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Vol. VIII No. 2 DECEMBER 1972

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Case Reports

CASE REPORTS

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ARTICLES: ''Desir e," ''Knowledge of Certainty," and Do/us Eventua/is by Ronald Sk/ar ..................................................... Void and Voidable Marriages in Ethiopian Law by Katherine O'Donovan .............................................. . An Introduction to the Law of Business Organizations by Everett F. Goldberg ........................................... • • • • · Pena. l and Civil Law Aspects of Dismissal Without Cause. by Danie I Haile ... . ....... .... . .. ....................... .. .. ......... Som Observ ations on Art. J 922 (3) of the Civil Code � Y Brun - Ot·to Bryd . . . . . . . . . . . . • • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... • • • • · · e . Corn iian b ce with Legal Obligat�ons by B11si11esses i11 tl1e Mercato Y · · · · · · · · • • • o • • • · • · • . .... .... h .... .... aria1n Zen1 Ber a,id ss R Jolin e A Problem on Family Law by Katlterine O'Donovan ............................• • • • · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·

207 373 439 493 532

544 560 570


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-JOURNAL OF. ETHIOPIAN·., LA

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the Facu at of lty Law . Hail e ann1 Sella 1ally ssie �. llni"Y:eTsity, with 1 wice t shed publi , the co-operatio11 of the Ministry of Jt1stice . .

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(to be cited as 8 J. Eth. L.)

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EDI1 0RI.AL BOARD H. E. Ato Belate.hew Asrat, Chairma11 Dean Cliff F. Thompso11 . . . H.E. Afeneg11s Teshome Haile Ma1·iam . H.E. Ato Negt1ssie Fita,vake Hon. Ato Negga Tessema

I-1011. Ato A1nanuel Andemichael M1.·. Jeremy T. Har:rison Mr. Peter Winship •

EDITORIAL STAFF

Ed.itor-in-Cb.ief. ;

Daniel Haile Daniel G. Kidan

Peter Winship

Managing Editors

Case Editors

Articles Editors

An11e-Ma.rie Jacomy-Millette Haile Fissehaye

Brun-Otto Bryde Getachew Sharew '

I

Junior Editors

@os.hu Walde

Sahlu W. Giorgis

Kine Tibebu

-

RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE Katn: erine O'Dono van Meb,ratu Yoh.annes ('ie0rge Krzeczunowicz Peter Winship

Jeremy T. Harrison, Chairman Anne-Marie Jacomy-Millette Daniel Haile Brun-Otto Bryde EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS ' Zelalem Wakeyo Elleni Assaye

• •

• •I

Yeshimabet Desta

. tor1. l AJN e l0t1� cli � �nd business correspondence should be addr�ss�d to the Editors, of Eth1op1an Law, P. 0. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Eth1op1a . • ! •

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HAILE SELLASSIE I UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF LAW Haile Sellassie UPiversity, of es�ablished in 1964, offers I _Law of lty 11 Fac Tue B. degree and to a D1p!oma or �erti:ficat � in the LL. t ad111g l law ? in � rses . i eo1. t . . for further mformation contact the Faeulty of Law, Haile Sellass1e I Un1ver­ a .1 ¥iw a.t.: .- o • Box I 176, A d d is Ababa. S'l'

FACULTY 1971-72

Cliff F. Tl101npsoo, A.B., M.A., J.D., Dean·. Jon Eddy, B.A., J.D., Assistant Dean. Berha11@ Ghebray, D·r. en Droit Brun--Otto Bryde, Dr. Jur. Alain Chedal Daniel Haile, L.L.B. Jeremy T. I-Iarrison, B.S., LL.B., LL.M. George Krzeczunowicz, B.A., LL.M., Lie.Sc.Comm., Lie.Sc.Polit. fram Lang, Dr. J1tr. Mebratu Yohannes, Dip.S.W., LL.B., LL.M. Robert A. Melin, LL.B., J.D. Anne-Marie Jacomy-Millette, Dip.Pol.Sc., LL.B., LL.D. Kai!herine O'Donovan, B.C.L., LL.M. Dom·iniqu.e Pierson Selamnu Bekele, LL.B. Ron.ald Sklar, B.S., LL.B., LL.M. B,.J. Tennery, B.A., M.A., J.D. Thi.erry G. Verhelst, Dr. en D roit, M.C.L. Peter Winship, B.A., LL.B. PART-TIME FACULTY Abe'be Guangoul, LL.B. Abebe Worke, LL.B. �ssefa Habte Mariam, Dr. jur. �ssefa Liben, B.A., B.C.L. Rcl.en Fassil, LL.B. 11.egesse W olde Mar1am, M .C.L., M.C.A. , . g;� ll.i;b, ·eru . - him:el Se1fu, B.A., LL.B. lis Metaferia, LL.B., M.C.L. � ad se Abdi, LL.B. � �otkn Fer ede LL B ' · · lle·g· . �e As-faw, LL.B.

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IO F H T O E N L IA A P N R U O W J A L E H T F O S PATRON e y at I:I.is �m1Jerial Ma 11r 1 at � i11 as \V � � aw L 1 a1 pi io stY fla. je Jot1rJ1,1l of Eth _ The ile 1mJJ01ta11t step 111 tl1 e <lev an as . 64 19 of el o er pr n ent . . of Se11.assie. 1 11• 1 tlie suinn1 h o f r Ed f oa B 1s ·d 1to 1e 1 · o · ly t · e t e1 , qu 1t se tb St Jo l en t1.r1 st l sy a · · ' 1 . • g . le s a} . .· · a Et h1op1 ,. ··. , h . . n t1o 11c as 1a _a 1 11t . t1 1 1 pa c? ex e ·b t 1o 11s in n ed st re te of 111 e th e . invited those wl10 ar a\v 1 co g 111 11 by tro t Pa b or n s p e ; su e1r of 1J tl1 tlle Jou· n Jour nal's activities to express aJ of Ethiopian Law. H.E. I-I.E. II.E. H.E. H.E. I-I.E. H.B. 11.E. I-I.E. 1-I.E. l-l .l.l, E • l�I.E. I-I.E. H.E. fI.E. FI.E. Ho11. liOI). I-Ion. Hon. I-Ion. flon. I-Ion.

H.B. Afenegus K.itaw Yitat� ku . H.B. Afenegt1s Teshon1e Haile Ma.r1an1 I-Io11. V. Afeneg11s Assefa Libe11 Hori. V. Afeneg11s flagos T. Medb.in Hon. V. Afe11eg11s Kassa Beyene Hon. V. Afenegus Kebede Kelii Hon. V. Afe11egus Matias l{iletework Hon. V. Afenegus Tibebu Beye11e Hon. V. Afe11eg11s Haile Aman I-Ion. Ato Adera Francois rior1. Ato Berhe Soquar H.on. Ato Berl1a11e Kifle111arian1 I-Ioi1. Ato Mol1ammed N1ir Hussein Hon. Ato Tadesse Jirre Hon. Ato Yohannes Berhane

••

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1�se11afi Taezaz Ak:lilu H-Wold Ato Abebe Reta Ato Aberra Je111berre At o Be1atc11ew Asrat A to Befel{ad11 Tadesse A to Getacl1ew I(ibret Lt. Girr11a Woldegiorgis Dr. I-Iaile Giorgis Workneh At o Kete111a Abebe Ato Ma1111110 Taddesse Ato Ivfesfin Fanta Ato Mol1.amn1ed Abduraliman Ato N·egi.1ssie Fitawake Dr. Seyo11n1 I-Iaregot Ato Tesho111e Gebre Mariam Ato Yiln1a Hailti A.to Abebe A11gicl1ew Ato .i\n1a1111el 1\.11den1icl1ael Kegnazmatch f-illlede Lemma Fitawrari Bayssa Je1nn10 Deja.z111atch Bekele Beyene Ato Eyass11 Gebreha\variat Ato Tibeb11 Abral1am


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Jirre Abebe h matc , a z e , _ r1am Betema lilu Ak 1;11 klilu Habte ·Ji)r.. A Bekele a f Asse Ato e Tsega fa .A:sse r Ato e ic r u a M , n o li e A :Jj)tr. ss e b m e g d a H a h ra b A Ato s o tr e P 1 n a h ra b A to A A . to Bekele Nedi_ Ato Bekele Demisse ,Col. Belachew J emaneh Woizero Beliyu-Work Gebremaskel Dr. Berhane Gebrai Lt. Col. Berhane Woldeyes Dr. Berhe Beyene Ato Beye·ne Abdi Dr. Bryde, Bru.n-Otto Grazmatch Chalie Yadetta Ato De:misse\v Assaye Mr. Bddv. Jon • Ato Eden Fassil Dr. Eyob Gebrekristos .Kegn-getta Gebrehana Kitaw Ato Gebrehiwot Aregai Balambras Gemeda Urgessa Ato Gilamichael Bahta Ato Getahun Hunegnaw Ato Girma Abebe Ato Getachew Tessema Ato H.abte Mebrathu Ato Haile Woldemariam Kengnazmatch Hailemariam Debuna Mr. Harrison, J.T.

IBTE, Legal Department Imperial Ethiopian Tobacco Monopoly Imperial Insurance Company I.E.G. Armed Forces (Legal Department) Dr. Jacomy-Millette, Anne-Marie Capt. Kanna G11mma Ato Kebede Gebremariam Dr. Lang, F1·anz Major Legesse Gebremariam Mr. Meli11, Robert A. Brig. General Mebrahtu Fesseha Ato Negga Tessema Ms. O'Donovan, Katherine Dr. Eziio, Russini Ato Salih A. Kebire Mr. Scott, Robert Ato Shiberu Seifu Ato Shiferaw Work:u Major Shimelis Metaferia Mr. Sklar, Ronald Mr. Sogolombis, D.G. Mr. Stordiau, Alfred O.C. Ato Taddesse Abebe Ato Taffara Degue:ffe Ato Tefferri Berhane Prof. Tennery, B.J. Dean Thompson, Cliff. Fitawrari Tsegaye Teferri Dr. Vanderlinden, J. Mr. Verhelst, Thierry Mr. Vosikis, Nicolas C. Mr. Winship. Peter Kegnazmatch Woube Woldeyes

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TABLE OF CASES REPORTED High Court

Laketch Tessema v. Kefaye Abebe (Guardian of Asrat Aen1ro Sellassie) Civil Case No. 662/60) ... ... ... . ..... . ... ..... .. .. ..... ... . ...... . . . . At o Abe_bayehu Deneke v. 1) M11Ju Agricu Depra 1vi ltu Pa r. ra rt1 l 2) 1er sh ip , F ranco1s, 3) Ato Chaneyalew Tesho me Civil Case No. 95/63 .. ... . . ... . . . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . ...... Asegedetch I.ndaylalu v. Imperial I11s11rance Co · Civil Case No. 195/57 .. . .. .... . . . . . ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. ... .. .. .. .. ..... Fratell! Biga and Company v. Mars·ba Trading Company . Civz/ Case No. 281/63 ... ....... _ .. . . .. .. ...... Comm_e�cial Bank of E hiop ia v. Usman z��;. �-���I�· �-o·l������ Seif t Civzl Case No. 30/60 _ . . 34;60 ..... _ .. . . · · · · · · · · · . . . . . . . . ·· ·· ········· Cl1artered Ba 11k of ond on v. M L (Civil· Case No. 1995/59) _ . a���- of Li,,enrato Ethi opia Ltd. . .. . .. ... . • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

I

212 223 234 243 258 269

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REPORTS The following reports are cases decided by the Supre me Imperial and the High Courts of Ethiopia. The Amharic ju dgment is official and always preceds the Eng­ Ilsh. The Journal of Ethiopian Law is a scholarly publication, addressing itself to all members of the profession. Its purpose in publishing judgments is to make known to th � piofession interestia.g decisions which in the opinion of the Board and E ditors _ ruse lillportant issues of law. In selecting a particu .!ar judg ment for pu� lication, ili:e � _ _ oar? a.nd Ed.itors do not wish to convey the 1n 1press1on that the Judgment 1s . t1ve on any prop�itio11 for whic? it 1?ay �tand altl1?t�gh the qualit� of the : efi� _ _ ec�s1on is always an important cons1derat1011 1n detenn1rung whether 1t should b:·e inciu ded in the Journal. When, in the opinio11 of a Boar d Mem be r or an Editor, _ : JUdg_ment is of interest and raise s an important isst1e of law but the1·e is reason ; belie'1e that aspects of tl1e decisio11 are contestable o� that the result reached _ e isy mih c?urt 13 not clearly the only s11pportabl� concl�s10_0, a note o� the case fte _ .: 1 � inclu ded. The abse nce of s· u ch a note 1s not bo,:vever to be interpreted nd1cating compl e te fin,ality 011 the issu es raised in the ca,se, as it is expected e ers of_ the professio1:1 on all l�vels 1nay hold differing opiruons 011 the i mb;: 111 u of . any Judgment pt1bl1sh ed .here in. 'The Mer11bers of the Boa·rd an d "' l he Editors.

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" , ,tltlb?- : ,'h'? : c: � ,r.c = tfii•Jl : h9"ilne!'-=t: : ootihA : i'11J;. : Pa� =mf,9°: :, � , tP/'l'' PIA : J"AIIJ"} ' --l•(lmm- : (lro• : lf'r : �•IU,m-9° : f,f-f..l 'JW• : f+ �-.. f\ tD' •1. : fli\P'A"l'Ji- : P'&-:i w·1 : OOl/.. fil'l�,�:f : h�A : m•il·T : ftr', : h11' 11� /\ lfftm• , 'f;; : i\ODilm7' : rril.7' = 9°llhc>-r : 11:J! , O<l! , c;Tm- : O"'li\7' : 1 � If �"l;JIA :1 O.,..lOA1 � �•f II, : l\f. ' h"-l?"'7' : Y'il7' : 9"ilhc>1· : OJ-il'I' : f. ,11!1 : mf,'J" : ro·A = 11."'l'P'PA = I" Affl1' : f,f-(lmOJ- : (lro· : If,;' : �If 014 : f,taf..t. 1lD' = P,�ro- = mf,9° ·= ro•A = ilOI/'P'PA = P'AllJ1' = f+(lm(l)c : 11,CJJ" = = t ii>; = "?ill� .. n:i· • tJtj:A: ro·il'P = /lODlf�nt1'f .. . f+ r• = Ft.:fOJ'1 ln = = (t :, 0 . = : : : : SUA : + novAti:J: IA nc. : nc : ttl�l\ ,11n:J, : fl:f i','l;J1C '1:l>A : f : ° ffl'J : n : h f "?ill. 'Jf a\illP.9° :: ilfll·LU : n,1fJ u : (Jc/t- : 9°h1S:'f" : "?�l OJlt . l :{: 1' . 1 : ti : OD : : : 9° : : . : 1 0l , � : q : c:�' } : 1 1 ��, In 'J° fl°l :i: {}�ii . 1°'1 /\, Ittf:it '11\1 · : DJ. (At; : ff..l1':t- : .,.ti ti» .: ftj:T,1, ,,0,lhC : ,11'? : c:J?TC : i;fitji-flOl/...('ff(lr : ODlP ° l:,. : fihl�T : 9 ilh�i- 2 ·' A,:f-t..l(ID : lD�'J° : ll4!TC : ttitr : ODlPlT : fA,f-&.fi{ID : ilt\lf', 1 6..t�7i : i,ro.. : 1lt\'aA :: Oi't-'Lil : nfl'l : hOJ•t.� : �c� : �t: �f\,f:9° : +ht..tit : CD1'i� : f"1'1 : m�r�1 : /llP/l;J1'P : flij:,r,h1l�C= .. : : : : fro "ht; Cil'i : fitil+�F..C : ti,f,A : : «k�C oi>1f111 t.f.'!Jr./;t; ??tfi·�/t; 11 r bt;:,t� : 1'.f4:1'.:f0 } �c.,e, : fb,l: : ,t,firflflu : +:f''PO'/. : i\1�/t : O;,ttflJ : Ol , : 7'') 'ttn&- : ilfll'lHH ,,..:J>'f l : },1P./\ : f"tm�n:,.. : °1il:1-0J4!f : flh-'til : H{]D1 : ;,tLliJ : mf : (lfl,r� : '}au:,. = c:J?'PC : t!it% = �·,Pie = t = 4'1 : Ifi!t : i, : 'I" : 'ht; : t:hf : o'l:'J-- : qoo:'f- : c:f!�C 19\i,: . : �fii"f ,.. ·-- --- ,_ : ,.,�C : �-K ....... ..... : +'} : .,... .,._ ,,.. ,,.... : r -· � : 9° : \1a>ll}fiT : GI/ill� : noo1f1ft : ;,c : .-,..jf,!l,A I Ol·Lu : 01/it; rocf!f : OBV'lT : +:J>'P°t : ill\A4'l0 : httovAti;f : nro/1t.�p:f : ,f-- (1"7 : f,rroll�T': mf,Ht:'r : oY.J;� : 111G : OD�tJ1 = h'1 : m�11t:i-- : O,h�: 1,fll : OD�"lJ11 h1 -'LV-9° : ho:t:i: : A� : hro/hlP/fv : f,t-a,f\J!_Or : (fA)t : A.:E-) : }lP'�T : hh9°C': P'l\(b: 11:r: r 0:i.:fi : f"1'1: rot.rile: ODlft;:fw·'}: itl;J'?m'): OJ{l',t;A � °2.'1T : (l�tflt : t}/,\lJ'� : flc:17C : .el\ -,..JIit : fl�-1 "1 : ,nd-b'r : ch"l : n.cJ?�C : ii�t = "ht; = o+h::r :1--�:1: = <h'l'�:f, = ODIPlT = r "1°1 = ro�7i = ill\Atr'l:Y.. = nouAti:e = h,,__:fi = 'll\:f(Dc = :ic = r"'l.tiL�T' = t11-n:,-. = n« 'ic = f"'l.L1..ooar = tl;>fl;ft:f ro- : arA = DD1Pl4 : ilfllf 'I J. n;,11:/!:fOJc = arA : DDlPl:,. = ou11:}':f r&'} : f\oomf:,, : �-:f/\/l� : 1lll'iA : 1 · f°":,: : 'I-tilt : hllt.l(l : hoPAlt;f : mf,/1\+l- : +(l"'I : fw-C(t. : 111l:,.: milt 1 hDPlf'} : h.1- 'tU-.9° : 'llt11 : +4>"1"ltar9° : h--f : VfU� � fq�� : NO l(I)« : +7i l'PA :: f a;1.:f: : 111 l ;,. : oP,fl:,-. : 'l/\ :fro· : ll ll�:,,'I°i" 'i'" : ro &... p':f : outil\A = thn.b4,t�A : J!"lil : l\1.tLCD· = farcft.. = ,,nl:i• : ,n'l'I! = f"tlf1 : film.: ODp� : 11.ilt!.. l\'L : {lfllf', 1 ffbrl·•(l(l•1 : T:P9°'1 : <;::,»c : raim,(1:P : f;r tm} : 'Pil�'i = f ilOJc : QJ,'f' : (llD' : V•fl-i:9° : lD1'ii• : +it°19°+0J• : rOl/.7'9°'\ Tat- 1 : (lro•: O.f-1t fltj:C�· : f1,f: : 'h1J;..Jil;rllr4? :: 11f,il01Joo- : .-,1 : <j:C� : O.i:: ,l1,7a9'1/\:f'PA :1 llO?.. tfoom• : hJ;..(l, : "l1ll+ : m'11! : hl·LU : fl�_.:,. : fl&' C"": 111l:,, : m'lt : f�fl�,r : mf,/1\+1· : +o°7 ' ftD-C(t..1 : 011,r : 11C11C'i 1 10.fi I IDIJJ..014'}: '£/t,f l = norz..1'1 : n.m'i·�+m· = f"?:,,l·O : c1J1o:J-- = n.llll:ftD- = ilA'icA d 11 ·Ofl'.A tt-: 1,;fl:,; = f. ° : ro1'i: = 1\-t◄ � u = 4> v.i;� i:11 \L"ft.'i'" = fmfl .. : itOA - 9

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l·IIGll COUR1' n io aJ is ci iv er D 111 om C a, ab b . 1\ is Add Judges:

Fitawal{e Ato Niu ::, 11-ssie Ato Iv•ioI1an1n1ed Berha11 Ato Zelleke Desta

LAKETCI-I �fESSENf.f1. ,,. IC.EFAYE ABEBE (GUARDIAN OF ASRAT AEM1{0 SELL1-\SSIE) Civil Case No . 662/60 Succession-forn1 of a ,viii - n1arriage contract - Arts. 881 al1d 882 of the Civil C. The plaintiff applied in tl1e name_ of l1?rself and otl1ers cl,timing that the will left by the deceased be recognized by court and that t11ey be declared a.s legal successors. The respondent contested tl1at the ,vill was not n1acle in accordance \vith the lav,; ancl prayed the court to invalidate it.

Heir/: Action disn1issed . . 1) A \viii not 1nade in accorda11ce witl1 eitl1er Art. 881 or Art. 882 of the Civil C. is invalid. 2) The court has a duty not to execute a \¥ill ,vl1ich does t1ot follo,v the forn1alities required by law. ' 3) A wife n1ay, however, share property, if tl1ere is aoy, 1,,vitb l1er ht1sba11d according to the marriage contract that she had with l1er husba11d.. ,

.

DECISIOl'J ..

The f�ct s. leading to th.is decision are as follows: .. ' Bala1nbara:s Gebremedhin Gosa died on Seule111 ber 21, J 967 (G·. C.). It lias been. s�id. that the dece,1s d h�s l�ft a vvill specifying tl1e partition of l1i_s I)ro p�rty Tl1e wife 0 ! tl1 e deceased �applied 111 tt1e 11a111e of 11erself a11d lier tvvo chddre11 rrorr� �?� ?eceas_ed, Woizerit Medaye Gebren1edl111 a11d Tesl1ay Gebre1nedl1i11 and in the n��e of Asrat �emero Sell_assie, the deceased' gra11dso11 bor11 fro111 l1is da l s �ed ug ; Woi�e� o_ 11:naye Gebren!edh1 n:.' the J}rese11t 10 ' t Pro b . a ted st1b n1it respo11de11 t. Sl1e . � 00 , . adrru111stration file bear1n.g No. 543/60 to the A,\1raja Cot1rt of Addis Aba ba the .No:v. 14, 1.967 (G. C.) stati11g tl1at tl1ey ed pray a11d ,vi]l tl1e are ot� l. be1 l 1e ieftc iari es f�tirt t<? ,re.c9gi1ize the vvill a11cl tl1eir statt is ca eo-al }1eirs as bei1 1 id. T o kn�\V l s 00 val 0' , if there are .an th1s · y er o tl 1e r Aft l c · a 1111 ' · ants, a 11ol1ce . . wa . s pu l ished i11 a 11e\vspa1Jer. b . : I·1as the guard tail. of tl1e responde11t, d se clec e a tl1e thr ot:i 0'l tl1a 1 her pleacler ' cl-1 t g i 11 1 i 1 1 _ ' on n o t le tf a ,v1ll done 10 t=: at1 istr · 111 · 11 accord nee \V1tl1 la�v, s t1b111itted :,robri.�e and· a d : of he · _ 1 . fjle No.. 622160 0n .Nov_1 � t s 21, 1967 G. C. in order. to ascertain the st atu er sue· · abo v e n1e1;tioned t wo children l a le e 1 tl , of tl1e deceased and l1is gra11dson as oaJJer to · decea cesso· rs of th· e, . . sed by 1 a�v. A .notice was wsp 11e a 1n then published . e' A'rvraja kno,v if there were 0ther tll claimants. Tl1e respondent conte11d ed that - 212 -


LAKETCI-1 TESSEMA v. KEFAYE ABBBE

th_e witness listed in the pJai�tiffs file 543/60 !='efo.re deciding cal l to er ord s _ _ Co•urt' . 58t· ie of whether the deceased has left a will 111 accordance with the law or the 1' · · e u e Id 1 te er ri·ghts. Sl1e ft11·ther co11tended that since t�e ct · pr 1 ot w d a l . a � � eg ill � _ not .."vasv es basic q11est1011 of law tl1e , case sl101 . 1 ld be transfered fron1 tl1e AwraJa olv 1 �is�h� HigllC�11rt in accorda11ce -vvith Art. 3_1 of tl1eCivil Proc. C. D11e to these t accepte d the Co111· t pleadi1 1g presented by responde11t's attorney High the ons reas_ i11 file No. 662/60 tl1at the case be tra11sfered and be 01· d ered dingly accor and ha� H'hC o·t1rt ,. g ' tl1e J by rd h ea t o be co11side1-ecl is, whether tl1e public \¥ill made by the issue legal basic The deceased \Vas 111ade in t1.ccordta.11ce \:vitl1 eitl1er Arts. 881 or 882 of tl1eCivilC. · .ill was made in accordance with Tlie plai11tiff' s ,tttorr1ey co11te11tio11 tl1at tl1e w �,ere \Vitnesses there who sigt1ed tl1e will attesti11g tl1at tl1e words tl1at a11d · }a\V the contaiiJed in it were those of tl1e deceased and that tl1e wit11esses be prod1.1ced before the co111·t since tl1e wit11esses mentio11ed are of age and are not legally inter­ . as no dicted pl1rsua11t to Juts. 1729-1730, 200 I -2002 a11d 2003 of tl1e Civil C. h reaso11 to back it. Since tt1e central iss11e in tl1e case is vvhether fo·ur witn.esses }eO'al 0 ha'le sig11ed tJ1e public ,vill made by the deceased and since this can be checked easjty by seeing the origi11al copy of the v✓ill, 'Ne find it t1n11ecessar)' to call the witnesses. Th11s, tl1e plai11ti.ff's atto1·11ey request is rejected. Let us novv analyze the code a:rt.icles cited. Tl1e cited articles of tl1e CivlC., Arts . 881 1 882 and 883 p1�ovide as follows: Art. 881 states, (1) ''A pu.blic v1ill shall ·be written by the testator himself or by a11y person under tl1e dictation of tl1e testator." (2) ·'It shall ·b e of 110 effe�t 1111less it is read in the presence of the testator and of four \vitnesses a11d n1ent.ioned tl1e f t1lfilme11t of this formality a .nd of its date is mad.e therein. (3) ''It sl1all be of no effect unless the testator and the witnesses irr1mediately sign the will or fix their thu1nb mark thereo11."

