

objectives,

By reading on the selected and suggested activities there is

improvement in learning. c) Teacher characteristics: Experience measured in years

experience in teaching

In Guatemala, does CNB demonstrate inclusion of behaviorist psychological

classroom

John Dewey Academic, Educator, Philosopher (1859–1952)

recommendation) of students lowers the learning among students. Potable water ready at the point of service is also

a

very

environment,

important

schools

need

that

for

lacked

a

this

good

school

service

showed

lowered learning curve.

Educator philosophy.

John

Dewey

A

proponent

originated of

the

social

change

experimentalism and

education

reform, he founded The New School for Social Research. QUOTES

According to the results published on this study my answer

“If I were asked to name the most needed of all reforms in

would be that in our country leaning can be further improved

the spirit of education I should say: 'Cease conceiving of

by improving the teacher knowledge and school environment.

Curriculum Project 39

Curriculum Project 40

education as mere preparation for later life, and make of it

Growing up, John Dewey attended Burlington public schools,

the full meaning of the present life.'”

excelling as a student. When he was just 15 years old, he enrolled at the University of Vermont, where he particularly

—John Dewey enjoyed Synopsis

studying

philosophy

under

the

tutelage

of

H.A.P.

Torrey. Four years later, Dewey graduated from the University

John Dewey was born October 20, 1859, in Burlington, Vermont.

of Vermont second in his class.

He taught at universities from 1884 to 1930. An academic Teaching Career philosopher

and

proponent

of

educational

reform,

in

1894 The autumn after Dewey graduated, his cousin landed him a

Dewey started an experimental elementary school. In 1919 he teaching job at a seminary in Oil City, Pennsylvania. Two cofounded The New School for Social Research. Dewey published years later, Dewey lost the position when his cousin resigned over 1,000 pieces of writings during his lifetime. He died as principal of the seminary. June 1, 1952, in New York, New York. After being laid off, Dewey went back to Vermont and started Early Life teaching at a private school in Vermont. During his free John Dewey was born on October 20, 1859, to Archibald Dewey time, he read philosophical treatises and discussed them with and Lucina Artemisia Rich in Burlington, Vermont. He was the his former teacher, Torrey. As his fascination with the topic third of the couple’s four sons, one of whom died as an grew, Dewey decided to take a break from teaching in order to infant. Dewey’s mother, the daughter of a wealthy farmer, was study

philosophy

and

psychology

at

Johns

Hopkins.

George

a devout Calvinist. His father, a merchant, left his grocery Sylvester Morris and G. Stanley Hall were among the teachers business to become a Union Army soldier in the Civil War. there who influenced Dewey most. John

Dewey’s

British

father

literature

was with

known his

to

share

offspring.

his

passion

After

the

for war,

Upon receiving

his doctorate from Johns Hopkins in 1884,

Archibald became the proprietor of a successful tobacco shop,

Dewey was hired as an assistant professor at the University

affording

of Michigan. At Michigan he met Harriet Alice Chipman, and

stability.

the

family

a

comfortable

life

and

financial


Curriculum Project 41

Curriculum Project 42

the two married in 1886. Over the course of their marriage,

Rejecting the more rigid ideas of Transcendentalism to which

they would give birth to six children and adopt one child.

Dewey had been exposed in academia, it viewed ideas as tools for

experimenting,

with

the

goal

of

improving

the

human

In 1888 Dewey and his family left Michigan for the University experience. of

Minnesota,

However,

where

within

a

he

was

year,

a

professor

they

chose

of

to

philosophy.

return

the

Dewey’s philosophy also claimed than man behaved out of habit

University of Michigan, where Dewey taught for the next five

to

and that change often led to unexpected outcomes. As man

years.

struggled to understand the results of change, he was forced to

think

creatively

in

order

to

resume

control

of

his

By 1894 Dewey was made head of the philosophy department at shifting

environment.

For

Dewey,

thought

was

the

means

the University of Chicago. He remained at the University of through which man came to understand and connect with the Chicago until 1904, also serving as director of its School of world

around

him.

A

universal

education

was

the

key

to

Education for two years. teaching Dewey left Chicago in 1904 to join the Ivy League, becoming a

people

how

to

abandon

their

habits

and

think

creatively.

professor of philosophy at Columbia University while working Education Reform at Teachers College on the side. John Dewey was a strong proponent for progressive educational In 1930, Dewey left Columbia and retired from his teaching career

with

the

title

of

professor

emeritus.

His

wife,

reform. He believed that education should be based on the principle of learning through doing.

Harriet, had died three years earlier. In Philosophy Dewey’s philosophical treatises were at first inspired by his reading

of

writing.

1894

Dewey

experimental

philosopher

Dewey’s

and

psychologist

philosophy,

instrumentalism,

largely

known

as

centered

William

James’

experimentalism,

on

human

or

and

his

primary

wife

Harriet

school,

the

his

educational

theories,

but

Dewey

when

the

Curriculum Project 44

Thorstein

philosophy,

Robinson

resigned

experience.

writing

Harvey

own

Elementary

university president fired Harriet.

Curriculum Project 43

James

their

School, at the University of Chicago. His goal was to test

In 1919, John Dewey, along with his colleagues Charles Beard, Veblen,

started

University

and

Wesley

Clair

covered

a

broad

educational

theory,

the

commentators

ideas

in

the

arts

and

of

his

day.

The

Dewey

New

and

established himself as one of the most highly regarded social

intellectual

in

psychology,

religion

School is a progressive, experimental school that emphasizes of

articles

topics:

culture,

politics.

exchange

his

of

Mitchell, founded The New School for Social Research. The New

free

Through

range

Republic,

continued

to

social sciences.

prolifically up until his death. (biography.com, 2014)

During the 1920s, Dewey lectured on educational reform at

Evaluation Studies in Guatemala

schools all over the world. He was particularly impressed by experiments in the Russian educational system and shared what he

learned

States:

with

that

interactions

his

colleagues

education with

the

should

when focus

present.

Dewey

he

returned

mainly

on

did

not,

to

the

he

write

The evaluation study "Evaluación Educativa Estandarizada en Guatemala: Un camino recorrido, un camino por recorrer." in the discussion section describes the next results:

students’ however,

Evaluation as tool for administration: The principal concern in our educative system as a whole lays

dismiss the value of also learning about the past.

in the educative norms and institutions that must generate In the 1930s, after he retired from teaching, Dewey became an active

member

of

numerous

educational

organizations,

including the New York Teachers Guild and the International League for Academic Freedom.

processes

to

warrant

educative

quality.

sort

of

view

makes

communication

a

mean

to

secure

the

principals, etc) to take autonomy of the necessary means to

wrote

Leibniz’s

his

New

first

Essays

two

books,

Concerning

Psychology

the

Human

(1887)

and

Understanding

(1888), when he was working at the University of Michigan. Over the course of his lifetime, Dewey published more than 1,000

necessary

Evaluation is then a main component to secure quality. This

principal actors closest to the schools(parents, teachers,

Writing Dewey

the

works,

including

essays,

articles

and

books.

His

solve their services. Evaluation as an object of psychometric analysis: From this point of view the main concern is to secure that evaluation as a valid tool that produces information that is rigid

and

solid.

Through

this

perspective

arguments

are


Curriculum Project 45

Curriculum Project 46

valued according to the information that is produced and the

information

conclusions that can be achieved, but they are not detailed

students, in the expected competencies, with the intention of

mechanisms to relate such results with the practices inside

forming valued judgment and decision taking to better the

the

process of teaching and learning.

classroom.

This

information

may

be

useful

to

answer

about

an

achievement

level

reached

by

the

questions about the administration system and the people who Article 2. Objective of learning evaluation. The objective of design the educative policy. learning evaluation is essentially formative in the process Evaluation as a source of pedagogical information:

and summative in the product, because it has to:

The arguments that are generated with this vision are based a) Motivate learning. upon the what to do inside the classroom. There is great b) Stimulate in an equivalent way the capacities of the interest to connect the evaluation with what the teachers and student and teacher. students are doing. Discussions tend to concentrate upon the c) Determine the level of achievement in the learning, in a analysis of the classroom or school instead of the educative qualitative

or

quantitative

manner,

and

the

integral

system as a whole. (MINEDUC, 2013) development of the person. d) Promote self-reflection of the different factors that

Monitoring and Evaluation of CNB

intervene

There is a law called "Learning Evaluation Rules" it is a

in

the

educative

process,

about

the

achievement level obtained.

ministry of education law number 1171-2010. In this rule set

e) Better the process of teaching-learning, in function of

the monitoring and evaluation of the national base curriculum

the obtained results.

is described.

f) Determine promotion and certification of the students of Chapter one:

the different grades and levels. g) Facilitate

Article one: Definition of learning evaluation. It is the

reflexive,

that

allows

interpretation

of

the

the

decision

making

the

individual

performance,

institutional

performance, and educative system performance, to better the level of education quality. i) Establish

an

effective

the

teaching

-

obtained

Curriculum Project 47 h) Define

in

learning process.

pedagogical process, systematic, instrumental, analytic and

Curriculum Project 48 Current trends and issues Effective Planning of Curriculum Planning, a complex task, is the most important aspect of

process

of

teaching-learning,

among the educational system. (MINEDUC, 2010)

curriculum development. In this early stage, educators should collaborate with parents, community members, and students. In fact,

Learning Evaluation

all

stakeholders

need

to

share

their

expertise

in

creating a curriculum based on high standards for student

Functions

Caracteristics

learning.

Organization

Changes Brought About By Science and Technology

Diagnostic

Holistic

Formative

Participative

Summative

Flexible

Internal

External

Moving towards global competitiveness, the Philippines should re-conceptualize

Evaluation Committee

DIGEDUCA

the

policies

and

strategies

of

ICT

in

education towards life-long learning, and should continue to strengthen technology transfer in Science, Math and English. Also, there has to be a reflection of researches and advances in knowledge in curriculum development.

Formative

Reflection

of

National

and

Universal

Culture

in

the

Curriculum

Interpretative

The need to understand different cultures is an emergent issue in today's education and societies as relationships

Technical

among countries become more intertwined. This then calls for a

Cientific

curriculum

that

creates

international

understanding of various cultures, and learning

awareness, of different


Curriculum Project 50

Curriculum Project 49 opinions and values

which can be made feasible through the

Emphasis on Learner Needs and Development Levels Researches show that the design of the Philippine curriculum

incorporation of technology into the curriculum.

appears to Empowerment

and

Continuous

Professional

Development

be overcrowded. Learners are faced with

seven

of subject areas every day. When combined with the

learning

Teachers competencies required for each grade/year level, this has This

can

be

done

through

the

promotion

of

professional proven to be excessive. As a result, science and mathematics

development

activities

like

reflective

thinking,

action content cannot be completed in one school year. This further

research, and journal writing when confronted with problems leads to, a backlog and a carry-over of the previous year’s in the classroom; exposure of teachers to the current trends content and competencies to the following school year , which in

teacher

education;

involvement

of

teachers

in

the eventually adversely affects the teaching/learning process.

decision–making process particularly in curriculum change and In addition to this, the scope and sequencing of education in planning the curriculum; training effective trainers (at (from

elementary

to

secondary

level)

have

also

been

content

and

pre-service and in-service levels) who will train teachers; identified as design defects where there are raising the awareness of candidate and actual teachers on the skills gaps as well as overlaps and duplications. The overlap importance of professional development activities. and duplication further aggravate the curriculum overload, Staff development of Curriculists

and

The different parties involved in the

development of the

curriculum must undergo in-service training. They should be made fully aware of their role and responsibility in the curriculum development. They have to work together to develop a well-rounded curriculum, which includes the learning of different cultures inasmuch as today’s learners will need to cope

with

cross-cultural

matters

and

grow

into

the

gaps

contribute

to

the

production

of

half-baked

elementary school graduates who are not entirely ready for secondary school, and of high school graduates who are half – baked for college education. Moreover, national examinations are focused on only five subject areas: English, Filipino, science, mathematics and social studies. Very few concepts are included from the other subject areas.

sensible

adults who are fair and just to the global society

Curriculum Project 51 Effective Implementation of the Curriculum design There

has

been

and

Qualified

the

techniques in assessing the process of evaluation and the

however,

the

learners are needed. This will determine the success of the

training programme was not sustained at the regional

and

evaluation procedures used. (Development, 2011)

orientation nationwide

of

massive school

training heads

implementation

of

of

Curriculum Project 52 Establishment of Evaluation Procedures and Needs

and

the

schoolteachers

supervisors

curriculum;

for

evaluators

who

are

capable

of

using

multiple

division levels; thus the poor school implementation . There was

also

lack

textbooks, subject

and

of

instructional

teachers’

facilities,

materials

manuals,

science

equipment/apparatus

and

like and

students’ vocational

supplementary

teaching/learning materials, and computer laboratories. Too large classes , teacher availability (for the specialized secondary

subject

areas)

and

quality

of

instructional

supervision further hindered curriculum implementation.

Bilingual Education (L3) Bilingual competence is defined as “the ability to use the target languages effectively and appropriately for authentic personal, educational, social, and/or work-related purposes”. The

criterion

language-related years”.

