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Pre-Thesis

Gardiner, Maine

By Jaimee Lee Anderson

1


Table of Contents

2

Topic of Research

Page

Place

3-8

Scale

9-11

Zoning

12-13

Circulation

14-16

History

17-22

Intent

23

Precedent

24-31

Site

32-36

Program

37-38

Works Cited

39


Place Analysis

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“There is an art of relationship just as there is an art of architecture. Its purpose is to take all the elements that go to create the environment: buildings, trees, nature, water, traffic, advertisements and so on, and to weave them together in such a way that drama is released” (Cullen 7 and 8) Every town is a unique experience, but they all have similar traits. Every town has a “slum”, a historical center, higher class residential areas, and many other features. It is important to realize that all parts of a town are important. In this section, a specific path will be taken to show important parts of the town based on “place.” The path starts by coming off the interstate, down by the Libby Hill Business Park, moves over by Cobbossee Avenue, up to the historical downtown, and then across the bridge headed towards Augusta. This path provides a series of revelations which are shown on the next five pages. It is a continuous habit of bodies and minds to relate to the surrounding environment. There is a sense of position that cannot be ignored, called “place.”

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Continuity

The first view coming into Gardiner from the interstate is one that projects us up into Gardiner. The long stretch upwards is a great way to be brought into Gardiner. Small things such as this rock wall, a few trees, and the gentle curve of the road encourage you to meander to the right to go experience Libby Hill Business park.

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4 Infinity

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Focal Point

Deflection

The first view of the built environment in Libby Hill is revealed to you when you come around a corner. There is a statue of a moose that captures your attention causing you to look over and see this view framed by the trees. Even the curve of the road invites you to go up the hill. There is a lot of “hide and reveal” going on throughout Libby Hill.

Driving down Brunswick Avenue is a long stretch of road that holds little interest and the speed limit is faster than anywhere else in Gardiner. The drive that curves to the right pulls you in and holds your interest more than the stretch of road ahead. So we turn to the right down the old Brunswick road to experience a different part of Gardiner.

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Punctuation

Anticipation

Driving along Old Brunswick road we come to an intersection and continue on through. Eventually we will come to West Street which brings us unexpectedly to Cobbossee Stream. When going around the corner, the stream is pleasantly revealed to us.

Eventually we come to the historical downtown. The first view looking down Water Street keeps us guessing. A corner hides the rest of the downtown from view and it forces you to want to continue and see what is around the corner.

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Unfolding Revelation

Linking

Turning down into the water front park that is behind Water Street is a unique experience. It is unknown what is behind the stone entrance. The park comes more into view with each step you take. At first glance you can see some plants and trees, then you might catch a glimpse of water, until you are at the bottom of the hill and looking across a huge and beautiful water front park.

Simple things like these rocks that lead you up onto this deck make this spot and the park more inviting. The view at the top while standing on the deck is a sight to see. It looks out over the water, to the park, and down and up the river.

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Occupied Territory

Juxtaposition

This small little sitting area is also part of the water front park. The trees create a cozy little atmosphere and the little walkway, lamps, and benches make a nice quiet spot to go sit and enjoy a beautiful day.

This is a very significant point in Gardiner. It is where the Cobbossee meets the Kennebec River, where the old train station looks out over the river, and where the train tracks are. The train used to be a huge part of Gardiner and the residents of Gardiner. There is a lot of history at this spot.

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Scale Analysis

Texture Although there are three different materials and textures going on in this one particular spot on Water Street, the brick, clapboard, and stone buildings are able to blend together well to give Downtown Gardiner some variety.

Scale is how we relate to the built world around us. Whether it be a street lamp, a door, the brick that makes a building, the foliage, etc. It is scale that unknowingly makes a space livable, usable, comfortable, and attractive physically and mentally. If we were not able to connect to a space through scale, the places we live, work, and travel through would be dead spaces. The power of scale is huge. Scale is so crucial to our everyday lives, and it is not something that people are aware of. Scale presents itself in many different ways. “Scale is not size, it is the inherent claim to size that the construction makes to the eye.” (Cullen 79) There are some great moments of human scale in Gardiner that I discovered and a space with little human scale. When looking for how scale is used in a town, one is forced to see through a new lens and start to discover the unknown, the unrecognized.

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Distortion

In this one small pocket park along Water Street, we have a beautifully scaled space. At each level, whether you are sitting or standing at the bottom middle or top level, there are scaling elements at each height. There is a large opening on the front facade of this library giving the illusion that the door is bigger than it really is.

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10 Datums

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Scale on Plan

Human Scale

A very small park amidst the town of Gardiner that would not likely be found on a map but is a very pleasant part of Downtown Gardiner.