Art 882 states, ''J\.. ptrblic will sl1all -be valid 1.-vl1ere it is made in the presence o� tv10 v. itnesses 011e of v1l1om is a 1·egistrar or a notary acti11g in t·h e discharge of his dutjes." We have not n1e11tioned f\.rt. 883 for th-ere is no argl11ne11t based on it: , Let us no\v relate the facts of the case v1itl1 the la,N. The original copy of tr; pubfjc v1ill of the decease,d 111ade on July 26, 1966 vvas presented as evide11ce and we have seen that tl1ree \vitnesses l1ave signed on it. These are Ato Zeleke I�t�h Bele, Ato Araia Worota a11d Ato Sei'f11 De111issie. Art. 881 (2) (3) of the CJvil C. clearly state that �t vvill 11ot signed by fol11· witnesses shall be of no effect. f�e may'" arg11e tl1at if jt can be sl1own that �l1e will is act11ally 1nade b� the . . . �ceased che non-fu] fillme11t of the above for1nal1t1es sl1011ld 11ot deprive the ,:v1ll of s legal effect, as was � doi1e i11 �he past. Fulfillment of procedt1re� o: formalities req11ired I aw h�ve �dvantag€s a11d d1sctd vantages. 01� tl1e o°:e ha d 1t 1s to l1e ad vantage .� ? . _ 0 . ery 1t1d1v1dt1al to �e in a pos� ti 011 o� 1nal�Jng a \.v1ll w1 tl1o�tt �-�q111r111g ass1sta11_ce -fro: the 11ota ry 011 tl1e other . autl101·1t1es co11rt or by 1 rat1:ficat101 w1thol1t seek111g h a will not fulfillin� the proced11r s (forn1aliti�s) req11ired by l�w is of 110 ��gal � . . tl1e p1·ov1sio11s of a w1ll are a111b1g11ous a11d 1·equ.1re 111terpretat10�, 0'm: .. · Where ly We �ave to seek the commo11 i11tention ?f tl1� t estato1·. I-Iowe er, if s � . iF����u es _ _ of u _ req 00 ques�1 a 11ot 1red 1s tb1s will, � the by by d fltlfille Jaw 11ot are iuterp etin g the V✓ords of thc will bt1t a mistake or fa11lt of not follow1i1g the � Pro e e _ 1c eq se1 e p1· e ?f the of ire t n 1ne. e qtti1· e n 1· d s n1p e the by of s i t • r law. itio Tl1 �! o i · tou: t e is ae-t:�I n_ sses a11d tl1e affixing �f tJ1ei1 � sig11att1�e is . to make s\1re . that t he \:ill J y made by tb. e testator. l1 nless the cot1rt 1s sc1·10L1s to see to it tl1at all the 1

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213 -


- VOL. 'Ill{ - 1,ro. 2 vV A L N IA P IO I:-J T E JOURN1-\L OF

. 1e ts. 0 • a 1r·ir1g a ,vill are 111.et, it ,x1ill e11cot1r;:-tge l)eopl e t·o engag forn1al reqtiiren ri . � m b� 'th ai iot11e r sou rce for diSJ)lttes. e 1 w em t . 1g l1 td v ro p y b 11 o ti a g ti in li 88l (2) (3) revitalizin g otir cust· Art. r a ic11l part . n 1· . , d e 0mary .1 v.✓1·i1 rt1L1SL... bc s1g111.,d The new . C.1v1.1 Co . b "" · y . 1 at .pub 1c tI fotlr ovide . IJ • "'f i . . \vi·tnesses . . 1;; n 11 1 1a 11 . ca o v w eq 1 1 l law 11 1 u . Thc F1tna Ne . 0 1e�al efli� t. c . e 1�ve 11 I ll . a sh l Il \1/ e th t ie rr gast is s ' b' ' t. . 1 l and lt11 ess in . ,v ,H1ll ;'.) of· ature � f.' , by 11 g U s1 a certa . f . iO in spec,' fi1ed s e id v ro p l 11 10 t c . 1 se 4 , . chapter , cr or 1esser tl1a11 a1. e gre ay b 1 n r 1be 11t1n tllat prov1o l tI11s . . . . . numb er of w1•tnesses. TllOlfO'l ,. . � . • • . es f e:ss \ o ll.I� r� 11; a \VIll is a cust tu 11a s1g tl1e ly ted ub do u11 � de Co il Civ oded . i11 the g t111 l t 1aL not less than " l y sra l ear c · {jy v, la\ v ne, e Tl 1 ty li 1 ma for ed • 1· . r rour 111ar11 y requ • • . . , • •. . • . . re1ne11 l.s rnore str111g e11t. It 1u1 l rec n1a fo1 tl1e es k n1a l wil a n sig uld sho . witilesses is d tcte to e11z et , 111e la,v the t the tl1a it to see t needs of a o rts cou the Of . tl1e d ttty . . secur1ty and order o f society 1se, er,v Oth . t1ted exec cannot be developiilg society be . . uld be han11)ered. 01aintained and JJrogress of so ciety wo ,

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A glai1ce at the origi11al COI)Y of tl1 e \Vill left b)' th_e deceased. , ,vbicli \Vas 1 tl1re e ,v1t11esses 0111) tl1at vs , sho, ba,1 e signed it. 11 e c vide e . a11 subii1.itted to us as Accordiocr to Art. 881 of the Civil C. th e will sl1011ld l1ave bee11 sig11ed by four witnesses� Art 882 of tl1e Civil C. provides that if 011e of tl1e \V.itriesses is a judge o r a 11 o tary a11d if tt1e will was n1ade at cl. place \Vhcre sucl1 at1thorities carry on tl1eir du ties, prese11ce of two witnesses suffices t o 111ake tl1e 'v\1ill ,,aiid. We are not presented witl1 evidence to sl1ow tl1at 011e of th.e tl1ree \,1it11esses ,vl1 0 sig11ed on the will was eitl1er a judge or a 11otary a11d tl1at tl1 e \Vill was 111ade at tl1e ,vorki11g place of either the judge or notary. Altl1ougl1 such an allegation ',Vets orally 1nade by the plai11tiff's attorrJey, l1e did not back it by prodttcing e\1ide11 ce. Si11ce tl1e public \viii n1.ade by Balambaras Gebren1edhi 1 1 Gosa 011 J11ly 26, 1966 G.C. was neitl1er signed by f· our \¥itL1esses as required by Art. 881 11or 111ade according to Art. 882 of tbe Civil C. vve decla.re it to be i11valid. Tl1e Avvraja Cot1rt of Addis Ababa, after accepting the clairns filed by botl1 J)arties i11 JJrob,:tte a11d ad111i1.1istration file No. 543/60 and 662/60, ordered a notice to be published i11 a nevvspaper to kno\v if there v,1ere o ther claimants. Accordingly, ci. notice calling 11 pon :iny clain1ant, was p11blished 011 27th year No. 887 of Addis Zeme11 on Nov. 30, 1967 G.C. and 27th year No. 888 011 Dec. I, 1967 G.C. Evide 1 1ce sl1owing tl1at it vvas JJttblished is att�cl1ed to the file. Since 110 other claim a11t appeared, ,ve l1ave ascertair1ed , :ind decided tl1at 011ly tl1e cllildren born from Woizero Lal<etcl1 Tessen1,1, tl1e 1)lai11tiff, and Woizerit Meda�,ie Gebre 1nedhin a11d Wojzerit Tesl1.. 1iGebre1nedl1i 1 1, and tl1e son born from the daugb.ter .of the deceased, w · oizero ImayL1, i.e., tl1e deceased's grandson, Asrat_ Aemro Selassie, are the legal st1ccessors. If not by a wil!, a wife is not a legal st1ccessor accordi 11g to Art. 8�2 and . seqtlei1�- If Sub there 1s a11y property tl1at tl1e J)lai 1 1tif f is e11titled to sl1are 'rvith he r husbaotl, it sl1oftld be do11e according to e t tha d l1ol tl1u s \Ve tl1 111.arriage co11tract. she can assert l1er right basing o n tl1e marriage co11tract.

Since . tlle will is irivalidated, tl1e or cut exe as appointme11t of Woizero I�aketcl1 of tl1e \Vtll and the .· aPP 0111 re . ta11 t a 1 · t accou1 rnent of Ato Sahlu Yes11e11e\v as a11 . cancelled. UntJl the trme whe11 the n an 1o tl1 e property of the deceased be sl1ared . g b 1 awf �1 heir s aud 0ther beneficiaries ne J 11eo so1 tl1 we at fee l l ess tl b 1 e11 at tia it is appo1nted to m a .nage th e p rope� an • .. Jec t e Y t W ties e, l1er eby, order that botl1 prtr · notify the court as ·s? on as o . \vh ' ee, ant possib le, gt1ar a11 e l1011es t accep tabl man ,vith would work f . the inte _ r t the a an · d good of the family. In case tl1ey fail. to g{: : cottrt shalt ap;�in �e tch · t one. e also order that the ot1tgoing ma11ager, Worzero - 214 -


LAKETCH TESSEMA v. KEFAYE ABEBE

. ventory sp.owing the details of the property to be inherited and a balance dr�!W �� incom� and costs i�cur:ed, to the person to be appointed as liquidator. s.b@V,ID0· . . o ti a g n li er b h o is is th t a th · ve 1e 1 be ,we to pay court fees and their own lawyer's fees. p arties · both r orde We today 26th of Septen1ber given, 1968 G.C. in the is presence of ment judg This es. parti the bo'th

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-HIGH COURT Addis Ababa, Commercial Division n e ib L fa e �s . A to A d Ju ges. Ato Mohammed Be1ha11 N11rht1ssein Tibebu Abraham

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ATO ABE."2A YEPIU DENEKE Plaintiff: '" Defendants: I. MULU AGRIC.ULTURAL P.AR fNERSHIP 2. Mr. DEPRA FRANCOIS 3. ATO CHANEYALE·w TESHOME Civil Case No . 95/63 The j·udgmest of this case rendered by the court is as follows: The action was brought by the plaintiff against the defendants to recover a debt of Eth. $ 3:L,250. Commercial Law-Business Organizations-powers and duties of a manager Arts. 2203-2206 Civ. C.: Arts. 271, 272,276 ConIDl. C. The plaintiff brought a suit against the three defendants to recover a debt of Eth. $ 31,250 The contract of loan was concluded between the plaintiff and the second defendant (Mr. Depra Francois) who was the manager of the first defendant (Mulu Agrict1ltt1ral Business Organization) established by the second and fhird defendants. The plaintiff alleged that the loa.n was contracted on behalf of the business organization whicl1 l1e claimed to be a partners.hip and that all the three were liable for the debt. The third defe-ndant (Ato Chaneyalew Te�ome) stated that the debt was the second defendant's personal debt. Held: Only the second defendant i s liable. I. If a joint venture is made known to a third party, it shall be regarded as an actual partnership as regards such third party. 2. Acts of management do not embody the act to borrow money from third _parties on be­ half of a business organization. 3 - A man.ager of a partnership, unless special power is vested to him under the partnership agreement, is authorized to perform only acts of management.

JUDGMENT

e plaintiff alleged that the Mulu Agricultural Partnership, the first defe11dant h a: J i t 8 c . se a as estabJished on the basis of Art. 280(1) of the Commercial Co�� b , w y th6 second and W:h . third defe11dants. The second defendant Mr. Depra Francois, s_th� man ager of t�e business organization concluded a contract of loan wit}) ; theo nti P ff an d a promissory note was drawn up to effect · the loan. The contract 0-e 1 il '.t. oan s coneIuded by the seco·nd defendant on ?ehalf o� the !v1ulu p�rtnersh.lP . . � w 1'ne P1�•n.tJ � a•nce it ff reque sted the co11rt that the partne·rsrup pay hlm the debt 1n accord­ , to pawy t\ Art. 255(1) of the Commercial Code. Howt.ver, if the partnership is 1:3-n_able e debt he requested the court to make the partners severally and Jointly 223 -


OL. VIII - 1\To. 2 V \1/ A L 1'1' \ li P fO I I T E JOURNA:L OF

1ers )art1 i . J1 tl1e 1) pl1rsl1a 11t to A of ! tion ga obli 1e tl r rt . 255/2 liable to tl1e plaintiff. fo e. Cod Civil tI1e of 1897 Art. d n 1 a e d o C i a . rc 1e 1n of tlie Coo e 0cl tll al he b nc tt fe 11u �e f ad o 11t ne e1 at _s� s · _ hi 1 ii t ,_ Tl1..e. Second defeilda,1 ·ro\v d °; thac . lie said l1e 11sed B11t . tJ1is f 11t1f pJa1 lo an 0 r � tlie 1 11 f· 10 t 11 11 10 n a !d sa the Lue i J. rsl1 t11e IJar t1Je of g 11 1 · c1 a J rt e d 11 t1 l p11rposes Of tl1e aooricult11ra r \J pr 1 101 d esl tl1e nte ese n 1e, \V lo ale T fol 11ey CI1a . Ji o n At -.. •e11 da t' . g d e1enc e Tl.1e th11·d dc1 . . . . rr I ·l t 1c.> ) a11, Y e b t1 d · cit , · . s 1 , I 280 t. l Ar rrele\,aiit ,· n t . · of · .....J-1e :r con.ten _ ded tl,at tlle rt1 le 61s d e11 a11 e.1 d·"'· l d . . 1 d o11 a1.1 sec 1 1e 1111 1 t. e11 ,ve s bet wa to forn1 � t 11en ee1 aor tlie .,. ..., o aus "l-ec b case, . . . 101.1s of. A�1·ts; L"71-279 of tl1e Co1 ov1s p1 tl1� er t111d 11 dovv laid as urne r� J joir1t ,,e11t11re 1ted ,ts o1t a1)p 11 a bee 11ager 011 the b . n1a 111g hav a11t end def d 1 oi sec e Til e d O ci... •a1 C · · · a sis · O t 1c 11 u l l t L1 .l� f tl1e M 1a A •· · .1 J0 · 1_t venture, h o 11 · n 1o at c1 so as of um 11d ra 11o e1 111 e th te � of le for �t ]�on \Vluci1 tJ1e seco liab I1eld be 11ot Cct11 l1e that ted argL r1.t nda defe tllird nd _t. 276 of the Commer to Ptr ua11t purs lf bel1a ow11 Ius on d ltlde conc t ndan defe cial y 1or1t autl to l1e t _ ed �err co11 beco1n�. the agent of ,vas 1t r1da1 defe nd seco e . Tl1 e. Cod tlle t.hircl defeiid.a11t i11 accorda11ce w1tl1 Arts . �203-2206 of _th.e C1,11l. Code, thus autJ1orized to l )erform 011ly ,1cts of m�11agen1e11t. 111e �-t1l u f\gr1cult_t1ral joi11t venture­ \Vhich is a b11si11ess orga11izatio11 carry111g out tl1e actiVt ty of T ?reed111g cattle - appoin­ ted tli e second de.fendai1t to worlc solely as a 111a11ager. l\ e1tl1er the joint ventur e agreen1e 11t nor tl1e scope of l1is age11cy e111po\,1er tl1e seco11d defe11da11t to conclude a contract of loa11 \'.Vitl1 a. third IJarty 011 bel1alf of the joi11t vent.11re or on th e third def e11da11t�s bel1alf. 011 tl1e basis of tl1ese arg11me11ts, tl1e tl1jrd defe11dan t prayed I tbe co11rt to allow J1i1n to \.vit11dra\v fro111 the suit p11rst1ar1t to Art. 1910 of the ,• Civil Code.

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T}1e i.l1ird defe11da11t l)roduced be.fore tl1e co11rt two doc11n1e11ts: tl1e n1emoran­ clt1rn of associatio11 of ti1e joi11t ventt1re a11d a doc11n1e11t s11ovving tl1e t111thorjty of II n1a11ageo1ent co11ferred 111)011 tl1e seco11d defe11d,tnt. ! Tl1e plaintiff, i11 his reply to t11e staten1e11t of defe11ce arg11ed tl1at tl1e conten- 1 tion of tl1e tl1ird defend,tr1t, t11at Art. 280 of tl1e Co1n1nercial. Code could not be a1Yp1ied in tJ1e prese11t case is not a proper defence. Tl1e reaso11 given was that �h e evide11ce addt1cecl by tl1e tl1ird defe11da11t clearly s110\ved tl1at tl1e seco11d and trurd defendants agreed to ·form a ge11er,1l part11ersl1ip and not a joi11t venttire. 1�o� · over, altho11gl1 the defe11da11ts alleged that tl1e s,1id b11siness orga1Jizatio11 is a J 0_1� 1 , ve11tur�, s i 11ce it was n1ade known to a t11ird p,lrty in tl1is case to tl1e plaintitl­ : accord1ng to Art. 272(4•) of tb.e Co1nn1ercial Code , it sl1all be regarded as a part· nerslliJ? . F1Lrtl1ermore tb.e plaintiff stated tl1a t it ,vas very in11Jroper on the parl of tl1e third defe11d�nt to admit tl1at tl1e seco11d defe11da.11t v1as rt )pointed as a rnanag;r 1 of �he partoersl1!p, a11d they t y- to escape fro1n liability by i11vokin g Art. 2 � . . of lb.e Coin111erc,al Code. B11t this de:fe11ce 1s L111ter1al)le becatise pt1rs11a11t to Ar atld 12(3 ) of tlie memorandurn of associatio11 of part11ersl.1iJ) l)ro fits a11d �osses tl1e I le. • are to be sl-1a·1·ed eq_ua11Y and part11ers wl10 e liab l d 1n,1 a so · I are not. 111a11agers are i�us, � r�. 276 (2) of _t!1.e Com1nerc!al_ Code ca.1.111ot exoi1erate th� tl1ir� �e fent�J�� 1 m ltab.Llty. I11 add1t1on, the pla1nt1ff cor1tei1t1on of the 0,6 · aro 11ed tl1e tl1 . at defeotlant, that he ca11not be jointly a11 d sev:rally liable J)11rs11a11t to A rts. 2023-? 1"'d 1 aud Art. 19 1O of tlie Civil Co de p s JJOJ n e t I r u on n1a \ tl1e 11a ge gro . tl1e 11d tl1a t · ' Va. a an d 011ly to perfo m acts Of ma11agm n f d e e11t, is irreleva11t here becat1.se tl1e second ; and j . � -w,.., as a p nte as a °:1a11ager of 89 287 . Ar ts tl1e part11ersh i 1 J 011 tl1e bas.is of f ��e - up a 29 C r om d nerc ral C ?de and in tl1is co11ferred tl1e at1thority to aW B si des ,ne�ot�able _ns rt r , J • ·J t iineu t as stipt1lated i n Art. 35(1) of tl1e Co1n1nercial Co de. e s full the, p aint I' added, tlie me t · s ,, 111orandt1n1 of asso;iation of tl1e pa·rt11ership e 1

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. M'ULU AGRICULTURAL PARTNERSHIP ET. AL. DEN E KE-·\' . U EH A BEJ3A.Y .

efendant to act ·as a ma11ager. · The_ plaintiff · concl1ided his d nd seco the po�vers,, .�11b poi i1tj11� ot1t that �rt�. 7 and 1� of tl1e n1emora.11dt1m ot.. association of a.rguroe,n y p permi t the 01·gan1zat1011 to borro\v mo11ey to the extent o·f Eth.$ 80,000. ershi p artn _ - _ _ . . . . th-e pla11 tl1e s· u 1t1ff bn11t ted C.), a11 a111cnded applicatio11 of the (G. 1971 8 Jutle e11dme11t 1·elat ed to (I) n1atters which were not previously an1 The . claim of t �r at�::; n the reply of tl1e plai11tff a11d .(2) . a proof . evide11ci11g _a special age11cy i 1 10 � by defenda11t tl1e tl11rd defe11cla11t dated 2)/9/69 seco11d (G.C.) and tl1e n. tJpo ed co � rr n11n1ber 5/62. i · e f g lbear1n · to tl1e p1·oof obje�ted presented to the co·u.1·t 011 tl1e ground 1t defe11da1 third The th at the special age11C)', wl11c l1 tl1e doc11111e11t JJllrported to confer 011 the second e .� t? borrow 111011ey fro1n tb.e De,;e]oproent Bank of latt the powered em t ndan defe f. 1f e 11t tl1 a1 1 pl on fr t 11o d a11 a j iop Btb After stating t11e arg11111e11ts of tl1e parties tl1e co11rt framed th e following iss11e h M 26/1971 (G.C.). (1 ) Wl1etl1er the M11lL1 Agric11tural b11siness organizaion c ar on is a joint ventu.re or a11otl1er type o:f b11s.i11ess orga11ization. (2) Sl1011ld the manager, the second defenda11t, be r ega1·ded as a11 agent withi11 the mea11i1Jg of Arts. 2203 to 2206 the of Ci,,il Code. (3) Is tl1e tl1i1·d clefendant liable to pay t'l1 e Joan co.neluded bv• tl1e seco11d defer1da·ut 011 bel1alf of t11e b11siness organization . This court l1as exa1ni11ed th.e A111l1aric text of ·t11e agreerne11t signed by bot.h t!he second and third defe11da11ts on A. pril 19/1971 and its Englis.h translation. The doc11ment e,�de11cing the agreen1ent sho\¥S tl1at tl1e type of bt1si11ess organization forme.d by the partners is a joi11t ,1entt11·e. The provisions of the agree.n1e11t relat e to the kind of orga1lizat.ion k11ow11 as a jo11t venture. Thus, no do11bt ca11 be entertained, 011 the basis of the agreeme11t, as to the nature of the business organi­ zation that tl1e second and tlli1·d defe11da11ts fo1·med - i·t i� a joint venture . The two ·partn.ers established the joi11t ve11t111·e f01· tl1e purpose of breeding cattl e a·nd carrying on other agric ultural activiti.es. Unde1· Arts. 6 and 7 of tl1e Commercial Code, persons who carry on activities relating to breedi11g cattle and agric11tlu1·e shall not be deemed to be t raders even where they sel l the prod11cts fro1n s11ch activities. Persons wl10 engage in the occupation of breedi11g cattle or agr.ic11ltt1re shall be regarded as traders only if such persons establisl1 share compa11ies or private lin1ited companies to carry on tl1eir activities as soecified in Art. 1·90 of the Com1uercial Code. Th11s �be type of organization the defenda11ts formed if it is not a bl1siness organization v can be e nt11re '\Vl1ich l1as no legal personaiity and no other forn1 _only a joint � · e seen from the 0 business organizatio11 ·\vl1ich J1as a l egal personality. As can b fe.ement co11clt1�ed_ bet:vee11 tl1e t�N? responde11ts a11d fro1n its f11nctions the M11J11 grlcutural Assoc1at1. on 1s th11s a Jo.111t ve11t111·e. T:11e_ p]aintiff i11 his arg11111ent poi11t ed ot1t tl1at eve11 if the Mttlu Ag·rict1ltural As iation \Vas t� be e joi11t ve11tl1re was made th since vent111·e regarded � joi11t a as : kn n to the plaintiff to b e a� act:1al partne r­ be dee1necl a s}1011ld th,ird party-it ship r uant t? A.rt. 272(4) of t�e Com1ne�cial Code. The s1�b-art1cle cited by tl1e pla:iFtil: s . . . truly states as e tl1 he 11,td po111ted 011 t 111 . 111s argt1n1e11t. Thus let 11s regard assoc1at1o ·· . . n , a_s a :partnersh1p. f � ?prov1s10 1e 1 by t s11p�orte d Tb1_s .argt1n1e11t 1s _also Att. 271 . _ h c wh.1 1c pr!n_ B!tpul ll:eral e e th g to s11bJect e b w1ll ates e vent11r that t 1n. a o J_ pie-& of la _ w relat111g to partnersl11p.. B11t, wl1at wo1tld be tl1e outcome 1f 0e Jo1 ot Vi�tu :r.e . was. to be regar. ded as a part11ership? This q11estion leads to the cons1dera t1on_ of �he · Power of a 1na11ager - t11e second a11d third issues. Tm.e plai t1·ff · · e k d 1nvo . � 1age ma1 1n a of h ers pow the t 11g m ls emi argu e conc nt n 35 , J\r, 0f the Commercial Code. Tl1e type of managers that are envisaged by - 225 -


. L O V W VIII - I"-To. 2 LA N A PI IO fI ET F O JOUllN,�L

inted by private t appo are who . ose 1 tl are 33_36 . d�rs a Con1n1erc1 l . Code A.· rts . nd 1 1 if we i n .terpret tl1ese code p r��eve t Bt1 · io11 zat • · . 'ts10 06 t not. by bt1s111ess . orga111 t 1za a11 s org 1s 1 1es 10 1 11s1 o b as of ll s we O'er i, ina the to e bl mak:e hem. a p1ic erel � r1 rfo pe ts er ac y to n po of e th a \v n ma ve h: cr t ll ,.vi a : � ge l er e n . \Ve at st1c 1 . n st te· 1 1 e ag 11 11 of t. 1a ts 1 e n ac · cto . 1 1t b y a 1e 11 is t ]1 \V � , ,s m t er a. � c11ss l � l d 1s w.• 1l er j�1 rel tio� �o tl1e diffe a 111�o a of er po�v l1e t r rent kind s . Let 11s the11 cor1side � � . o firs T es pa1 1J S typ 1sh t11e ee . tl f J s u ize he ogn rec . s11J -p. . Tl . t. tYpe 1s 0if, p rtner · ie law . , , ? ,, 9 o.f tie A o f I·t . _., 1011 •1 c. 1. _ Con11nerc1al C v ., p:o_ r U11de . . rsl:JP e partn called ''ordi11 ry . od e tl1 l1as JJ ac to 11p fo ✓� _per �.- OV rm all ts f t11e ma1� ger of an ordinary JJart11ersl . o l t1011a add1 11 ec r 1 e 0th. !) fica s� a1 c. tl or1ty _l1t1le S _ i Ula.Il genlent. J\1Ian gers d� not l1ave �y lly d 1 type seco1 l1e of . p rtuersliip _ is cal led . sranted i rl the p�r, t,nershIJJ agree°:e11t. T . erslu p 1 rt1_ al ge11er _p, � 11less a speci al po\v 8. of ger 111ana TJ1e . ers111p partn al , 'gener . er is vested to hi111 1111 der tl1e partr1ersl11p agreen1ent, 1s at1t�1or 1 zed to perforn1 on!, 1 n111erc1::1I Code. The tl,ird acts of n1 anage111e 11t pt1rst1a11t to Art. 288 of _the Co kin� . . of part11ersI1ip is know11 as ''limited partnersl11p'' P. rt. 303 of tl1 c Co1n1 11ercial. Code explicitly points 011t tl1 t as regards the p0\\1ers of a D?-ar1a.g�r of a limited partner­ s11 ip, tl1e 1Jrovisio11s of ordi1 1 ry a11d general part11ersl1 11J vv}11cl1 relate to tl1e po\vers of a n1 11ager sh ll apply by r1 logy. TI111s, the 111a110.ger of a limited partnership is lso at1tl1orized to 1Jerform 0 1 1ly acts of n1a11 age11 1e11t, t1n.less p11rsuant to the n1emora11d11111 of ssociation of t11e lin1ited part11ersl1 ip l1e is vested vvith additional special po,vers. · · As tl1e disct1ssio11 above re,1 eals tl1e 1na11::tger of a 1Jrivate trader or of tl1e three differe11t lci 11ds of part11ersl1ips, accordir1g to the Co 1 11111ercial Code l1as tl1e po\ver 011ly to do ac ts of 111anageme11t 1111less special po,vers are co11ferred. 11pon the n1a na­ ger by c1.greeo1e11t. Altl10L1gh tl1e code states tl1at n n1a11ager ca11 perfor111 ac ts of m.a11age111e11t, it does not defi11e wl1at is n1ea11t by acts of 111a11age111e11t. Si11ce no de1 finitio11 is JJrovided i11 the Con11nercial Code, ,ve l1a\'e to Iook i11 the Civil Cod e for a de fi11itio11. a

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· TL1e releva11t Civil Code provisions are tl1c,se <.ie,1li11g with age11cy-Art. 2199 to Art. 2233. Art. 2202 1Jro,1ides that agency n1ay be either ge11eral or spe cial. Arr. 2204 defi11es acts of manuge1nent as ''Acts done for tl1e preserva.tio11 or rnai11 tenance ?f p ro11erty, le ses for ter1ns not exceedi11g three years, tl1e collection of debt s, _the 111,,est1nent o·f i11con1e a11d tl1e discl1arge of debts . . . St1b-article (2) is also si1n1lar to s�b-article (1). The readi11g of Art. 2204(1) shovvs tI1 at borro\vi 1 1g of n1one y from a tl11rd 'p arLy by an agent is 11ot regarded ,ts �Lil act of' 1nar1 geme11t. Art. 2205(1) ?f the �ivii Code states tl1at ''s·peci�l at1tl1orit)' shall be re quri�? where �l1 e agen� 1s called t1po11 to perfor.111 acts 0tl1er 111,111 acts of 1na11a�eroe nt · Sub-!rticle(2) sti�t�lat�s tl1 t ''t�1e age_n t m�y no t ,vitl1ot1t SJJ�cial autl1ority ah enate e�� . e al � o :r;n i:t0 � �� e state, 111vest �aJJ1tals, s1g11 b 1 lls of e xcl1[�nge, eftect a settle111e11t, con:.t ed to a !� 1 tra.ioti, inake do11at1011s or br i11g or de.fei1 d n.11 ttclio 1 1''. As tl1e above c;I 0f provJSion.s show, a n1 t1ager a11tl1orize cl i n ge t erfor1n only �c sf r ne ter ca ral 11 111s 1) 0• m na�eme ut od _ I1 as 110 JJower l ena b ori to bo. rrow 111011ey fro111 a. tl1ircl party• · a• business ora0anizat1·011 11 1e 1s 1 · re be 1 1 ,v a11t. y h orrz at1tl ed 1or1t to l 111a1 • • · 1ao-e S1)eci , · · 0 . quired 'A'l1ere the mac 11ag . er _1 8 t? pefor11 1 acts other tl1,tn acts of n1ar1ageroe 11t , such a!i :bor. .rowii1. g. ._· 0f.. �011ey, mortgaging re al estate a11d ot l1 er related ct s. • · . .-I11 d , this case ' the do cum . . 1 · ce bY ddu e11t ev1.de11c11. 1g tl1e a t e11 agre e1n • · ed J0111· � ve11tt1re · ·2 · • the P Ia11• 1tr'ff contai11s 110• or uth 1 · s11 0\.v a pro v1s1 o n is o Fra nco I� confer re.d tl1at Mr. J)ep_ra t-0 perfor111 acts othe . han a ts of� manag e1 ne1 1t. Thl1s s111ce tl1e 1, ow�r . f 1111s o Upoh ! .t he ·seco11d defe� dt nt. . s c sis i to perform acts of 111a11age111ent, 011 tlie ba •