Monitoring and Evaluation of Curriculum Implementation The monitoring and evaluation of curriculum implementation is not effectively done due to the great number of elementary schools .On the other hand, the secondary schools are rarely visited because supervisors are unable to provide technical assistance on specialized subject matter. At the regional level , supervisors are subject specialists, while those at the division level are mostly generalists.

for

defining

significant

portions

of

the

academic curriculum is “at least 50% of the prescribed noncurriculum

of

studies

for

one

or

more

The generic definition of bilingual education that

has been adopted here includes programs for students who come to

school

speaking

a

majority

societal

language

(e.g.,

English in Canada, or Japanese in Japan) as well as programs for students who come to school speaking a minority language (e.g., Spanish in the U.S., or Hungarian in Slovakia). The first type of bilingual education is often referred to as “immersion”

after

the

Canadian

French

immersion

programs

(Lambert & Tucker, 1972; see Johnson & Swain, 1997, for a detailed

discussion

of

core

features

of

prototypical

immersion). The second type of bilingual education can be


Curriculum Project 53

Curriculum Project 54

found in regions of the world where there are large numbers

In the Basque Country, for example, Spanish and Basque are

of

of

taught as subjects and are also used for academic instruction

indigenous languages (e.g., New Zealand, Peru). Since the

immigrants

(e.g.,

U.S.A.,

Holland)

or

speakers

during the elementary grades; English, the third language, is

combined literature on both forms of bilingual education is

taught

extensive and the issues surrounding each are complex and

students

often very different.

Lardschneider-McLean,

as

English

a

subject

are

is

4

beginning

years

not

of 2001,

used

to

in

age

kindergarten,

(Cenoz,

for

teach

an

1998;

example

academic

when

see

the

Egger

from

&

Italy).

subjects

at

the

Multilingual forms of education have been implemented in elementary school level in Basque schools, although there are communities where more than two languages are used or useful. plans

to

teach

academic

subjects

through

the

medium

of

For example, Scandanavian countries often teach three or more English at the secondary level.

In other cases, all three

languages in school so that students are able to communicate languages may be used as media of academic instruction, as in in other Scandanavian languages and in a world language, such prototypical bilingual education programs. as

German

or

English.

Parents

in

the

Basque

Country

For example, in a

see trilingual program in Montreal, English-speaking students are

trilingual

education

as

important

in

order

to

foster taught

different

academic

subjects

through

the

medium

of

competence in (a) Basque, the indigenous language, which is French and Hebrew in kindergarten to grade 4; English is at-risk, (b) Spanish, the language of broader communication introduced as a third language in grade 4 and is used to in

Spain,

and

(c)

English,

a

language

of

economic

and teach both English language arts and some academic subjects

scientific communication worldwide (Cenoz, 1998). There is a (Genesee, 1998).

The European Schools in

Luxembourg

are

number of ways in which a third language can be added to the trilingual

in

French,

German

and

Luxembourgish

(Hoffman,

school curriculum (see Cenoz & Genesee, 1998, for examples). 1998;

Housen,

2002).

Luxembourgish

is

both

taught

as

a

In some cases, trilingual education consists of instruction subject and used as a medium of academic instruction from the in

academic

subjects

through

two

languages

along

with pre-school years onward.

German is introduced as a subject

in

used

instruction in a third language as a separate subject -- for example, for daily 30 to 60 minute sessions.

grade

1

and

later

as

a

medium

of

academic

In these cases, instruction.

Similarly, French is introduced initially as a

the third language is not used to teach academic subjects.

Curriculum Project 55

Curriculum Project 56

subject in grade 2 and subsequently used as a medium of

comes from assessments of student performance on standardized

instruction.

and

There

is

considerable

programmatic

and

school-based

tests

and

includes

comparisons

with

the

pedagogical variation among multilingual programs as might be

performance of students in non-trilingual schools in the same

expected

socio-cultural-

communities. Reports of the effectiveness of the European

political circumstances of the communities in which they are

from

Schools are based on participants’ impressions and on the

situated. A review such as this cannot begin to do justice to

success that program graduates have in gaining admission to

the

tertiary level education (see Cenoz, 1998; Genesee, 1998; and

actual

the

distinct

complexities

of

and

such

complex

programs

(see

Cenoz

&

Genesee, 1998, for more detailed descriptions of trilingual

Hoffmann, 1998, and Housen, 2002, for more details).

programs).

the

Trilingual

education

raises

a

number

of

published

cases

report

evidence

of

None of

interference

or

interesting and important issues -- some are the same as

impediments to language development as a result of exposure

those that have been addressed in the preceding review of

to three languages during the course of elementary education,

bilingual

the level of schooling for such programs. To the contrary,

education:

How

effective

are

they?

Are

they

effective for students with diverse learner characteristics?

Cenoz

Other

issues

bilingualism favors the acquisition of a third language (see

arise:

What

languages? academic

that is

are

the

particular

to

developmental

trilingual

Valencia

(1994)

provide

some

evidence

that

the

also Bild & Swain, 1989; Swain, Lapkin, Rowen, & Hart, 1991, for specific studies and Cenoz & Genesee, 1998, and Cenoz,

matter?

What

are

the

among

and

Does the sequencing of languages for literacy or instruction

relationship

education

limits

to

Hufeisen & Jessner, 2001, for reviews).

The same caveats

acquisition of three languages when there is no or little

that apply to the interpretation of evaluations of bilingual

support

education

for

the

non-native

languages

outside

school?

apply

here;

namely,

there is

a

bias

to

report

Unfortunately, there is scant empirical evidence to answer

successful programs and self-selection factors are operating.

these questions and the extant evidence is highly variable in

The

nature.

encouraging; but we currently lack detailed understanding of

appear

Programs to

be

for

which

working

reports

have

satisfactorily.

been

published

Evidence

of

effectiveness of the Basque and Canadian trilingual programs

evidence

to

date

concerning

trilingual

education

the effectiveness of these programs. (Genese, 2006)

is


Curriculum Project 57

Curriculum Project 58

References and Bibliografy biography.com.

(2014).

John

Dewey

Biography.

Bio.

,

http://www.biography.com/people/john-dewey-

interesting and good research made.

9273497#awesm=~oCjVlK3gQfc9q9. Development,

C.

I.

missing.

(2011).

EDCS

Phillipines:

101.

http://licadna2011.blogspot.com/2011/10/reflection-8-currentissues-and-trends.html. Genese, F. (2006). Handbook of Bilingualism. Ottawa, Canada: McGill University. MINEDUC. (2007). Curriculum Nacional Base del Ciclo Basico de Nivel Medio. Guatemala: DIGEBI/DIGEACADE. MINEDUC. Guatemala:

(2013). Un

Evaluación

camino

Educativa

recorrido,

un

Estandarizada

camino

por

en

recorrer.

Guatemala: DIGEDUCA. MINEDUC. (2007). Más y Mejor educación en GuateMala (2008 2021) ¿cuánto nos cuesta? Guatemala: ICEFI. MINEDUC. DIGEDUCA.

(2010).

Reglamento

Jaime: Some aspects of your investigation are missing. Very

de

Evaluacion.

Guatemala:

Don´t

forget

that

you

Although, conclusion is must

information taken from other resources.

always

cite

any


Connected: An Autoblogography About Love, Death & Technology Connections that exists among nature are far more integrated into our life than we can understand. Technology gives us a way to understand how everything is connected and interdependent from one to the other. Technology has turned into the tool of choice of human beings to keep their human bonds connected at all times. These connections however are not dependant of technology, because before technology existed human being and nature already had a connection among themselves that kept them working together. Family is the first place where our connections as human beings are established. These connections do not last for a few weeks or days, they last for a life time, and because of their length they are integral part of what make our character. Just as technology can help keep our bonds and connections at all time, anywhere we may be and in different of ways. It has also been one of the principal causes of destruction of these bonds, as technology has been the tool used by human beings to create weapons that have caused death and sorrow to the world. The film maker gives a clear point of how technology helped her to keep connected to her dad who has been diagnosed with cancer. She used technology, not as a mean to cure cancer, but as a mean to grow closer to her dad, by filming him, by interviewing him, and by recording hours long of his dialogues. The same way her dad used technology, writing a book, to help his connection with the world to remain even after he had passed away. Many times technology also helped the father of the film maker to extend his life cycle, however the inevitable death would come sooner or later, this was a known fact for both daughter and father, who knowing this actually helped their relationship, because they treasured every moment together, thinking that it would be the last. At some point, it can be argued that if they didn't knew this fact, the documentary would have never been recorded. And their relationship would never grown the way it did. The knowledge that technology bring us, it can be sorrowful and something we didn't want to know, as many people do not want to know their date of death or if they are dying. But the knowledge must be used appropriately the way this person used it, she used this knowledge to record and grow closer to her father, even though it hurt her, it was something that now she is glad she did. The documentary fulfilled the task of showing the viewers the great amount of technology to our disposal, so broad and many that it would not fit into a single film, but also helped the viewer realize that this knowledge has existed for the longest, and even though the film maker wanted to make a point about the left and right side of the brain and how we should change which side we should use, to me the documentary was about loving those who are around you, and using technology and communications for the right reason, not as a trap to keep us from enjoying those connections we have with those who live around us.


TASK AND PROJECT WORK CLASSROOM PRESENTATION

DAVID CARDONA ARELY MIRANDA

FREDY SALAZAR MONICA SANTIZO


TASK-BASED TEACHING Task-based language learning has its origins in communicative language teaching, and is a subcategory of it. Educators adopted task-based language learning for a variety of reasons. Some moved to task-based syllabi in an attempt to make language in the classroom truly communicative, rather than the pseudo-communication that results from classroom activities with no direct connection to real-life situations. Others, like Prabhu in the Bangalore Project, thought that tasks were a way of tapping into learners' natural mechanisms for secondlanguage acquisition, and weren't concerned with real-life communication per se.


Definition of a Task 1. A task involves a primary focus on (pragmatic) meaning. 2. A task has some kind of ‘gap’ (Prabhu identified the three main types as information gap, reasoning gap, and opinion gap). 3. The participants choose the linguistic resources needed to complete the task. 4. A task has a clearly defined, non-linguistic outcome.


Outline Pre-task In the pre-task, the teacher will give instructions of what will be expected of the students in the task phase. The instructors may also present a model of the task by either doing it themselves or by presenting picture, audio, or video demonstrating the task.


Task During the task phase, the students perform the task, typically in small groups, although this is dependent on the type of activity. And unless the teacher plays a particular role in the task, then the teacher's role is typically limited to one of an observer or counsellor—thus the reason for it being a more student-centered methodology.


Review Since learners have created tangible linguistic products, e.g. text, montage, presentation, audio or video recording, classmates should review each other's work and offer constructive feedback.


Types of task Information Gap Task An information-gap activity involves a transfer of given information from one person to another – or from one form to another, or from one place to another – and generally calls for the decoding or encoding of information from or into language. One example is pair work in which each member of the pair has a part of the total information (for example an incomplete picture) and attempts to convey it verbally to the other. Another example is completing a tabular representation with information available in a given piece of text. The activity often involves selection of relevant information as well, and learners may have to meet criteria of completeness and correctness in making the transfer.


Reasoning Gap Task A reasoning-gap activity involves deriving some new information from given information through processes of inference, deduction, practical reasoning, or a perception of relationships or patterns. One example is working out a teacher’s timetable on the basis of given class timetables. Another is deciding what course of action is best (for example cheapest or quickest) for a given purpose and within given constraints. The activity necessarily involves comprehending and conveying information, as in information-gap activity, but the information to be conveyed is not identical with that initially comprehended. There is a piece of reasoning which connects the two.


Opinion Gap Task An opinion-gap activity involves identifying and articulating a personal preference, feeling, or attitude in response to a given situation. One example is story completion; another is taking part in the discussion of a social issue. The activity may involve using factual information and formulating arguments to justify one’s opinion, but there is no objective procedure for demonstrating outcomes as right or wrong, and no reason to expect the same outcome from different individuals or on different occasions.


An Example Of Task-Based Learning Framework According to J. Willis (1996), a task means a goal-oriented activity with a clear purpose. Doing a communication task involves achieving an outcome, creating a final product that can be appreciated by other people. Some examples include compiling a list of reasons, features, or things that need doing under particular circumstances; comparing two pictures and/or texts to find the differences; and solving a problem or designing a brochure.

Tasks can be used as the central component of a three part framework: "pre-task," "task cycle," and "language focus." These components have been carefully designed to create four optimum conditions for language acquisition, and thus provide rich learning opportunities to suit different types of learners. The following framework outlines the roles of the teacher and learners during a task-based learning (TBL) lesson.


Introduction to topic and task

Pre-Task Task Cycle

Task

Language Focus

Planning

Report

Analysis and Practice


How learning happens Learners get exposure at the pre-task stage, and a chance to recall things they know. The task cycle gives them speaking and writing exposure with opportunities for students to learn from each other. The task cycle also gives students opportunities to use whatever language they have, both in private (where mistakes, hesitations, and approximate renderings do not matter so long as the meaning is clear) and in public (where there is a builtin desire to strive for accuracy of form and meaning, so as not to lose face). Motivation (short term) is provided mainly by the need to achieve the objectives of the task and to report back on it. Success in doing this can increase longer term motivation. Motivation to listen to fluent speakers doing the task is strong too, because in attempting the task, learners will notice gaps in their own language, and will listen carefully to hear how fluent speakers express themselves. A focus on form is beneficial in two phases in the framework. The planning stage between the private task and the public report promotes close attention to language form. As learners strive for accuracy, they try to organise their reports clearly and check words and patterns they are not sure of. In the final component, language analysis activities also provide a focus on form through consciousness-raising processes. Learners notice and reflect on language features, recycle the task language, go back over the text or recording and investigate new items, and practise pronouncing useful phrases.