There are some places, like the pocket park in Downtown Gardiner, that express a human scale. This makes a difference in how the space is used, why it is used, and how much the space is used. Then there are spaces like this, the Hannaford parking lot, that are lacking in scale references. Every space expresses scale, but this particular spot holds very little human scale. The space is very spread out, unlike the rest of town just around the corner. Foliage is scarce and connections are not easily made. The lack of scaling elements deadens this space immensely.

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Zoning Analysis

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The intention of the codes in Gardiner is to guide the physical development of Gardiner toward the achievement of community goals which are achieved through site plan development, building inspections, plumbing inspections, code and ordinance review, and enforcement of land use, building, and life safety regulations. All the codes in Gardiner help to strengthen and grow the community......

RG PD

R


...while also keeping certain aspects and design qualities of the downtown intact. Codes closely protect the waterways and the downtown. They protect historic properties, landmarks, and districts. If anyone wants to build or renovate near the water or in the historic downtown, there are many codes and regulations in place to make sure that any changes made are in the best interest of the town and its history. In the past, Gardiner’s waterfronts were heavily used and had many buildings along them. Flooding, pollution, bad soil, and changes in industry have made the waterfronts less vibrant and less used. The shore land district has zoned the waterfronts so that the areas within 250 feet of the water are closely considered. This is to prevent water pollution, protect drinking water supplies, minimize flood damage, and conserve shore cover. The waterfronts are not heavily developed yet and are capable of supporting limited development. There are many different uses of buildings and spaces in downtown Gardiner. They encompass a wide variety of commercial, industrial, residential, governmental and institutional uses. They offer convenient access to many kinds of activities and the community is benefiting from these services and utilities. Gardiner boasts a unique historical and architectural character as well as a vital mix of land uses and services. The codes and regulations of this zone seek to protect the existing character and to ensure that future development is viable.

In 2012 it was proposed to change the high density residential (HDP) zoning area to professional residential (PR) zoning. Bringing more professional buildings close to the downtown can only contribute to the downtown’s livelihood. There must have been a demand for more of these types of buildings or the proposal never would have happened. For Gardiner’s size, the current PR zoning is small. The growth of professional business would strengthen the town. It would provide more opportunity of employment for the citizens of Gardiner and support the local community. There is room in other zones of Gardiner for residential use.

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Circulation Analysis City of Gardiner Circulation Map Roads Railway

Sidewalks Waterways Gardiner is framed by two waterways, they have a railroad, a major walking trail that connects Gardiner to Hallowell and Augusta, roads for vehicular traffic, and pedestrian walkways. There is a lot of history that lies within circulation in Gardiner. If it were not for transportation, Gardiner would not have thrived so many years ago. Now in 2013, transportation is not what it used to be. The railway is not currently being used and the waterways are not used like they used to be. The water is now used for recreational use as opposed to transporting goods, logs, or ice. I have focused mainly on Gardiner’s pedestrian circulation. I have done so because the movement of people walking through town is something that needs to be looked at closely in order to understand why sidewalks are or are not being utilized.

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It is important for pedestrians to be able to easily move through a town. It is what contributes to its livelihood. The shaded area on the map of Gardiner in the center of the page shows where the pedestrian circulation is happening. Only two small sections of Gardiner are being circulated by foot.

The close up above shows where all the sidewalks are in the center of town. This shows us the area of town that Gardiner has chosen to somewhat encourage pedestrian circulation within, but many of these sidewalks are broken and not well kept. Just because there are sidewalks does not mean that these sidewalks are ideal.

The close up above shows where all the sidewalks are in South Gardiner. It is one small little section of Gardiner with a few sidewalks.

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In order for pedestrians to be able to circulate comfortably in a town, you must have sidewalks. In studying all of the sidewalks in these two small parts of Gardiner, I discovered many problem areas shown below.

As you can see, there are not that many sidewalks to encourage pedestrian circulation in Gardiner. I have identified problem areas in Gardiner among these sidewalks, spots where the sidewalks abruptly stop, spots where it would make sense to continue a sidewalk where it is not, and moments where you are walking along one single road, and then the sidewalks stops and picks up on the other side of the road. It is evident in these images that there are A lot of issues with how...

16

...pedestrians are supposed to move through Gardiner. In order to encourage more pedestrian circulation, the sidewalks need to be better kept and the problem areas need to be addressed.