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- 226 -

'J


v. MULU AGRICULTURAL .PARTNERSHIP ET. AL. DENEl(' E EHU ABEBAY

empowered to conclude a contract of Joan wit11 a not .is he lone a o · n 1. zati or th · a� h d req111re f · s11c or purpose. 1s The second power doc11men t, writecial Sp . arty thlrd J ril 21/69 ?:erely s�at�s that tl1e seco!ld de�e�dant is the man_age1· and does ten 0 Ap him add1t1on a_ l �p.ec1al po\�e�s. This additional state111ent 1s un11ecessary _ t n_ot raii of tl1e Joint ve11tt1re agreeme11t. p l1cat1011 Th11s, even d11_ under this a erely m is t g ot a11thorized to concl11de a co11tract sin ce,.:ent the seco11d defendant is .n .of loan with · : . . doctlJ.JJ . ss on 111e b at1 1e t1s t 111z ga lf f 1 o or l1a be 011 itiff tbe plaii s11p_ p o1�t his clai1n, prod11ced a to clocL1ment dated Septem­ defe11da11t, t. h ird The beari11g 1· e f. 1111. m ber 5/62. T.l1is doct11nent, ho,vev·er·, a11tl10a11d . C.) (G· 1969 l5 b r to bor1· o w a defe11da11t s111n of : E th. 80,000 fro. m the Development second $ the es -� �ank of Ethiopia after depositi11g as sect1rities la11d located at Adama Ttilu and 1 a Addis of Ababa 1d 11ot fron1 otl1er third parties. Thu_s towt1 tl1e i11 fot1nd r anothe t not at1tl1orized is to bor1·ow 1no. n ey from defe11dan. t he · plaintiff on nd seco the 1er of attorney. on t]1is of orga11izati on po\\ basis .he t busi11ess the behalf of Altho11gh the joi1lt ven.t11re agreeme11t, \Vhich was sig11ed by the second and third defenda11ts, on April 19, 1969 (G.C.), provides i11 Art. 7, ''The two partners have accepted t]1e com111e11ce111e11t of tl1e pla1111ed project on a loa11 of Eth. $ 80,000'', this provision cannot be .interpreted as giving power to the seco11d defendant to make a contract of loan \i\'ith tllird parties in tl1e 11ame of tl1e joint vent11re. As ex_plained hereinabove the seco11d defendant i. s authorized to pcrform only acts of rna11agen1ent by law as well as by tl1e joint ve11t111·e agreement. Since acts of management by defu1itio11 does 11ot i11cl11de tl1e act to make a contract of loan \vith a third party by a 1u.anager 011 behalf of the b1tsi11ess orga11ization a.nd we could not find evidence to sl10\\, that the seco11d defe11dant l1as bee11 a11thorized b ·y a specjal instrument to concltide a co11tract of loan \Vitl1 tl1e plaintiff on behalf of the joint \1enture t11e loan ,vl1ich the second defe11da11t sec11red from the plaintiff without authorization is l1is ow11 pe1·sonal debt a11d can11ot be considered as a debt of the joint venture or that of the third defendant. Basically the type of b11siness organiz2.tio11 established by th.e t,vo defendants is a joint ventltre. A joi11t vei1t11re, accordi11g to Art. 210(2 ) of tl1e Commercial Code �� no legal person ality. It1 the a·bse,nce of a legal personality every partner of a J?1nt venture 0,1,•ns 11is co11.tribution l111less of cot1rse otb.erwise agreed. T11is is expli­ citly stipulated in Art. 273 of the Com1ne1·cial Code. Besides .l\.rt. 5 of tl1e agree­ ��nt expressly re-affir111s tbe third defendant's exclusive ov.1nership of l1is land. The Joint venture th11s does not l1ave any property whicl1 it owns nor does it possess a l�gal pe rsonality by law a11d it ca11not be s11ed or no j11dgn1ent ca11 be passed again st _ 1 t. B11t as has already bee11 n1e11tioned if a joi11t \'e11tltre js 111ade k.J1ovi1n to a tJ11rd party it shall be regarded as a11 actl1al part11e1·ship as regards s11ch third 1arty and tl1e general p1·ovisions of lavv relating to pa1·tnership are applied to it . . O\Vever e·ven if we regard a jo.i11t ventl1re as an act11al part11ership u11de1· ce1·tai11 •r ; �umstances, th.e bl1si11ess orga11izatio11 ca11 only b · e n1ade liable f01· a debt cont­ e s:� � by .a manager wb.o is confer1·cd st1c11 special povve1 s· . 111 tl1e p1·eset1t case the 0 n defen_da t of loan �,as ,1 . con. t ract to concll1de special pO\' V er never a give11 ? w·tb t e pla1n trff jo tl1e n ca1111?t be organization the org�1Jizat.ion,_ thus } . a_ n 1e of tl1e IU�de abl alily � r�1 f�r a debt v·vl11ch l1ad bee11 111cl1rrtd by the seco11d de.fendant ,v10-011t erg��t�? zat1on.. Sjnce ,?✓e . 11ave l1eld _tha! this _debt is 11ot a debt of tl1� bt1s1ness atio11 even 1f tl1e _b11s111ess orga111zat1011 f,t1ls to pay tl1e debt the tl11rd defe11�nt as a partner is 11ot liable to pay ot1t of his private prope1·ty. 0 t e !. � _ abo,1e stated reasons we h.old that t.L1e seco11d defe.ndant, Mr. De:p ra PrauFcois , is liable to pay to tl1e paintiff the debt stated i11 the state1nen t of clainl, -- 227 -


JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. VIII - No.

2

.Eth. $31,250 (1�h.irty one tho11sand two _l?.u11dred an_d fifty_ E tlti?pia11 dollars) a interest of 9% fron1 the date_ the _ a_ct1�n was_ broug11t t!.11til tl1e time t ' nct legal �ebt is completely paid. Since the sru t was institut ed 1n forma paperis_ by the f� a i all the costs and t pay def�ndan expen�es rule that the s�cond incurred fu utitf, We the StUt. Further1nore, since tl1e Joint venture l1as 11ot beet1 made liable for t l the second defendant 1;ionowed with�ut. authorization the thir d defe��a !ebt W�ch exonerated from any hab1hty._ � there 1s any personal property which t t 18 luily he second venture_ such_ J�1nt proj:)erty the to will be at tached defendant contnbut�d to lllakc sure tbat the debt 1s wholly paid. The plaintiff 1s entitled to obtain th 0sts he has � def'e11dant. J second Wl1e11 tl1e plai11tiff p o incurred in the suit from the ces before _tl this court an .itemised ·bill of costs showing tl1e eXJ?enses J.1e iilcu rre� th e In and 464, Arts. 463 tb.e provision of cow·t pursuant to th� shall pass a decr suit , ee on the payment of the costs.

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. 9° = 0"7t\"1• = ,f-lt°79°1-ar = fA.l "'" = 11n11 = itAmfP It�� 1 {l9°9'"1T l {ll\lJ"i ! hv-'1 l 'h "}J.'.1'i : Ii'f. : 11C: f,hJ.i\� : l'l.f\< l ,.,.lO-T I tfl' , AO,P ,I:,• : f/\(Jr9° : (L A : h {le'} : f 1Plff : /\ODIT). : OD1J1 {le : f ill�i!\ :: hil · u- '-• -c hlt7i'P9° = t\m�i\f. : 11• · 1P = '11P'4 = · tj: J! = CL:,- = l,°l'l'1:f ar1 : '1.:,,c ti{l�: (1:).i\: tj:C..(' = l11: = noo;.,o_:i-- = It1/�1>1/9.ij·= '¼='I°: O(lm(l}«.: n cf: = w;:+i;:(D< = <i:C� = n,:,. = t'(lmLD-'1 = <i:C� = "lie = o•i\-1:9° = m1<r":f· : ID" = .,: ; n.."f• = ,1• {ID A (I 1,1}- = o "J. 'f 'i = n h.., if.t.:} it = tr '1'1 .r = {ID ti hA = it" lj: /tlD' : lD'A : htrt\i,"�9° : O�A : flllJ..fifJCfl••:,--1 : Ol/illjf : liq'C(lllr : fllJ;bl(l• : fl:-\": 'i!C� 0,--1: = Oih·r = 0DLPl1-- = ODD(l/\0r �CJ.!.' = f.il'l'OT = (Lt\ = h.Htl== .

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l/'�9" : OJf. : - o-fl, '1ro• : 61b1l'P : hA&c1' : �'1?-1 : fl')oofth+m-: hlt .. ll:_,.hltif-: !'it: 1IC 1 ++1lt\OJc: t\.l\ = +m"7�: 1'1H11 : h1-':J1.mJ1.4?T : 7i'I' · .lj: = .,, !..:1' : r, o-t\:,.. = (I.tr"} : .eu11 1 t\ "7�t.'1. = f 0:1•v-:,- = h++ nAv-T: arJt . llt\1': fl"7f111:r = DD11:.t· = f�nl� = ODlf'l-1 : '1tt.0?m4:t; = lD-/r'J° : f+� 11"� fl...,l\tD-4'1D": 1:'1!1.'' +h"1if.: lr'l"},f: Ohf. : t!\(l'j": -1·',ltil·f· : 0+ hoA: 1 j.OJ- ,r. : !ii t.l. DP 1 = f �l.9:'. �:,'� = 'P;, : t\ �� : O"7t\:}-< = f'i!T,n : Ja

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A :: hC"l'f = n,n4'n:·r = m'? = ODIPl:,� = fhlt li'P = ttf!:f: = nfl,n,ti :'f- x n,,.1--1huA= f -t\- : t\.t.Cil: f,·l"I\A :: '11C : "1'1 : t.:f>J;. : 1 : f•l·1 f : h ' �f. �l '1 GJ : A O ?" J', OtLIJ : q,e�1• : o-i:r : f»-f-- (l,11 = �a) c : f 01lflOJ• : +'P'Pf,: m11 � m·lt-1: /\UI/ t;:lil: (1)f: 1,IJ: f\oo.e. l"t-: fOl/ill�•f: : 4.. 1:J·· : fh'17i : (t.lf') , !il'-loo•1: j ft\h'?ll-0: �OJ•: hOJJ":i-- : fl+C = fcl't.O·T : t»Jill�· : Vl\9° :� ,f--hltif.9'1 : h•Q ..: ,,,, i nvt7i'P : ro.e..CJJ : f l\1-�:f : oo 1f..f:t; : ,1-.g·{J'j: CD') Y: : f,HlD• : OD'f,f-(lr: �1�: ,i.1A.?.l\.:ftJJ« : f A.loo•:,.. : �en· : 0"7/\T : f+t.Om•1 .: hebe : 1'11). : tt.ttt1J;.:'f-9° Ocn°l : &,:,- : fOl/.,.A.c(ID«:,,, : IP�Y: : itm ◄+w, : OD&cl'J° : (L'iC . fl:f(l}<''i" : bout..l9°� : ll 00 �,n 1l : O.i•fl-- : ltf,1f-J;. : t..CoulD- : IittJ : -OC : f#flft- , (Ltr1 : ho-"} : '"h1f.1'i' = +ooA(lw• = 'lft"'lw:P : Oou;t-i\A : f&cl9° trt: ilt\lf� : h��xc;cr : 0"7/\T = f+l!l'T: »Che: t»1Y: : f,llllr: it(lOm•t;: bm-41lIJc : f,r{lOI/OO-T1 : (D•t\ ' il,f &cC{laJc : ili\OIJf,T/A : fiTiJ;b"'/� : IittJ J -OC: 1,ht.l\1 : 0°71\T : f4'lfl'T1 : hit : IPCH') : W•l:f : 'h1Jtlf'1 : &«Cf. 'iA �

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tt; : fmfi:J> : Jilli!\ : 1,htj:l\it- : 11ft'1/A ::

h.i\h.Pft-lJJc : 11C1f� : fl'i:-rth-OcfhC = P'� : P'C'¼-r ,

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fllG:H COURT Addis Ababa, Commercial Divisnon Judges:

Ato Nigussie Fitawake Ato Mohan1med Berl1an N11rhussen Ato Zeleke Desta

ASEGEDETCH INDAYLALU v. IMPERIAL INSURANCE Co. Civil Ca se No . 195/57

Insurance Contact-tin1e for conclusion of an insurance contract-consent, deceit-Con1.C. Arts. 6SJ and 659. Civil C. Arts. 1696, 1697, 1705. In appeal, tbe Supren1e Imperial court reversed the decision of the I-Iigl1 Court and remanded tbe case to it. The plaintiff argues tl1at her deceased husbancl l1as entered into an insurance con­ tract \vith tl1e defendant and that sl1e be paid according to tl1e contract. She prayed the court to invalidate tl1e contract \Vl1ich sl1e argues \Vas conc]ttded by deceit. The defendant Company argues tl1at 110 insurance co1ltract was co11c]uded between tl1e plai ntirr and itself. It also prayed the court to uphold the contract entered into by tl1e plaintiff and .relieving the Company from the said $ 10,000. fie/cl:

Action dismissed.

1) Once tl1e i11sured gets a provisior1al guarantee fron1 tl1e insurer it \.Vould be presumed that there is a contractual relationsl1ip between tl1e parties. 2) Tl1e burden of producing evidence sl1owi11g duress or cleceit falls on the party \vho so alleges. 3) Prese11ce of a literate relative during the formation of a contract shO\VS kno\vledge and consent to tl1e contents of the contract.

JUDGl\1ENT

. . lann .Plaintiff in a suit brol1gl1t i11 tl1e H1gh Co11rt Cltl Nov. i:i, 1964 G. C._ c e.d lie uran tlirLt decea sed, 1n5 lier husb lif a11d Ca a Jt. e _ 1 Assefa G. IVfarian1, entered i1 1to yvitl1 defenda11 t _con1par1.y. Alth.ough tl1e st1m specified i 11 tl1e contract \Vas �tl1. $ IO,OOO lrt cases of accidei1tal death. the a11101111t d11e to ti1e s11bscriber or be 11cfic1,iry ,vast� be dou�led. The deceased paid tl1e first pre.1uiu1n on receipt N·o. 2099 \vh.ich ,vas _ a eiite red 111to lilSllrance register N? . 2690; and sig11ed by t11 e 1na11ager of tl1e co�p fe"}t A fter he was told tliat tl1e ma1n contract iv u.!cl be to 11.i111, t l1e de cea�e� ·A·, sen o t nt1u . for 1101n pla1 · e The subscri·'be� the11 d'1ec1 as a e 1 tl acc1de11t ,111 d srLlt e 1· car of · ,L ain· 11 t 0 tl ie Company w1t.l1 l th e receipt i n ha11d and asked for pay1nent. T lo �I ·m· ;; a .1 1 a eges tllat t]Je defei1 dant Com a 11 :1t first refuse d to 111ake payn1 e t by c: � is l p ny 1 t 111g · �llat t hey did no t accept the tha realised con tra tl1e ct y fte r pr� b11 per a t ly 1ent . pos1t1011 \.J.'as 11ntenab]e pa'd cun 1 1ier $ 1 0,000 only, and tl1en 111ade l1er sign a do the er written in a Iang"u·aa rd o be. she does 11ot 1111dersta11d. Sl1e IJra,,ed tl1e cotirt to · and J defiend a11 ts to pay tl1e r·en1a 11· · c " CoOJ 7 un g$ IO OO O A rt . in cc or 6 da nce wit l1 a , 5 Art. 1679 Civil C.

J

- 234' -

I


ASEG EDETCH INDAYLALU v. ll'yfPERI�J\.L INSURANCE CO.

_ of 1964 Nov. 30� defence _G. C. respondent cla.imed that 00 of ent em stat his . In e olicy was conclude_�, that the ·said receipt No. _2099 was only, a tempo. a nc p 1nsur re the s1;11t must be str11ck out by v1rtt1e of Art. 659 of the therefo and FarY 0� arg11ed respon not dent !l1at only did the on plaintiff , wl1en she additi n I Co�� comp any, the sign an agree1nent relievi11g the .respondent from 10,000 $ the d. ece e � any liability but th� agree1_ nen t clearly states th�t .t!1e responde�t made · the pay­ f fa1n1Jr ._ F11:tl1e1· m ore, s pla1ntr f ca11not claim that she wa� deceased 11elp to :ent wr1tte11 1n a 1ang11age sl1e does not ki1ow because th� doc1une11t a sign to .a d. tl1e 23rd day of b. e r h11sba11d's 011 death requesting pay111ent wrote she that ie m not Con1. C. was the i11 of E11glisl1 a11d 670 when she received the Art. to ant : ti 1 � 7 000, tl1e conte11ts of the agreeme11t were 1·ead a11d explain.ed to her by the perso11s 0 . r e d h ie n a p m o c c a ' who Plaintiff in her reply of March 23, 1965 G.C. stated that defendant's - obligation \Vas based 011 the co11tract - Art. 692 Com. C. Sl1e argued that the contract that the respondent made her sjgn relievit1g hin1 of further liability was concluded through deceit a11d bad faith 011 ·the JJru·t of the respo11dent and that she gave her conse11 t by nristake and is tl1us invalid purst1ant to Civil C. Arts. 1696, 16.97, · I 705. •

Respondent in his application of May 10, . 1965 . G. C. after reiterating his original grounds of defence, ft1rtl1er argt1ed tl1at since tl1e docun1ent signed by tb.e plaintiff is conclusive proof of tl1e existence of the co11tract i11 accordance \Vith Art. 2005 Cvil C. the co11tract cannot be in.validated. Besides l1er conte.ntion that the contract is invalid caru1ot stand by virtue ·of articie 2148 Civil C. after she had signed the contract a11d taken the money. Plaintiff in her reply of June 11, 1965 G. C. stated that defendat's co11tentio11 that they 1nade the payn1ent out of benevo­ lence without any obljgations is untrt1e and 011e merely designed to pay her less than ,vbat she deserves. She added Art. 2005 and 2148 apply to agreements which are m.ade in goo� faith and to valid doct1ment (written instrument) and not to . cases s·uch as these where the contract is signed through deceit and bad fait11 of one o f the parties. . .

A� the record sho\vs the High Cou1·t's decision of Oct. 4, 1964 G. C. stated that srnce plaintiff willingly a11d by taki11g her brother as a witness signed on the contract agreeing not to ask for more than the $ 10,000 sl1e has already 1·ecie·ved, he r presen t action claiming the aditio11al $ 10.000 is groundless and the suit 1nt1st b e struck out. After plaintiff appealed to the SuJ?�eme Cot1rt _ t_he cot1rt in its decision of March 28, 1967 . G. C. the 1·emanded a11d Co11rt, li1gl1 the of dec1s1on the reversed . ca to this court orderi11g it to re11der its, decision after examining the evidence �� Pi uced by both partjes and . the cont1·act betwee11 deceased and the Insurance e0:mpany. .

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.the :-;ter this, tl1e plaintiff in l1er _ap1)licatio11 of f'[ov. 19, 1967 G. C.. said that ce�sed wa� not a n· ew s11bscr1ber b11t that he had bee11 a s11bscr1ber for a Ion r def!na: xod of t.1me a11? t'he doct1�1en�. (re�eipt) presented �o the court sl1ows tl1at �laintiffnt had entered into an obl1gat1on 10 ,iccorda11ce with Art. 657(3) Con1. C. �e cou tPrayed the co11rt to order the manage1·. of �the Con1pany to, prod �ce ?efo1·e to at1on r ob11g or s pany Con1 tl1e 1ng of sl1ovv act tl1e contr ance m I11st1r f the_ $ pay 20 , OO Q 1 n cases of accidental death an.d to· gjve liis · testim011y under oatl1. · l nD efenda·nt · in · · h.1s repl of Dec.· 7, 1967· , G..c · argt1e d tb at tl1e court ha s ordervAd � 13 ai tiff t·o . s Pre ent the 1nsu1·ance contract and pro·ve · her claim b11t the receipt � 235 -


I . II \' L - 0ro. 2 O V W A L N JA J> IO I-] T E JOURNAL OF

y rar 11)o al . os ten op pr a eip.t (do rec y rel ne 1 is tiff · 1 tdocl1ment! p rodti c�d b..Y. P :�� nt ) l i as co11sidered nsura11ce 1e �U�e t ri be con n o a t ca tr f t a it x e self. preser1 ted for � argt1ed that tl1.e receipt ��; ;� 1 967 G. c. t11.e pl�i11tif 811� �ro . . I� l1er rep�y e11 t a�ter a11al),zi 11 g the 1n ay ed iv ce re 1) 11t de 11 o sp re t stat e. duced clearly 8 10.\VS. t l1a tl1e deceased's file) ( 2696 and · O N . . nd ing fi t · the1n to er 1s g re ce n ra t1 1s 1 1 rn ·. ed in ta n .y111ent a11d gav e a ments co pa ed eiv rec 1t e1 oi1d i resp rece pt, th. e tlie s· ce 1n . . . ry to . r. ac . be sat1. s1 1c b e ega 1 t d ·d e 1no . as an 111sl1ra11ce ca1 . 1! 1 e 11n t�t 111s the t tl1a 1 t_ contrespondent's argt1mer . 11 0 t1 a er d s1 n co y n a 11 e 1v g ract sl1ol1l d not b e t d ere d _ ti� or co il1e tl1.e n1a11a ger of C. · G. 8 196 28 b. Fe , of iJg ari . he its the r11 d a11 g1�e t11s t_est1?1_01)y. Tl�e 111 anage 1�rt 0 �the ore �ef ear app to ai1y np coi r insurarlce 1 e forn1alit1es re�liired Ll all gl1 011 ll11 go t no did a sef As ii, pta Ca before t testified tlJa 1 oug h tl1e Capta111 J1 ad a1t1 ed, ad� He . ded 1clu co1 be can ct itra signed coi aii iJlsiirarlce 1t 1ne1 pay \Vas 111ade prior to rati­ tb1s 0 32.9 .$ Eth paid and ct 1tra 1 co tlie a draft of ficatior1 (accept8.1lce) of the contract. Tht1s Capt .. Assefa ha.s accornplisJ1ed t,vo necessary formalities - filling tl1e draft form a11 d going tl1roL1gh. a medical cl1eck-up­ wh.at rei11ained \Vas for the co1 1tract to be sent abroa d for �tcceptance. After the col1rt ordered the n1a 11 ager to bring tl1.e draft of tl1e co11tr_act 011 its next l1earing, tl1e draft v1as preseI1ted. by the ma11ager. I 11 reply to quest10 1 1s asl<ed by the court, the ma·oager said t11at tl1e deceased bas delayed j11 1naki11g payme 11t after tl1e contract was sig11 ed altl1ougl1 be ,-vas notified to pay. It is not after vie give a provisional re-ceipt (doc111ne11t) tl1 at tl1e co11tract beco1 11es bi11 di11 g.

or

After exan1ini11g tl1 e argu111ents of botl1 sides \Ve fi11d tl1.at tl1ere are t\VO issues to be decided (1) ,vhetl1er or 11 ot t11ere is a co11tract of i11s11ra11ce (2) if it can be said tl1at tl1ere is a11 .insLtrance co11tract, to cletermi11e the ,,a!idity of the contract b:y \1/l1icl1 plai11tiff :igreed not to req11est for 111ore tha11 the$ 10,000 sl1e already received.

First Jet tis exami11e t11e argt11ne11ts on tl1e first iss11e. Plai11 tiff co11te 11ds that eve11 if a.11 ins11ra11ce policy \.Vas not signed, since the deceased filled and JJresented tl1e medical questio11aire to respo1 1dent co1n1Jany, and �be defenda11t con1paO)' received tl1e first pren1i11m a11 d g<1ve a provisio11al receipt, 1t .l1as entered i11to at1 obligatio 11 in accorda 1 1ce ,vit h Arts. 657(3) Con1 . C. ' . On_ the otl1er ha11d, reSJJ011de11t argt1es tl1 a t since a11. insura11ce JJolicy \:Vas not signed 1.11 accordance \:\1ith Art. 659 Com. C .., tl1e suit mt1st be strt1ck 011t. Art. 659 Con1. C. provides tl1.at 1111 Iess otl1er,vise specified i11 tl1e co11tr act, _a_n . lilSlira11�e poli.cy sha�l co1ne into force on th.e day ,vl1e11 t11e pol.icy is signed._ Tl115 me�119 �l1at tl1e prem11m1 can be de1nanded 011 the the if 011ly trac t 1 co1 tl1e of bas . is policy �s Slg:Ile�. But article 657(3) Jays do\VJ1 0� atur e sign tl1e to tha prio . t r ,vl1e re �Ile _poltcy. the insurer hands to tl1e i1 1s11 ) p�h c the t111 til red gt1 a ara pro 11te v.is e . ion al 18 sigil�d, t?e in,Sllrer and tl1e be11efic iary sJJall be co11sidered as l1a, 1ing entered into a1 the .. . . . dlice . 1 obl1gat1011 : It1 the cas e before llS the pl '·1111t pro 1Jf· besides f·11I111g to . 1nsura11 ce pol1cy did 110t exp1. · , J-Ier '. ic). 1 po 1c1t 1 Y cla1n1 tl1at there w as ctn 1 11s11ra11 ce argume11t. was tl1at t11e rec . e . . nte ra <1ua eipt presented to tl1e court vvas a pro,11s1011aI . 11nt i ·1� ti le P licy was signed and, si11ce the respo11dent coinpa11y l1ad I)aid hero$_ '1 000 O, a; n ck w 1 edgeme11t of tl1is 1nt d fact tere it 1 o be e1 � f 1 ca 1 1 be 1g 1 J1avi co1 sidered as o ·bligat o ar1 d must therefore · n . . ca As be 1· 000 Ia ble t·o pay t11e re1na1111ng $, 10 . t after ., · seen from the case th at he . . t insura11ce co1npany l1 a d given a prov1s1011al rece!P d the the deceased fill ed tempo · e . eiv rary rec form , was med'1cally exa11111 1ed and ·t 1 . 1ife h result of the medical exam . . e t n 1 t tl atio n. i d Th e e res arg po 11d co ent 111pany ? insurance (contract) had t �i gnede t 0 be sent abroad and rati fied before 1t can

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1-\SBGEDETCH INDA YLALU v. IMPERIAL INSURANCE CO.

is engag ed comp any i n Ethio pia ance and worki 11sur ng llildei · r Ethiothe . . nce iO· u· t si · 1n11st·: be se11t abroad and acceptdo 11ot acoep t tl1e conten1·100 th. a·t 1t v: n 1 we p1a r:: defendant company �1a� ·11ot only 1·eceived payment a11d given a receipt, it e� � also paid � 1 0, 000 �o pl�1 nt1ff after the death of_ lier l1usband. �aki11g all tl1ese vv f i rat1on d that 11� d receipt co11s (?ocument) given !nto by defend­ � � � ce& ? � stan oliro �� �11t g1 a1 e a1 al 1on d th.t s n1eans prov1 that_ the defe11da11 t company a 1s ! � � � lpany _ con _ �nt u. . [ 111s tl1ere ore at1 proves tl1e �x1stence of a contractual o�l1g a11 1nto � red � ente _ �as (' 1 nd defe11da11t. pla1nt1.ff en betwe n obJigatio Howe ver, wl1en we proceed to exa111ine the secon.d isstie we see that plaintiff agreem�11 1ot writte11 to ask for n1ore tha a the $ 1 0,000 that int � ed enter � ? ! has _ _ l1er. The pla111trff lleged tl1at she entered into thi s agreement a �as a1ready pa id to �ecause at that ti111e sl1e did 11ot k11ow that she had a right to more money, 1 1·itte11 in the la11g11age sl1e did 11ot l1.ndersta 11d fLnd signed .it because \\ \Vas t rac t con the o£ the bad faith and deceit of respondent con1pany, a11d thus argued that the ae, reement is invalid on the basis of Arts. I 696, 1697 a11d 17 05. I ndeed by virtue of the provisions cited if the conse11t of the plai11ti.ff was made by mistake, under deceit or dt1ress the co11tract could be i11validated. I-Iowever, the b·u1·dern of prov­ mg. these circ11mstances is 011 the party allegi11g them but plaintiff only claimed that - have made her sig11 by imp1·oper means and d.id not produce evidence to they prove her allegations. Plaintiff did not even deny respondent company's argun1ent that plain.tiff willingly, without deceit or duress, acco1npanied by a male signe·d tfre contract after the state111e11ts contained therein ,vere read to her. Since she sho11ld not have signed a legal docl1ment wl1ose contents she did not u11derstand and could have refrained from signing it but despite all these she sjgned the docu­ me.0:t willingly and received $ I 0, 000, l1er p1·eseut argu1nent that she sig·ned it un­ knowingly and u11der deceit is invalid and cannot invalidate the contract she signed while accompanied by a male relative knovvingly and willingly. We therefore dismiss the claim of plai11tiff for an additional Eth. $ 1 0 ,000. Since plaintiff brought a. baseless claim we order her to pay to the respondent dam.ages and c.ounsel's fees. The amount of damages shall be assessed i11 accordance with Art. 463, 464 of the Civil Proc. C. -

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IIlGH COURT Addis Ababa, Commercial Division

Negussie Fetawoke Ato es: Judg

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Ato Mohan1med Berhan N11rht1sse11 Ato Tibeb11 Abraha.m

.