Implication on teaching grammar Language Analysis Activities People have often been under the impression that task-based learning means "forget the grammar." This would not be a wise move. The aim of analysis activities is to encourage learners to investigate language for themselves, and to form and test their own hypotheses about how language works. In the task-based cycle, the language data comes from the texts or transcripts of recordings used in the task cycle, or from samples of language they have read or heard in earlier lessons. Having already processed these texts and recordings for meaning, students will get far more out of their study of language form. Analysis activities can be followed by quick bursts of oral or written practice, or dictionary reference work (see Willis & Willis, 1996 for specific ideas). Finally, students need time to note down useful words, phrases, and patterns into a language notebook. Regular revision of these will help vocabulary acquisition.


EXAMPLE: Integrating grammar using a task-based model of instruction

Topic: How does upbringing affect attitudes?

Step 1 The teacher introduces the theme by telling a short anecdote about her school days, which demonstrates, for example, the relaxed approach to the dress-code operating in her school. She uses this story to check the meaning of easygoing and its opposite, strict.


Step 2 The teacher invites one or two learners to recount related experiences. She suggests that many people react against a strict upbringing by adopting very easygoing attitudes as parents, and vice versa. Since there is some argument about this, she suggests that the class conduct a survey, in which they canvass each other to see if there is any correlation between previous experience and present attitudes. She organizes the class into pairs to prepare questions, which they write down.


Step 3 The teacher organizes the pairs of students into groups of four, and asks them to try out their questions on each other, and to make a mental note of the answers. She monitors the interactions, noting down examples of student productions that could be improved, but she doesn't correct them at this point.


Step 4 The teacher asks the class to listen to a recording of some fluent English speakers chatting on the same theme. The conversation includes various examples of the language of coercion. The teacher asks some general gist questions about the conversation - for example, which of the speakers had a strict upbringing, which had an easygoing one? She then hands out a transcript of the recording, and replays the tape while they read.


Step 5 Students then study the transcript with a view to finding language that might be useful in the survey task, particularly language related to the notions of being strict and easygoing. They list these in two columns: adjectives and verbs. Students work in pairs on this task, and then the teacher elicits ideas on to the board.


Step 6 The students then return to their survey task - but are first given a chance to redraft and refine their questions in pairs. They are then paired off with different students than the ones they were talking to earlier (in Step 3).


Step 7 The teacher then asks students, working in their original pairs, to prepare a report on their findings, with a view to answering the question: How does upbringing affect attitudes? Individual students are asked to present their report to the class. A general discussion ensues.


CONCLUSION It is clear that content-based projects strengthen EFL students’ academic skills. The fact that students choose the topic themselves and decide the way they want to give the presentation makes them interested and engaged in the process. A “fun� element is added to the class. It is recommended that students do such projects at an early stage of their university life; they could work as a springboard for many tasks that students have to complete, including working on minor and major projects, giving individual and joint presentations, as well as engaging in discussions and debates. Students who take part in content-based projects are apt to function well in many other aspects of university life that include communicative and critical thinking skills. TBL offers a change from the grammar practice routines through which many learners have previously failed to learn to communicate. It encourages learners to experiment with whatever English they can recall, to try things out without fear of failure and public correction, and to take active control of their own learning, both in and outside class. For the teacher, the framework offers security and control. While it may be true that TBL is an adventure, it can be undertaken within the safety of an imaginatively designed playground.


PROJECT WORK What is a project? It is a display of task outcome, collaborative interaction. It involves planning, execution, constant evaluation, reflection, end product, demonstration. It is done inside a classroom and the participating group size does not matter and it does not affect outcomes or learning procedures either. Projects to be successful should integrate four skills, with differentiation and accommodating to the varied ability levels and interests.


This presentation introduces content-based projects as one way that can help students enhance their language skills, and do so in an engaging manner. The topic of Content-Based Instruction (CBI) and project work has become increasingly important in recent years. Content-based projects are believed to help learners develop both language skills and better knowledge of the world according to Fredricka Stoller, associate professor at Northern Arizona University. Projects, Stoller adds, make classrooms "vibrant learning environments that require active student involvement, stimulate higher-level thinking skills, and give students responsibility for their own learning" and that in CBI "language proficiency is achieved by shifting the focus of instruction from the learning of language per se to the learning of language through the study of subject matter." The four language skills are integrated when students engage in content-based activities. Students read material, understand, interpret and evaluate it; they give oral responses to reading and lecture materials. Based on the listening and reading activities, students are required to synthesize information from different sources as preparation for writing. This approach exposes students to different study skills, which helps them with their future academic life.


The main reason why many teachers use content-based instruction is the fact that it makes students' learning "authentic", providing opportunities for them to use English appropriately in the disciplines they will probably encounter during their life at the university. In addition, the reading, and the other, steps involved in the process will make him a better critical thinker, better able to make more sound decisions, which will be of great benefit when it comes to decision making when the student has graduated and joined the work force. Projects can motivate teens. They can even out abilities and grades, they work well with CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning), have more impact and more success, are effective and meaningful. Stoller reviewed the literature on the different forms of project work, and concluded that there are particular features that characterize project work. These features include that they


focus on content rather than language.

are student-centered,

are cooperative and not competitive,

integrate the 4 skills,

are product and process oriented,

help students to be attentive to both fluency and accuracy

attend to the process product

have the teacher offer support and give guidelines during the whole process

develop participation and collaboration

promote language

require active students involvement

even though

it has a final

meaningful students’ engagement with


stimulate higher-level thinking skills

give student responsibility for their own learning

distance teachers’ role from teacher-dominant instruction

move Teachers toward creating a student community of inquiry involving authentic communication, cooperative learning, collaboration and problem solving

demand adapting and creativity from teachers and students.

use information from varied sources.

can be carried out in different period of time, either a short period of time or extended over a few weeks

can be adapted and used in almost all levels, for different ages and abilities

can be integrated to reinforce important pedagogical issues

work on real life issues since they are linked with students’ interest about real world concerns and issues or significance

have a final product that can be shared with any person from the community or outside

can simulate real word situations

can be adapted by any kind of issue


Last but not least project work hast the potential to motivate, stimulate, empower, and challenge. Projects, in general, usually result in building student confidence, selfesteem, and autonomy as well as improvement of students' language skills, content learning skills, and cognitive abilities.


Ideas that support project work    

It is student-centred and not syllabus centred. It is co-operative rather than competitive. It is skill based not structure based. It allows people to learn from other people within the group.  It caters for interdisciplinary, since being a topic related activity it allows for all kinds of contacts with other subjects.  It is connected with reality.  It allows students “to learn through doing” and to learn how to learn, since they have to plan their own work and draw from their own personal skills.


Characteristics of Project Work A decalogue of characteristics has been developed that can clearly summarize the potential of this approach to language teaching and learning. Project work must be... 1. Interesting: the topic, the teacher’s approach and attitude. 2. Productive: the final goal is a product of some way or other. 3. Active: Students do = Students learn. It is also interactive and student centred. The students are an essential ingredient in the Project Work recipe. 4. Coherent: For the students and for the school. It must be internally coherent and levelled with the students’ knowledge. 5. Integrative: Of the four linguistic skills, also communication skills, information skills, group skills, individual skills and procedural skills for learning and autonomy. 6. Obtainable: It must be oriented to success, but still be a challenge to maintain students’ spirits high. 7. Authentic: in language, in context and interaction. 8. Useful: For the student, for the teacher and for the school. Most final products can be used as stepping stones for future projects. 9. Motivating: It has to be a challenge and get students involved. 10. Flexible: Adaptable, it must allow for evaluation and modification in progress.


STAGES There are three main stages to project work: Planning, doing and evaluating.

Planning 1. Creation of a context in which everybody feels well and not a competitive atmosphere. Teachers have to be good at “selling the idea� to students. 2. Negotiation of rules and course of action (e.g. Agree that most of the interaction has to be in English). 3. Training of students. It is useful that the students have had some practice in classroom language, sentence order, how to use a dictionary, how to use a reference grammar book, brainstorming, brain mapping, decision taking, letter writing, giving short talks,writing questionnaires, conducting an interview and note taking, to mention a few aspects that are worth training. 4. Be open to students suggestions and allow a maximum of freedom.


Doing Project Work has to be done inside and outside the classroom, but this aspect depends on the actual plan devised by students. We suggest the following steps: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Selection of topic Group discussion Plan: checklist of things to be done. Timetable Materials: list of materials that will be needed Distribution of work Do project Plan presentation Presentation to the class.


Evaluating Self-evaluation: Students, together with their products hand in comments about the process: How they have felt, problems they have had and solutions they have given, and also about result what they have learnt. They can also devise and fill in their own self-evaluation sheets. Look for mistakes, correct them and comment on them: Why they made them, etc. Peer evaluation: Colleagues study products from fellow students and hand in comments, marks, ranking lists, etc. according to preferences. Mistake hunting can be an interesting and rewarding activity. Teacher evaluation: the teacher analyses strategies and problems, gathers, categorises and values different comments and prepares feedback for the class. S/he also analyses general mistakes and prepares likely remedial work for the future. If diaries (both teacher’s and students’) have been used, they can be studied at this stage and conclusions discussed.


Benefits to students There are six important benefits to students. 1. Contact with reality: Projects provide contacts with real world subject matter which require students to apply and adapt what they already know. ( But it can also deal with imaginary and creative topics). 2. Projects are participatory activities: Students involvement in making choices and decisions tends to increase their motivation and interest. 3. Projects cater for all abilities within a class: It enables and encourages students of different abilities to work cooperatively on tasks of equal importance. Those who are relatively weak with regard to their formal linguistic achievement may be able to use other talents which are as valuable to the success of the projects the writing of good English or the understanding of complete texts,etc. a. Most projects include some of the following non-linguistic tasks: b. Design (leaflets, posters, displays) c. Illustration (Photographs, cartoons, graphs) d. Organization (of people, materials, tasks and time) e. Equipment (video, cameras, cassette records, PCs) 4. Projects re-integrate language: language is usually separated into discrete items for teaching purposes; a project provides language learnt in this way with a natural context which puts things back into place. 5. Projects establish a context which balances the need for fluency and accuracy. 6. Projects are a break with routine: and allow students to relax.


What students do  they create tools: Devise, use and evaluate Grids, questionnaires, charts, etc.  they handle information: Compare, sort, analyse, transfer and summarize it.  they improve their socialisation skills: People skills, Individual Skills, Participation in different kinds of interaction.  they do a lot of language work: Practice all four skills in the process. They talk, read, listen and write.


What teachers do  they prepare students for working independently in groups  they prepare a resource bank and handle timing of projects.  they identify and provide information needed or help students find it on their own.  they identify and provide language needed or help students find it on their own.  they define roles.  they provide and train students in skills for dealing with information, generating ideas, presentations, etc.  they listen before they give advice.  they are supportive and never destructive respecting students’ work and initiatives.  they develop their capacity for being flexible and able to reconduct projects.  they participate in the evaluation process.


How to carry out project work In the beginning, students are introduced to content-based projects. They are given an assignment sheet stating what is expected of them. The teacher goes over the sheet with them, explaining each task, and setting deadlines for each of the tasks to be completed. The projects could be in the form of a DVD, a video or a power point presentation. Students are given one week to decide on a topic and show it to the teacher for approval. They are encouraged to think of more than one topic to decide on one in consultation with the teacher. The reason is, first, to avoid having overlapping topics within the class, and second, to avoid presenting sensitive topics that might possibly offend other members of the group. When their topics have been approved, students are given two weeks to read about the topic; they are encouraged to search the net, read three articles relevant to their topic, and decide on one to submit to the teacher the day they give their presentations. During the two weeks, students are also required to interview at least ten people, asking them their research question. Students report their interviewees' responses, and attempt an interpretation of these responses, in light of the context where the data has been collected, the respondents' age group and their background about the topic they are interviewed on.


Following that, the students develop a presentation that they share with their classmates in five minutes during class time. Most students opt to do a power point presentation; innovative students attempt a DVD or a video presentation. A student's presentation is usually followed with a discussion and/or questions, which allows the students to learn more about the topic. Students are encouraged to use the new information in their compositions, if the idea is related to the given topic and they can support their content with the point(s) made in their colleague's presentation. The main steps involved in conducting content-based projects as described in this paper can be summarized as follows:     

Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5:

Choosing a topic for the project Deciding on a research question Gathering information (internet search, interviews …) Analyzing the information Giving a presentation and submitting a report


PROJECT STAGES DEVELOPMENT The 8-step sequence model proposed by Sheppard and Stoller (1995) was fine-tuned in a 10-step sequence, once you have your goals in mind this is the way you can carry it out in a classroom. STEP 1. STUDENTS AGREE ON A THEME FOR THE PROJECT.  You can make reference to previous readings, videos, discussions, and classroom activities.  Brainstorm.  It is a stage of discussion and negotiation.


STEP 2. DETERMINE THE FINAL OUTCOME.  Nature of the project.  Objectives.  Means to finalize the project: Final product. STEP 3. STRUCTURE THE PROJECT.

Structure the Body should consider:

of the

project.

Students

 What information is needed to complete the project?  How can the information be obtained?  How the information, once gathered, be compiled and analyzed?  What role does each student play in the evolution of the project? Who does what?  What time line will students follow to get from the starting point to the end point?


STEP 4. PREPARE THE STUDENTS FOR THE LANGUAGE DEMANDS FOR GATHERING INFORMATION. Practice the language, skills and strategies needed to gather information.  Teacher can plan language instructions activities to prepare students in how to gather information in a good way and how to use the resources in order to get information.( e.g. How to look for books at the library, how to do questions).  Teacher help students devise a grid for organized data collection.