History Analysis

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A Brief History

Gardiner has changed in various ways throughout its many years. I have skimmed through many different points of history through Gardiner; the waterway, the railway and train station, Water Street, industries, and the bridge. In doing this, I have discovered what my focus should be during my analysis of Gardiner’s History. The two waterways that frame Gardiner on each side have gone from a very vibrant aspect of Gardiner’s livelihood, to something that is much less used and it is no longer what defines Gardiner. Many years ago the waterways were used for transporting logs and for ice cutting and transporting. They were also used to import and export lots of goods. There were an abundance of buildings that lined the waterways as well, both residential and commercial. In the early 1800s, eight stone dams were built along Cobbossee Stream to make use of the water power. (Smith 69) These dams help to power many mills and factories that lined the stream. Only a few of these dams remain. Ice harvesting was a huge business along both of the waterways. Horse drawn markers would lay out the stream in a grid, preparing for it to be cut. Men would follow with chisels, saws, busting bars, and picks. It would break the ice off at a right angle to be able to transport it through the canals and up the elevators into the ice houses. (Smith 70) The ice was transported to the Caribbean, South America, and even India. (Smith 71) The train was a also a major business and useful part of Gardiner. The first train arrived in Gardiner in 1851. It added another method of transportation for both passengers and freight. Before then, stagecoach was the only mode of transportation during the winter. During peak times, as many as twenty six trains would pass in a day. There was a 24” narrow gauge railroad called “The Kennebec Central” that ran five miles from Randolph to the Veterans Facility at Togus. It carried both passengers and coal from 1890 to 1926. (Clark 66) With a stop in Brunswick, the trip to Portland Union Station took one hour and forty five minutes. (Smith 94) The train station was built in 1911 replacing the wood station build in 1852 and designed by George Burnham. The new brick and granite train station was used until June of 1960. (Clark 66 and Smith 94) The building cost twenty five thousand dollars and it was considered the handsomest depot on the entire system east of Portland. In fifty years, automobiles caused the end of passenger rail services in Maine and many of the train stations were demolished. Luckily this landmark in Gardiner has been preserved. (Smith 95)

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Many changes have happened to downtown Gardiner over the years. It used to be a very “happening” place and it has slowly become less vibrant. I feel that many factors have contributed to this. Three huge factors are the automobile, chain stores, and the relocation of the bridge. It used to be much easier for people to walk or ride down into down to get what they needed and all the entertainment and restaurants were in town so people were on Water street and the streets nearby at all hours of the day. The bridge used to flow traffic through downtown which helped with business until the downtown became too congested. The solution was to relocate the bridge which now just chutes people through the downtown. There were many industries that provided jobs to the local community. There were huge shoe factories that employed six hundred people who made two thousand and seven hundred shoes daily. (Smith 80) The R. P. Hazzard shoe factory was reported to employ one thousand seven hundred men with a payroll of twenty thousand dollars weekly. They made four hundred pairs of shoes daily. There was a grocery store chain across the road that was a serious competitor until the late 1980s. (Smith 81) In May of 1916 R. P. Hazzard was making six thousand pairs of shoes daily. (Smith 82) The town being able to produce this amount of shoes and export them, not only employed many locals but it brought in some good money. In 1896 the steel drawbridge replaced the 1853 bridge which was destroyed in a huge flood. Four years later, traffic flow was being held up. Years later, they made a new concrete high-level ?fixed bridge about a quarter mile north in 1978. This is when the 1896 bridge was demolished. (Smith 96) Through my research, I have discovered that my focus for my remaining analysis of history will be of the downtown livelihood and of the railway and the train station. I aim to increase my understanding of why there has been a decline of downtown livelihood. The train is also such a huge part of Gardiner’s history that it cannot be ignored. There has to be a way to bring the memory of the train and the train station back into Gardiner’s life today.

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1884

In 1884 Gardiner was booming. You can see how dense the downtown area was for such a small town. Everything you could possibly need was right there. They had a variety of buildings that you would never see today. Just on Water Street there were jewelry, stationary, upholstering, drug, book, liqueur, candy, fruit, and grocery stores. They had dentists, dressmakers, barbers, storage, tailors, halls, laundry, banks, hotels, a rollerskating rink, a carriage shop, liveries, oyster restaurants, and dining halls. Seeing how much Gardiner has changed from 1884 until now is unbelievable. Not only were there many more buildings in the downtown area in 1884 but the waterways have changed a great deal. There is no longer a large pond just before where the Cobbossee meets the Kennebec, the dam we see here is no longer there, and the shape of the edge of the Kennebec has changed 20 drastically.