FRATELLI BIG.>\ AND COMPANY V. MARSHA TRADING COMPANY Civil Case No. 281/63

Commercial Ja,:v-Pron1issory notes-e.ffect .of enclorsing unlawful enrichment-Commercial Code articles 799(1), 799(3), Civil Code articles 2023,. 2024, 1976, 1977. . Action brought by plaintiff. to recover compensation on. grounds of unlawful enri· chment,. be­ cause it failed to get n1011ey from tl1ree promissory notes which were en.dorsed by defendant due to linlitation of action:• Held: For defendant o.n tl1e following groL1nds.

1. Proceeding of unlawfL1l enrichrpent . could - be broL1gl1t only against the drawer and the acceptor and not against a tltird party wl10 endorses· tl1e instrument (799 (1) (3) ) . .

2. Eventbough the creditor's right over the original debtor is protected, he must first demand satisfaction from the delegated debtor before demanding satisfaction from the oringin.al debtor. ·

ru·oGMENT

.. •

The action we> s brought by plaintiff, Fratelli Biga and . Co., to recover the sum of Eth.$ 9213. 39 from the defendant Marsha Trading Co. • In brief, the main points of· the arguments are a& fallows.

Th e defendant company in order to pay the amount he is st1ed upon, sent :r;�e promissory not�s worth$ 9,ooo· to the plaintiff; wl1ich it received from Dimitry tonyo s; by endorsing them. The plai11tiff having failed to get the money opon f m he e thre number_ ·1�7/ Case Civil 1: der e t s r 11 promisso action en u ght �� y b otes o i:i : . 6 e e t 't How v r, he court reJected. the claims of the plc:11nt1ff 011 the grounds of 11IDJta1on.

,

Afte r his claim on the pro·missory note·s were rejected, t.he plaintiff alleged that; 1 · Because the· ry promisso tl1e on n obligatio his nt defenda ron1 f f1ee set was not es 7n the gr 99 ounds of limitation he I1as enricl1ed run1self unlawft1lly unde1· article 7 0 the Comme1 cial Code a11d, 2 S ce !n accordin1; to the agreement that was made on Gunb<;>t 25, 1957 (E.C.) With I)imJtry _ Po-pontonyos, the defendant can't be free from paying the said stim .e of n lllo�_ y, tlie plaintjff brought this actjon· on Yekatit 28, 1962, to recover the -243


■----JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. VIII - No. 2

e ns fe on Tal1sas I, 1963. de of t en em at st s hi d te en es pr The tn ain The defendant are: e defenc his of points e. the sam on se cat1 l1im . of action Und ued s J1ad . ff irlti pla the . t er 1 Tha � �e � , cou or res ref the tl1e d. e an ded rt ent dec Y p the i s wa c No 47160 and tI1at it . e . ta under article 5 of the C1v1l Procedu1·e Code. . res • .,,1ca 1.. · -1uc and tl1e 2024 2023 les artic ent pres e Cod l Civi action is res­ to g rditl Acco 2. tricted b y limitation. e the san1 on ted 111ds rejec gro1 be as t]1e first one ld shou n actio thjs Therefore, . This court on deciding the two preliminary objectio11s of the defe11dant stated·

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''l. On the first Objection:- From 011r �tudy of the file, tl1e first case dec ided for �nt st111g pay11:_ 11n� reque er the promissory ght, b:ol1 was /60 147 _ No. file. under notes; while the present case 1s based 011 the unla\vf11l en11chn1e11t of the defen dant or not havi11g paid, the promissory notes. Therefore the present case and the case decided under file No. 147/60 are not the san1e. 2. o, 1 tlze /Seco11cl Objectiol'1 :- Tl1e articles cited by defe11da11t, that is, articles 2023 a11d 2024 are not related to the present case. Article 2023(a) of tl1e Civil Code co11cerns salaries \Vl1il.e article 2024(d) is addressir1g itself to interests and n1ouey to be paid ann11al]y. Therefore, the court has rejected tl1e objections pre­ se11ted by defendant as tl1ey do 11ot have any basis in law. Defe11da11t is ordered to present his d.efence 011 the merits of tl1e case. Due to the order given 011 Megabit I, 1963 (E. C.) concerning the objections the defendant bro11gh.t his defence 011 the merits 011 Megabit 22, 1963 (E.C.). The contents of his defences are:- I . The plai11tiff's clai1n tl1at, d.11e to the decision given under case No. 147/69, tl1e defendant has bee11 e11ricl1ed 11nlavvfully and should give th e plaintiff llis mo11ey back u11der article 799 of tl1e Comrnercial Code could be sound only if the requirement of article 799(3) had bee11 f ulfiilled, and not on promissory notes which had been e11dorsed. 2. Tl1e clai1n of plaintiff tl1at he has a contract signe d on G11nbot 25, 1957 is false. The docume11t brougl1t by plaintill' to prove this claim is a contract sig11ed between the defe11dant and a tl1ird person, and the plaintiff could 11ot benefit from this a11d it co11ld 11ot n1ake the defendant jndebted to the plaintiff 3. Because the th;·ee promissory notes had bee11 �eci?ed upoi1 11nd�r case No. 147/60 dt1e to limitation, and have bee11 re11derred i11efle ctive, they cannot· be brought as evidence in tllis case. . After having seen the points 1aised by botl1 parties, tl1e issues to be decid ed are:-

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. 1 · �hetl1er a person, like the defendant in tl1is case could be su ed for und se lawful en�ichment under article 799 of 0 end r l1ad l1e \Vl1e n the Com mer Cod cial � the promissory notes he has rece ived from a11other. �helber the agr�ement made by the defe 11dant \.vith a_ tl1ird par ty : Gun��t t t ' 1957 concerrung the n1oney benefi to paid to be could · ·be s aid p Ia1n • t'ff 1 •

FIRST ISSUE

1' Under t,he title of ''proc . b su 9 79 e e d ]e jn ic g � a s f u o ' t' n r n la e w m fu ch l enri states; - 244 '


v. MARSHA COMPANY TRADING COMPANY & BIGA LLI fRATE acceptor shall be liable .!o the holder up. to the the an� . wer amount 4;The dra un lawfully e11riched themselves at his expense ha ve the y wh ich by m of tli� !�e their o�lig_ations u�d�r t�e bill of �xc��nge have terminated by re� son even .h e prescr1pt1on or liID1tat1on of action.. t · iv xt1nc e of stat arti ed cle pro ceed abo ings ve for the unla wfu l to e11richment can g rdin Acc o . ''�ra_ w er and the �cce�tor'' onlr. The defen_dant comp­ the between onir ught be bro pla1nt1ff by enclors1ng the t�e pronussory to n?tes 1t got from itself ated oblig an or dra� _accep er as tor. This, n_ o then. t makes 1t clear that the and y, part �bird a actton again st the an defen dant based bring on t. h e not article cited. could tiff plain Fur thermo·re, proceeding for l111lawful enrichn1ent cannot be broughi against· people who . endorse, as is clear from read_ing the sub-article ci_te� by the defend�nt, Theref the ore clarm brought by pla1nt1ff based on article 799(3) . art1cle is, that 799 is rejected.

SECOND ISSUE

Plaintiff has brought as evidence the contract signed between defendant and a third party. The contract shows, that the defendant Marsha Trading Company dele­ gated Dimitry Popontonyos to fulfill h.is obligation to the plaintiff. The contract states: ''Please pay Eth. $ 9,213 .39 directly to Biga Company in our name according to the above account . . . . Have a receipt for us for safety reasons.'' The remaining portion of the contract shows that Dimitry Popontonyos has agreed to do as re­ queste.d in the a.greement. The defendant argued that basically this agreement is between a third pa1 ty and t�e defendant, and the plaintiff cannot bring a claim based on an agreement to which he was not a party. As to the principle of delegation and assjgnment of obligation.s to pay, Civil

Code article 1976 states, ''A debtor may wit.h the consent of the creditor, or with­ out such consent . . . delegate to another the performance of his obligation''• I� 5uc� case, eventho ugh the creditor has accepted the delegation of the debtor's obl1at on ?m i to pay, he still retains his right to claim f1·om his original debtor as stated article I 977(1).

Therefore, the argument p1esented by the defendant that th.e agreement made . een betw him and a third pa1•ty does not concern the plaintiff is not supported by law. ve arr· ( nthough the creditor's right over the original debtor is protected under � 977(1), this a1·ticle in its sub-article 2 states, that, ''He may not demand S"ati�r:e ctio n fro m the original debtor· before demanding it from the delegated debt_or. � There re ng s the e befor p ru os , ntony Popo aintif ti try fi l Dimi f ld shot1 have rst s ed the ?r _ na ary con is debt u n actio or Sj nt prese the ha to a·��ic�ie l , Mars Trading Company. nce 1977(2), the claim based on this ground is rejected. Due to the. · f plaintif the b I ht egal reasons presented above, the actions broug · Y are not b ay p ased on law and to ered 0rd i& are, the1efore rejected. The plaintiff - 245 •


JOURNAL OF ETI-IIOPJAN LA\V - VOL.

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the defendant the expenses _11e spent for• this proceedi11g. T. lie ' c o st W1l I b a presented according mined when to rticle 463 a· 11d 464 of e de ter th e c1v1J · . Proce . Code. dure Tltis judgment was given on Sene I I, 1963 E.C. on the Com n1ercial o· . . n• 1v1s1o • ,

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HIGI-1 COUR'f Addis Ababa, Con1mercial Divisj_ou Judges: :;- ita\veke l ie ss t1 ig N Ato n ei ss 11 H r u N an h ir B ed m am ,, Moh '' T ib eb 11 Abral1am COiv1MERCI. AL BANK OF ETHIOPIA V. USMAN ZAKIR ABDEL A MOI-IANIMED SEIF Civil Case

3 0/60 - 34/60

. Comn1erciaJ Law-pro,nissory notes-relationsl1i1:, between 11egotiable i11strun1ent and bills of exchange Con,. Code Arts. 789, 817, 825, 790, 732, 716, 715, 788, 735, 823, 791, 776, 796 , 774, 781. Plaintiff (Co111n1ercial Banl.;: of Ethiopia) instituted tl1is st1it to recover money due to fron1 t,vo JJron1issory 11otes give11 originally by tl1e defenda11ts to a tl1ircl party who then endorsed and gave then1 to the Bank. Tl1e defendants argued tl1at tl1ey ,vere not liable to pay on tbe ground tJ1at they l1ad paid tl1e money to the third party after tl1e transfer of tl1e promissory notes. Held: For tl1e 1:,laiotiff on tl1e following grounds:

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1. It is at l1is O\Vn risk that debtor pays before or on 111atL1rity \Vitl1out taking hold of the promissory notes as the promissOr)' notes cot1ld ]1ave bee11 transferred to tl1ird parties (endorsed) and tl1at those third parties would be tl1e l1olders of such a rigl1t.

2. Even tl1ougl1, the person who isst1ed tl1e pron1issory note and a bill of exchange, are for laclc of Amharic tern1inology given tl1e san1e na1ne ''wachi'', they are called "n1aker" aad "dra\1/er" respectively i11 the Englisl1 and l1ave different legal obligations, u11der Art. 796(1) and 826(1). es publi· requir 3. Since a notice \vl1icl1 of 1 non-payn1ent n1ent instrt to is tl1e uncler give11 be . _protest to not city " nd as protet the parties "Sans in this case provision l1ad the agreed by .� requLre publicit y protest the plaintiff is 11ot required to giv e 11otice.

�- Alt�1ough � e\ endants l ave agreed to pay "Sans protet", si11ce P\rt. 789(2) requires plain� :: : t?. gtve 11� tic �, plaintiff h�s failed to give 11otice for a 111ontl·1, but tl1is does not make the plai tiff lose his right to sue 1rerspective of whether he gave 11otice or not under Art. 788(l).

JU.DGEl\1.N1, s hi � Tl1e p1ain tiff in l1is statement 1 tl1e1 o and 0 196 of claim 4 of sas Tat 1 ' ' y sor ame11ded clai1n of M ·eskere 111 ? / nus t.,�,o pro ) to _7 gave 1961 alleges defe11da11ts 1at l t 1o1 tes w or th $ 6�000 (six t hot1 ll o a11 s) a 1 $ sa11 l d ( do lar 000 four thot s d d Oars(Jul·Y 11d 4 A t0 Abd e l K er1m Ah d ' .. 6 19 f 0 18 a 1· 28 atld 29 of 1967 · ...,.). . 1 mrna t rader. 011 Ha111le 17 a11� lie ft111 aniount t Ato paid .. Abdel ctl as Ker1111 Al1med w art after tra ns1"err111g d o r • the proin·1sso y 11o tes by means of e11dorse111en t iii acc gh, ou with Art. 941 of th e Comme � lth A 1tiff. ·.. rcial Code on J11ly 3/ 1967 to tl1e pla11 . .

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. . . . on e nt. . the · �8tl1 paym_ nded of Hida� 196Q� he . dema _ was no t _ : pai9: had iff · "e p·,labint th defendants · o� Ato J-\bdel :Kerifu Ab'.m�d. · . . · · � er . . e • . . , , . " , . . ;eith f'J · promise d d to pay _the . a1no11nt iridicated ·in tl1e ·p�o1:13issory ha ants defend Sinc e . t4rot1gg their 78 (!) s�g11ature ''sans 1:rotet'' pla1nt1ff. was t\r!, of e � virtu . y no�es· b pl1bl1c1ty prot�st: Art. _ 8 25(1) (�) provides tl1at , �rt. 78?(1) _ a: dra�v to ed ·oblig notes. And s111�e <;J.e�e1�da1�ts did not,. p�rform th�1r obl1ga­ om1s�ory pr to ly app �� � Ys since Tekemt 18 and 19 of 1960, pla111t1ff 1s not,. py ·v1rtue · of Art. 817(1) ��� 825 (1)(i) affected by limi�atio11 _ of: ·_acti_o �s. �!�intiff requests , that _ _defendant� be _ · dered to pay for tl1e pron11ssory 11otes 1n · addition . a 9% ann11al interest on the p�id. 18 it a11d of 1960 1� 11ri�il is fully Teke mt on ru o orm. ing 1 i : be SU . , .t .

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·rhis case was originally· filed in t11e High. ·court . in Jimma. ·The Supreme Impe­ rial Court, accepting the �laintiff's· clain1 that !he case has a question_ of law o� unusua l difficulty bas decided to cha11ge tl1e ve11ue of the case 11pon plaintiff's request in accor�ance_ with· �tt._ 31(�) �f. the Civil. Procedure Cod�.. �s . the is�u�s , wtih tl1at· case No. 1n 34/69, we hereby · decided · to treat 1de11tLcal are case this in "•: .. them at the same time. ... ... . .. .. . . . P'laintiff has preseD;ted .as evidence· 1) tha, two promissory notes· and 2) notice No. JB 1038/6 7 written to both �efep.4ants arid At_o Abdel Kerim Ahmed on Hidar 28/1960,. requesting p�yment on t� two pr6n:ii�sory notes.. · , . . .... .. . . The defense ·counsel in hi_s· ·statement, or- · defense, written - on Tekeint 12, 1961 -E.C. a1Jeges · that (1) as seen from the presentation: ot:··the. ·St�tement of claim the plaintiff could.- riot institu_te ·this acti�on by:. virtue. of Art. 244{�) (d) of the Civil Pioee <lure Code. Altbotigh defendants· h a· ve given · these prom,jssory notes here pre­ sented as evidence by plaintiff fo ;Afo ·Abdel :·K�rim· Mohammed Ahmed, Plainti•tI: · evidence no. 1 and 2 -sho'1. that defendan�s h·�ve paid· Ato Abdel Keri� Ahmed 'Sec·ondly, defend�nts have· n9·--· idea -:how pJaintiff· co-µJd acqui�e these promissory no�es. Moreover,, defendants are not 'aware whether·. (a) ther =promissory :.p..otes have been_ transferred to the Bank and (b) · w_hether the Bank when paying . the spin· to A�o ·Abde! · Kerim Ahmed, ·had :not in accoida· rice. with Art. 947; taken the -prq­ · · " miss�ry rt· o tes as Securiti�s. Thirdly the Bank's · a]l�g�tion that the promissory notes · ' ha�e been transf(?rred being uns�pported by. evid�nce�' ·· and .since defendants: hive paid. rthese _promissory _notes to Ato ':Aodel Keriin , Ah1:1e�; · �s allegati�n -!-s �alse; F ourthly, since the main debtor has not been sued,. this· case should· be dism1ssed an �the . plaintiff should- b� ordered. to._ pay the court expenses. and c�sts 1ncurred ,· · ., b · · � . · · ,. · · .. . , . .. ....-� · ·Y, ¥ v:iiend an -· t . Defen�ants have presented a photocopy ?f a receipt t�ey receive� from- Ato Abdel �ei:1� :Ahmed attesf;ii · ng. that the. promissory. notes· have ·been paid: . . h e . �r T COllD5el for plafiltiff, in his �tatement of ·claim or·:T:ahsas 1' 5, 1961 E.C� that as these instruments jn _is, s1:1e are negotiabl,e i°:str�en_ts ._an<:1_ as �he�e . ,pr!�1ssory note p ai�t1ff l _ , · the s to eme11t ndors e of which �eaps y b ' erre� transf were in a da . , ce w �th Arts. 724 . �nd 726 'by A�? �bdel K:r�?,1 �I�med, �.nd _as �he itfstr :; n ts are. 1n- the poss�ss1o·a 9f_ •the p�-�1 nt�ff, the p_la1n�1ff has tl1e. right. to � reeeive he value by presenting the 1nstrume11ts to defendants. Defendants be1:1g un,vitt· - to � wit ce �1an . acco pay, i� tl1em s� the n , plaintiff has brought action agai . 1!t ��g 4 r. biy 'lit of the Commercial Code. Since Art. 790 is appl1�able to prom1ss�r�. notes _ tue of Art. a s h 11uff pla1 the t tha ion tent 825 con .. nt's nda (a) defe (c) · and the . r . ,no ' i ight to bnn ·- g this action is invalid. ·· � ·· " · ,,. • r

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LAW - VOL. 'IIII - No. N IA P IO I-I T E F O JOURNAL

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to ve o ga /\.t l rle Ab ts a11 1d fe1 de im er K · 1 icl ,:vh · ts 1 ct m r Ah me tru • e As tI1 e ins A.r_t. 732t'1\J and ( re 1 ean1n� of l--i n 1e tl 1 il h e it th \V 2 · d eb ) 11�struments � • 1 to rc1a r 1e o1nn 11 ui e tr 1s th 1 t 11 en to the bearer ed 11 at c ic 1d i1 t 1n ot am e tl1 th e � fe11d�tt1ts must P�Y reof al ci e. d er o 1J1 C m o C e th f o ) 6( 71 · t r A h 2 lt V \ e c 11 a d r j 11 acco be t .cl1a 111 ca1 ed 11g 1 ic� �h or e rt1l a a111e11dect by is t. Ar ted sta e o,, ab � The t he nts 1da f�1 de tl1e can 1f ve pro 11 eve tl e, l at the . h wi.11 f the debtor. Tlierefor to At o Abdel Ke r11n Al1 1necl, their ave [ ym pa ent i11 pa_d �l e saicl stin1 of 01011ey be . v S C ial e t erc 1m on 6( f b o. 71 de t. Co Ar 2) . in ince a right . • of t 110 ief1f.'1ect as provided orig a d l \VI·ti1 t.11e 111strt1n1e11t ('. e s1err tran 1s 1ent trt111 s in e iabl eoot acc o ct· 11 a 0 b s d 011 11_, 1 i_ el � er bd �e l( A lu to l\ A , de I!as Co 't cia er m n1 �rar1sferrel Co 1 e tl of 5 l 7 rt. � t: tor s pe11111s deb A nt. s en1e ors end 1on of ns 1nea isn't necessary by tiff 11 i pla e 1 tI to · it r·gl 1 11· t. . Th ese pro. missory notes far f n1e trt1 · · . • bl e 111s ot1a 1eg 1 a m fro t 1 rigl a sfer 1 trai to . '-' rom 1 eve, secur1ties .1 or credit b e I · tis ave I h d wou sel co11n 1se defe1 the that ti as bein red to l1i1n. for w11ich he ga:: sfer tran e w�r ch whi e11ts rum inst or . ed 11 s is plaii�tiff . credit, are instruments for which he paid; . and t l 1erefore are 111 h1� possession as is required by Art. 716(1) of the Commercial Co de . As tl1e ba11k is tl1e bolder of tl1ese instrun1e11ts Art. 788(1) of tl1 e Commercial Code apJJlies. Altho11gh article 788 applies to promissory notes, by , irt11e o f Art. , 825(1) (c), a11d as sho\vn by tl1e }Jreamble to Art. 825, the ru l es relating to bills of e xcl1ange ap ply to pron1jssory notes insofar as they are not inconsistent with the nature of tl1ese it1s tr11me11ts. Tl1erefore, it is imperatvie to exami11e wl1ether the provisions of Art. 788 of tl1e Com1nercial Code are co11sistent ,vith tl1e 11ature of the promissory 11o�es. By virt11e of Art. 788(1), the· holder mt1st 11otify vvl1ether he l1as accepted or pai.d the. s un1 to the e11dorse_r or drawer or not. In this case, since. the e11dorser is Ato Abdel Kerin1 Ahmed a11d not tl1e defenclants, tl1eir argu­ ment which says tl1at tl1ey shot1ld have been notified is i 11adn1issible. Due to either an error i11 tra 1 1slatio 1 1 or l ack of a s11itable word tl1e perso11 ¥lho isst1es the bill in Art. 735 (h) a11d the person obliged to p ay the st1111 i11dicated in promissory note are worded alike (in the Aml1aric) as ''A\vchi'' (drawer). Tl 1e person called f ''Awc]li'' in the bill of exchange and the person called ''Awcl1i'' in the pro1uisso ry r note do not have the san1e obligations. Tl1e one called ''A\.vchi'' i11 Art. 735 (b) drawer in the E11glish-is 011ly one wl 1.o orders that a tl1ird party debtor -the drawee-p�y tl1e su1n indicated i11 a bill of excha11ge, and not tl 1e pri1nary debt�� �ho promises to pay the st1m i11dicated in a promissory note c,1lled ''a\vchi'' ''maker 1n tl1e E11glish - in Art 823(1). IJ is irnperative to carefttlly understand that tl1e obligations of the ,:a,vchi'' are r) 0� Bills of excl1ange (drawer) (make notes and tl1 e ''awchi'' of promissory different.

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· Articl� 8�6(�) of the Commercial Code poi 11ts Ollt tl1at it i s the maker's obligatio . n tliat is s1m 1lar witl1 the acceptor of · a bill ot, excha11ge. f o . s11111 . Therefore if we ac cept t·hat. th e that to • ·1 ar 1 1s defendant's . obl1g·1t101 ' f the acceptor ?r a Bill of excl1�11ge l)ho " 796( Art. if d 11 by a · virt11e 8?6(1) of. Art · ·· · - • ' · t v t he Com·me_rc a l cO de applies (1) 825 (c)' to Art. rom of issor y i virt11 e note s by p 1 s right to demand P1ai•nt"ff' pay1nent fr om defe11dants is l111impaired. Here st1 ffic ··· . e t o stress the pl1rase, .... . ''With the exception of tb.e ac�e ptor" se ,vho in Art 791 ( of tl e Comme tlus ca ' the ·. I) l rcial i ndants i11 Cod · e def v e As the t is ha �ig�l:d to pay the the y s, ani oli nt no te ind ica ry ted a:ents, pro i mi 11 sso tl1e mai: e ors and not Ato u Abdel Kerim Ahmed, who end0rs ed tbeSe in str - 260 -


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BANK OF ETHIOPIA v. USMAN ZAKIR ABDELA MOHAMMED SEIF

· eoumer�ted above, �t is in contr�ventio11 ot· Art. 716(2) tl1at ns reaso . for the w1tl1011t rece1v111g the prolllissory notes. sum Moreover, the the paid t s a d ; . 1s that altho11g� tl1e dates of mat11rity ate� d sl10\\ evidence were as 28/10/67 nted ;rese t r�e1P t0/67, the dates of _payn1ent were, 1n t11e one c�se befo1·e the date of 29/ nd a 111 tl1e o· t l1er later tl1an maturity. Art. 776(2) and of the 7/196730/ on ·tyt a u ro :ercial Code says tl1at jt• is ,at his ow11 risk tl1at tl1e drawee pays before 1natu. ©@IDJ!iJ.. tl1at, s1nce t 1 1ese 111str111ne1Jts are 11ot ordinary instruments but argued tiff Plain ·t i11str11n1ents wl1icl1 can legally be tra'11sferr�d easily.fro3:11 tl1e pers?n tjable nego k defe'l1da11ts car111ot defe11d tl1emselves against parties 1n goo� faith the er anoth ro clefe11ses of f orn1, by tl1ose based 011 the text of the 1nstru­ except , bank tlie l'ke fro111 Art. 717 is clear of tl1e Commercial <;od_e. The�efore, like tl1e and �e�t plaiiititI goes on !� arg11e, that . �efeodaL1ts sho11ld pay the Sllm 111d1cated 10 the jnstr uroent in add1t1on to legal 111terest a11d tl1e costs 111curred. The defense cot1nsel i11 llis staten1ent of defe11se of Ter 9 alleges that they are not aware ho,\' these pro1nisosry 11otes came into the possession of plaintiff. Moreover,. s.ince the signature at tlJe back of tl1e :instrun1ent is not substantiatc.d b· y a seal, it is 11ot at all certain whetl1er the sig11ature is Ato Abdel Kerim Ahm.ed's nor is it known at whicl1 date it ,vas signed. Plaint.iff l1as delibe.rate]y ommitted to cite s11b-article 3 of Art. 716 wl1en citing A1·t. 716(2). Dfenda11ts deny that the ban.k's contentio·n that it has received the pro1nissory notes properly . sig11ed. The bank (a) has 11ot presented the promissory 11otes .i11 time a:s req11.ired ·b y Art. 774 (5) it did not dema11d payment on maturity. as requi1·ed by Art. 781 (4) 2nd (c) did. not give notice to defendants 011 mat11rity as required by Art. 788. Tl1erefore, thls ease must be dismissed, with tl1e irn.positio11 of payn1ent of costs 011 plai11tiff. More­ over, since it has been said that Ato Abdel Kerin1 ,Al11ned l1as borro\-ved from the bank 11sing the promissory 11otes as sec11rity, the plaintitI sho11ld file a new case, in accordance with Art. 947, making Ato Abdel Kerim Ahmed the 1st ,defendant.