STEP 5 GATHER INFORMATION  Students collect information and organized.  Teacher also brought in relevant information such readings, videos, dictocomps and teacher-generated lectures.


STEP 6 PREPARE STUDENTS DEMANDS OF STEP 7.

FOR THE LANGUAGE

 Do different activities to prepare students to organized and synthesize information.  Introduce students to graphic representations like grids and charts that might highlight relationships amon g ideas.

STEP 7. COMPILE AND ANALYZE INFORMATION.  Using strategies developed in Step 6 students compile and analyze information to identify data.


STEP 8. PREPARE STUDENTS DEMANDS OF STEP 9.

FOR THE LANGUAGE

 Teacher can bring in language improvement activities to help students succeed with the presentations of the finals products.  Practicing skills needed in the final product and receiving feed back.  Editing and revising writing.

STEP 9. PRESENT FINAL PRODUCT.  Present the final outcome of the project.

STEP 10.EVALUATE THE PROJECT. Students realize how much they have learned and the teacher benefits from the students’ insights for future classroom projects.


Students must reflect on the experience and the final step:  The language they mastered to complete the project.  The content they learned about the targeted theme.  The step they follow to complete the project.  The effectiveness of the final project.  How they must proceed differently the next time  What suggestions they have for future project work endeavors.


Skills Developed through Content-based Projects There are several positive traits that have been noticed to develop in students over a given semester. First, they become more self-confident, having to work individually on a single project. Some of them indicate that working on these projects and giving presentations on their own gives them better confidence to meet the more challenging demands of other courses they take. The reason they are asked to work on the project individually is the tendency of some of them, as reported by a few students when contentbased projects were tried the first time, to do less work than their peers, if they opted to do the project in pairs. They also develop a sense of autonomy, since they have to work out the topic, the question to be asked, the people they will interview, the way to present their findings, and reach conclusions.


Problems with Implementation There are four main points that can be rather restrictive when it comes to effective implementation of content-based projects in an academic setting. The first problem is dealing with sensitive issues. A second problem would be uncooperative students. In almost every group there is one student who does not want to work on a project, or is too shy to present in front of his/her classmates, or does not meet the deadlines in submitting an assignment. The third situation is other students, knowing that these projects are not part of the course requirements, resist the idea and decide not to do a project at all. Luckily, those are few. The fourth, and last, problem concerns students' reactions to each other's work. More specifically, some students could try to ridicule the way their colleagues speak English, while others could give negative comments on the content of a given presentation. This would create a negative atmosphere in the classroom. Therefore, before starting the presentations, students are advised to give their colleagues constructive feedback, since the ultimate goal is for them to learn from each other, not to find fault with each other's work. Constructive feedback is given in the form of a three-item feedback sheet, indicating what they liked most about the presentation, what they did not like, and what suggestions they can give to improve the presentation. Students are given oral instructions about how to give effective feedback. The feedback sheets are anonymous and given directly to the presenter after the presentation, without the teacher seeing them. This method saves class time, makes students comfortable giving feedback, and saves the presenter the embarrassment of the teacher seeing any negative feedback. At the end of the presentations of a given class session (usually three), the teacher gives general feedback following the threestep feedback forms, but orally.


Alternative project suggestions Based on the above description of the implementation of content-based projects in an EFL academic context, it is highly recommended that instructors teaching different levels, in different EFL contexts, use projects in their classrooms, even when technology is not available. Depending on the course learning outcomes, the students' age and proficiency level, teachers can gear the projects to suit their students. One way is to use the content of the course book itself to generate ideas for a suitable project. Another way is to have students work in pairs or small groups, as long as each student has clear instructions as to the tasks that need to be accomplished. Internet searches can help students find interesting content to develop into a project, but they are not the only way. Newspaper and magazine articles are a very good source; talk shows, family members, acquaintances and friends are other sources which can be an excellent motivator for students to complete a project. Students can watch different kinds of talk shows that tackle various topics, whether social, political, or ones related to gender, before they decide on a particular area to investigate. They can then develop their content through reading, interviewing others and talking to more experienced individuals. Another way teachers may follow is to invite a guest speaker who is knowledgeable in a particular area to give a presentation on a relevant topic. This can help students find more information about the topic, which could be developed later into a project.


PROJECT STRUCTURES: In terms of project structure, there are three kinds of projects : 

Structured projects: teachers.

defined and organized by

Unstructured projects: largely, by students. Semi-structured projects: by teachers and students.

defined

and

organized,

defined and organized

In terms of types of projects, these are some examples: 

Research projects: library research Text projects: any kind of source like books, magazines, web pages, videos, but not people.


Correspondence projects: communications using mail or emails.

Survey projects.

Interview projects: classroom.

having a guest

in

with others

or outside the

According to how the information is presented, the projects can be: 

Production project: creation of bulletin board displays, videos, radio programs, posters sessions, written reports, photo essays, letters, handbooks, brochures menus, oral presentation, travel itineraries, and so forth

Performance presentations, fashion shows.

Organizational projects: club, conversation- partner program.

project: debates, oral theatrical performances, food fairs or conversation

table,


A Short List of possible Projects to start with           

Class survey on pets Students Heroes Teacher age chart My ideal Room / neighbourhood/ house/city/planet, etc. Our favourite recipe The songs we like Pollution in the area Tourist Guide Classroom magazine Radio Program Create an advertisement for the television


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3oBZ2rNw9fk


Teaching strategy

Purpose or determined action plan used by the teacher for a specific content, this plan includes: structure, desire learner behavior, an outline and goals of instruction.


Learning strategy

specific action taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferable to new situations


LEARNING STRATEGIES When students use strategies, cooperative skill performance is close to 100 percent. There are no intrinsically “good� strategies because people need to discover their own.


STRATEGIES Students use Learning Strategies to help them understand information and solve problems. Students who do not know or use good learning strategies often learn passively and ultimately fail in school. Learning Strategy instruction focuses on making students more active learners by teaching them how to learn and how to use what they have learned to be successful.


Direct

Indirect

Memory

Metacognitive

Cognitive

Affective

Compensation

Social


Memory strategies Memory strategies are based on simple principles like laying things out in order, making association, and reviewing. These principles are employed when a learner faces challenge of vocabulary learning. The use of memory strategies are most frequently applied in the beginning process of language learning.


Relating concepts When a new concept is introduced, learners associate that to something they now or they are familiarized with ; for example a new Word is related to something they own, know, want or have experienced. mischievous= a politician, Mr. burns I have traveled a lot.= experience (my last trip to Europe)

Conspicuous lullaby far-fetched diversion


Making sentences Learners make their own sentences to memorize and internalize new grammar concepts or/and vocabulary. e.g. Run Errands. I have to run some errands next Saturday. Used to. I used to live in a small town. Might She might need some help.


practice Make 3 different sentences using the words from the boxes below. words

Verbs simple past

Cabbage Cart Shelf Customs office

Saw Dealt Felt Bought


Mental pictures Learners visualize the new word/concept rather than memorize it’s meaning or function. Flashcards and posters are used in this process. http://www.languageguide.org/english/vocabulary/money/


Practice mental pictures Work in pairs,look at the pictures and describe them to your partner, make a mental image based on the descriptions.


Rhyming learners use of rhymes to memorize new concepts and vocabulary. Clothing vocabulary: jacket,shoes,dress,shrit,skirt,tie,suit,jeans. For a party I wear a tie And kiss my mom good bye. I have new shoes But I stained them with juice Mary’s wearing a dress, But her hair is a mess.

jacket-racket Suit-foot jeans-beans Skirt-flirt


Rhyming time

Make a little poem/rap rhyming the following words:

Food and drinks Tomato-cabbage-sugar-beefchicken-apple-cream-cheese-bread Soda-coffee-tea-water-wine


Performing/acting out When learning a new word or concept learners perform or act out the action or word in order to record the new information in their brain. e.g Yawn-sneeze-scratch-tip toe-skip-march-spin


Simon says In pairs: Make a list of 10 action verbs. Play simon says with another group.


Cognitive strategies The target language is manipulated or transformed by repeating, analyzing or summarizing. The four sets in this group are: Practicing, Receiving and Sending Messages, Analyzing and Reasoning, and Creating Structure for Input and Output. Practicing is the most important in this group which can be achieved by repeating, working with sounds and writing, and using patterns.


Problem-solve

CAN YOU SOLVE THE PROBLEM?

MAKE A TABLE

Question: You save $3 on Monday, each day after that you save twice as much as you saved the day before if this pattern continues, how much would you save on Friday? ď‚›How can

you solve the problem


ANSWER:  YOU SAVE $48 ON FRIDAY

 Monday--------3  tuesday--------6  wednesday----12  Thursday------24  Friday----------48


Imitation and contrast When learners imitate native speakers’ accent in order to practice pronunciation of new words and phrases in Videos, movies, songs and TV shows.


Practicing with homonyms Learners practice with homonyms and build word webs with the different meanings for a word depending on its context. e.g Bear (animal) and bear (carry) porter (a weak beer) and porter (a man who carries luggage) lean (thin) and lean (rest against) lap (to drink with tongue) and lap (a circuit) plane (a tool) and plane (a tree) plain (ordinary looking) and plain (flat country)


Practice In pairs find a different meaning for the words listed below. skip pluck train bow fair Lead

miss type fluke quail lie blue


check skip (to jump) and skip (to miss out) miss (unmarried woman) and miss (to overlook) pluck (to remove feathers) and pluck (bravery) type (to write via keyboard) and type (a sort) train (a loco and trucks) and train (to teach) fluke (a stroke of luck Fluke ( the fins on a whales tail) bow (bend forward) bow (front of a ship) quail (cower) quail (bird) fair (appearance) fair (reasonable) lie (horizontal position) lie (falsehood or untruth expressed as truth) lead (metal) Lead (start off in front) blue (the color) blue (the feeling of sadness)


Learning cognates

two words that have a common origin are cognates. Most often, cognates are words in two languages that have a common etymology and thus are similar or identical. For example, the English "kiosk" and the Spanish quiosco are cognates because they both come from the Turkish kosk. Industry-industria Bycicle-bicicleta Fragile-fragil


Practice In pairs make a list of 10 cognates.

For more cognates: http://www.esdict.com/English-Spanish-Cognates.html#.UGEzqLIf41M


Compensation strategies Learners use compensation strategies for comprehension of the target language when they have insufficient knowledge of the target language. These strategies make up for the deficiency in grammar and vocabulary. When learners do not know new words and expressions, they guess the meaning.


A learner brings own life experience to interpret data by guessing. Students brings own life experience to interpret data by guessing. Compensation strategies are also used in production when grammatical knowledge is incomplete.


Guessing meaning by context The ability to guess meaning from context is a useful skill to practice and try to improve. The things which will help you work out the meaning of an unfamiliar word are: a) the meaning of the text which surrounds it; b) the way the word is formed; c) your own background knowledge of the subject.


Guessing is useful only when you can interpret/understand the surrounding text. If you think you have exhausted the contextual information available to guess at the word, LOOK IT UP IN A DICTIONARY.


Practice 1) The tiger's roar could be heard in villages far away. What does roar probably mean? A) food a tiger eats B) a tiger's dream C) a tiger's ear D) a sound a tiger makes 2) The thought of eating a rat is abhorrent to most people. What does abhorrent probably mean? A) fun, lively B) horrible, repugnant C) delicious, tasty D) sweet, sugary


3) You can trust the salesmen at that store because they always conduct business in an aboveboard manner. What does aboveboard probably mean? A) honestly, openly B) sneaky, dishonest C) horrible, repugnant D) strange, unusual 4) Petra has so many friends because she is a gregarious person. What does gregarious probably mean? A) introverted, self-contained B) shy, quiet C) friendly, outgoing D) rude, hostile


Anticipating dialogue Learners watch a video clip , movie or listen to a dialogue and predict the response or what the person will say in order to practice comprehension, cohesion and fluency.


Metacognitive strategies These go beyond the cognitive mechanism and give learners to coordinate their learning. This helps them to plan language learning in an efficient way. When new vocabulary, rules, and writing system confuse the learner, these strategies become vital for successful language learning.


Three sets of strategies belong to this group and they are: Centering Your Learning, Arranging and Planning Your Learning, and Evaluating Your Learning.


Centering learning: give a focus to the learner so that the attention could be directed toward certain language activities or skills. Arranging and planning learning: help learners to organize so they may get maximum benefit from their energy and effort. Evaluating learning: helps learners with problems like monitoring errors and evaluation of progress.


Here some examples: Learners: • Try to speak english all the time. • Listen and pay attention everytime someone speaks English. • Plan specific time to practice English • Look for new reading material • Set specific goals http://rubistar.4teachers.org/


Affective estrategies The affective factors like emotion, attitude, motivation, and values influence learning in an important way. Three sets of strategies are included in this group: • Lowering Your Anxiety, Banish boredom, read and write more plan to succeed • Encouraging Yourself • Taking Your Emotional Temperature.


Social estrategies These are very important in learning a language because language is used in communication and communication occurs between people. Three sets of strategies are included in this group: Asking Questions Cooperating with others Empathizing with Others.


Learners can apply the strategy of cooperating with others by doing something together in the language they are learning. Here some Examples.: Chat rooms,movie clubs,reading club, Participating in forums, debate contest, creating a blog, social newworks among others.


Conclusion Language learning strategies, facilitate the learning of the target language by the language learner. Since the factors like age, gender, personality, motivation, selfconcept, life-experience, learning style, anxiety, etc. affect the way in which language learners learn the target language, strategies help them understand, learn, or remember new information.