1922

We can see in this 1922 map that Gardiner still had a very busy downtown. On Water street there was a photo place, a bakery, lodging, a tin shop, a bank, the Opera House, a furniture store, the post office, a hardware store, a livery, and a carriage shop. There were not as many stores, shops, and services as they had in 1884 but you could still get everything you needed in town. The large pond is now gone and the Kennebec water front is not as defined. The Cobbossee is still wide though. In the next 91 years we see a huge decline in the downtown.

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2013

In this 2013 map you can see an enormous difference. There are far less buildings than there used to be and the services and stores that are now in the downtown are not what they used to be either. Now we have insurance agencies, banks, restaurants, consignment shops, law offices, a department store, and a floral shop. Some of the historical buildings are there but the livelihood of what downtown Gardiner used to be is gone. You can also see that the Cobbossee is very narrow now and that the Kennebec water front edge has gotten even less defined. Also a major change that affected Gardiner greatly was the moving of the bridge which you can see on this map.

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Intent

Architecture can be... a means of revitalizing a community

through...

a communal hub for Gardiner residents as well as both long and short term visitors

Architecture can create... a vitality within a town that encourages the flow of the locals and visitors to the downtown district. Seafood Shop

Hotel Pedestrian Rail Trail Ice Cream Shop

Waterfront Recreation

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Precedent Analysis

Freezer Space

Hotel

Kitchen

Shop Circulation

Inn at Diamond Cove By Archetype Architects Portland, Maine Chosen because of the layout of spaces and their use of balconies.

Hotel Cram By GCA Arquitectes Associats Barcelona, Spain Chosen because of the unique room layout.

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Room Layout Delivery space

Bathrooms


Conclusion

“lobby�

Most important for this hotel is the exterior spaces that are created for each room. The circulation was designed to make this happen. In the center the circulation splits the building allowing for exterior spaces on both the front and back. For the left and right wings, the circulation is at the back to provide the exterior space on the front.

entrance

lobby outside seating circulation

reception

staff space reception

circulation

lobby

path to parking

entrance

The facade of this building is historical to the city but the inside is very modern. A major feature of this hotel is the large cylindrical stairwell. this cylinder is carried the whole way through the building and then carried into the room with the bathroom. You can see the curve of the bathroom walls from out in the hallway and the curve accentuates the entrance into each room where you continue to see the curved wall. The rooms are fairly basic in layout once you are inside. The bathrooms are toward the core of the building and the beds on the outside walls.

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Ice Cream Shop Izzy’s Ice Cream Kitchen & Retail Shop By Salmela Architect Minneapolis, Minnesota Chosen because of the buildings unique way of leading a person through the building.

Laggenda Ice Cream & Yogurt By SO Architecture Ramat Ishay, Israel Chosen because of its scale and use of colors.

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Seating


Freezer Space Shop Kitchen Building Layout

Circulation Delivery space

Conclusion

Bathrooms This project has done something unique in the way that it highlights where the circulation is. Anywhere you see red in the building is where the vertical circulation happens. It encourages the people that come into the ice cream shop to go upstairs and experience the space. After getting upstairs people can hang out and enjoy the view and the outdoors on the roof. There are no benches but people can enjoy sitting on metal beams that provide a unique interactive experience.

This building is much smaller than Izzy’s Ice Cream Shop and fits Gardiner’s scale much better. Not much space is needed to run an ice cream shop. Some freezers, open space, tables, a place to wash dishes, and some space for customers, inside and/or outside. This interior space for customers also has unique seating spots for interaction.

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Waterfront Recreation Hunter’s Point South Waterfront park By Thomas Balsley Associates and Weiss/Manfredi Queens, New York Chosen because of the sites emphasis on the waterfront as well as the New York skyline.

Shanghai Houtan Park By Turenscape Shanghai, China Chosen because the architect not only redisigned what was essentially a useless waterfront and turned it into a destination, but they are helping the environment through the design.

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Site


Green Space

Seating

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Circulation

This park has a very good flow of circulation. The way a person circulates through a park is very important because it can effect the way that you experience the space and the way that you use the space. There is not too much circulation, which can cause the space to become more about movement than about the actual activities that are happening within the park. Although, if the goal of the user of the park is to simply to a walk, this path hits all the best points.

Scale There are a variety of overhead elements and many different textures that help scale each of the spaces down. To make small spaces feel small in such a large park, these elements are essential. You have wood, steel, stone, water, vegetation, soft, hard, delicate, high, low, long, short, etc. elements that make each of these spaces unique and make them more inviting for people.

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Conclusion

This site incorporates a large open green space which oddly works well. It offers a place to come be active, be by the water, and have other options of recreation as well. The two overhead structures on the site help to emphasize the focus on the waterfront, and the skyline across the river, by the way that they sweep around and play nicely with the natural curve of the shoreline. Unique wooden benches offer a good place to sit and enjoy the water. The amphitheatre adds to the variety of spaces on the site.