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. In his reply to the stateme11t of· defe11se, the plaintiff, on Miazia 7, 1961 E.C. m additio·n to writing· in· the · n1an11er of· his· previous state1ne11t: of claim · of Tahsas Jj, 1961, argued that a seal was not 11ecessary t o e11dorse an instrument according to Art. 748, 825 and 825(I)(a). Tl1e dates' when plaintiff received the promissory n°t(}s is show,11 at ·the back of these instr11ments. The dates are A11gt1st 3, 1967 G.C. and Hamle 27, 1959 E.C. tl1e ·p�ovision of Art. 716(3) applies when the pos­ sessor of a negotiable i11str·t11ne11t ( eve11 jf he . is . 11ot the holder of the rigl1t) pre­ . ts : th_e 1�stru1 nent for payme11t to the _debtor wl1ereb� the debtor is_ released f1· om _obligat1ons, except wl1et1 he con11n1ts fraud or 1s grossly 11eg] ,gent. Art. 774 . lies only to Bills of E)�cha11ge a11d not to promissory notes. Those nlles 01� :�f . 8 of Exchange i11 Arts. notes are those e1111me1· a ted which pro1nissory apply to 8 d 8 6. And as Art. 774 is not one ·of tl1.e rules -cited tl1is a1·ticle is irreleva11t � 2 � t .8 case. Si11ce defe�da11ts I1ad si�ne? saying ''I vv.ill pay wit��ut need �or . :g:bfi�ity pr test on the pl1bl1c1ty had been f1· e ed from wr1b11g ·111str11n1ent, pla111t1ff � pr tes requ1 ecl b � 7 Art. 78 J (1) of tl1e Co1nn1ercial Code. It is i1:1po1·tat1t to 11ote Ar�. ; , 9 ) 1n e i tI: th1 tl1at says ,;vh1cl1 111e11t argt1 11da11ts def respect. t]1e to ( As � � Thank ad1 n t _ . _ 11 ot1fied the clefenclants 1n t11ne as req 111red by Ar!. 788, pla�nt1tI ? ha� a]ready _ . � . in 111s pro,,1s1011 reply of Tal1sas 15/ J 961 E . C. expla111ed 111 d.eta1l t11e in A t. . 788. The counsel f01· plai11tiff I1as co11clt1ded by sayi11g tl1at defendants � amgU: ents are, for the p.recedi11g reasons, 11nsupported by law. A:� �o the request of itase defe11da11ts that Abclel Ke·ri111 sho11ld be i11clt1ded in the · ' 1 18 not necessary to r11le 011 it 110w as the motio11 l1ad already bee 11 denied

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er and force tle not ord ca11 we . tl1at · , t1ds orou ' e · tl � l aintiff l ·P 00 Serie 17/, 961 E·C ·, on l . . , ·-. to s11 e ]iin1· . e pa.rties, tlie is es of th ts en 1m gL ar • . e tl1 of n io 1at 1 i 111 xa su ,W . . . Accord111g to our e,_ . win 1. cb h . . g o ll fo e, th re a . d e lv so re need· to be l d be ase . lc rele wou from tlleir obi'. a 11ts 11da defe r ethe 1 l v ·; · 1· v · 1 . To asce1·ta11 . 1g tion : tl1at .h � 11:::1 d 1 a1.d ,l.1 1e s 1 - dtie . fro111 the Pro. � �� � � to. pay d11e _to tl1e fact 1ty to r'\to Abdel l\.e11m A11n1ed 11r 111at on or re befo s as note y 1n1ssor co . u ' 1 . d . ) ' ] N . . d ,an o -(C ce erc 11 01nm e 1d v e 1al · Cod e Art. · be seen · fro111 defet1da11t's . . 7 I 6(2), 776(2) ). to be g ht ri p.-.id rus for faili11g to demand losps plaintiff _ ,vhetller (a) 2. pa _ and of Art. 774 virtt1e whether by 774 applies to prt. ment 011 mat11rity missory notes; (b) .whether plaintiff loses !ii� right to be paid for failing to demand pay­ ment 011 maturity; (Commer?1al Code Arts. 781, 789(1), 796(1) and 826(1); (c) to ascertain wl1etl1.er plaintiff's fa�lt1re _ t o n1a�e pt1blic protest because of no11-1Jay111e11t according to . 788 d1sqt1al1fies h1m from availing himself of sucl1 rigl1t (Corrunercial Code Art. 825(1), 826( 1) a11d 796(1). Let 11s 110w examine the arguments raised i11 tl1e first iss11e: whetl1er defendants obligation to pay tl1e value of the two pron1issory notes \vortl1 $ 6000 and $ 4,000 bas bee□. exti11gt1ished beca11 se they have already paid Ato Abdel Kerim Ahmed before or 011 1naturity. The first receipt states tl1at ''l have been paid the sum which was due to me through a promissory 11ote a11d tl1e promissory note is hencefortl1 invalid''. A11d tl1e second says '' that since I . have lost the promissory note dated fron1 July 29/67 to October 29/67 and ha.ve received the sun1 instead today, I c.scertai11 tl1at the pro1njssory note is· conseq11ently invalid.'' The fact that tl1ese two pron1issory notes, l1ave been endorsed by Ato Abdel Kerim Ahmed has not been de11ied. It bas been ascertained tl1at the bank paid tl1e sum after receiving the instrL1n1e1 1ts on A11gt1st 3/67. AlthoL1gl1, the defe11se counsel cot1tends that tl1ese i11strL1me11ts have beer1 l1eld as sec11rities he bas not produced any evidence as proofs. Tl1erefore this arg11ment cannot stand. It is advisable to discover whether defe11dants ca11 be released of t11eir debt by virt11e of payi1Jg tl1eir debt to Ato A , bdel Keri111 Ahn1ed througl1 an ordinary receipt after Ato Abdel Kerim Ahmed had already tra'flsferred tl1e promis sory 1!otes ?Y means of endorsement in tl1e bank. Art. 7 16(2) ,vhicl1 relates to 1 1eg otiab l� 1 nstrt1IDents says that the debtor ''sh.a 11 only pa)' against deli,1ery of tl1e instr un1ent. -.· This Art. sl1ows tl1at, a11y one who has to pa.y a tiebt arising fron1 a pro­ 0� nussory note holild pay 01ll� after receivi 11 11 ry_ ii�s o !)fO JT ir15tr11me11t. Tl1e g : the � . . takes tl1e-_ place of a receipt. T11e defe1 d_ his in 6(3 ) 1se co11nsel I1as ci tsd .Art. 7 l Ills fense . This Art. says that ''Except i11 on ce 0 ligen 11e gros case s s of frau or d ::, Part the debtor .8hall be reIe!lse wb oJ.Il to o11 d pers . by tl1e paym ent at 111at to L1rity • the rson . . . i s p e . t · g ve e . 1nstr11n1en "i· d th capacity of creditor 11ot\v1tl1 stctndi1 1•g tl1at t1 1e 8" . · t 1 s no t the holder of tl1e rigl1t." W e e n i 1l ' 1"N l1 0111 it is re ferri g e t sl1 o d se to n ,vh t at · . l says·. ''to \Vhom_ th. e 111str · g · . . . in d. 1, 111 11n1e 11 l1sr, t . give s 11otw 1t tl1e cred ca·1 ) itor acity of er Id t·be said JJerson 1s no"' the ho Id ]10 . · ' . . the ·. '. rt·n1u to er of f . . . L _ L . the referr111g right' t be st · o n o the 111str111ne11t W I len s 1 he ·r 1 O : h 1 · e a der . of e a 1 1egotiable instr11111eL1t, ,, _� . in stru· -th e 11.older of a r i�llt, demai1 e th g 1 ds 1t1i e t fro 1 pay 111 m . n tl1e debtor lJy prese ross ment' the debtor 18 released g or d frorn h.is obligatio11 unless there is frau

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ZAK.IR·· ABDELA1. YNIOHAMMED SEI'F USMAN,· , v .. ETIDOPIA F 0K BAN CIAL ;.,-a& cotv.f!YJ...lJ

. . II part owev , . .. in er this his case .fdefendants ·. pard. not .. to ' on tted Oilli . l:OI o�ghgen;e. to Ato notes bt1t · Abdel Kerim Ahmed who ·had no ssory p romi _ the of er . 0 the h ! of ·the- instru ment as he ·bad already · transfer·red tl1ein to'· the bahk:. He 0 ss1 s os p e' :erefore· be called !he holder acc�rding to the · .Commercial Code�· Si·nGe o duly tra11sferred _ h a_ � · t l1e K er1m . p�omissory notes_' arl: d . that Abd�l Ato -0fU:1n that � the t 111 1·et11r11 l1as. not been denied, tl1e _ bank 1s · deemed wortb. their paid had k e .. .. · . _ � ; l-ie hold er of tl1e right. th b ea�Lµ · ·• It • t0 We have been able to understa1�d fro1n �l1e circumsta11c�s that, it w�s to deAbdel Ker�11: Ah1ne� gave tl1e _rec�1pt to tl1e def�.qdants., Ato_ · tba� bank the _ - aud a tl11r_ c l �s rty )a 1· 1 gl1t · 111 good faith 1s not affected ?� the s plaintiff' 1 _ that d _ �e hol Ker1m Ah111ed s, to as Abdel pro�1s ry t�e. ants,. Ato �ef�n� by ent . paym � fact of a ed new �reat�d �s trans�err . n · at !t 1s obl1gat1o own risk uly _ been having � . . notes . :w1�hout_ mat�r1ty on ta�1ng ho]d of the prom1ssory notes. or beiore pays debtor _ that y _ tl1e pron11s�or that know11 11otes could have been transfer­ have should_ ants Defend red to third parti�s•-and that those. third ' part1<?s woul.d be t�e holders q[ such a right. They, would - haye knowI.1, haq.- they rece1_ved the promissory notes on p�y­ in.ent°' Since t1pon endorsement, Ato Abdel Ker1m Ahmed sl1ould h�ve put down the date on tl1e instrument· as ·required by :· Art.---748 of the Commercial' Code, the · ' · · . : · = · nd. sta , t o n. ent �an um arg s nse' defe. · . , ,. , .. · We do not find it necessary to write a pictum on Art. 776(2), citeq by the defense as it jg not cited ju · Art. 825 declaring it applicable to promisso.ry notes.

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r n. . Since- the second issue corp. p rises three· points, one must treat them in tu; .. .. . a) Even.though Art. ·774 . requires that the holder should present . the pro.: misso.ry notes for payment on the day on \Vbich it is payable; this ar·ticle is not eited in Art. 825 the provision relating to promissory· notes, hence not applying to promissory notes, no dictt1m is her.eby called· forth. . �) Defendants have argued that;-. as plaintiff did not draw up a protest as required by Art. 781( 4) of the Commercial Code on the days of payment indicated Qn the promissory notes, the action is inadmissible' .. The sub-article says that protest for . non-pay ment of promissory notes payable on a fixed day or within a fixe� penod after sjght shall be·· drawn oil the two working days,_ follo,ving" the day of payment. However, we have found, plaintiffs argume11t which says that, since def­ . euaants have signed not to require · that a · protest be drawn. up, plaintiff n e_ ed no� coU:ply with this rule by virtue _ of Art. 789(1) .of the Commercial Code, ·as va�d. Sine� _ ·defendants (drawer) have entered. an obligation in writing not to re­ A�re publ Jc1ty protest _ and as p]aintiff need not draw up the protest by virtue of · 7:89(1), defendants argument which states that plaintiff's rights are exting11ished fo r not showin g up a protest as required by Art. 781(4) is consequently dismiss· ed. his �) h let us now examine _the final legal argument which sa�s :that pl�intiff loses fil .t as he had not notified defe11dants that the arno11nt 1nd1cated 1n the pro� miss0 n otes was not paid as required by A1·t. 788 of the Commercial Code�. ;� Ar{. 8 1 says ) that ''the holder shall �iv� notice of no11-a�ceptance or: 1:on-pay­ J ent to s low th e endorser and to the_ drawer w1tl1m the four working days wlucb. fol­ t�0.ugh ::y ?f protest . : .. " Cot1nse� for plai�1tiff i11 his reply asserted th�t even­ t sa d rt . tl1e ­ tl1a! P� . sa�s (c) 825(1) Art. applies to _ sory A notes, i p1·0ID1s � ��son,s relati to b . ills o_f .excl1a11ge apply �nsofar as they . are not 1nco11s1st.e�t :"1 t� �e PtOmiss�g _ . y 1� Lhe) . no y appl 11ot es. 11}.aY 788 Art. of r s eove 1s1on Mor the prov t � �e n-ot consis tent with. tl1e pronlissory. 11ote. Even . thol1gh, the person who Jssu ed .

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·------- �✓OL. VIII - No. 2 \V A L N A PI IO H T E F O JOURNAL 1l10 issued e e V1 on tl1 d an a . re tu na sio biJI of exch . pro1n1ssory 110te under hi s - ° . the ang _ 11e h t e sn1 me e!1 i1a g1v e (''a y Iog 110 nii ter hi wc ric lia am ) '' the y are are, . for 1 ac k of l1. [;l1s the En 1d 1.l\1 in ely tiv pec res ir the e1·'' raw l ''d · k · · and l e�a '' r e 1a n '' d obr e b 1ga. c.all } · 1 111g u t. e 1ss· n 1 so1 pro 1 per e 1 1sso tl t tl12 ry tes sta note 11as 6(1) 82 t r A 'ct' . r . e 1 d 11 · s t1on the · . 11 1ge 1a1 a., A " d A 1 exc f . .rt o l bil 6 79 a 1g ui1 iss (1) states that . same .du1:.1·es as tlle on e · • _ · 1. l.. _:1ga1n 1 1 11S 11g 1 st the en�ors 1 o�e l _ sha r_ l�e l1o tl1e or �pt acc . the ers _ . , except for he t i x t 11 l1n 1 e Oi. f me t11n d pay fi)te th 1t s 1f e e p re · Th drawer a. nd otller liable par. t1es ere. ' . .. h 1 • . 1s 1t 1:, r1 se lo t no fore, J)laintiff argues, that he does The person \Vho sig_ns a pr�missory note is . tl1e on� \J/110 pronlises to pay the 1s e t11.e �11g �11e v1ho orders tllat a e� of bill a s sign o 1 wl ? son per � Tile sum. sum 1 1! a1 a 1c th tl 1ey a�e ter�1ied ''inak be paid. Altl1o�gh botl1 ar� called ''a\vcb.1 -�11_ � �� er" . and ''dra\ver'' 1 11 t11 e E 1 1gl1 sh. Art 82 6(1) st,ttes tl1at the dra\ver. 1s obliged to fulfill his obljgatioiJs in th.e sa111e man11er as th� acceptor of a _bill of excl1ange and the maker resen1.bles t11e endorser of a JJron1 1ssory note. 111 tl11s sense the ''dra\ver" 1 by mtist be Ato Abdel Keri111 �l1 med, the one wl10· tra11sfe!·red it _to the bai.k means of ei1.dorse1ne11t. And since tl1 e defend. a11ts are considered like acceptor s of a bill of excl1a11ge, Art. 796(1) applies to tl1is c9-se. According, to Art. 796(1), if tlie day for dra\ving 11otice of accepta11ce or a protest for proruissory 11ote payable at a fixed date expires, except for the acceptor, tl1e l1older sl1aJl lose his right a.gainst tl1e e11dorsers, dra\ver a11d other parties liable. Si11ce defe11da11ts are consider­ ed as acce1 )tors it r11ea11 s plai11tiff has not lost the right .to bri11g action.

Altl1ough, tl1e Con1mercial Code Art. 796(1) does 11ot say \Vhen 11otice of non­ accepta11ce or non-pay11 1ent sl1ould be made, accordi11 g to Art. 788 (1); a JJrotesi i sbould be drawn ,;i,,ithi11 the follo\vi11g four ·worlci11g days. It .is clear tl1at the holder sbo11ld give 11otice of 11on-accepta11 ce or non-pay1ne11t to tl1e dra,ver a11d tl1 e endorser. I·:lere anotl1er q11estio11 arises. Here tl1e 1 1 otice wl1ich sho11ld be give11 i 11 the follo\V· ing fo11r \\1orking days is given 1111der the i11strt1-.rne11 t vvl1.icl1 req11ires JJt1blicity pro­ test� 1I1 the pro1nissory 11otes 11nder considera.tio11 it is agreed tl1at defenclants i,vill pay witho11t_ tl1is require111 ent of protest. J-lo\vever, it does not state, as fro111 \vhen the 11otic� is to be give11. · As Art. 789(1) says that ''tl1 e 1 1 older, tl1e endorser ot t�1e. acceptor for l1oi1our n1 ay by the provision ... '' sa11s protest ''or any ot�1er similar words \vritte11 on an ir1strt1rner1t ar:d signed, release tl1e hol d er fron1. ha\'.lng a protest o� no11 -,tcc�pta11ce o·r 11 on-payn1e 11t dra\v 1 1 llJJ i 11 order to exercis� l11_s right of recotirse'', a11d since plaintiff need 11ot give 11otice to defer.d:111t� 111 right to bring actio�1 stands i11\1iolate. E\1e11 thot1gl1 both sides failed to cite Art. 789(2) '. \:Ve deein it to merit a legal dict11n1. Si11ce s11b-article 2 of tl1is Art. says that ''this _provis_io11 s1,all 11ot release the holder fro111 JJrcs.e11ting tl1e bill ,vi�hin _ 11!e prescribed t1 me, nor from tl1e 11otice l1 e .is reqttired to oi,,e tl1e l1older (pla tn�tff ite the bank) i� reqtijred �o prese11t tl1e protn_issor d�sp e 1otic ,1�d 'to give 1 y note s defe11dants signature ,vhicl1 accepts· a co11d itio11 to tl1e co11trary. ob . Tl1.e promissorf note wort11 $ 6,000 Oct on 1�e ;� ; (six 1 ou.sa11d doll,1rs) is pay�1l tl _ 28f 1967 an� the 1 nstru.mer 1ts wo bl� p aya 1s · ) rtl do 1 $ 4 ,000 (fo ll,1 rs 1 ot1s,1nd ur t1 · 111::l· 11· • · t'ff 6 ctober 29/ ·1967 · Pl a111 JJJa1 n 7 . 1 1 rec eiv ed 1st bo th g i11s tru Au 1 011 1 n e1 ts 1 3/ 9 · 11 h0 ,vs d0 emand �d _ payme11t .from defe11 967). TJ s s _ d da11t s o11. I· ]i clar 28 / l9 1 ry (' F eb ru · a 60 S/ that pla111 t1ff deman perio · · d e e d 'b d ri payn1e n t a 111ontl1 after tl1 e expiry of the presc . · say s Alth. ough defendant,s have 789 (2) Ar t. agr e{d sin ce . to pro pay tes ''s t�' a11s · ·r,ing ) that n· o1tce sholtld be give ec1 ' • s1J ut O h t • w1t 0 � c: d . ei"e11dant per1od at a prescribed · ati saY . the tinle f r 1 1ce_, pla1nt one 1 : tT t1gl �as 1 Th �el o aye d fro m giving notice. t n d� e plaintiff di� �i: give 11 0tice o _ t s 1n. time, since 788 (2) says ''a person wh o

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ETHIOPIA v. USMAN ZAK.IE ABDELA MOHAMMED SEIF OF NK BA 1oRCJAL .,.,, .. ,CO.MJYlP'

not shall forfeit time his rights, the plaintiff has prescribed the iii with . . o gi�e. n tthls right to sue irrespective of whether he gave notice or not. not Jost that hold we defendants above, should pay th the ainount wj nce orda ln ac�. he promissory notes. The defendant in case No. 30-60, Ato Usman . at d n t rnd1? � �ld pay the $ 6,000 (six tho11sa1!d dollars) and, the other defendant in ielhlrJ .o 4/60, Ato Abdela Mol1ammed Seif tl1e $ 4,�00 (four thousannd dol�ars) in 3 o e Gas ... expen a11d ses, costs co11rt 111c11rr ed, and the pay legal intere st must · they · · · · adC!Litton, o.t wlt il all the sum begtnn1ng fron1 t J 1e time when t.he promissory notes shotild of 910b a to be paid until tl1e final, day of pay111e11t. hawe eg n of bill tl1e wl1en costs costs has, been presented to the tl1e on decide will We and 463 464 of the Civil Procedure Code. Art. with nce accorda n · 1 · t cour

This judgn1ent has ·been deliv�red in open col:lrt, this day, the 27th of Tikemt

1962, in the prese11ce of both parties.

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Addis Ababa; Commercial Division. '

Judges:. e k a w a it F ie · s s u g e N . Ato Ato Mohammed Berhan Nurhussen Ato Tibebu Abraha. m .

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· CHARTERED BANK OF LONDON v MAISON f:. LIVIERATO ETHIOPIA Ltd: •

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Civil Case No. 1995/59 ·

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278,279 Civ Civil Procedure-\vithdrawal from a suit with court's permission-costs-Arts. .

Pro. .C.

The Apt1licant instituted· a suit against the Respondent, in the High Cot1rt. The suit was .appealed to the Supren1e Court �and then to the ·chi!_ot which remanded the case to the High Court. When tl1e Hjg.h. Court granted the Applicant's request to withdraw from the suit and dis­ missed the suit, the Respondent field a11. �pp]icaiion requesting tl1e court to order the applicant to refund •him the cost, which he has incurred as a result of the litigation. • . ' • • Held: Respondent's application was .rejected. . . . . .. . (1) If a plaintiff withdraws from a st1it with . the court's permission, he does not have to the suit pay costs at the time of the . witl1drawal .. of . . .. . . . (2) The plainti:ff_ would _have to pay costs when he institute� a fresh suit. �

DECREE

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The reasons for_ the present decision ·will ·b� stated hereunder. The counsel · for 1 he R�sp o· n�e n� presented an application to this court oh June 29, 1910 (G. C.). · . the appl1��t1on it is stated ��at the _App�ic�nt, tl1e Chartered B ank· of Lond?n, � ro�g ht a -suit, file No. 1225/59, against the Respondent. The. case after bemg tut�d in· t he �st· iost�n ce; i� the· Hig� Coutt, and after a r�c?urs�· to Supre_:me ��� e . e h is w rt r ac d H Imperial MaJesty's Chilot. The case after rev1s1on 1n tl1e Ch1lot s �i: ;;:m an ded to the 'High �ourt. When the High Court . was about to finalJy 0 o, f tl1e case, the Applicant reqt1ested ·the Court to withdraw from. the slllt. Dp p the e est of. the Appl�ca11t th:e _ ��urt dis1nissed the st1i!. The Respondent � q� in . points li a t p 1on {s� te . t ca Ollt that · he h as incurred costs amou·nti11g to Eth. $ � 6, 500 l'he �:; ous and a nd five ht1ndred Ethiopian dollars) b_ecau. se of the _prese1;1t d1spt1te. pootl ent requests the Co11rt to pass a decree which wottld entitle him to the saud costs f rom tbe Applicant. . . . The cou0s 1 f or �he Applicant pre.se11ted his contenti�11 to the c]a�m made-by tne 'Res · e. pO utlen t on_ :u1y 15, 1970 (G. C.).. In the contention th� Applicant sta�ed · th, a.t the B � a � p et1t1oned the High Court in 1967 (G. C.) r�ly111g on good faith an d vaI'd 1 evJd ence to declare the Res.po11dent ban}(rt1pt by Ia.w . Btit·, · the Respotid-

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1"fI " N VOL V V· A · L - - 1\10. 2 N IA P IO !-l T E F O L A N JOUR

the 21.1it to Jiilger sed cat1 tics tac y tor dila in _ us t es . t ent througl1 var1.0 h e s c!1. tl1e \\'as e �if. 11 re1 wl1e 1 h d 1an ' ally Fin ed s. 1 ntl � o . to 4 fere11� cot1rts f�� 2 l t l t l1can �gh . -I e � 1) the A1Jp pt 1at t tl1e rel 1r 34 nths, o m ose f f r l11 Court, _a�ter a p se o ch W l r a ed a li t, rea 011 . esu be As tl z 1 e 1ot 1 · can b sis f l bn1itted tbe petition Art tl1e 1ed tio1 1rt i co1 pet to . a11t plic Ap pe the C t rmi � . ; o t 1 C�� iv 11n1 to 2�8 of tl1e 'P11rsua11t to the applicatio11, t11e COLirt dis111iss ed tile cas . · · · a . .. , .. .to the . w.ithd raw from ti.1eI su1· t• e . 1ssa o f 1s1n l tne st11t l e 1 ect obJ did not r .. S111ce t11e Respo11detlt did n· ot . . : , equest 1 th aJ)JJ t s: 1cat1 e. . 1ee s 11ed arg yer )avv . that the ap. . . t h at he be pa,'d c osts of suit and . p h. 1 re 11 d cL s s oy t 1 • •. I11 co 111n f o nt is 1e yn pa r grot1 fo ndless. cation of tl1e Respo11 dent b a· ove. Now , tl1e isst1e d state as are s side both f o that h as Tlle argumei1ts has vvl10 bee1 1_ y part a gra11ted tl1e permissi her wl1et is case this ii1 ed de�id be �� ts cos to �l1e ot11er p arty. to witlld raw fron1 a suit by this Court sl1011ld pay . Art \Vl1 ere tl1 e cour.t 1 s. sat1sfied ''that there s, 278 (2'1 (b'J of the Civil Pro. C. state • a re . . ds for allowing tl1 e p 1a111tr·ff t o 111st1tute a fresl1 suit for tile other stlfficient -oroun l::, 1t . . 1nay, on_ s1.1cJ 1 terms as it t1link subject-matter of a st1it or part of a c Ja1n1, s fit grant the plai11t.iff per11lission to withdra\v fro1? s�1cl1 s111t or aba11do11 st1ch part of a clai111, witl1 liberty to i11stitute a fres11 suit 111 respect of tl1e st1bject--n1atter of such s11it or st1cl1 part of a claim.", The Code i n Art. 279 (I) ft1rther provides ''Wl1ere tl1e plai11 tiff ,vitl1dra\.\1s fro1n a suit, or abando11 s part of a c]ain1, ,vithout tl1e permissio11 referred to i11 Art. 278 (2), l1e sl1all l1e liable for s11ch costs as the court n1 ay a ward a11d sl1 all be precl11ded fron1 instit11ti11 g a11y fres11 st1it i11 respect of sucl1 s11bject-n1atter or st1ch part of tl1 e clai111." If a party \Vitl1dra\vs from a suit without the 1Jern1issio11 of tl1e court he \Vil I be liable for costs as the court n1ay order, IJ11rst1a11t to Art. 279 of tl1e Code. 1..:10\.\1ever, Art. 278 of the Code does not say that costs sl1 all be a\\1arded to tl1 e otl1 er party \Vl1 ere tl1e plaintiff withdraws fron1 a suit with tl1 e pern1issio11 of tl1e co11rt. No\v \Vl1at \Ve have to consider in tl1is case is tl1at vvhere a plaintiff witl1dra\.\1s fro1n cl suit purs uant to Art. 278, 11pon tl1e pern1 ission of tl1e C o l1rt, does he l1a\,e tl1e liberty to institute a fresh st1it it1 respect of the subject-n1atter of st1cl1 st1it. If a plaintiff is given such rigl1t should a defe11dant also be awarded costs ,,v}1t:re he l1as i11ct1rred expenses fron1 tl1e institt1tion of the st1it 1111 til tl1 e time of wi thdra\val by a plaintifl'? Tl1e a11swer to tl1is qt1estion see1ns to depe11d on tl1e close exa111i11atio11 of the phrase ''. . . . on such terms as it thinl<s fit, . . . . '' stip11Iated in Art. 278 (2) (�) of tl1e Civil Pro. C. It apJ)ears tl1at st1cl1 JJhrase is 11 ot a preconcli tion for withdravval from a st1it. Tltis ca11 be observed fro111 tl1e IJrevious ''.. • it, n1aY, , on_ s11ch terms as it thi11ks fit, gra11t tl1e pl,:1i111i1T J)er1nission to \vitl1dra,v fro111 -�u�h suit or to abandon such part of a clai111 \.\'itl1 liberty to i 11stitt1te 1. fresl1 suit 111 respect of tL1e subject-matter of st1cl1 suit or s11cl1 par of a clai1n. '' Tl1e rights of t the deferrdatit under A rt. 279 of the Code coS! S 1 in 1 l avva rd sl1[1ll t]1r coL1 are rt r, a1td the plaintiff sliall 11ot bring a fres ,eve Ho v te�. l1 s11it' 01{ tl1.e san1e st1bj ect-111at · w en the cotirt gra�1ts __to tlJe pl,ti11tiff _ the J)ermiss1011 to ,vitl1dra\\1, !1 is.riglits 10. �� ! e I a r?ed costs_ aiid_ 1nst,tute a _f1:esh fi. a 111stittite s111t � to are rigl 1t J)ro The tect ed. . se )hr �� Jt 18 enibod,e d 111 tl1e _pro�1s101 1s o f Art. 27 11e J :he 8 of tl 1 e Code. As to : . . . �n sucl1 ter1ns as it th111l< i ' we ha ve to co11strt1e it to 11 �clu?ee t o s f t . . . ' ow�r t or de USi co i sts by J f th e o co t1r est t. It �e rive �h \Vo i11t er 11l d tl1 � no e l)e t i11 � and e 1 d� en<lant of the right to r ec res e p v,; e be wl a ar 1i! co de sts d ,:v are' en,orce t11e r1gl1t of the I . o c, t · t,·rr ain P ·· to b r111g a fresh st1it. I-Iowever, we 11 ave· defend. fuI Jy exam 111e • tl1� s1t11ations as to wl1e11 tl1e a. 0 to a costs the vard c ot1rt n1 y a\ a\vard· 11t· 11 the bas1s of Art maY suit 2 7 8 11r t 0 ne o c inay 1e 1 t as as 1e11 V\' k 1 to -costs to tl1e defen dant s1· . . l the · 1ould it b e wl1e11 tl1.e plai11ti.fl' \Vithdraws fron of