To be consider a competent user of language, one needs to know not only the rules of grammar, but also how rules are used in real communication.


ď‚ž How

much grammar does one need in order to be able to communicate comfortably in a second or foreign language?

ď‚ž Some

people claim that grammar is not very important as long as you can get your message across in the language you are studying. Do you agree with this statement?

ď‚ž What

has been your experience in learning the grammar of a second language?


 How

do you decide which grammar points to present fisrt, second, and so on?  Is grammar best taught in isolation or in context?  How do you correct your students’ grammar mistakes? Give at least three different techniques you usually employ in your teaching.


 Because  It’s

it’s there.

tidy.  It’s testable.  Grammar as a security blanket.  It made me who I am.  You have to teach the hole system.  Power


Comprehensibility Acceptaility


successful language learning depends on immersing students in tasks that require them to negotiate meaning and engage in naturalistic and meaningful communication .


FROM GRAMMAR-FOCUSED TO TASK-FOCUSED INSTRUCTION

The differences between traditional grammar-focused activities and communicative tasks are as follows: • Grammar-focused activities • Reflect typical classroom use of language. • Focus on the formation of correct examples • Monitored speech style • Do not require authentic communication • Communicative tasks


• Reflect natural language use. • Colloquial speech style • Require improving, repair and reorganization. • Allow students to select language they use. • Task work is seen as a part of linguistic and communicative competence development.


SECOND THOUGHTS ABOUT TASK WORK The researcher found that negotiation for meaning is not a strategy that language learners are influenced to employ when they encounter gaps in their understanding. Accurate grammar use is not necessary in such a grammar-gap task.

These strategies provide an effective incentive to make best use of language that already have but it doesn’t encourage them to focus on form.


GRAMMAR IN RELATION TO SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION PROCESSES • Input: language sources used to initiated the language learning process. At the input stage, an attempt may be made to focus learners’ attention on particular features of inputs. • Intake: subset of the input that is comprehended and attended to in some way. Those items are needed to meet certain criteria such as complexity(appropriate level of difficulty), saliency(be noticed or attended to), frequency(be experienced frequently) and need(fulfill a communicative need).


• Acquisition: the learner incorporate a new learning item into his or her developing system or inter language. • Noticing the difference between forms they are using and target like forms. • Discovering rules of target language • Make those into long-term memory

• Access: learner’s ability to utilize the inter language system during communication which includes making use of the developing system to create output. • Output: observed result. In the output you should practice in an oral way such as role play.


Addresing Grammar within Task Work • Exposure to language at an appropiate level of difficulty. • Engagement in meaning-focused interaction in the language. • Opportunities for learners to notice or attend to linguistic form while using the language. • Opportunities to expand the language resources learners make use of over time.


Addresing Accuracy Prior to the Task • By pre-teaching certain linguistic forms that can be used while completing a task. • By reducing the cognitive complexity of the task. • By giving time to plan the task.


Addresing Accuracy During the Task • Participation • Procedures • 1. Preparatory activity designed to provide schemata, vocabulary and language. • 2. Dialogue listening task, to model shorter version of target task. • 3. Dialogue practice task, to provide further clarification of task.


• • • • • •

4. First practice, using role-play cues. 5. Follow-up listening 6. Second role-play practice Resouces Order Product


Addresing Accuracy After the Task

• Public Performance • Repeat Performance


Does practice work? • There are strong empirical and theorical grounds to doubt the efficacy of practice. It may have limited psycholinguistic validity. • Practice is directed at the acqusition of implicit knowledge of a grammar structure. • The results of both types of research are not encouraging for supporters of practice.


• A number of empirical students have investigated whether practice contributes to L2 acquisition. • These studies are of two kinds: those that seek to relate the amount of practice achieved bye individual learners with general increase in proficiency and those that have examined whether practicing specific linguistic structure results in its acquisition.


Consciousness-raising: • It is unlikely to result in inmediate acquisition. • More likely it will have a delayed effect. It can be deductive and inductive. • There are some limitations for example it cannot be used for young learners, (those who like to learn by doing rather than studying.)


• Facilitates the acquisition of the grammatical knowledge needed for communication. • The acquisition of implicit knowledge involves three processes. • Noticing • Comparing • Integrating


Practice: Stage that consists of a series of exercises, whose aim is to cause the learners to absorb the structure.


Mechanical Practice • Rigidly controlled activities. Contextualised practice • Encourage learners to relate form to meaning by using real-life situations.

Communicative practice • Information gap activities which require learners to engage in authentic communication.


Isolate a specific grammatical feature.

Learners receive feedback on their performance.

Practice

Produce sentences containing the target feature.

Characteristics

Sucess oriented.

Repetition of the target feature.


Consciousness-Raising: It is the attempt to equip the learner with an understanding of a specific grammatical feature.


ConsciousnessRaising Activities

Inductive

Deductive

• Learner is provided with data and asked to construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature.

• Learner is supplied with a rule which is then used to carry out some task.


Isolates linguistic features

Learners may be required to articulate the rule describing the grammatical structure.

Clarification is in the form of further data description or explanation.

ConciousnessRaising characteristics

Data or explicit rule is provided to the learner to explain the feature

Learners are expected to utilise intellectual effort.


Purpose of CR in the teaching of grammar

To make learners more autonomous by developing their analytical ability.

To help learners acquire conscious knowledge which they can use to understand input and monitor their own output .

To direct learners’ attention to grammar features they might not notice on their own.

To help learners make form/meaning connections.


CR activity #1


CR activity #2


Conversational Discourse The benchmark of successful language acquisition is almost always the demonstration o fan ability to accomplish pragmatic goals through Interactive discourse with other speakers of the language.


Teaching Pronunciation Because the overwhelming majority of adult learners will never acquire an accent-free command of a foreign language, should a language program that emphasizes whole language, meaningful contexts, and automaticity of production focus on these tiny phonological details of language? The answer is yes.


Accuracy and Fluency In spoken language the question we face as teachers is: How shall we prioritize the two clearly important speaker goals of accurate (clear, articulate, grammatically and phonologically correct) language and fluent (flowing, natural) language? It’s now very clear that fluency and accuracy are both important goals to pursue in CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) and/or TBLT (Task-Based Language Teaching). While fluency may in many communicative language courses be an initial goal in language teaching, accuracy is achieved to some extent by allowing students to focus on the elements of phonology, grammar, and discourse in their spoken output. Fluency is probably best achieved by allowing the “stream” of speech to “flow”.


Affective Factors One of the major obstacles learners have to overcome in learning to speak is the anxiety generated over the risks of blurting things out that are wrong, stupid, or incomprehensible. Because of the language ego that informs others that “you are what you speak�, learners are reluctant to be judged by hearers. Our job as teachers is to provide the kind of warm, embracing climate that encourages students to speak, however halting or broken their attempts may be.


The Interaction Effect The greatest difficulty that learners encounter in attempts to speak is not the multiplicity of sounds, words, phrases, and discourse forms that characterize any language, but rather the interactive nature of most communication. Conversations are collaborative as participants engage in a process of negotiation of meaning. So, for the learner, the matter of what to say is often eclipsed by conventions of how to say things, when to speak, and other discourse constraints.


Questions about Intelligibility A now outdated model of English language teaching assumed that intelligibility should be gauged by whether nonnative speakers are intelligible to native speakers. Materials, technology, and teacher education programs are being challenged to grapple with the issue if intelligibility, and to adopt new standards of “correctness” and new attitudes toward “accent” in order to meet current global realities.


The Growth of Spoken Corpora The intelligibility issue is now being described as a rapid growth of readily available corpora of spoken language –one of the key developments in research on teaching oral production. As the size and scope of corpora expand, so our understanding of what people really say is informed by empirical evidence. Of special interest to teachers of English worldwide is the wider range of language varieties that are now available through such projects as the International Corpus of English, which contains data from the spoken Englishes of Hong Kong, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Nigeria, the Caribbean, and others.


Genres of Spoken Language Research on spoken language has recently attended to a specification of differences among various genres of oral interaction, and how to teach those variations. What is judged to be acceptable and/or correct varies by contexts, or genres, such as small talk, discussion, and narrative, among others. As research more accurately describes the constraints of such genres on spoken language, we will be better able to pinpoint models of appropriateness for students’ specific purposes in learning English.


In beginning through intermediate levels of proficiency, most of the efforts of the students in oral production come in the form of conversation, or dialogue. As you plan and implement techniques in your interactive classroom, make sure your students can deal with both interpersonal and transactional with whom they are quite familiar.


Clustering Fluent speech is phrasal, not word-by-word. Learners can organize their output both cognitively and physically through such clustering.


Redundancy The speaker has and opportunity to make meaning clearer through the redundancy of language. Learners can capitalize on this feature of spoken language.


Reduced Forms Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc., all form special problems in teaching spoken English. Students who don’t learn colloquial contractions can sometimes develop a stilted, bookish quality of speaking that in turn stigmatizes them.


Performance Variables One of the advantages of spoken language is that the process of thinking as you speak allows you to manifest a certain number of performance hesitations, pauses, backtracking, and corrections. Learners can actually be taught how to pause and hesitate. For example, in English our “thinking time” is not silent; we insert certain “fillers” such as uh, um, well, you know, I mean, like, etc. one of the most salient differences between native and nonnative speakers of a language is in their hesitation phenomena.


Colloquial Language Make sure your students are reasonably well acquainted with the words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial language and that they get practice in producing these forms.


Rate of Delivery Another salient characteristic of fluency is rate of delivery. One of your tasks in teaching spoken English is to help learners achieve an acceptable speed along with other attributes of fluency.


Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation This is the most important characteristic of English pronunciation. The stress-timed rhythm of spoken English and its intonation patterns convey important messages.


Interaction Learning to produce waves of language in a vacuum –without interlocutors- would rob speaking skill of its richest component: the creativity of conversational negotiation.


Microskills 1. Produce chunks of language of different lengths. 2. Orally produce differences among the English phonemes and allophonic variants. 3. Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours. 4. Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.

5. Use an adequate number of lexical units in order to accomplish pragmatic purposes.


6. Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery. 7. Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices (pauses, fillers, self-corrections, backtracking) to enhance the clarity of the message.

8. Use grammatical word classes, systems, word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms. 9. Produce speech in natural constituents in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences. 10. Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.


Macroskills Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse.

Accomplish appropriately communicative functions according to situations, participants, and goals. Use appropriate registers, implicature, pragmatic conventions, and other sociolinguistic features in face-to-face conversations.

Convey links and connections between events and communicate such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, given information, generalization, and exemplification. Use facial features, kinesics, body language, and other nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings.

Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies, such as emphasizing key words, rephrasing, providing a context for interpreting the meaning of words, appealing for help, and accurately assessing how well your interlocutor is understanding you.


Imitative A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder� speech. Imitation of this kind is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form.


Intensive Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include any speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive speaking can be self-initiated, or it can even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are “going over� certain forms of language.


Responsive A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or comments. These replies are usually sufficient and do not extend into dialogues.


Transactional (dialogue) Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language. Conversations, for example, may have more of a negotiative nature to them than does responsive speech.


Interpersonal (dialogue) These conversations are a little trickier for learners because they can involve some or all of the following factors: • A casual register • Colloquial language • Emotionally charged language • Slang • Ellipsis

• Sarcasm • A covert “agenda”


Extensive (monologue) Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports, summaries, r perhaps short speeches. Here the register is more formal and deliberative. These monologues can be planned or impromptu.


Focus on both fluency and accuracy, depending on your objective.

Provide intrinsically motivating techniques. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts.

Provide appropriate feedback and correction. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening.

Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication. Encourage the development of speaking strategies.


Indirect approach: In which learners are more or less set loose to engage in interaction. Implies that one does not actually teach conversation, but rather that students acquire conversational competence, peripherally, by engaging in meaningful tasks.

Direct approach: involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies, and processes that are involved in fluent conversation. Explicitly calls students’ attention to conversational rules, conventions, and strategies.


Sample tasks teaching various aspects of conversation an oral grammar practice technique •

Conversation – indirect (strategy consciousnessraising)

• Conversation – direct (gambits) • Conversation – transactional (ordering from a catalog) • Meaningful oral grammar practice (modal auxiliary would)

• Individual practice (oral dialogue journals)


Current approaches to pronunciation contrast starkly with the early approaches. Rather than attempting only to build a learner’s articulatory competence from the bottom up, and simply as the mastery of a list of phonemes and allophones, a top-down approach is now taken in which the most relevant features of pronunciation-stress, rhythm, and intonation are given high priority. Instead of teaching only the role of articulation within words, or at best, phrases, we teach its role in a whole stream of discourse.


Factors that affects learners’ pronunciation All six of these factors suggest that any learner who really wants to can learn to pronounce English clearly and comprehensibly. 1. Native language: factor affecting you are familiar learner’s native able to diagnose

it is the most influential a learner’s pronunciation. If with the sound system of a language, you will be better student difficulties.


2. Age: generally speaking, children under the age of puberty stand an excellent chance of “sounding like a native” if they have continued exposure in authentic contexts. Beyond the age of puberty, while adults will almost surely maintain a “foreign accent”. 3. Exposure: one can actually live in a foreign country for some time but not take advantage of being “with the people” 4. Innate phonetic ability: it is often referred to as having an “ear” for language, some people manifest a phonetic coding ability that others do not.