This site has many small green spaces that make this a successful park. The park is very large but no matter where you are, you do not feel like a small piece of that, you feel like you have your own small unique space. Smaller green spaces make it better for smaller groups to sit and feel more comfortable as opposed to a large space which is harder to connect with. Each small green space is different and there are even some gardens on the site. Something very unique about this site is that it is actually helping improve the quality of the water. The different species of wetland plants that were selected were designed to absorb pollutants from the water.

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Site Analysis


Why this site?

Historic downtown Gardiner has at least five places where it just...stops. In order to increase the appeal of the downtown, there needs to be a blend of what is in the downtown and what surrounds it.

In order for this to happen, the downtown needs to be extended. It should not be extended to a point where it just stops again, there needs to be a blend between the two. Extending the downtown up the hill and providing a place where people want to be, will help revitalize the downtown.

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Views

Existing buildings

Topography

Existing Foliage


Sun Study December

June

Daily Path

Morning

Afternoon

Night

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Cross Section The site has good views of the downtown, the Kennebec River, and the Cobbossee River. These views will be honored in the design. Many of the existing buildings will no longer be on the site. The historic TW Dicks building will be renovated. It is important to maintain Gardiner’s history which is also why this site is so important. There is a lot of history in Gardiner related to the Cobbossee. The ice mills, logging, dam power, and many other things were what kept gardiner going many years ago. Therefore, the history of Gardiner and the Cobbossee River will also be honored. The topography of the site only enhances it. It provides better views and a focus on the Cobbossee. The foliage will help to add human scale to the site. There is a good balance of shade and light on the site. The trees take away from the glaring heat in the summer but are not overwhelming on the south side which allows for a good amount on sunlight onto the site.

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Program Parking Green Spaces Hotel/Ice Cream Shop/Seafood Shop Rail Trail

In order to incorporate a variety of spaces onto this site, there needs to be a nice balance and flow of spaces. Parking needs to be accessible to people at the hotel, people coming to the ice cream/seafood shop, people coming to the green spaces, people who want to access the Cobbossee, and people using the rail trail. The green spaces also need to have good access from all spaces to encourage a flow and use of the site. People coming to get an ice cream or grab something to eat might want to use the green spaces or go sit by the water. The guests at the hotel will want to be able to access the green spaces, too. Pedestrians coming from the rail trail or from downtown will want good access as well. This will be the only hotel in Gardiner. In order to bring more people into the town as a whole, there needs to be a hotel. A hotel is a great place for a seafood and ice cream shop. Most people that stay in a hotel are only there at night time so the bustle of a day time food service would not be disruptive. By placing the hotel, seafood, and ice cream shop on the south side of the site, it provides easy access to everything that surrounds it including downtown Gardiner. The hotel and the food service spaces are located close to the main road to increase use from the town and because it has the best views to both rivers and back into the town. The rail trail is located along the Cobbossee to provide access to the food service, the water, and the green spaces. The rail trail is used very often. It currently ends in a parking lot so continuing the rail trail will bring more people into this site and create a better route for those that travel the trail.

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Section cut Plan

Green Spaces

Hotel

use: relaxation/interaction/play occupants: 1to 50 features: seating/foliage/pool or rink Adjacencies: parking/hotel/ rail trail/Cobbossee river/food service

Hotel

use: short term stay occupants: 12 to 24 features: nice rooms Adjacencies: downtown Gardiner/food service/green spaces/parking/rail trail/ Cobbossee river

Food Service Parking

Green Spaces

Food Service

use: relaxation/eating/ interaction occupants: undetermined features: food Adjacencies: green spaces/parking/hotel/rail trail/ Cobbossee river

Section

Parking

use: parking cars and bikes occupants: 25 to 40 features: foliage Adjacencies: green spaces/ 38 hotel/food service/rail trail/ Cobbossee river

Hotel

Green Spaces

Parking

Food Service


Works Cited “Archetype Architects.” Inn at Diamond Cove –. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. Architecture Photography: Izzy’s Ice Cream Kitchen & Retail Shop / Salmela Architect (443245). N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. “Hunter’s Point South Waterfront Park / Thomas Balsley Associates + Weiss Manfredi.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. “Leggenda Ice Cream and Yogurt / SO Architecture.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. “Shanghai Houtan Park / Turenscape.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013. “Weiss/Manfredi: Hunter’s Point South Waterfront Park.” Weiss/Manfredi: Hunter’s Point South Waterfront Park. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2013.

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Pre-Thesis Analysis