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MAISON F. LIVIBRATO ETH · LTD ·

v. LONDON OF NK A B. caARTERED

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institt1tes a fres� suit in respect of the subjectintiff a pl_ the when e tim e th or at ose .. _the latter a���rnat1ye, .. :t-�en_ th� awarding of costs cho_ we If • suit? the f e 01att ; fendant may not b� r�al1zed t1 nless a fresh su1t 1s_ 1n_st1tuted by the plain­ �e h t to · . ver if a fresh suit 1s 11ot broug 1t by t he p a111t1ff, the defendant will e tiff, �i; costs. On the o .t:b.er l1a�d, if. costs 1 are to �� a,1 warde? at the_ t�me wl1en 1 ot n �aintiff withdraws from a s:irt, the wl1ole p�r:pose of gra11t1ng perm1_ss1?11 to the the . by the q9ur� will :b� defeated. In principle, the s11!t a from aw withdr to plain�iff .· sl1011ld be decided only after a final Judg1nent has been rendered costs of 0 que��� court, and shoµl� be le_ vied from the unst1ccessful !-?arty� B.ut i11 th� present y part 110� a 1l 011e essft that s11cc . has lost'. a er neith . is e ther !se . . . . .. . This case suflered delay a� � result o.f ar1 �pp��l . n:iade by the defe�dant _ on o neous grou11ds� Furtl1er111ore, the appellate . court ·without a proper examma-;:�n of the. grounds of. al?peal de�ided in f3:v?ur of, t�e defen�ant_ b� a_ majo�ity vote. Thereafter the pla1nt1ff subn11tted 'a pet1t1on t� · His !mper1al Majesty's C�1lot for revision of the case. Tl1e case . was rema11ded to this ._ court·· from the Ch1lot. Howev er, the plain'tiff \\1as tired of. the prolqnged litig�tion concerning the question 0f bankruptcy that he applied to this C�urt to withdraw. fr .om the _sui�. The plaintiff requested this cot1rt to gra11t hin1. per1nission to witl1dra� from t.he suit 9n the basis o·f Art. 278, withot1t prejudici11g· ·his right to i11stit�te· a fresh suit. This cot1rt, after exami11ing the adequacy of tl1e grounds for withdrawal permitted the plaintiff to withdraw ,¥ithout preji1dice to his right to institute a fresh s·tut . in respect of tile subjec·t-matter of the. suit._ Since the withdrawal of .the pla.intiff. is adva11tageous to the defendant beca11se the action brought against him would be discontinu.ed, it would be just fair to exonerate the plaintiff from pay1nent of the costs· to the defendant· as this wo-qld make the t\-VO parties _on eqt1al fcoting. The question of coots can be raised only· when a. fresh · suit is instituted by the plaintiff in respect of the subject matter of the suit.. Ii may be argt1ed that· .the right of a .plaintiff to withdraw from a suit at· any time he •wishes would: be prejudicial to a defendant. So" it may be further· argued, why. sho11ld we not award the defenda11t costs when ffie plaintiff withd1·aws· even with pe�mjssion from tl1e. COllrt ,in order to compensate �he defendant for the costs he incurred as a rest1lt ·of the litigation. This argument 18 un_tenable because, when the plai.ntiff requested the .court to grant him permission . to withdraw from· the suit, this cot_ 1rt before granting the permissi·on e.xamined wh�­ tner there were s11fficient grot1nds for allowing w · ithdrawal. · This court . found "that t�ere was adequate reason to permit · ·the ·plaintiff to· withdraw, implying that the �g�ts of the defendant have not been infringed. Tp.us� since the plai11tiff has not : s_t1,tuted a fres-h,- -stut: in respect o�· the _subject-matter ·of th� _su!t fro� .which he 1 t�d�ew, we have reJected the claim of the defendant to . obtain costs from the � · · · P�a1ntiff. ... '

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mi : 'P1l:,,'i : Ft.. = bi--n"'i&--9° : (l�I\. : f,U..}). : oPAtt9° : mfli 1 : OD/A +:P = fl\O,r9'1 :: mO�:f : 9'119° : 7'1\l.: O�f:ftJJ« : 9°n1fT: h+t..m« � (lm«�

-: VTt\� '1lio;r!P-:f: i }��'1:ftJJ« : 1l'il&':P9° : On�).. : 1.lt9° : f,U'}W,. = �tn°l 2 P'�: 9'1°1'1C: &.1..--qo: 1,1f.."7fb1l4-.: +1A�A :: O'P-0:,,'i : {JDcf= b+ �·01/�: fl:\I\ : fih"l1 : 9°"1'1C ; fOIJ..+l\ll4•'i : I\���:.,- : P't.. � nlii� : mll fftIJc: +iltIT/62.. : fAlf�T: mn�'f : h' P-0:,,,;;,:ro.. : /LtD1� : f,�I\� == f,U9"= . �AllJ1' fl!!if@Q: �: 'I° : Oro"lro• : r���:,.. : P't.. : hit��: n.'P�: Otf ro-= 1 ; +t = 00u>t.:,C I il'i: . C� 1 "'l.til-1·?- : f Tl'lm : ii.ii.If� : f.'}ft I flt'h"l I llfi:IA 1 <k'l'C I !?!�i/I.it!'.11! : 11),P:f:IA :: fltltJ9" l ft'h"l : hfi:IA : "'lil:J­ . . : h if.+�/\h+OJc : r�c� � °ttilrf:4- : tD 9° : OJJ..tilT� : P'AflJ' } : f, \1(l

di�:�"'! :

. �f�ii."> .' lt0•1..-1:= f.f,tJI/ IA , it l\ "'I.IA , "'l.tii.T?-= n. 9" ilT , l'l 9'"f : n r "1. t1.tIJc 1 -' Ytcq:.: nmn�l = l\f, = rCPJ..��cfllli-1.= n.lt.J:;J-- = 7'fODt.ou?- = th'1'l:fm«1 = � i�,,. : .. f�Cf:: ori..iil�,� : r,.. ll�T1 : (lroc : ft.DD9°l1' : P'AflJ'} : hl\:fro«=� A : i�Cflw?> :fl ':7f: : f"7..(too-:,.. -: h�C�" : Dll.t il-i;C : �l\T : hllll0 'f : . �,�,�?> �if>l\_e.� O.PfL = = rn1n.r,1-- = �.�nlLV-1 = Jt&,t,,i,c = 'i1'0r == : It P !I! • h��T : Wf,9° : h�c�-- : (Jll�fl,f;C : 'lt\Y,l'l : n1-�= hllt:\: IL� : . .. -.. : ,v;,·f\A •• r+ � : � = l,� &i\rf: : ffJ1 : _hmO�:f· : ool]hA : �. Jfttf,m.: flit .. �·• ) Ill)� 1 m:,.'illA?T · S','{itJl/ft- : 1 S',tJ : llii . 'P : ,nf�f, : "llfT = 11.:F : l'l.lf1 • Oh. tie '.I p,�: ,, • °l•I+ : h1�.. lJ11 : ,f--tiol}l}f- : P't!\fll ') : fll OJc :· fmO�:f : ,,f ilT. 1 C = P' '¼ + (>tilTIL1)=tiOl/..1:, hfl =: 1'1Jt�9° = 04>?<:'f-c =.m:,,i\,e, t

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.

,

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• n ,fi" « : "8:m 6? = fi1 (l : ,�,; l, lt( : O"fl : ., l· CL· .. o, � � .. : �< i':' � '' Q"'-".,. D : f') •tll« .! •�l -L11>-h 1 " I • '"f•" '?ff"1••f : l u �-.. = �C : : { · • . , ; .c · t g s;r /T full J ,. b · tD f .. : O � · 11 :;: : �,; � 1 f..' � i f f-LlJ• : <j:C : (b;� : t:, : 1, h ' � • :. : A 0}' : af : '1:-n°D � .. · '1 1 < 0 fl " · a..-1 1 t:C� : ,,. l•'1 o : re '\ m· • . ✓1 : Omo I l h� &-r•!!.l\"1 4,1·· : I\f, : r oii"'Cfl�-1 : :,, lo ;J-- : �7 • 7 V' Il .! .fl\ ff I lt n 'l : r ID/. OlJ l0•1· Of,'1'l� = 11:1: = �m· : (,'t(I.1"/a�1') : ta�""U�� � .P-'t-. : 9'1'} : } '} fll..U : f ffi(l,�:.,·,: P''I: P'C'¼:,• .\ Y,.lf � I q-., • -- (�) A .-i .......... .-- .... I .... ·-.............. . 11 r 'l!f: ·r--• I • l= !t. lt,."lt\R� J t!£J!lfo n. �Q J.!!f ;'k �f:;J ; OJ OlJ{l A: h� '1 ,t f 1 : .-n :, : 0D'll11 : : 1i fHT ° 1.. m·9 c;:r : {llfl/ flC ,., 1 : r: ' l : <<fpOIL•l:(D" : .°I 0} l} :, • : OD /b. � .-lfl 161' Olll fl , ° : O : J .e'J : fP/ OD/;\ (l(I}• : {1 OD111 "(l : 1 (l,,f (\ ft h;t-: ,,:Pl:(l : O�fllfl;I.: 1.. t� fOU/f;,'J11 : F t-. : wc;tt,\: fi.'lA 1 flJ.l t..ar : P'lr : (lro «fm•"} : t\��a,:,.: /fl� : i'-a.t.ad1J>f.." : ,,d?,U : m'li : ra? f f-, {l ITC/ IP/ : pr,.(l1 (/J<- : 1,1 .e..l 'I : °1 'i:1:ilJ"1� � F?OJ 1 '1.: m fl V..1 : ft an nucouc : fl9"CODt- : f?")'OJ..1 : 'l'lC : (l�"N'N11°'i: � 01ltil1·� : /»/,\ l111 t\ftmm· : (lro•· fl�'r�:,.. = 01/:l,l·dl : �W">) :: fl'• 0'l..•f;ro·: JP (;.: t\'r"ft�)>'i: P�t-: ·t-1(1: ,,fA iY� � .e..."C1a:,.: rtt?iODffl•'}: n1ll:J': ii"}J!..: i'1ll&.,lri 1.a'l,f:: n rr.,flq'!,°: fltw�l169° �V'S,: l\rf�m(i�: 1.Jt· : 001/� 1 0 = : 1Y: = liC?°jf 1\1�.. wn�o:1. t\ 1.t(l:'J.. � = €'81 it•al O'D{),n1, = }W• :: J!,u,1c;: f-,°1'1�: iQA..-t-'lt\ : (l{lrl•tf'C: fPOIJ.• l:lD·: m-tu�: Ui.B?;f,.:1,: 1�1f..atJfll�t\1m•c;: vi-; : 1,1,.e.t1'} : UC/.�il;'.J•?,-., = t\POIJ.•·l;w· : flf.....fl�JL : P'A11J1 : (ltp..-f•'PA :: lJl)l.lf(JJ1A. ,..

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f_, IJ : ti CP/.-·I: : fl ffi (l (�:r-.r : I\f, : f 02.,,,LflW"1 : :,» /o;J-- : ft ODODf.00(: : (}ft9° 1:i-.c : h-}�"' : 1..1-i : J?.flfloflA :: ,\0,..-1�:t- : f1:l't.nn:1.. : ,nO.!P : ltn(l,: 4'f.9°: "{lflo : ODt\{l : f-,11 : ao:pl"O : iu'},�.::·f"A : uorrt,f : lu1"<;,.,e.. c:nm• : ,ef,.l;JA �: t..o• : tf'Cfl : <Df,'/° : ,nn:t, : J!,11 : lLhi\ht\ : y,-:1·� lkA. :: t-cii:l�m..: mtl.!P : lf�m·: 010-4> f,ti = ftOD:Ptc..n °11 •Ot8·91..,.}",, 1�1 .....e o�l1· = llt\01J..,�'P�1· = 1131::r ID""} : f-,<I>r. '1l\• :: .e,"li lD• 9°: m n:,i, : J!, f·a : f CD aJ : i\1 f,. lf� = (Tl fl:P : lJ''i: /\1-�1·: ovh�nc: ,.r:P..-f·'l'A: /\�(tc: fAU''/ : i,,..�:,.. : �(l(D•: 1"P,,,e: UD,f,']° : ,e:,··ttA: fff€/1A i'lll"r.rr:i- = .e--rtt--•n'1 A = fl.. A = f mn:J, = 6c,�:J· = t.J!,ttt\ 19'1 niuf.ju= q 'I° hro/\;1 = £n:P1t.e. "llf1-- = r--l·h(lo = J-11 f: = mn-4, = fOIJ...l.c;(IJ, = mn:11 = f,tl : OD:Pt.fi" f-,;rmtiA I �,1-'tU•9" : ht\_e : n.-J"mcf,(lm, : f,n°l : h�/,\ : tfl/n • m .. : f 1 " : :J.. tf i', 1'R ;!;/'{;/ ODOJl:l : frl"h(lf)W • : m fl:J' : f,m:P ovrA : lfllft(JJ °,= 00 hIth.. r= /\ ti oiz..1..; ro• = n ° 7 o CP/:1--c; = UIJ ll. t.;�· : I\ OT/ �, 1..·fi : on �n ..)-. t\ fl m· == n11 1 r '} tPJ....l;m•: O i'}�: :P�;t- = frl•{ll11JOJ·: ,nfl.P: /\ 01.'l.il1--�-: nil9°1:,..: 4' : (D•{l'r .e"J fl1 : fltrr/ fl•), : OD{l-)• : /\ fl(D• ::

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. nmn .:i1:: I\J!, � f01J.cl'cnm- : l1 fL..-J:;J·· : h"fl•14i: lD •"} : "LIL: flOJ/,\: ,,n,,J· I flr·•f· : n.lf"} : i',l,\G: : it AG: : "1'} : fl�Cf..' : CL:,.. : (l ll·A9° : fiJ;..o.1-t\- ..1' : 'h� . • . � o � ,ru� : m -,,. � n 7rz, ,,Y;.•fl·flD• � l\�C�-- : OIJ.'!_il•l:C : 04''1' ;J·· : flliJ.�lj: : 6f!''}"c• :.. · •'1 m· :.i (fl1t>; ,e.1JID·9" ' 'PJ.'.9" ' 11flo ' fl,t-m<f•(ttD- , l',),"I : h<t:A , 07ll;J·ID<l:f ' 4?,J/ ' t , I tJI· ' <<"'l'iTw•9" ' hchc , fi"'l.J.'.l"ln:,- , 1.1t , 01n:J>w· , nmllV- ' f-C, ,:, a.:,.., = f:J>flfl = mf,9° = tt��;�:i-- =Ft..= htii..�- = .rA,.1,ft.OIJIP/ = (flJIJ''l-1 = �c "'I {bi: : frt-ODl\h+ : h"}f..lf', : w>;...rm-',. : hT,fl:P'i· : P't-lD·: hi',1�: : {1JC . � .e.nA'I' ' 1.11. ' �,'JJ;.;J•1.J!- ' w,e.9" ' hU•lT l. ' OD-f• ' 'l'F'ti. ' ,f1C ' {l"'IJ',11�,(] ' OD4'65J» : 'h"}-t ) <f,ll): ll"'llflf : f.:Fit.A>>: {lft.OIJ.A : f'i:C�-: {L,f:: p-'t\fl11': (11 II)

- 298 -


�------, q:C!: : fL,� .= h'r-0:,,'i" : rOT/1.f::_ (l)c/t�ro• : lllt'iJ>C: 1.. f ·L:· 11.r : "1 'i" = h'1'11:,, 'i" m- = itll"'11>',. , � t11' � {IlltL�z:OJ< 1 , mfl:J> , fl11H•fl ' •fl:f. = 0 : ' : : � C : OJ.� f.' 7..�(trl;(: : f,;{'1-.A -:= h."}�1� : h•�lJ'', 1 4' I: h1�"(lJ{l�'(l,)-a

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ifl.9" ' � IIA , 11!�!:l.il , '} , 'I° ' h1 f.: = mfl:I' = v_-0:,- • h.f!t m• , flf.:Y , .e.1·11 , ll'flt/J,. t htj:All.)• l fl�'I : ci,f,A • h 1J{.b(i;.)•fl,J• • f,hl'l-l· : f0DJ11\ , :J>A , · f ,(', J }��· · , fll\,'.1&,.�=ti , ,f•:)>m-o 0 m• • 11ll'T' 1 h 1�llm· : hilOD(lh'rOT " ,f: oaollm n,,i:9°: r ��'l:r = 111,,,0 : 1,1 ..'}..t� (i:/.\ = hro (I 'I = = ,n fl:J>ro, = t\�� �t- I "tii� ' f"'I f,il"'l"'I ' ODlf )·1 l 000,11.r. ' fJtl'l.Tl\.. 1 ' hC'l°jf ' ., C JJ : : l O� 0. : �&.. :: hl·LtJ: ll�f\ : fm0�1-- : ,.l1.. ' tfl .. "'l .. C ij: ft m(l�OT : � 711� /" 'l:,. (-'til1'1\.1) 1 1' 0'1.:I: ' 1- �i1 • h 00 lool , fl:\l\ , m ll:J>m-1 , h-r C : , h�t-.,..,f: ' OJ 1l'A I ilt\� 0 l = m :i-1t.e , o .P 11 ' "! "I , , .,:. "l f. , I" h m'i _ ..,. P r OJ'J'.lA I tJ{t : }.'}J{.ODL �T(l.)• l h�CJ' o l '1U•1 l ' �i l tD1:fA, l -f•t\oT : a,.1�'1' : O'i'ml!' = l\f, = ,e1c;A:: h"f, : r,J-11\�(Dc 1 (ltj:C.(!' : (t,)-- : it"?llf,'1:i·• : mn�:r.. : �f:flD·"}: f°t -· ... i;J oa 'I l� fl, .. : : 1>; • m : :J foiz. T :: : t10 C K'1 6« (L tt. f: &lC:

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�'IC: '?1 : it11tJ�a,.'} : 1..lt: ,nn�;f• : laf, : hC9°J.T : f<PJ..mo.�m-: rd/A : = nmn�':f· = h�A = f-�lflfl1--1 = 1--,;� = o.fouf\ = 1n�,e, : m,,e'J° = nt: �ar ,e,1iar 9°: t\?°ltt\.: '1.fLwl·: 'l�: llmfl.c�1,.: Jt(l.-f'��C: hfi:A :. 'h'ltt,: f,t-flflllJc: fnll:J> : hliU . : 4'�?° : f�: �1l: &..,: : tr� : m�'I°: 7-��1•. = 07i9°'?A'i" : }'1f,.-f,}-: ltt\: itu.., : OtLtJ : 1--�f, : l\t\l\ W·• : (}l\,:J�fo : mn:P : lf'i : f,'1°"1'1-- �A : O..A : OK'th\l� : fODt\ti;J-.rA :: hl·LIJ: t\,I\ : f}',.{1rf:;rLD• : 9°h1f,r : fll1J9°: f+i\Yr: /Llf1: _e,"rfl\A:: t,-Ol-fftD·1 = 1..ft: f°7..«f'CO--l- : f lifl,-f::J--9'1· = "11 : h.f : h'lib : f+llt\W• : mn� : 11tl,,O: 0.A..Y.: hA--tht..hl ; AlV° X on11111 : nlf;,11:,; ! Of'l'mc.'m, : i'�«f'C1 1A�9° I fiiti&.AhcT1' : °2.il 1 = 11 = t\��'IT = f(lm�-l"'1 111/ilt.� ntc: mf,'J° ri ro , e'J° t\'lt\; , t= nm,fl� = = 1 tim = 4-ttr1 = ti,e,11�:,..A� = n�()- = T:,,r = ,1'Pllro· = roiA'i = f,U1 = rODti(l �� = c;f(Dc:: tioi.-1;(Dc = OJA�· = rrr} = oo,rt,f =ill\lbn.m• = IP/h1... 'I° = mn�:f=hT -- = rflT'i:fro f"1Lm1J;.'1:fro•: rr�:Ju9'1· : (9°h1f,r-:;�1-) : 'l..,.HC11 laJ• =ilt\hAm ·m- 'i = ;m"I 'P'� = 9""111C = .e.·t-0 = ilt\11,t\ , t1.i;.u,'J° = mn�l- , '1°1 1 1.tt = f'1'11 'i'} : on-f = F. 11l -= ,,1 �DI/.+ I\ l\. 4« : CPJ m:,_, : illl67 f, :FA : w- It�: /l on h mi' , f�+'Pl\ :; f,,y.; : 1,1?-, : mn:Pw• : cX/A ?;- : rlf�- : T4-1:·l- : OD&_?t,ou-"} : 'hf . ,. ID • "'I fl,. = t\9°ltib • -- = i it L1 '1� = n1n:,,ra = fl�me = llt\OD:Pltr :. 0011 r T9:1 111: 1 fiq� ,"H.'} )� : f"'l.. A : '111>1:;J· = hf-J>ltr = Olt"'l.-tm· = m-il-r 1 11r:,, 1 . i'trL, f:;rOJc"} :· noo'i:,, : rtlQtJ : q,_e,�,f: : hf..'t.?v:i-- : r,,.."-ODf-'i: ,,,,,, _mOfl ffi j� � fl:f> : 0f4>� : f07..�f.:OD(J)c : 1:C1..:,.. : �OJ• :f (ltf.tJ : 9°}J '}.f:,-. : ffi.(l : : : D11tiT , :l''lf '. fflf,'}" ' f:,,11):,. , �C'l°>f , h1J{.IP}HCOT I hfilt.A."19" 1 llh(). • ,on,,. = 'P;, = iif,{lffl4p ° 9

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LEGAL

ETI-IICS

(Engli l1

Sum111,iry)

by Teferi Berl1a11e The atithor deplores tl1at by tl1ere are 110 recog11�zed r11les for the profe sSi. o� al s e�ret the r _ �lso e I 1xist 11�1�-e pia. Ethio i11 ence of bar � sso cia­ behaviot1r of la\\,yers tions like tl1ose existi11g i11 otl1er ·cou11tr1es. Be111g a practtt1oner hi,nsel f lie di scuss es the problen1s of lawyers and tl1e legal profession i11 EtI1iopia. promt1lgatio11 of rules for professional bell aVJOU the I--Ie stro11gly advocates • I . and mak�s . suggest1?11s _as �o th. e1_. r co11tent. He a Iso 11rge� the formation of bar �ssoc1at1011s ,vh1ch, 1n bis op1111on, sl1ot1ld. be n1odelled \V1tb regard to foreign experiences.