5. Identity and language ego: another influence is one’s attitude toward speakers of the target language and the extent to which the language ego identifies with those speakers. Learners need to be reminded of the importance of positive attitudes toward the people who speak the language, but more important, students need to become aware of the second identity that may be emerging within them. 6. Motivation and concern for good pronunciation: some learners are not particularly concerned about their pronunciation, while others are. If that motivation and concern are high, then the necessary effort will be expended in pursuit of goals.


Item types and tasks for Assessing Speaking 1. Imitative speaking tasks: Minimal pair repetition

Word/phrase repetition Sentence repetition


2. Intensive speaking tasks: Directed response Read-aloud (for either pronunciation or fluency) Oral sentence completion Oral cloze procedure Dialogue completion Directed response Picture-cued elicitation of a grammatical item Translation of a word, phrase, or sentence or two


3. Responsive speaking tasks: Picture-cued elicitation of response or description Map-cued elicitation of directions Question and answer Question elicitation Elicitation of instructions Paraphrasing

4. Interactive speaking tasks Oral interviews Role plays Discussions and conversations Games

5.

Extensive speaking tasks: Oral presentations Picture-cued (storytelling) Retelling a story or news event Translation of an extended text


Evaluating and scoring speaking tasks First you need to be clear in specifying the level of language you are targeting. One or more of at least six possible criteria may be your target: Pronunciation Fluency Vocabulary Grammar Discourse features (cohesion, sociolinguistic appropriateness, etc.) Task (accomplishing the objective of the task)


Grammatical Competence In order to convey meaning, EFL learners must have the knowledge of words and sentences. That is, they must understand how words are segmented into various sounds, and how sentences are stressed in particular ways.


Discourse Competence In addition to grammatical competence, EFL learners must develop discourse competence, which is concerned with intersentential relationship. Whether formal or informal, the rules of cohesion and coherence apply, which aid in holding the communication together in a meaningful way.


Sociolinguistic Competence Learners must have competence, which involves knowing what is expected socially, and culturally by users of the target language, that is, learners must acquire the rules and norms governing the appropriate timing and realization of speech acts.


Strategic Competence Strategic competence, which is “the way learners manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals� is perhaps the most important of all the communicative competence elements. It refers to the ability to know when and how to take the floor, how to keep a conversation going, how to terminate the conversation, and how to clear up communication breakdown as well as comprehension problems.


Developing Learner Autonomy Underpinning the rationale for a learnercentered approach to the development of discussion skills is the need to encourage students to become increasingly independent and self- directed in their learning.


Selection of Topics for Discussion Free choice of topic may well be of particular importance in monolingual classrooms, in which the common cultural background of the learners might limit the range of topics of potential interest; it may also determine the degree of convergence students adopt to target-language phonological and lexico-grammatical norms.


Using Minimal Responses One way to encourage learners to begin to participate is to help them build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges. Minimal responses are predictable, often idiomatic phrases that conversation participants use to indicate understanding, agreement, doubt, and other responses to what another speaker is saying.


Recognizing Scripts Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges -- a script. Greetings, apologies, compliments, invitations, and other functions that are influenced by social and cultural norms often follow patterns or scripts. Instructors can help students develop speaking ability by making them aware of the scripts for different situations so that they can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response. Through interactive activities, instructors can give students practice in managing and varying the language that different scripts contain.


Using Language to Talk About Language By encouraging students to use clarification phrases in class when misunderstanding occurs, and by responding positively when they do, instructors can create an authentic practice environment within the classroom itself. As they develop control of various clarification strategies, students will gain confidence in their ability to manage the various communication situations that they may encounter outside the classroom.


Conclusion After taking a look at the teaching speaking process in a second language we come to the realization that it is not an easy task. Through the analysis made in this presentation we noticed the fact that there are many hurdles to be overcome in order to succeed in our task as teachers taking our students to a level where they can master the language with proficiency. These tools given here are intended to make teachers proficient in their teaching.

Developing pronunciation, fluency, stress, and intonation and so on accurately in our student’s lives will provide them with effective ways to communicate effectively when speaking in a second language with speakers of such a language.


Najelu dasun ono igajagi yoja Kopi hanjanui yeoyureul aneun pumgyeok inneun yeoja Bami om ya shimjangi bdeugeowojineun yeoja Geureon banjeon inneun yeoja


Top Down and Botton Up Listening Botton Up

Top Down 

It focuses on macrofeatures of discourse such as the speaker's purpose and the discourse topic.

Identify sounds or lexical items according to their linguistic function. Use phonological cues to distinguish between positive and negative sentences or


Reciprocal Listening

Non-reciprocal listening

Movies https://www.ted.com/ www.esl-lab.com www.listenaminute.co m


Listening Practice To involve our students in the listening practice we can:  Give students a degree of choice  Let them bring something of themselves to the task  Let students to bring their background knowledge and experiences to the classroom  Give the students the opportunity to develop a reflective attitude


RAISING STUDENTS AWARENESS OF THE FEATURES OF REAL-WORLD LISTENING INPUT


Somebody told me you once did some busking. Is that right?

http://www.voki.com/php/viewmessage/?chsm=3eeb6e3253ef1e3fd7c763 1cbf674414&mId=2238150


Written text I went busking once in Hong Kong during the summer holidays. However, I am not sure whether it was while I was still at university or after I had just left.


THE USE OF TIMECREATING DEVICES FEATURES OF REALWORLD LISTENING INPUT

THE USE OF FACILITATION DEVICES

THE USE OF COMPENSATION DEVICES


TIME CREATING DEVICES • Pause fillers: «um», «urh», «eh» • Transitions: Likewise, Similarly, however, on the contrary, in addition • Repetitions: internal summary • Repair conversions (reformulations) • Cut-offs (false starts)


THE USE OF FALICITATION DEVICES • Use of less complex structures • Ellipses: «yes, I did» • Use of fixed and conventional phrases «you know» «I mean» «well» https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GfbZpT9WwA


THE USE OF COMPENSATION DEVICES

Redundancy in natural speech does allow the listener some processing time. • Repetition • Reformulation • rephrasing


FEATURES OF REAL-WORLD LISTENING INPUT

THE USE OF TIME- CREATING DEVICES

«um», «urh», «eh»

THE USE OF FACILITATION DEVICES

You know, I mean, well

THE USE OF COMPENSATION DEVICES

Repetition, reformulation, rephrasing


AWARENESS-RAISING EXERCISES

• Spoken text / written text • Students write semi-scripted simulated authentic speeches Brief notes or flow charts Role-play situation Play stracts of students talk Students identify pause fillers, repetition


THE CHANGING FACE OF LISTENING


Presenting grammar 

Presented dialogues about structures (only type of listening practice most learners received). Effort was place for learners to speak.

In order to follow a conversation, we have to understand what is being said.


Late 1960s Pre-listening: Pre-teaching of all important new vocabulary in the passage  Listening Extensive listening Intensive listening  Post-listening Analysis of the language in the text. Listen and repeat: teacher pauses the tape, learners repeat words 


PRE-LISTENING CRITICAL WORDS Pre-teaching has been discontinued. Key words = Absolutely indispensable. 

PRE-LISTENING ACTIVITIES Brainstorming Vocabulary Reviewing areas of grammar Discussing the topic 


LISTENING THE INTENSIVE/EXTENSIVE DISTINCTION Recording is to be played twice Normalization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qz658-9ZOCc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ua7nyAaf3pE  PRESET QUESTIONS W: This coffee is really terrible. M: I couldn't agree more. N: What does the man mean? 

(A) (B) (C) (D)

He He He He

would like more coffee. thinks the woman should complain. also dislikes the coffee. thinks the coffee is acceptable.


LISTENING TASKS Labelling, selecting, drawing and form filling. Real Life Reliable way of checking understanding. Individual responses 

AUTHENTIC MATERIALS Naturalness of language Real-life listening experience 




STRATEGIC LISTENING

Listening to a foreign language is a strategic activity. Guess in order to connect: Cautious students Risk takers.


PostListening


How well the students have understood what they listened to.


The listen and repeat phase Has been dropped as well, on the argument that it is tantamount to


The post-listening stage comprises all the exercises which are done after listening to the text.


Post-listening activities allow the learners to ‘reflect’ on the language from the passage.


Activities for PostListening


Answering multiplechoice or true/false questions to show comprehension of messages.


Summarizing


Debates Interviews Discussions 


Listen and Fill in the Blanks Work: http://saberingles.com.ar/listening/2 18.html


http://www.tolearnenglish.com/ exercises/exercise-english2/exercise-english-1936.php


Teachers need to prepare learners psychologically for the listening activity.


Bibliography 

http://www.ets.org/toefl/pbt/prepare/samp le_questions/listening_comprehension_prac tice_section1


Conversational Discourse Genres of Spoken Language

•Interactive discourse with other speakers

Teaching Pronunciation

•inpoint models of appropriateness for students’ specific purposes in learning English.

The Growth of Spoken Corpora •The size and scope of corpora expand our understanding of what is informed by empirical evidence.

•Focus on phonological details of language.

Oral Communication Skills in Pedagogical Research

Questions about Intelligibility •Language should be understandable to native speakers.

Accuracy and Fluency •Prioritize the important goals of accurate and fluent language.

Affective Factors

The Interaction Effect •What to say, how to say, when to speak, and discourse restraints.

•Provide a kind, warm, embracing climate that encourages students to speak.


What makes speaking difficult

•Clustering •Fluent speech is phrasal •Redundancy •Meaning is clearer through redundancy. •Reduced Forms •Contractions, elisions, reduced vowels, etc. •Performance Variables •Salient feature between native and nonnative speaker. •Colloquial Language •Words, idioms, and phrases of colloquial language. •Rate of Delivery •Help learners achieve an acceptable speed. •Stress, Rhythm, and Intonation •The most important characteristic of English pronunciation. •Interaction •Creativity of conversational negotiation.

Types of Spoken Language

•As you plan and implement techniques in your interactive classroom, make sure your students can deal with both interpersonal and transactional with whom they are quite familiar.


Produce chunks of language of different lengths.

Microskills

Macroskills

Orally produce differences among the English phonemes and allophonic variants.

Use cohesive devices in spoken discourse.

Use an adequate number of lexical units in order to accomplish pragmatic purposes.

Produce English stress patterns, words in stressed and unstressed positions, rhythmic structure, and intonational contours.

Produce reduced forms of words and phrases.

Accomplish appropriately communicative functions.

Produce fluent speech at different rates of delivery.

Monitor your own oral production and use various strategic devices

Use grammatical word classes, systems, word order, patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.

Use appropriatesociolinguistic features in conversations.

Produce speech in natural constituents in appropriate phrases, pause groups, breath groups, and sentences

Express a particular meaning in different grammatical forms.

Convey links and connections between events and relations.

Use nonverbal cues along with verbal language to convey meanings.

Develop and use a battery of speaking strategies


Imitative •Human tape recorder.

Extensive (monologue)

Intensive •Phonological or grammatical aspect of language.

•These monologues can be planned or impromptu.

Types of Classroom Speaking Performance Interpersonal (dialogue)

Responsive

•A casual register, Colloquial language, Emotionally charged language, Slang, Ellipsis, Sarcasm and covert “agenda”

•Short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or comments.

Transactional (dialogue) •Conveying or exchanging specific information


Principles for Teaching Speaking Skills • Focus on both fluency and accuracy, depending on your objective. • Provide intrinsically motivating techniques. • Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful contexts. • Provide appropriate feedback and correction. • Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening. • Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication. • Encourage the development of speaking strategies. Teaching Conversation • Indirect approach: In which learners are more or less set loose to engage in interaction. • Direct approach: involves planning a conversation program around the specific microskills, strategies, and processes that are involved in fluent conversation. Teaching Pronunciation • Native language: it is the most influential factor affecting a learner’s pronunciation. • Age: children under the age of puberty stand an excellent chance of “sounding like a native” if they have continued exposure in authentic contexts. • Exposure: one can actually live in a foreign country for some time but not take advantage of being “with the people”. • Innate phonetic ability: it is often referred to as having an “ear” for language. • Identity and language ego: students need to become aware of the second identity that may be emerging within them. • Motivation and concern for good pronunciation: some learners are not particularly concerned about their pronunciation, while others are.


Assessing Speaking in the Classroom

Item types and tasks for Assessing Speaking

Extensive speaking tasks

Interactive speaking tasks

Responsive speaking tasks

Evaluating and scoring speaking tasks

Intensive speaking tasks

Imitative speaking tasks

Pronunciation

Oral presentations

Oral interviews

Picture-cued elicitation of response or description

Directed response

Minimal pair repetition

Fluency

Picture-cued (storytelling)

Role plays

Map-cued elicitation of directions

Read-aloud (for either pronunciation or fluency)

Word/phrase repetition

Vocabulary

Retelling a story or news event

Discussions and conversations

Question and answer

Oral sentence completion

Sentence repetition

Grammar

Translation of an extended text

Games

Question elicitation

Oral close procedure

Discourse features

Elicitation of instructions

Dialogue completion

Task

Paraphrasing

Directed response

Picture-cued elicitation of a grammatical item

Translation of a word, phrase, or sentence or two


Components Underlying Speaking Effectiveness

Strategic Competence

Grammatical Competence

• The way learners manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals

• Understand how words are segmented into various sounds, and how sentences are stressed in particular ways.

Sociolinguistic Competence

Discourse Competence

• Learners must acquire the rules and norms governing the appropriate timing and realization of speech acts.

• Rules of cohesion and coherence apply, which aid in holding the communication together in a meaningful way


Strategies for Developing Speaking Skills Developing Learner Autonomy •The need to encourage students to become increasingly independent and self- directed in their learning.

Selection of Topics for Discussion •The common cultural background of the learners might limit the range of topics of potential interest

Developing Discussion Skills in the ESL Classroom Using Minimal Responses •Build up a stock of minimal responses that they can use in different types of exchanges.

Recognizing Scripts •Some communication situations are associated with a predictable set of spoken exchanges.

Using Language to Talk About Language •Encourage students to use clarification phrases in class when misunderstanding occurs, and by responding positively when they do.


General comment about the Course The different techniques used within the classroom to teach English are constantly being reformed and upgraded. The more traditional methods of learning English accomplished their purpose but were not as effective as today's methods are. These new techniques have opened a very ample door to help students learn English, however these students may have different learning styles and so a different focus to the classroom must be taken by the teacher, so that the students may learn the language. From a pedagogical point of view the teacher must know the group of students and according to this group he must choose from the syllabus to the instruction materials, all this has been learned on this course, also taking into account the importance of course planning and the focus of competence based learning. All this has been applied to the learning of the four core skills, reading, writing, speaking and listening. One of the most interesting aspects of the course is that has broaden our previous acquired knowledge via the pedagogy and English teaching techniques I, this goes hand in hand with the understanding of meaningful learning and how we must use this to help our own students learn the language. By creating a meaningful communication environment through the focus of the communication competences that our students must learn, the course has brought the insight needed to apply the knowledge we acquired on those previous courses. Cooperative learning and different structures such as Kagan's structures are one of the most important techniques that we need to learn to apply, because we have learned that by allowing our students to use the language to communicate in real life situations is one of the best ways to learn the language.} There are many more techniques and ways to teach English and this course has taught us to use technology in innovative ways, and also when the lack of technology is evident we also have learned how to use the techniques through different task and project based learning so that technology may or may not be critical for the task to be accomplished. Now it falls on the teacher to research and learn more techniques to teach English.


Conclusion Education is changing to a more innovative and student centered process. Teacher's are now challenged to include the use of technology in their classroom and also are responsible to teach students how to use this technology to their advantage in both language learning and knowledge acquiring. Lesson planning is the most vital part of a teachers class. Without it the teacher cannot expect to have anything accomplished, it is an art that must be perfected throughout the years, improved and accommodated to the ever changing face of education. It must be based upon competencies that must be explicit to the objective of each lesson that is taught. Curriculum and Syllabus are concepts that have broaden the understanding that English teaching should be carefully planned according to the context where it will be taught, taking into consideration the students and the environment, but also knowing that the base curriculum given by the ministry of education it is only the starting point. There are many way to integrate cooperative learning into our classroom. But more important is the fact that the 21st century skills include teamwork and collaboration as means to learn, we as teachers have to include it into our classes to help students develop these important skills. Tasks and Projects are the current trend to help students develop core skills of communication, because the task will not be performed unless communication among the group exists, however teachers must be able to form groups of students into which these communication skills can be developed properly. The course has proposed many techniques to teach English, but the most important part is that knowing the technique is not enough to help the student learn English. The teacher is the integral part of the process of learning, that must engage the student to learn the language using the different methods discussed during the course.


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS Lesson Plan 2014 Instructor

Date

Course Title

Grade

Unit

Specific Topic

Competence

Rationale

Lesson Content

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES a. b.     C. D. E. F.

Warm-Up Teaching Procedures Presentation: Controlled Practice: Semi Controlled Practice: Free Practice: Closure: Feedback: Student Participation: Homework:

EVALUATION PROCEDURES Formative/ Summative Check:

Material And Aids:

TIME


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS LESSON PLAN 2014 This is not the format I sent you. U麓s logo is in black Suggest you follow the format I gave you with the steps. Too many activities, time is short and it should be meaningful. INSTRUCTOR Jaime G贸mez INSTITUTION COLEGIO "TECNOLOGICO DIGITAL COMERCIAL" COURSE CONTENT Science

DATE March 14, 2014 GRADE: 11th Grade SPECIFIC TOPIC Petroleum: Derived products, Beneficial uses and Harmful effects on the environment.

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE (Competence) Identifies and discusses petroleum based products benefits and harmful effects on the environment and human body by presenting it orally speech and when creating a poster about the information gathered on the audio-visual material presented at class. In a diversity of contexts. RATIONALE: (importance) Students need to understand what products are created with petroleum and what are the consequences of its use. Also they need to understand the benefits that it use has brought to humanity. LESSON CONTENT This lesson explores some of the different forms petroleum takes on as a component or ingredient in various manufactured products, some of the human health and environmental concerns associated with the use and disposal of these particular products, and ways to minimize the harmful effects of petroleum and petroleum-derived products on the environment.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES

TIME

a. Warm-up activity: Anagram. The teacher writes the next Anagram "Cats Lip" of the word plastic on the whiteboard. Students write down on a small piece of paper what they think the anagram is.

4 min.

b. Teaching procedures Presentation: a) Engage: Students are told to form groups of 4 and they should write down on a piece of paper what they think petroleum is and what products are derived from it. You must indicate which is Guided Practice, Semi-Guided, Free Practice b) Study: Teacher presents Ss the video "How petroleum exploration and refining process." (Ss must take notes of important facts for later use.) Is this the semi-guided practice? c) Activate: Students discuss among their group peers about what petroleum is and how it is harvested. ( Ss must write down their conclusions and share them with the class.) d) Engage: T asks the groups to write down on a piece of paper what everyday life items they

5 min. 10 min. 5 min. 5 min.


believe are made from petroleum. e) Study: Teacher presents Ss the video " Everyday Petroleum-based Products"

10 min.

f) Activate: Students are asked to check if the items they wrote down appeared in the video they just saw. Students are asked to write down what items they didn't knew were made from petroleum. (Students share with the class what they thought the items were made from.)

5 min.

g) Engage: Students are asked to discuss among peers what items they saw on the last video are thrown to the trash and when. They should also comment if these items decompose after a certain time. After discussing among peers the spokesman (different one from before) should express what the group discussed.

5 min.

h) Engage: Students discuss among their group peers and write down a definition for pollution. The spokesman of each group reads out loud the definition the group came up with. i) Study: Teacher presents Ss the video "Marine Plastic Pollution (NatGeo)" (Ss should write down the most important facts about the video.) j) Activate: Students discuss the facts that are new to them about pollution from plastic. Ss write down that information for later use. k) Study: Teacher presents Ss the video "Does Plastic Bottles Kill?"

5 min.

12 min. 5 min. 5 min.

j) Activate: Students create a mind map in a poster with all the information they gathered from the different sources. Students give an oral speech to their peers about the information they understood sharing the mind map.

10 min.

k) Closure: Students write a simple multiple choice quiz with about 5 questions about what they learned during the lesson. This activity is not closure. I would call it free practice.

4 min.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES:

a. Formative check: Observation, discussion, graphic organizer, and practice presentation. b. Summative check: c. OTHER: MATERIAL AND AIDS : Bond paper blank poster per student group. Black, red and blue markers for each student. Laptop, speakers, and projector. Videos downloaded in a USB thumb drive. How petroleum exploration and refining process http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8W8SW98-sXQ Everyday Petroleum-based Products http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vb665wY0Uu4


Marine Plastic Pollution (NatGeo) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gsXiEy2kbGM Does Plastic Bottles Kill? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E8resAkwk1o


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS Lesson Plan 2014 Instructor JAIME EMMANUEL GOMEZ VELIZ Always use lowercase letters except the firsta one. Take note for the next items.

Date April 2, 2014.

Course Title

Grade

English I

11th Grade

Unit

Specific Topic

TWO

Linking Verbs

Competence

Identifies and uses linking verbs accurately in any form of meaningful communication by when understanding how these verbs connect the subject to predicate in sentences. Rationale

The Ss needs to Nowadays it is important to understand that verbs show action and also work as function words that link the subject with the predicate, this knowledge which will help the student people be proficient when writing or speaking the target language. Lesson Content

Linking verbs don't show action like ordinary verbs. They rather link or connect the subject to a subject complement. The complement which contains additional information describes and identifies the subject. Try to use less words to specify lesson content. The less the better.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES a.

Warm-Up How many sounds can you hear? Students sit in silence for two minutes and write down every sound that they hear. They compare their lists with their neighbors before seeing who has the longest list.

b. Teaching Procedures 1. Presentation: 1. Ss form groups of 4. The teacher presents a picture of a person buying groceries. The T asks each group to write down 5 sentences related to the picture. Each group is asked to identify the subject, verb and complement of the sentences they just wrote. Each group presents to their peers their sentences by reading them out loud and identifying subject, verb and complement. 2. The teacher explains the difference between an action verb and a linking verb, and how to identify them. The teacher presents the students the video "Linking Verbs Song". 2. Controlled Practice: The teacher hands over a worksheet with 10 sentences. Students are asked to identify if the

TIME

5 min.

7 min.

8 min 5 min.


verb is an action verb or linking verb. 3.

Semi Controlled Practice: T presents a picture of someone dancing. Ss are asked to write down 5 sentences related to the picture shown in which the verb used is a linking verb. The teacher goes around each group checking how each group is working until all have finished. Ss share their sentences with their peers by reading them out loud and identifying subject, verb and complement.

4.

Free Practice: Each group is asked to present once again the 5 sentences about the man buying groceries to their peers, by writing them down on the whiteboard. They must explain their peers why the verb used in the sentence is an action verb or linking verb. C. Closure: Hangman: Teacher challenges the students to play hangman. The group that guesses the word will be the ones starting the activities next day. D. Feedback: E. Student Participation: ????? F. Homework:

EVALUATION PROCEDURES Formative/ Summative Check: Formative: Observations, practice presentations, and discussion. Summative: Written product, and oral product .

Material And Aids: Laptop, speakers, and projector. What tool will you use to check your summative evaluation? USB thumb drive with video and pictures to be presented. 20 copies of the worksheet. Linking Verbs Song (Linking Verbs by Melissa) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1IJWvHZcOU

10 min.

5 min.

5 min.


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS Teaching Techniques II Lesson Plan 2014 INSTRUCTOR

DATE

Jaime Emmanuel Gómez Véliz

April 9, 2014.

COURSE TITLE

GRADE

Literature

12th Grade

UNIT Two COMPETENCE

SPECIFIC TOPIC Drama - Shakespeare's Secret

Recognizes and uses drama as a tool to enact historical events in the classroom and in a variety of contexts when acting out a play or drama. RATIONALE Nowadays it is important to use drama as a tool that will help people understand history and help society change the current problems we face, this understanding cannot be achieved unless people are able to experience to some degree the same situations the original actors lived through.

LESSON CONTENT Drama can be the perfect vehicle for integrating reading with other areas of the curriculum. In particular, acting out historical stories in the classroom can bring history to life in powerful and exciting ways.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES Warm-up Students should be able to identify the name of an animal or bird written on the card and imitate a typical movement or sound made by that animal or bird so that others can identify the animal and form groups. The teacher chooses animals or birds those whose actions or sounds can be easily imitated. Using this warm up Ss form groups of four and remain together for the rest of the class. What does this activity have to do with your presentation or topic? b. Teaching procedures  Presentation: Teacher asks groups to write down what they believe a drama is and what it consists of. Each group shares with their peers what they wrote down. Ss are presented with the following video. Introduction to Drama. Teacher explains more in detail what a drama is and what are its parts.  Controlled practice: Each group is given one small excerpt to read of a historical national event. The signing of the peace treaty of the Guatemalan internal conflict. The teachers asks them to write down the cast of characters in the story and what scenery the historical event has. The teacher checks the students answers by having them read them out loud to the classroom and adds any missing information.  Semi controlled practice: Each group of students are asked to write down the possible dialogue for each of the members of the cast of characters. The teacher checks the dialogue goes according to the character. The dialogue should not be longer than 5 lines.

TIME

a.

5 min.

5 min

8 min.

5 min


ďƒź

c.

Free practice: Each group presents their improvised drama "The signing of the peace treaty of the Guatemalan internal conflict." Closure: Anagram: students are challenged to figure out the next interesting anagram. Teacher writes only the left part of the anagram, and asks the students to play with the letters till they find the solution. Dirty room = Dormitory Sorry to say, but your activities have nothing to do with Sheakspeare.

Feedback: Formative/ Summative check: Formative: Observations and discussion. Summative: Written product , and oral product. f. Student Participation: Ss give their opinion about how acting out a play of the historical event helped them understand the main players feelings in the story. g. Homework:

15 min

3 min.

d. e.

EVALUATION PROCEDURES Summative: Written product , and oral product. Formative: Observations and discussion.

MATERIAL AND AIDS Laptop, speakers, and projector. Rubrics to check summative written and oral production. USB thumb drive with video to be presented. 5 copies of the historical event. Introduction to Drama http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ds9kcpb37hQ

4 min.


UNIVERSIDAD MARIANO GALVEZ FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES ESCUELA DE IDIOMAS Teaching Techniques II Lesson Plan 2014 INSTRUCTOR

DATE

Jaime Emmanuel Gómez Véliz

April 9, 2014.

COURSE TITLE

GRADE

Literature

12th Grade

UNIT Two COMPETENCE

SPECIFIC TOPIC Shakespeare's Secret

Understands and interprets facts of a known character who? when presenting oral speech and a PowerPoint presentation. RATIONALE Reading and critical thinking should are two important skills that people should develop and know how to use in their daily life, specifically when analyzing information that needs to be verified by facts.