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�------1 ' : + 1 it 'P ll. i �ii"):ri fr {. :,itil lto 1 ,. oo 'j. l).°70J�_= • 1 '11C : f°tl�"} . .· ff. ii . : = _ . O"t(l�OT (<'I'?-.11 DPA it _ , fl 'l\' J :. � , ., = ;-r &oc_, ,,� :i l\1t . f(Dc 9° = = 0 1 ;'i; ' (l'}:}- 1 ili\.tr','i" 1 . ;r{\.{1¥.'/° : . 1 hf.;.;> 1 11'i" 11 'l' t 'i h-1\.� ilt\"'l.+"f. h : , 1 1 ' 11.ll' l 1t'} \\'} : "71'/° l l\.f f1 ·1 hf.1·A'/°)) 12 11j\o : 00,;1�: ., {D• ·11 .(', IJ : It., ;,1C I il ,.�, r"'lill.1f : tJtj:t\: : Or {l,P·: f•l"li\.�OJ-'} • fODh.'i"�'} : �,p',,}, 1 h'/°,J>'}·{l 1 '· II .t 1 (ID'}1f.i1 : 111"1" : ,.B 'if/\A I f"'l. i\.Or'} : ft.:J> f.�'IT : OD'} t.il · , f"'l. 1\1\ 1 rr� 1 00 1.ODl,f = "7 Y:l.'1 1 f"'l.1'11 : ', f,(ID � flf ; '11C · , 111'\.1 1 l\' /;\ il �,. 1 . • _ -00 : = = Ol/1\:,-C?° lJ o�,e 011\�'lro· ,v1,.:, Y:c1.rf:1 l � » n1 r ..t7t.OD(Dc = = = _ f . : htL mooa,.: 9f"lC : 9°h�f�- = hll� = 1-�T = l\tP/f:lil = t..:J>f..?f : f\aolf}-. : '?IA� 1 f(J'�'t 1 ,t-4'flf,.,� :· .f lllD·: IT'/ill�· =hi\: •Ot\1: f'U'"): "}'?'?C.: fl·,P.ft.cil: ibii: 1:i!fll.il : ttil,f1'lt�� O ' 'h1� : fi ef! : Ol/illn : /A'}milf..lD• : h1i-lA �:: 001.00 1 �,. 11'/f:?"l • f"'i.1'11 = '11C = .rA'lro·t;: lbf\9° = 9°19° = t}f.'1:J·: f4'lll • °1il l� : fft.OD'i4- ; f\..,l'..Cil: f 0'l.&.t\c'ln:i--· � _'?•fl : OJf.'J° : fCP/..1�4-: '11C: f t\OD'i l 1 �<;·ro· : r'o'"} = 1'?"1C = 0"19° = i1JLmt-­ f'i, ,,-�,i: : f"'i..OD"l = .f t\ao'J°f _ ft.c mc : ff..C1tf'A :i 'v' : 00h. 'i'm•'} : nh'i:i--'1 : �tp',,),, : OD"}�,�"} : 0"19° : 1'llLl\'L : tr'r : n°l:tj...y..,)-- : (�'i'A'l-r9° = t,11: : f�f,t\�'IT : iiai-r : ilt'\J!l nf) t fODn.,;w-,1 = �'P'l.!l" = h9°·+1il = 1,A:,, = 'h°ll� = 11161b = .eif1tA = •Otto fttar: h9°'f0:'f-- : t\.tr1- : f,i-1\A :1 '?1 : f.°l'I° : Ah : 1,'lf..tl,v-: n+c;11.ro- : n"oo�n-l-9° : f,tf'iA :: 01'C'?1'9° l 'o' : ·1,i?- : ii'toC : �'1c; : 9°19° : '1.f..,:, s nf,'rC9° r fi.t!\ : · f+'i'7l<D-"} : fOD1.aotf : "}'?'?C : {l'}OD{\ h-1--'.' ·.: htlf9° : htrl\T�: 1.lt: 't\': <<'i!�'lirtJ'l: ao+'lil =-n/l11tJ>>: (LfA':. f(tmm·'}: °1ilm1 tt!: ric;y, 1 'u' h1f..lt.f : t}f,'IT: ODt\ft·: romm•:. 9°'i'A'1T : t\O•fl'T � = ttt, : ltfltJ;t,PQ;14'm«·:. +Olt6Ib,f· 1 01:;JOI/.. : 1'1P.1,'i'1t..ar : (LA : .ff..l1ro◄ : · t\f..hooar = ,ttr'} : f,�I\. A :1 �'i'All:'f-9° : OllJ9° :. ·· hOD9°if,f: : f,f-- �'i : 'o' i il f+'l1l(Dc : ·i1:{1· 0 ' 11C"l'P : · t\°11\T: 'tt.At..A.1ar9° : �IFC,"/A :: Olbl\ = il.'1;.J 1C: f,U:· f1-�1lllJ« : :f>/;\ : '?A?i : ltt\ODfF� · : f,t-'1/t : flP.t\-il: '1,n."};f:'P/Llt : 00 tr1 = _ttf.l-A'J°:t· = tt ��ii = 'h1�oo'?f..A : f\l\ = hllf: = ro"}j!A 9°h1f-l• : • hJ-LU: (ll\.f,:.frf''l,:J1C10'1·1 : 'o': il't\': ('(lm(Dc"}: ,r {\,,..�(Dc"J : �All � . ,t fib&. -'i�: l\_e : ii'hitif. : hlt�ro· : -ti�.: ,;,c : ll'i'il, t-1,, : Orrt\i: : ooti . r f hA r tta : Ul/1:l°l : f°'l.10•"} · = '11�1.,. :: f01/itl�: btj:fto'f: °IA?i :fF',llJc I 'h'i1�T'Pf\1 :: fhfu+'rf :9° : l};'f> : {lODA\i9° : oP'}-15!: ·= t\.+l19° : .e-:f-1\A :t �9°i\tt, : nro• : hf..il:J� : ,011-l-- : f,f1'�'1 : f"?.ll�ar"} : ftJA : �ti"} = (Lf;,�on ffl«9° : 1,ri:,, : f.lF'iA :: .e2 : 'h"})tfOJ•· 9° : <<t..:f>J!�'1T1 : t\OD°lt\1' 1 f°'l.l� i 99 hli:+� : 'P;, : f{\llJ« : IP/ill �>> : �ll)• : 9°h1f--l:9° : 01'11: : '11C 2 l\f, I : f,lft;/;\ : T-0/r> : h;r(l{lOJ• : -i,,�:P : ,;,c : (l.ODfiH"} : ff..l(lllJ« : 1�-�T 1.,ootl) 00 m 1: 11�+� : flt\CPJ..IF"} : '1 (J)c � f,IJ"}"} : f9°'i' ,,OT : f\,f\ro- : 00"}1f: ;. O,t­ ftf..r: OP..ftcll : lhii1:t:'P t\.ll : ti (l-:ju: l\f, ! 1--�,f:: flOD9°"1T ' f �Olm-: iJ1:IA � 11 = �nc = ilt\1 = r,;cJ7 = nri;ft,f•I\At;;O-r = 1.tL ., 'o' = l\.'l\.' = 111 • fuA. I �A:ll h00i\.{l"T • 0:\1\ 1 f1f.i\.Or I h1 Y: • P.C: : 0.11'1 ' «:'C: J f<f>f..ODOr'} 1 f · T,f :J-l-11 : ftooflro� : 1,'.11&.°IC 1 1,")f..0111 = aomf� = ',ro- 11

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2 ll.1C : .ro«flT : ''t'°l'i: : h1Pif:A'' ; flOD(}A : r"t ti1 On.tPLt a il'i 1'1"4 {ID(lf: ''9°19"°: h1'1-;."}: lf�: ;fl{r>: ( ff!.. l ?.W•: {11'. {Jll1';{12 tpt;: q_e, f1f..t\) : . • OJ4'lD4 • ,-..7 -� , � ,, = ooit\OJ-, O'rch.1'il = � ,h..� = fOD�ltl = ht.�,,.,- = �,c = (DciJ.'r : y,1 If?� ti?!:, (ti&.'= /\(HD·= ,"ltf,m:i• = hil'L • flf� = m1lA = 0"7.&..X'?°flT : m:,,:_;.. : i;1A; .C{llli" : 9"19° : ,i,.e,�T : f'l"T ' hf.;, : f"t;f'fa r : If� , 1!t\" : l,1f.Tl . f : �ll),f:� : fl·l.f�- : ftJt\ : �ro- :1 fat• o--c,i :J-- : o.. h,l f,tJ : 1 1-- : J?,A� I ,. .. • 'A(IO- • >-• ,. ,,. (!roes l: �wa (lfr '1 h"'lfirl• : foY.1� : oo�JfltriliJ, 1'�,f--�mv--'i' :: = = : : 1 O f"t l , "7. : f If� :'f • mo/ :'I· "l '.'Ir A (I JiJ',OJT' , 1tf.1 '1 , &. . X9° : OJ'} ll : 11.h;, fl "7., OJ : 1 r • ,ltf,OJ•l· ' ll.f m4- : If� , 111\o , �t;:{l : h f. f./\ 1 ? T , h 11:\ (la f �l'l .l' 1 1 1• -0 -c��f 1 : '1il(ll (lT,f-;J A· -1 � {llW(1'1js "t�tn .e,u : Ot/llm1cr4!f :: == : C f O m -r I 9°h1'.r :'J• : f�·•'lf\.UJ·'} =· m"}lA : noot.i9° : /\'�-�m;fl :. (D�9° : t l { f {tf1ll : m1ll\«1 = cl>/\/,\ = 'lt\ = 00 11.e: : 1i1Jt&.g·9° : t\OD'l'fr.4-;l.. : �ar :: (tt.9° l}A, 1 m 10Yo : ftD·111.�'i' = Ft--o>-1 = 0"7."-X"9°fl:,-. : 1c: lt : Tf,1-- : fl-) I.fl : m11 104 e : A 001�r I hotm-179° I ,, ;p 'lA:)·l,(ilJ)c : 1\1'Jtm4'� : l\0014�4':,--) :.: ni1"1h.1f'i' = nnai6ti1 = 1t.1c = aril1' = ''f'1� = tt1�f..A 2 OOD'lA'' = roi tm-l'ar: .e..sro,n : OP...l\�ll : lh'iL'l:i:'PfLlt : :J>A : fl.1n� : W11:t\�CD4 : (t0r : . = ftri = 9°7fi:1 = l\ 011&.&.'J°�= flt\, on,/\= (l(l)c ·= i11f,m:i- = l\f, = hih"l a,.61}> f'l"t: M-:i : l\Ol/f:l.il : &.:J>f."i:/ 2 'lllC : ,f- {1� : roiw(i-.e.l& : {-'ODlilil,/.q I f"l'J°t:. OJ«»t), : �(D• ::. ilt\lLU : h1' f..fLIJ 2 '¼f,�,,-J: : lri;J-- : (Lf;>1'9° : ''f°l� I h'l�f..A'' : bf.fl--il : t.,a.'}:t5'PiLil : fO?..t\f(Dc : /\.ht-tit : (}If� : OD'}1f: ·= �(D•:: OP.tril : ih7b1:i5'Pn..il : llril'P � f:C1.-i:1 : f&.�ODll)«.: (llIJc : f P./r(l : iha. 1:P

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OF CERTAINTY,'' AND DOLUS OWLEDGE EVENTUALIS: ''KN '' ,,pESIRE, Intention Under the · Ethiopian Penal Code ' by

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Ronald Sklar*

Within its description of criminal ''gt1ilt'' or ''fat1lt," the 1957 Ethiopian Penal 1 elen1ent�, i11te11tion d an n1ental 11eg .igence. he prosecu!io1: �ust two es ! ! Code defin _ tfove one of tl1ese two me11tal elements existed 1n the nun.d of an 1nd1v1dual2 �harg ed w ith an offe.nce u11der tl1e Code before a court may punisl1 the individual. When neither intentio11 nor 11eglige11ce is proved, the i11dividual's act and any re­ sultatit harm, such as another person's death or the destrt1ction of property, are an ''accide11t''3 and civil liability rather tl1an criminal liability is the only possible legal consequence.4 This req1urement of a gttilty mind is central to the 1957 Ethiopian Penal Code, 5 to th.e European codes that served as its models, 6 and is also ''in conforn1ity with the tradition of the Fetha Nagast." 7 It marks Ethiopia's penal law off from .,

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* Associate Professor of Law, Flaile Sellassie I University, Faculty of Law. The writer wishes to express his tl1anks to Mr. William Ewing, formerly a colleagt1e on the Faculty of Law and now practicing law in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, for l1is valuable suggestions in the writing of this article. I. Pe n. : C., Arts. 57, 58 and 59. Art. 23 (2) refers to this guilt or fault as the ''moral ingre- " dient" of tJ1e criminal offence. 2. Pen. C., Art. 57: ''(l ) No one can be punished for an offence unless he has been found guilty thereof under tl1e law. "A person is guilty if, being responsible for his acts, he commits an offence either intentionally or by negligence. "(2) N o one can be convicted under criminal law for an act penalised by the law if it was performed or occurred without there being any guilt on l1is part, ... '' 3. Pen. C., Art.57 (2 ). 4· Lia ib lity under tl1e Civil Code often is imposed for damage caused witl1ot1t any proof of �ult.Importa?t instances of tl1is are found in t�e !�tie on ''Extra-Contrac_tt�a� Liability and nl�� ful Enr1�hment," aocl inclL1de Art. 2069, l1ab1l1ty for dangerot1s act1v1t1es; Art. 2071, r1�. ility b for animals; Art. 2081, liability for macl1ines and n1otor vel,icles; and Art. 2085, lia• b1.bty for manufact ured goods.For tl1e case of liability witl1ot1t fat1lt in civil trespass actions, see the quote from the e case, cited below at note 37. Se/lass Atsecle }Jabte i 5 · Orfven , ''The Pe11al Code of tl1e Empire of Etl1iopia," J. EtJi. L., vol.1 (1964), p. 284. so the qt1ote from the Expose cles Motifs, qt1oted belo\v at note 75. s:: : 6_ g·, 19. 3 0 Italian Penal Code, Arts. 42, 45, translated (into Frencl1) in Les Codes P.et1a�'t : . ' E c:Jpe°;; (Paris, Le Cen.tre ·Fran9ais de droit con1pare), vol. 2, pp.880, 881; 1942 Swiss Penal t.1,8 (3r� ed., Pancha d Lat1 a11ne, �Libr�irie_ �ayot, 1967); P. Bot1zat & J. Pinatel, � ? � . Trai�� d 1. Ex , ; · D,oit Penal et de Cr11n1110/og1e (Paris, L1bra1r1e Dalloz, 1963), vol. 1, pp. 181, 187. p ot (Ari�e 1_;s M ifs to Art. 23,_ qt1oted in P. Graven, A11 lntrodi1ctio11 to Ethiopfar1, Pe11al La,v is quoted� P�iial C?de) (Addis Ababa, Fact1lty of Law, 1965), p.59. TI1e drafter s staten1ent t In its entirety below at note 75. Suppa . or tl1e �rafter's view is contained i n st1ch passages as the following on arson from � Cbapt!r O, Section 1 6, of tl1e Fetl1a Nagast: '0ne pu ts fire to a city or to tl1e countryside witl1 the purpose of causing dan1a ge to its inhwg? a ttants sl1aJI . btimed a has JJers�n be certain bu1:ned. a . . that: . J� f it is. k11own dwellin g plac e . a field kno\· vmgly and .vo]L111tarily, he slJall be pur11shed. If son1eo11e burns

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1otably England 1 st o s, m ie tr n 11 o c n r e st e w and e m So tl f O 1 i ,t '° a\v I l na pe the .· °' g 11 t1 tl1e c tt; i Dn p�1blic o ted r f p o s from 11 so a e r d cert 1e in la c ai f ii 1�ds Sta.te.s, .where, r 1s 11 r are ,1. l1 liable se 1o tl to g 11 s i of 11 te a ptltli e 1r tl · . r hn o � g � s1 u ·harm, acts ca 1e11t in the 8 . 1d 11 m ty 1l 11 g a f o e c 11 se ab l i11a for crim red q_11i re ilit liab s ent elem y, inteiltiou . l nta nie t\VO _ Of these _is the 11se beca 011ly ''a 1f on e pers Cod l Pena ,vho the int . 1 . r·t t i,1 more -�� ti onall y o e on l)e n I1 s ish ea 1er1t," wl1er �� ��ence is always liable to 1)11n t s t r con1n11 w o ueglj. entirely, and tlie _fire bur11s th�. hoLtses aroL1nd it, �l1e one_ , :� burn_ firs� has no fault. _ one �uts fire to liis fields, �nd, 1t . spreads �n� burns tl1e �at\:est of his neighb our, they sba� exaniine \Vlietller he \.Vas a::; careful as po:ss1ble lest the first spread to other places [If i e was not careful] lie shall ?raw the judgm�nt accorded to. tl1e negligent. But if Ile ,v a� care� in everytliing, aud the wind overcat11e J11n1 and spr�ad the fire, tl:e person who lit the Ii� is n{)t liable." The Fet/1a Nagast (Tlze La1v of tlze K111gs) (Tra11slat1011 fro1n the Ge'ez Abb l)aulos Tzadua, ed. by P. StraL1ss, Addis Ababa, Faculty of La,v, 1968), pp. 305-306 (hracke t� in origi11al). g. An An1erican \Vriter l1as described this pl1enon1enoo, \\1 l1at l1e calls c'public welfare olTen ce.s ,, ' as follows: ". . . We are witnessing today a steadily gro\ving strea111 of offe11ces punishable \VithoLtt any cri1ninal intent [or negligence] \Vl1atsoever. Convictio11s n1ay be had for the sales of adulterated or impure food, violatio11s of tl1e ]iqL1or la\VS, in.fractions of anti­ narcotic acts, at1d many 0th.er offences based upot1 conclL1ct alone \Vithout regard to the 1nind or i11tent of tl1e aotor.... All crio1it1al law is a co1111)ro1nise betv1een lwo fundan1entall) conflicting interests, tl1at of tl1e public \Vl1icl1 de1nands restraint of all \Vho injure or n1enace the social well-being and tl1at of tl1e individual whicl1 demands maxin1t1m liberty and freedor11 fro111 interference. ... We are tl1i11lcing today 1nore of the protection of social a11d public interests; ... As a direct result of this ne\v ernphasis upon pL1blic a11d social, as contrastecl \Vitl1 i11dividual i11terests, courts have nat11rally tended to co 1 1ce11trate n1ore upo11 the i11jt11:ioL1s conduct of the defendant than upon the problen1 of l1is individt1al gL1ilt.... [T]l1e new empl1asis being laid upon the protection of social interests fostered tl1e growth of a s1Jecialized type of regulatory offence involving a social injt1ry so d.irect and widespread a11d a penalty so light [usually only a fine, someti111es a sl1ort term of in1prison1nent] tl1at in such exceptional C<'lses courts could safely override t'he interests of innocent individual defendants and punisl1 witl1out proof of any guilty intent." F. Sayre, "PLtblic Welfare Offences," Colun1bia L. Rev., vol. 33 (1933), pp. 55, 68. The Etl1iopian Penal Code, it can be said l1as continued to "tl1i1 1k 111ore" of the protection of tl1e interes�s of the individ.ual. It req�ires a "gt1ilt>' n1i11cl'' ever1 for Petty Offences (see Art. 697), wh1 cl1 roL1ghly correspond to tl1e ''regLilatory offences" described above . by Sayre� Tli� _ p henon1eno11 of the "public \Velfare ofrence," said to be based t1pon "the gro\VJn.g conlp lexit ies of twentieth century life [which demand] an increasing soci,Ll regLtlation" (id., P· 68 {• has bee n attacked by n1any o.n tl1e basic grounc l tl1at it docs not achieve its purported goa.t that . of det_er�ing th1·�ugl1 the _th�eat of crin1inal sanctions these ''social i�j_ urie_ s�" Tl�e ::: of shglit cr,rnin.al ?un1shmeat, 1t 1s arg_uecl, at least in tl1e case _of the leg 1tuna!t: ?t si?e n to whom man� �f tbese regulatory fJffet1ces are directed, adds l i ttle by \Vay ot deti::� ri e�cc iO k of :�e already _ e xisting cor1trols, e. g., the pos the �s! sibility of civil actions for da�nag :�d u1e . ss_ of , bus tiess _ and_ g�odw1ll following , Y ien 1nefli . c � instat1ce of t1pon a pL1bl � icized / Lav, 111110 buSiness rovv_n prid� in its pr�d�ct. See ' C, Pri11cip/es 01 : Ge,1 erc1I e.g. , J. l:-: I all, a cri· nt <2?. ed., rn�ianap?l1 s, Bobbs-Merr1ll exte A11d t:o t11� Co., 346-47. Inc., pp. the 1960), of nt mi nal sa_nction m ht d ter sucl1 ni p_unish e tl1e offe nces tl1at . argt it ends 1ed is furt l1er !� � e 1 :0 11Y 1nn_oc nt . a�t. imp c�n tr1b ute . s. 1.l to n1o rl tl1e dil lav L1ti ,'s on cri of tni the nal ��nvicted . tion are d1sserv ,e �rimi n _ a� sanc tliat be 1� · s of ilte J1 d ed 1 if wicle t spre a e noti on nes beco of .a _ crime Is o worse than ,n11 i . The r, com Pac ing ke quo te down with a bad cold '' H. � . 5 iiction (Stanf?rd, this As U Stan ford in al P 261. v 1968 . p. ), ni � ersit y ress, �rir o : gg }a ' t. queSt:Ion ultimately boils down to one o f selecting wl1at pur pose of t1 · ''soc ial w we w1s 11 to promote its t Is . . · or ' oo' nt t 1 ,, 1gna ct· expr 1n . ss1ou moral of 1 a co1nmunity's a.itns and effect. 1� prot'ect1. I t p1111;shn �1. 7 I A n . g s0�1ety an d reforn1ing tl1e criminal." H. L. i9:S)' PP · 116-t and Responsibilit� ·_ ssays in t h e Philosoph y of Law (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1

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p11nishable u11less the law ''not makes specific is ce provision n offen s a it jentl� c�::t."9 This m�a11s in the �ase o� ne�ligence that ''the word 'negligence' . this stat11te 1f 1:1egl1gent offences a are to 1n to be p11n1s �ed under eplac� som sed _ 11 e roust b 1n 1nfreq11e11t tl1e Code ly an. d ge11erally 11g only 1n statutes occurr1 . g thl· n . . ,, io some . 11 it , . d h f a1· m o · a reatene q11rte s11 t b h l sta11t1a or nature. It also actual ith ,dealingth":t on t he relatively few occasio11s where a stat11te fails to specify v1hether means

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Pen c. Arts. 58 (2), 59 (2); Graven, work cited above at t1ote 7, pp. 158, 161. Liability for ·an i�tentional offe11ce is excluded of course ''in cases of justification or excuse expressly provided by la\-v (Art. 64-78)." Art. 58 (2). P. Strauss, "On I11terpretin� tl1e Etl1iopian Penal Cocle," J. Eth. L., vol. 5 (1968), p. 396. The very opposite rule obtains tmder tl1e Code of Petty Offences. TJ1ere it is presumed that negligence is punisl1able under a statute t1nless tl1at statt1te expressly e.,"'(,c/ucles negligence from its coverage. Art. 697 (2). This reversal of tl1e rule iu the Penal Code is obviously inspired by the same thinking tl1at i11 Anglo-American countries leads to criminal liability without any fault ,vhatsoever. See above at note 8. E.g., negligent hon1icide (Art. 526), negligent bodily inj11t)' (Art. 543), neglige11t arso11 (Art. 492), negligent ''econon1ic treason'' (Art. 263 (2) ), negligeL1t spread or transmitting of con1mu­ nicable diseases (Art. 503 (3) ), negligent manufacture or sale of food unfit for l1uman con­ sumption (Art. 511(3) ). T he case for thus limiting the scope of negligent offences is tl1at negligence involves 1nucb less moral guilt than does intention (see discussion belo1vv at pages 386-388) and is less susceptible t o tl1e deterrent effect of tl1reatened punishment. The second point seems plain enough, but there is considerable co11troversy over lzoJv n1i1ch less st1sceptible negligence is to the operation of deterrence. There is, in fact, a great deal of heated controversy over how effective the threat of crimin.al punishn1ent is in deterring any tindesirable conduct, with the battleground almost entirely tl1e realn1 of theory. ''It is a deplorable fact," tl1e Norwegian jurist, Jol1annes Andenaes, has wriften, ''that practically no empiric.al research is. being carried out on the subject. In botl1 ct1rrent criminological debates and. the literature of criminology, statements about general prevention are often dogmatic and emotional.'' J. A n_ denaes, ''The General Preventive Effects of Punishment," U,ziv. Pe1111sylva11ia L. Rev., vol. 114 (1966), p. 953. One reason for tl1is is the 11umber of different factors which inflL1ence tl1e etlicacy of ptmish­ men:t as a deterrent: tl1e nature of tl1e offence involved, the known effectiveness of tl1e law enforcement agencies (i. e., the ''risk of detection and apprehension''), the extent to which the P�ohibitions and the impositions of pt1nisl1ment are known by tl1e persons to whom they a re dtrected, and the differences that exist between persons, to name perhaps the most im­ iort ant._ Id., pp.957-58, 960-64, 970. Yet to the extent the criminal sanction deters based upon he des1r: of persons to avoid punishn1ent, it operates on the principle tl1at men are ratio.oal ''that a po�ential offender weigl1s the advantage of l1is course of conduct against tl1e evil ,of the ctio , and refrains on �rounds of self-i11terest." Hall work cited above at note_ 8,_ p. 137; :� see� ? And�°:aes, work cited above, pp. 950-51; J. Michael & H. Wecl1sler, Criminal LaJv a d It� ,1dmz,i1st�ation a�to , it i? submitted, (Cl1icago, Tl1e Folllldation Press, Inc., 1940), pp. 12-13. Tl1e negligent is much less likely to engage in this kind of ''weigl1iog'' process tl1a-n the �ntentional actor. In one form of negligence, ''advertent negligence," he foresees tl1e pos­ sfbili� of �arm resulting from l1is action and t'hus may weigl1 this possibility against the objeci of hts Will occ r, thecon�uct. Yet, since tl1e essence of his negligence is in not believing t�1e harn1r weight given to tl1is possibility and to tl1e furtl1er fear of being pun1sl1ed f � ·caus· u harm. has to be minin1al. In the 0!11�: form of negligence, ''jnadvertet1t negl1gene�� :tat actor being pu �sh ed 1s not even aware of the poss1b1l1ty of the harm occ11rr1ng. The fear of t, P�rhaps , : here can hardly play . any role at all in tl�e thinking of su�l1 an actor excep ,. make he to l1a.rm, bas been punished once before for inadvertently causing hun m re J. tvt· c� careful in the future. Compare in this connection the views of H. \Vecl1sler a ocl "A �a�ionale 0:1 _the Law of I-Iomicide,'' Co/11,nbia L. Rev., vol. 37 (1937), PP 749-sl · Sons, G. & Williams, Cr1m1na/ Law: The Ge,zeral Part (2nd ed., London, Stevens ltd., 1961) . 8, note at PP• 1 e abov 3 cited , \Vork , Hall witl1 or the ary 2 view contr "24 ' PP, l.37-41_

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can be pu11ished u11der ti . needed person a 12 ' t3 t �s la e c 11 e g li stat ute g e n r o n io . jotent . i y ll a n o t n e t in d e t c �nly if he a . in 1)la ex tio to en int ks see 11 d an As es 1i11 an ll ex wi b le t·c 1 r a t n e e s e r . p se en Tl1e ,. . e th :e t te ra ll b pa e 1e se at o1 st s t no o f es 11z g1 co i11 d t1 re n1 e od C l na Pe . e th t 1 . �bor � -�de ty ," 1 rta o ce ar of ne r tai 1 cer � ge ed 11 wl no ty ''k " re, esi ''d ai1 d uofus T are y h e n. 1o . . ent.1·on ,,1 4) Tl 1ntent . . t t\v t r o ·s 1e f . . e �r i f 11 d ou i . · nt · n ' . ct 1 1re Ar nd ''1 d lle 58 ( I), ca eve ,1.tualis· (also p ct ·1 ered 111 · art I of this s con e . b ll w1 d 1 1 a. de Co al Pen tl,e cl rti a e first paragrap11 of . ap ag1 d 1 pa1 o11 1, at1d w1.11 be cons i sec ' ' 58 (]) _ � t. . Ar in 1nd fot is alis ntu dered Dolus eve in Part II. bly ra ide ll be 11s wi co is l ge tua lon en ev r, first, beea use lus clo th wi rlg ali de II . Part . 111111d cons1. dered 111 t f o Par te� �ta I, was unknown two the ike ui,l is, al ntu do/us eve _ l_ 11a _Pe Code a11d, second� because :,7 19 tl1e 111 n t1o t1c rod int its to ior pr pia llio Et in , 1on ent s of 1nt 11a m for re in common a mo ed lar dec l1 t1g tl1o al s, ali ntu eve do/its . . . _ w·itb ''adverter1t negligence'' defined 1n Art. :,9 (1) a1:d l1e11ce needs careful delinea. tion lest jt be confused with this lower state of mind.

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Th.is first kind of inte11tio11 is the most familiar. Tl1e actor desires, that is, it is l1is conscious ptirpose in acti11g, 15 to prodt:1ce tl1e partict1lar result (e.g., some• body's death, some property's destrt1ction) or to e11gage in the partictilar conduct (e.g., falsely executing a legal doct1n1ent, falsely testifyi11g i11 col1rt) forbidde11 by a 12.