LESSON CONTENT Students will learn how to interpret information related to historical events and how to share these findings with their peers.

INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES a.

Warm-up Students gather in groups of four. The students are asked to answer the next question and write it down on a piece of paper. What would you do if someone confuses you for someone in a public place? Students share their answers with the classroom.

b. Teaching procedures  Presentation: Teacher asks students to comment about the book assignment: "Shakespeare's Secret" Teacher shows a power point presentation where the main plot and other details are explained. 

Controlled practice: Students watch the video: Shakespeare. Students write down the main ideas about the video for later use. Students watch the video: The Shakespeare Conspiracy Students write down the main ideas about the video for later use. Semi controlled practice: Students create a power point presentation using the information gathered from the videos. The theme of the presentation is "William Shakespeare vs Edgar de Vere". They can search on the internet to further add into the information they gathered. The presentation should not be greater than 6 slides. Teacher helps students check the validity of their resources.

TIME

4 min.

5 min

7min.

7 min


. ďƒź

Free practice: Students present the information and give their opinion about what they found to their peers through oral speech and using the presentation as a visual aid.

15 min.

c.

Closure: Anagram: students are challenged to figure out the next interesting anagram. Teacher writes only the left part of the anagram, and asks the students to play with the letters till they find the solution. Dirty room = Dormitory

3 min.

d. e.

f.

Feedback: Formative/ Summative check: Formative: Observations and discussion. Summative: Written product , and oral product. Student Participation: Ss give their opinion about the activity and what they enjoyed about it the most.

g. Homework:

EVALUATION PROCEDURES Summative: Written product , and oral product. Formative: Observations and discussion.

MATERIAL AND AIDS Laptop, speakers, and projector. 5 laptops, each group is given a laptop with WiFi capabilities. Rubrics to check summative written and oral production. USB thumb drive with video and presentation to be shown. Presentation http://www.slideshare.net/hamdo/shakespeares-secret Shakespeare http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L9t11BsE0yk The Shakespeare Conspiracy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=946tLlFPsQs

4 min.


Independent Reading - Beginner : Reading

Teacher Name: Mr. Gomez

Student Name: CATEGORY Respects others

________________________________________ 4 Student reads quietly and stays in one place in the reading area.

Stays on task

Student reads the entire period. This may be independent reading or done with adult or peer Chooses Appropriate Student chooses a Books book which s/he has not read before, which is at or above grade level, or has Focus on story/article Student is lost in the story. There\'s no looking around or flipping through the pages. Tries to understand Stops reading when it doesn\'t make sense and reads parts again. Looks up words s/he doesn\'t know. Understands story Student knows the elements title of the story as well as the names and descriptions of the important characters. Thinks about the Student accurately story/article describes what has happened in the story and tries to predict \"what will happen Thinks about the Student describes characters how different characters might have felt at different points in the story and points Date Created: Feb 18, 2014 10:20 pm (CST)

3 Student reads quietly. S/he moves around once or twice but does not distract others. Student reads almost all (80% or more) of the period.

2 Student makes 1-2 comments or noises when reading, but stays in one place in reading area. Student reads some (50% or more) of the time.

1 Student reads loudly, makes repeated comments or noises OR fidgets and moves about often, Student wastes a lot of reading time.

Student chooses a book which s/he has never read before and which is slightly below his/her reading level. Student seems to be enjoying and moving through the story, but takes some short breaks. Stops reading when it doesn\'t make sense and tries to use strategies to get through the tricky Student knows the names and descriptions of the important characters and where the story Student accurately describes what has happened in the story.

Student chooses a book s/he has read once before that is close to his/her reading level and was Student seems to be reading the story, but doesn\'t seem to be very interested. Takes a few short breaks. Stops reading when it doesn\'t makes sense and asks for assistance.

Student chooses a book that s/he has read many times before or which is more than one grade Pretends to read the story. Mostly looks around or fiddles with things.

Student knows the names OR descriptions of the important characters in the story. Student accurately describes most of what happened in the story.

Student has trouble naming and describing the characters in the story.

Student describes how different characters might have felt at different points in the story, but does

Student describes how different characters might have felt at different points in the story, but does

Student cannot describe how different characters might have felt at different points in the

Gives up entirely OR plows on without trying to understand the story.

Student has difficulty re-telling the story.


APA Paper Format There are many things that have to be formatted correctly for an APA paper. Here are some of the rules for the basic format of each page of your paper. To see how to do this formatting in Microsoft Word, click on the "MS Word Instructions" link at the end of each point.        

Use 8 ½” x 11” paper. Type your paper in Microsoft Word (MS Word) or a similar program, and print your paper one sided. [APA manual 5.01, p. 284] Use 12-point font. [APA manual 5.02, p. 285] MS Word Instructions Use a typeface like Times New Roman or Courier New. [APA manual 5.02, p. 285] MS Word Instructions Double-space the entire paper. This means that the computer will skip every other line, which makes it easier for your teacher to read and write in comments. [APA manual 5.03, p. 286] MS Word Instructions Use 1” margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right). [APA manual 5.04, p. 286] MS Word Instructions Number all pages in your paper (including title page), beginning with 1, in the upper righthand corner. [APA manual 5.06, p. 288] MS Word Instructions Insert a header with the first two or three words of your paper title. Align it right. This will show up at the top right-hand side of every page. [APA manual 5.06, p. 288]MS Word Instructions Use the headings that your instructor asks for. Headings name the sections of your paper. You will probably use a heading for the title of your paper, the abstract if you have one, and the reference page. Headings should be centered, and the first letter of each major word (not prepositions or articles, such as the, a, by, for) and the first letter of the first word (including prepositions or articles) should be capitalized. If there is a colon (:), capitalize the first letter of the word following it, even if it is not a major word. [APA manual 3.29-3.32, p.111-115; and 5.10, p. 289-290]

Examples: Nursing for the Ages: Caring for the Elderly and Children Wisdom Teeth: The Safe Way

If you have a second level of headings (for sub-sections in your paper), they should be italicized and aligned left with the same capitalization as regular headings. Examples: Nursing for the Ages: Caring for the Elderly and Children The Elderly Children

    

The order of the sections of your paper should be as follows: [APA manual 5.05, p. 287] Title page (numbered page 1) The body of your paper (starting with page 2) References (starts on a new page after the end of the body of your paper Here is an example of what your APA paper should look like.


Reference Citations in Text


In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited. Examples: Works by a single author

The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945) If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative, cite only missing information in parentheses. Simon (1945) posited that

Works by multiple authors

When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998) In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and." as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Kahneman, Knetsch, and Thaler (1991) found

In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found

Works by associations, corporations, government agencies, etc.

The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference. (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2007)

When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty. (NIMH, 2007)


Works with no author

When a work has no author, use the first two or three words of the work's title (omitting any initial articles) as your text reference, capitalizing each word. Place the title in quotation marks if it refers to an article, chapter of a book, or Web page. Italicize the title if it refers to a book, periodical, brochure, or report. on climate change ("Climate and Weather," 1997) Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices (1981) Anonymous authors should be listed as such followed by a comma and the date. on climate change (Anonymous, 2008) Specific parts of a source To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation. (Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96) De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218).

If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as Web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the abbreviation "para." or the heading and following paragraph. (Mönnich & Spiering, 2008, para. 9)

Reference List References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. 

Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list.

Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M.

Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title.

Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books.


Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent".

Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals. Two additional pieces of information should be included for works accessed online.

Internet Address**: A stable Internet address should be included and should direct the reader as close as possible to the actual work. If the work has a digital object identifier (DOI), use this. If there is no DOI or similar handle, use a stable URL. If the URL is not stable, as is often the case with online newspapers and some subscription-based databases, use the home page of the site you retrieved the work from.

Date: If the work is a finalized version published and dated, as in the case of a journal article, the date within the main body of the citation is enough. However, if the work is not dated and/or is subject to change, as in the case of an online encyclopedia article, include the date that you retrieved the information. * The APA has special formatting standards for the use of indentation and italics in manuscripts or papers that will be typeset or submitted for official publication. For more detailed information on these publication standards, refer to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, or consult with your instructors or editors to determine their style preferences. ** See the APA Style Guide to Electronic References for information on how to format URLs that take up more than one line. Examples: Articles in journals, magazines, and newspapers References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers. Journal article, one author, accessed online

Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002

Journal article, two authors, accessed online


Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings.Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. doi:10.1037/10659293.59.4.286

Journal article, more than two authors, accessed online Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past.American Psychologist, 63(3), 182-196. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.182

Article from an Internet-only journal Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14(7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle

Journal article from a subscription database (no DOI) Colvin, G. (2008, July 21). Information worth billions. Fortune,158(2), 73-79. Retrieved from Business Source Complete, EBSCO. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com

Magazine article, in print Kluger, J. (2008, January 28). Why we love. Time, 171(4), 54-60. Newspaper article, no author, in print As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.

Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options.The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12.

Books References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher.

No Author or editor, in print Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.


One author, in print Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Company.

Two authors, in print Frank, R. H., & Bernanke, B. (2007). Principles of macro-economics (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Corporate author, author as publisher, accessed online Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000(No. 1301.6). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CA2568710006989...$File/13016_2000. pdf

Edited book Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (2001). Children of color: Psychological interventions with culturally diverse youth. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Dissertations

References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.

Dissertation, accessed online Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 327681)

Essays or chapters in edited books

References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. One author


Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Two editors Hammond, K. R., & Adelman, L. (1986). Science, values, and human judgment. In H. R. Arkes & K. R. Hammond (Eds.), Judgement and decision making: An interdisciplinary reader (pp. 127-143). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Encyclopedias or dictionaries and entries in an encyclopedia

References for encyclopedias must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. For sources accessed online, include the retrieval date as the entry may be edited over time.

Encyclopedia set or dictionary Sadie, S., & Tyrrell, J. (Eds.). (2002). The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians (2nd ed., Vols. 1-29). New York, NY: Grove.

Article from an online encyclopedia Containerization. (2008). In EncyclopĂŚdia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://search.eb.com

Encyclopedia article Kinni, T. B. (2004). Disney, Walt (1901-1966): Founder of the Walt Disney Company. In Encyclopedia of Leadership (Vol. 1, pp. 345-349). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Research reports and papers

References to a report must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and name of publisher. If the issuing organization assigned a number (e.g., report number, contract number, or monograph number) to the report, give that number in parentheses immediately after the title. If it was accessed online, include the URL.

Government report, accessed online


U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2005). Medicaid drug price comparisons: Average manufacturer price to published prices (OIG publication No. OEI-05-05- 00240). Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.oig.hhs.gov/oei/reports/oei-05-05-00240.pdf

Government reports, GPO publisher, accessed online Congressional Budget Office. (2008). Effects of gasoline prices on driving behavior and vehicle markets: A CBO study (CBO Publication No. 2883). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/88xx/doc8893/01-14-GasolinePrices.pdf

Technical and/or research reports, accessed online Deming, D., & Dynarski, S. (2008). The lengthening of childhood(NBER Working Paper 14124). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved July 21, 2008, from http://www.nber.org/papers/w14124

Document available on university program or department site Victor, N. M. (2008). Gazprom: Gas giant under strain. Retrieved from Stanford University, Program on Energy and Sustainable Development Web site: http://pesd.stanford.edu/publications/gazprom_gas_giant_under_strain/

Audio-visual media

References to audio-visual media must include the following elements: name and function of the primary contributors (e.g., producer, director), date, title, the medium in brackets, location or place of production, and name of the distributor. If the medium is indicated as part of the retrieval ID, brackets are not needed. Videocassette/DVD Achbar, M. (Director/Producer), Abbott, J. (Director), Bakan, J. (Writer), & Simpson, B. (Producer) (2004). The corporation[DVD]. Canada: Big Picture Media Corporation.

Audio recording Nhat Hanh, T. (Speaker). (1998). Mindful living: a collection of teachings on love, mindfulness, and meditation [Cassette Recording]. Boulder, CO: Sounds True Audio.


Motion picture Gilbert, B. (Producer), & Higgins, C. (Screenwriter/Director). (1980). Nine to five [Motion Picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.

Television broadcast Anderson, R., & Morgan, C. (Producers). (2008, June 20). 60 Minutes [Television broadcast]. Washington, DC: CBS News.

Television show from a series Whedon, J. (Director/Writer). (1999, December 14). Hush [Television series episode]. In Whedon, J., Berman, G., Gallin, S., Kuzui, F., & Kuzui, K. (Executive Producers), Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Burbank, CA: Warner Bros..

Music recording Jackson, M. (1982). Beat it. On Thriller [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Music.

Undated Web site content, blogs, and data

For content that does not easily fit into categories such as journal papers, books, and reports, keep in mind the goal of a citation is to give the reader a clear path to the source material. For electronic and online materials, include stable URL or database name. Include the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessed.

Blog entry Arrington, M. (2008, August 5). The viral video guy gets $1 million in funding. Message posted to http://www.techcrunch.com

Professional Web site National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008). Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html


Data set from a database Bloomberg L.P. (2008). Return on capital for Hewitt Packard 12/31/90 to 09/30/08. Retrieved Dec. 3, 2008, from Bloomberg database. Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Botswana. (2008).Gross domestic product per capita 06/01/1994 to 06/01/2008[statistics]. Available from CEIC Data database

Entire Web site When citing an entire Web site (and not a specific document on that site), no Reference List entry is required if the address for the site is cited in the text of your paper. Witchcraft In Europe and America is a site that presents the full text of many essential works in the literature of witchcraft and demonology (http://www.witchcraft.psmedia.com/). ONLINE

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