E.g., Art. 523: "\Vhosoever con1n1its homicide ... ;'' Art. 530 (1): ''\.Vl1osoever performs an abortion on ano ther, ... ;'' Art. 557 (1): ''\Vhosoever, contrary to la\v or \Vithout lawful order, arrests, c onfines or detains or otherwise restrains the freedo1n of aaother, ... ;'' Art. 487 (I) (b ): ''Wl1osoever: ... (b) vio.lates or profanes the resting .Place of a dead person, ..." 13. Graven, v.1ork cited above at .note 7, P· 162. Tl1ougl1 tl1is rule of interpretation follo,vs �aturally enough fron, the reqLtirement tl1at the word ''negligence'' 1nus t appear in a siatute ID ord_er for negligen.t offences to be punished under it, i l would have avoided unn7cessary co 11fus1on l:ad t�e draf ter, r ather tl1an leaving the matter to rules of i11terpretatio1'., 1ns�rted . the_ \Vord ''1ntent1onally" or words of similar i1111)ort in all statutes pt1nishing only 1ntenuonal � t,on Under �r�iclcs li�e Art. 523, for inst ance, it is possible for a cour t to ov�rloo� th� .' vital_ fact that . I! is aJJpltcable only to i11tentio11al l101nicide �incl by 1nistake apply it ab:,o t neghgent l1omtc1de. See below at note 124 and accon1panying tex t . 14. See Graven, id., at pp. 156, 157. 15. Modern psychology quite ,natter-of-factly inf orn1s LIS tl1 at u11conscious urges, desires and purj poses, as well as conscious 011es, can be responsible for our visible bel1avio t1r, but the . pena �aw I ias as yet �aken no accoun t <Jf tl1is pl1e11on1enon in forn1ulati11g its definition of ,n �en�� , 1 1 00 · The law . in tlie words of Oliver W Holmes J s t t ''does 11ot atten1p o ee n e881) r · ·' ' · 1 � . . tie, ·Bro\V G od sees them ' ' O. w c Co., l legal, . lf · olnies, T/1e Lit . Co1n1no11 · (Boston, 1v La · ! · . p . 108· Glanv,Ue Williams adds: ''Prob y abl uncor1sciou s inte111io11 is to ·be ignored for I Jge p1 1roses 11) be cause it is difficult t o prove sati sfact�rily (2) be�aLlSC \\IC have little knO\\' e_t� d r o low ar the threat of a sanc n illia n nOu t ion· ca ' W . is, ,vo k 0� is. pers . - i . .ence t11e ttoconscious." e11 a b ove a t not e 11 p 37 Th .1 a that ge or . t ex . t sc the con 01 · ous d o t ore 1s 1ly ign e 1 a ' t . · . r � � not puoisl1 d 1 n n ent on when a n ou wascf I� r 1J r n1e c s? r ir ci : �,js h t o t i 1 ocent . act satisfies desire• (tb,e �old�: �l�O ;a . nt or _ repre a 1 i s becoine o s 11 gent nely hvster1cal bccat se f � "neurotic � · run away from the d r 0 bat tle is _not punisl1e-d for desertio11 even though i_; The un· air: symptom" in fac t ena "'8 l tm to acl11eve l1is repressed crimi11al wisl1. Id., P· 3 � d bY -�duce conscious is of co n t . 1 gnored , however, \Vl1en ot1t wardJy crim}nal acts are ef�f he 1enal t -unconscious condit��!: w� c11 4 o ii render the ·actor irresponsible under· A r- ts. ,48 r ..· i Code.

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statute in the Penal Code. Thus, taking homicide as an example, there is intention for the purp?se of �rts. 522 to_ 524 o � the· Code_ when the . actor acts (shoots a _ gun, stabs_ �1th a knife, clubs with a �tic�, etc_-) with the desire or conscious pur­ pose of k1ll1ng another person: Tl1ere 1s �11tention 11n�er Art. 653, damage to pro­ . . 1 perty, when the actor ac�s with tl1e desire or conscious p 1rpose of damaging or destroyjng property belong11Jg to a11other person. There is intention u11der Art. 447, false testimo11y, when the actor, tes·tifyi11g as a wit11ess in a judicial or quasi-judicial proceeding, desires? t �1 �t is, it _ is l1is_ co11sciot1 � purpos�, to make � false statement. The essence of this kind of 111te11t1on, tl1us, .is goal-directed behaviour. For that major category of cri1ni11al offences s11.cl1 as homicide, property des­ truction, fra11dt1lent misreprese11tation, tl1eft and tl1e like where a specific result is inclt1ded in tl1e definition of the offe11ce, care must be exercised in distinguishing between the desire to pe1forr11 the act and tl1e clesire to cai1se the specific result. The first can often be present withollt the second, especially where homicide is is concerned. A person, for example, may strike another a blow with his fist intentionally, that is, he desires to strike tl1e blow. Should the person struck fall to the ground, hit his l1ead and fracture his skull and die, it cannot be said that his death, the result required for l1on1icide, \Vas also desired. 16 The basic distinction between intended acts and i11tended results 11as not always bee.n observed by Etl1iopia's courts. For i11stance, in Pz,1.blic Prosecutor v. Assefa Bekele, decided by the Addis Ababa 11ig11 Co11rt in 1964 and reported in tllis Journal, 17 a conviction for intentional homicide under Art. 523 was based only on testimony that the deceased, who l1ad a prior injury on his head, 18 bad been. seen chasing the accused, tl1at the deceased then fell or was k11ocked down by the accused and that the accused tl1en ''hit [the] deceased repeatedly witl1 his fist on the back of neck." Death resulted, according to the medical \Vitness, from a combination of over-accumulation of blood in the brain, and tetanus. Tl1e co·urt acknowledged 1. that ''the fight was only accidental and it [was] not proved that the defendant had any revengeful motives." 19 Its finding of intentional homicide, 16. Williams offers this second example: ''A motorist presses the accelerator of his car. He wishes to go faster, and. l1is act is tl1en intentional as to going faster. B1-1t if it should l1appen that through going faster I1e hits a pedestrian, it obviously cannot be deduced that bis act is inJentional as to this consequence. It is so only if he desired to hit tl1e pedestrian. Other­ wise his act is unintentional or accidental as to the i111pact." Williams, id., p. 35. Another example involving the same point in tl1e context of property destruction is discussed below at note 34 and accompanying text. l?. Addis Ababa High Court, 1964, Crim. Case N ·o. 87/57, J. Eth. L., vol. 5 (1968), p. 466. 18- There was no evidence in the case connecting tbe accused witl1 tl1 is earlier l1ead injtrry. · N�itber eye-witness to the fig.ht between tl1e acct1sed a.nd tl1e d.eceased testified to s�eing l1 ow this earlier injt1ry was sustained. The doctor wl1 0 performed the autopsy stated tl1 at 1t ''could have been cat1sed by a stone or a stick." Since it cannot be inferred tl1at tl1e accused caused this heafJ injury, that injury can have no bearing upon tl1e accused's inte11 tion. 19· The dispute between the accused and tl1e deceased apparently concerned a ne\'.' piece of cloth the deceas ed was selling, and tl1e cot1rt was correct in l1olding that tl1is \'.1as �o n1 oti�·e for 1?e accused to kill tl1 e deceased. Tl1 e importance of Jack of motive to the qt1est100 of 1nten­ tio;0 was stressed by the Supreme Imperial CoLtit in the case of Publi� Prosecutor v. X, 1964, Crim'. App: No. Sf.57, translated in P. Stra11_ss, Supple!ne11tary_ Ma!er1als 011 !'e,ial Law (1967 �8, unpt1bl1sbed, Library, Faculty of Law, I-Ia1le Sellass1e I Un1vers1ty) (t1opag1nated). In_ or�er: ing the dismissal of a cl1 arge of attempt to 'kill tl1e court said: ''Now, fron1 tl1e exaniin_a�ion atl�. honiicid �: w_ the sl1o may 1 icl 1 wl e f e ' non evid is e ther ce , tion secu ed e pro 1 tl duc by pro n ?rnte nt, above all because •the motive for which X might l1ave fired shots at his wife [I,as] 0 bee n Proved.'' (E hasis by court.) mp

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Iy n a d 11 e 0 on,tll w inte11ti o l1 s y f o o r p e adnli li T s. t s u ni· o e n o · r r e ere b . s a . d w , re o f t11ere ca11se d . o n the part o f tlie accl1se to tl1e deceased's death.20 eat. in g a11d 11ot desire

' .' t in ta r e c y r a e n r o ty ''Knowledge of certain i11 rta c� is r .01· nearly cert in tha cto e th 1 1e1 wl ist ex � o als t circurn. Iiitei1tion. can . act cr11. 111na1 (a girl w i_ th \Vl101n l1 e � Is 11avin g e · ke 111s · . t wJ1ich ma sta11ces exis xua s . l 1 th e b e ,v 1 age o y 11 • . f a1 o rt ce fif J 1 r y teen, ea 11 r testimony he _ intercol1rse is ce:rtai11 ly o . . . . . Iy e, a fals t cer tc.) rl 11ea or or _th.at a result 1ly ta11 cer � is y t r· coti iri � � lg i givi is. . for n or tai 1ly cer s 11ea 1 1 so1 1 certai1 to die be ca b Idden by law will occur (a per . . . 1: 1 se . t t , ' cer a111 near y r IS co11s1der�d eqt iiva l "21 of his act). This kno,vledge of certa111ty � ent to desire and it does 11ot n1atter tl1at the actor l1oped that the c1rctimsta nce did r. c11 t oc 110 d ltl wo lt su re e th at th or ist ex t no A series of simple examples wi_ll 11�}.P to ex�lain thi� second . k�nd of intention. One, offered by Dr. P. Grave11, 1s: If A, \V1th a v1ew of h1tt111g B, throws a two conseq11e11c�s he bri11 gs about stone tl1ro11gh the \Vindo,v of B's bedroom, the . (bodily injury a11.d dan1age to property) m11st be ·rega.rded as 11av1ng bee11 intention­ ally produced." 22 Tl1e bodily i1Jjury i11 Grave 1 1's exan1ple is \Vl1at A ''desired," and hence is ir1te11tionally produced on tl1at gro11nd . Tl1e breal<i11g of the vvindow, assum­ ing A I1ad seen tl1at the windo,:v was closed, is the rest1lt A kno\Vs to be ''certain," and be11ce is i11tentionally produced 011 tl1 at ground. The Norvvegia11 j11rist, Jo11 annes Andenaes, offers th.is example: ''A person wl10 sets fire to his house in order to collect the i11s11rance is an i11tentional m11rderer if l1e tl1ougl1t it certain or pre­ ponderantly probable23 that tl1e te11ant wo11ld b11rn to death. Tl1e fact that he n1ay regret tl1e death does not free him fro1n f11ll liability, since l1e foresaw what \Vould occ11r as a result of his act." 24 A tlurd example can easily be imagined under A.rt. 594, sexual outrage on infants or young persons. A man l1as seX11al inter­ course with a girl below tl1e age of fifteen. Beca11se of her appearance or other facts he knows abol1t 11.er, he is certain or 11early certai11 she is below that age. This knowledge renders his violation of Art. 594 i11tentio11al. A last exan1ple can be offered i11 con11ection with Art. 649, damage to l)roperty of a1Jotl1er caused by herds or flocks. A person k11ows bis cattle l1ave knocked dow11 a ,vooden fence tha_t stood between l1is property and the property of l1is neighbor, but out of laziness he does notl1i11 g abol1t it, neither inforn1i11 g his 11eigl1 bor nor reconstruct.�ng the fence. The next day his cattle stray on to }us 11 ejgl1 bor's property . He i s giulty 20 · Strauss cjtes � number of cases decidecl under Art. 523 in wl1icl1 Ethiopian courts appe ar to l1ave n1ade this error. Strauss, work citecl above at 11ote IO, p. 396, 11. 10. 7) 196 21 · as, · ing, Thoin Constit uent C. Eleme1 1ts Charle of s Cri,ne (Springfield, Illinois, : 2�i � 22. Gra:'en, work cited above at note 7, p. 156. cer · • 23. Var to . io us · p hr lose as es · c are used to 1nd1cate some point on tl11e I ity . JJrobab·i· of sc�i . le · ' n· _ · "prep o · y• Th'LS wri·ter h as ta1nt is. uses used the term ''nearly certa in·'' T he ter111 Andenaes a1·se ,, 1 tre deran · tly probable. w1·11·ams uses the 1 1 1 s · 0 place 1 . one n'' in i11 t rtai11'' terms ''substantially ce . a i t and "such a high degree _of cr nce it c pronou probabi lity would tl1at common sense lY rough another· w·ir 1 iams, \1.,ork cited me�n to ·nt is seem above tl1ese at All note 40 11 pp 38 · · ' ' · · i the same thougl1 An denaes, term po a1n · 01 . T . e h scare . m1ght fall sligl1tly lower on the .5 such a not so �u·ch the phrase 1 t i certa n y e used, absolut · r but rather tl1at the allo· ecognition t rare b 1 'd , p enomenon-perhap s, •b 9)tla . . . . . 3 t ( e imposs1b1l1ty P· . ty· lll z ph1losoph1cal . sense, an wance must b e ma de for a in level of probability somewl1at below absolute certa 'lAax \\'ell, & 24. J· Anden ivl · aes, Tlze General P,art .r . . et O; th e Crzm1,1a/ Law of Norway (London, swe · Ltd., 1965), p. 211.

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Art _. 649. He �id not desire his cattle to stray as they violating nally entio of int the point of certainty or near certainty that with the fence to knew he but .did, are wont to do, cattle would stray on to his neighbor's as property. cattle, his , gone It is of course possible that the person who throws a rock at another stand­ window 1 ight oom n1iss everytl1i11g, \Vin ed the ow as well as his b u his d � behin : ing _ human target. S1m1larly, the- ma11 who sets fire to a house might not s11cceed in burning down the l1ot1se, n111ch less in cat1sing a perso11'. s death inside the house, because the fire department arrives to pt1t ot1t the fire or because the fire goes out by itself . This uncertai11ty as to success existing at tl1e time the act is co·m­ mitted does not prevent the secondary result, tl1e breaking of the window or the death of tl1e tena11t, from being i11tended. The acto1· knows that should he succeed in achieving his desired objective, hitting his target witl1 the rock or burning down the house, the seco11dary res11lt will certai111y or nearly certainly occur. This secon­ dary result ''is a necessary feature of the desi. red goal'' a11d is held to be intended along with that goal. 25 • Article �8 (1) first paragraph.

Common sense, the source of mucl1 of any country's s011nd laws, implies that no distinction be made for purposes of punishment between wl1at a person desires to occur as a conseqt1ence of his voluntary 3.ction and �,hat he knows is certain

25. The quoted pl1rase comes from tl1is illumi11ating example offered by Andenaes: ''A situation may be assumed where it is uncertain .wl1etl1er a result will occur, but the actor knows that it ,vill occur if l1e attains his goal. During an inflamed political situation there is a plan to derail a train in order to assassinate a prominent polit­ ician who is travelling on that train. The would-be assassin tl1inks it l1ighly impro­ bable that tl1e plot ,v·ill s11cceed at all, since be expects tl1at the train crew will discover the atten1pt and IJrevent the accident. But he knows tl1at if he st1cceeds, many other passengers will also be l(illed. In other words, this is a 11ecessary feat1,re of tl1e desired goal. Here tl1ere is intent to kill not only the politician but also the otl1er passengers." Id., p. 212. (Emphasis in text.) If he did not succeed, the assassin in Andenaes' example would clearly be guilty of an a�tempt to kill the politician (Art. 27/522), assuming bis a�ts l1ad gone_ far enough towards h1s goal to constitute an attempt. The rocl(-tl1rower who missed everytl11ng wouJd clearly be guilty of an attempt to injure tl1e man standing beliind the window (Arts. 27/538 or 27/539). The home-owner whose fire was put out or \Vent ot1t would clearly be guilty of a.n attempt ! 0 defraud b.is insurance company (Art. 27/659 (a)). A furtl1er and more interesting question 15 whether tl1ere would also be attempts to kill the other passengers on the train with the politician, or to break tl1e window ., or ·to kill the tenant in tl1e l1ottse; in other words, whether there can also be an attempt for tl1ose results the actor knows is certain or nearly certain to occur. The particular lang11age used in Art. 27 and the ordinary understanding of ':at!empt'' suggest a negative answer. They suggest tl1at the offence of atten1pt shoL1ld . be limited to the failure to achieve one's desirec/ e11d and not applied to the failure to bring about foreseen , bt1t not necessarily desired, secondary oonseqt1ences. Art. 27 (1) refers to ''purs uing'' (Amharic: .r t!\_,f,.h;r,f•fl Frencl 1: ''poursuivre'') one's activity ''to its end'' (An1haric: �ilh ou{.(;b�qOJ• French: ''jt1squ'au bout''). Foreseen secondary consequences are .not, in the ordinary sense of the term, ''purst1ed'' by tl1e actor. Tl1ey ''l1appen," a11d are not opposed by the actor, bt1t in the course of ''purstti11g'' anotl1er, prin1ary, end. If such cas�s a.re ! 0 come tinder the offence of attempt, different langt1age would have to be u�e� 111 . , defining attempt, as, for Model Penal C�de s de�n1tion example, was done in tl1e American f attemp t. That definition in additior1 to covering the normal case of des1re, specrfi cally ? includ.es the person wJ10 do anytl1ing . . . witl1 tl1e belief it �ill cau�e ''does or on1its to SUch r� sult \\1lfl1out further condt1ct on l1is part.'' Model Penal Code, Proposed Official Draft, (Arnencan Law Institute, 1962), Sec. 5.01.

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why _ both. probably the is contine. ntal E Th.is occur. to certain . _ or nearl u se the at tre ea rop two w · La n al te Pen sta s of � s of tem · sys . can m1nd ng 0 Am er· nd 6 r Uilde h e h of enc n abs in 11te e stat n ofte s t e1�2 o lab q i t alen � uiv t � � e s ub1i 2 • • · intention or som e e . . . ect. 7 t u ry s efin o a y b 1on �1s r sen ho � to _ t�� d e ag _ gt1 G �an e int� . It also means that the � te se sta of the •on n11nd unless that of_ l1. bot e Jud inc to � d me dee � lall · should be 8 a . e g ra ve ge g co s rt m o fr er th o e th r o e n o clearly excludes i1, of the Etl1iopian Pei1 al grap para first , _ ·(1) 58 . Art of ion vers lish Eng The C ode e nc." offe er1 h wb an s mit for e . com per ly ms nal ntio inte an unIawful ....eads· ''A person · t 1s t 1n �n '' Th· d fi d . · an · � ge e _ n1t1on 1 d w no ·k ll fu admitted], ith w • t ac le ab sh ni pu d an t 1 1rs on. Par excl �! �he o n o us1_ incl tro11ble, the yci;��� of w�y ?Y er eit� , little very . , , �, term . intent, can be a�cr1bed to faulty trans alarity of defirung intention by the 1 • · co sc1en�e e_t la volonte:'' ''wi . 1 ,K; read s , , avec . t1�1tion. Tlle French. te�t of the Ar � th 9 More basically, however, � the 1a11lt lies 1t1 the drafting. Th awareness and will. 2 drafter borrowed the phrase _"a�ec la �onscie11ce et la_ voJonte'' fro1n Art. 18 0� the Swiss Penal Code where 1t, _in particular tl1e _ psychic concept of ''volonte'' or ''will," bad over the years been 1nterpreted by S_ w1ss co11rts _and theorists to include the two states of mind of desire and knowledge of �erta1nty or near certa inty3o . For Ethiopia, embarki11g on a modern and comprehensive Penal Code for the first time, 31 a more expi:icit pr0vision was needed, o·ne in which the notion of ,vhat 1 constitutes inte11tion ,vould not depend upon interpretation. Such a provision is Art. 16 of the Germa11 DFaft Penal Code of 1962: 'A person acts intentionally when he is bent on [i.e. l1e desires to] materializing the facts of crime as describ­ ed in a statute or whe11 he knows or foresees as certain tl1at he is materializiag the facts of crime as described in a statute." 32 The ambiguity of Art. 58 (I), first paragraph , poses no serious problem, ho-wever. Neither state of mi11d is excluded by that definition and, as pointed out in the preceding paragraph, both therefore, can be taken as included thereunder. l ..I)

26. The American Model Penal Code, for instance, calls the first ''purposel y" and the second ''knowingly.'' The American Model Penal Code, id., Sec. 2.02 (2) (a) and (b). 27 · See, e.g., Andenaes, work cited above at note 24, pp. 209-12; Silving, work cited above at note 21, pp. 221-22; Williams, work cited above at note 1I, pp. 34-36, 38-42; Gernian Draft .Pe.,.,a/ Code E 1962, Art. 16, translated in The ArnericaQ Series of .Foreign Penal Codes (G: Mueller, e?., South Hackensack, New Jersey, Fred B. Rotl1n1an & Co., 1966), vol. ll, p. 30• The American Model Penal Code, work cited above at note 26. 28 Cf. Elsas_ser c. �o,c�re�r General d11 Canton de Beine (Trib. fed., S\vitz., May 21, i943), J. des tr1b. (Dro1t penaJ), pp. 76-77. 29· !he contr?lling A�haric version of Art. 8 (I), first f "' •1"' u••l �1 ;htt'i'a>- 1'f•rl.Al11' par agr aph 5 "rtf , 1s closer m mearnng to tl1e French. 30· 02 C om,nentaire di, Code Penal St1isse: .Partie General (Net1cl1atel, Editi�ns Delach�:Ut ifi th 'p1 93�), pp. 62-65, _ex�erpts thereof translated in S. J_o,vet1stein, Materials for 1c er c. ;rocu � :' � L �:i °/ E fh top,a (Addis Ab�ba, Fa ct1lty of La \.v, 19 65), p. 136; cf. Esass eu ene u c anton de Berne, cited above at note 28. o 31 · ;!r: ;;�� �en Code, as the_ s t drafter of the 1957 Code bas observed, "did 0? u!�: i�� �� i n tc ente d st1ll . P_ s too n1ai. tem 1 y vest sys iges of anci ent tl1e ,vl1. � h J�k ed the . � formalistic d m to t e ancient_ universal tradition.. ..'' It f urt er ve tech· h g d] � ''systematically rl;�m��o� i a e general rules which conform to tl1e present day egis)at ,, njque · · · ·. J · Graven , work cited above at n o te 5, pp. 275, 276. 1,est 32. 'Fhe translation above is . the . . To f o Sil 222 . ym,g, work cited above at note �1, P· man· · The writer, kn0w.ledge of t he writer• th:irs �iefinition y w.as recently enacted into law m Ger .ho wev.er, di, d not have access to the new German Penal Code.

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WLEDGE OF CERTAINTY,'' AND DOLUS ''KNO ,'' SIRE ''DE

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.rement of '' awareDeSS .'' Th e reqru _

''Full knowledge'' in Art. 58 (1), first paragraph (''awareness," i.e., ''conscience," •n the French text), refers to a basic principle repeated i11 Art. 76 of the Code, �'mistake of fact." A person cannot commit homicide intentionally under the first paragraph of Ar �. 58 (1), if at the ·ti�e of acting (e.g., sho�ting a rifle) he believes that his target 1s not a human being. I-le cannot comm1t • the offence of sexual outrage on infants or young persons intentionally if he believes the gi1·l with whom he is having sexu.al i11tercourse is above the age of fiftoen.33 He cannot com­ mit the offence of bigamy intentionally if when marrying for a second time he is not aware that his first wife is still alive and legally still married to him. He can­ not com.mit the offence of aggravated damage to property intentionally if at the time of destroying a valuable original object of art belonging to another person (see Art. 654 (b) ) he thought that wl1a t he was destroying was only an inexpensive copy.34 · Many such examples could be preseated. The principle is a simple one: intention presupposes awareness. A person who is not aware he is shooting at a human being cannot thereby be seeking to kill that human being or know that bis death is certain or nearly certain to occur. A person who marries for a seco·nd time without being aware his first wife is still alive and legally still married to him cannot thereby be seeking to have two wives at the same time or know that such a dual state of matrimony is certain or nearly certain to occur. Because the element of ''awareness'' is so implicity a part of intention, most definitions of intention in fact do not bother to state that awareness is necessary, as, for example, one sees in Art. 16 of the German Draft Penal Code quoted above. The principle has especial application in Ethiopia to land offences. since lack of awareness as to such matters as title and boundary lines is so widespread. The principle was correctly applied in Public Prosecutor v. Captain Kebede Tesema, a case involving Art. 652, displacing and removal of boundary marks.35 The acct1sed had been convicted in the Woreda Court. Although . agreeing with the lower court that the punishable act of removing the boundary marks had been committed a.s charged, the Awraja Court reversed the conviction because the accused had ''remov-

33 • Because Art. 595 restricts the age of the minor to ''from fifteen (per the Amharic; ''more than fifteen," per the French and English) to Jess than eighteen," the accused who believes the girl is aged sixteen when in fact she is only aged fourteen does not violate Art. 595 because the girl is not between the ages of fifteen and eighteen and does not violate Art. 594 because as stated above he Jacks awareness she was below fifteen. His criminal offence is ''impossible attempt'' (Art. 29) to violate Art. 595, for which, however, l1is punishme.n t can equal tl1at provided for Art. 595. See below at note 75. 34. Since the last actor ''intended•' to destroy the property of another, he is criminally liable under Art. 653, damage to property, as is provided by Art. 76 (2). His lack of awareness as to the value of tl1e object, however, does prevent his conviction for aggravated damage to �roperty. In effect, what we J1ave here is the same as tl1e distinction drawn before between the intention (i.e., desire) to perform the act and the intention to cause the specific result. The actor des�_.res to destroy the property, and can be convicted for that desire and l1is act, b·ut he ?oes not desrr@ to cause the specific result required for conviction under Art. 654 (b), the destruction of a valuable object of art. See above at page 377. Art. 76 (3) which rules out the defen e of mistak_e of fact where tl1ere is ''a mistake as to . . . the object of the offence'' �1s not appl1�ble to a case where the object is a specific in�redient of the offence charged_, as is so With aggravated damage to property under Art. 654 (b). See Graven, work cited above at note 7, pp. 232-33. 35 · Addis Ababa Higl1 Court, 1968, Crim. Case No. 107/60 (unpublished).

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1 ti1 1it of mn co n g tio ten an in e o th tli n wi ffe t no ce but . s rk ma y ar d n ou b . . ed .the h in 1 . or d 1s1 a ec s .v ,. . 11 t l T a s ffi '' r . . . . m hi e to ed m s ng lo be by nd la h e t· th at . belief t h d' Ad ii e ,ec . ro. t p bf· p 1c 01· ti v. e, cas 1 8 . z er Wo oth an . 1 1 1 36 . e urt Ats Co h d · . Hi bte lia e : te o r ,v rt l1 o C l1 ig H a b a b A ie {he Addis t. [Ar as� tres 649-651], there .must of e cas al • L :. crin � a � ''To have b e _ rty pe la of p1 hJs 11n 11 rso pe a ul wf ? ly with the og iVJ pr de of tl tio en int _ _ the rso 1 1s ved pe t pri de tha ich wh belongs to tha 1n f1·0 � 1d Ja1 the t tha ge led kiiow _ t l ece of d t lan a tha pi 1ef be be est 1 11 ho s the ong in to h i erson. If a person . s trees c11t g or \.v1n d gro la11 at t on on � ze gra to that Ian�: tle cat his es iak _ _ such acts _ 1na;' amount to civi tllat does not amount to cr1m111al trespass, l 37 trespa.ss for which a civil action fo r da·m ag es m ay lie."

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Awareness of unlawfulness.

i ssed discu just 1de s'' inclt renes ''awa t of �e ent m ire. requ 's actor the Does aware­ p�rase to the actor,. tl�e Can question another ,vay, ness that bis act is ·unIa:vf11l? _ _ be held guilty of comm1tt1og an 111tent1011al ofle11ce 1f he \Vas 11na\vare at tlie time he acted that his act was unlawful? Awareness of tl1e factual circumstances ,vbich n1ake a11 act unlawful, ,vhich is needed for liability for intentio11, is not the same as awareness that the act is > is example, an ,vhether earlier unlawful. The quest.io11 under tl1e for1ner, to refer t o 1 the actor is aware tl1at tl1e girl \Vith \¥l1om he is l1aving sex 1al i11tercourse is belo ,v the age of fiftee11; the question under tl1e latter is whether the actor, who knows that tl1e girl is below the age of fifteen, also knows that it is agai,1st the la1v to have consens11al sexual intercourse with a girl below the age of fiftee11. 38 i For ma11y offences witlu11 tl1e Ethiopian Penal Code, the q11estion of kno,vledge of unlawfulness can hardly arise. It would be nearly in1possible for any sa11e person in Etl1iopia to claim that be was llnaware that it i s u11la\vful to commit homicide or theft or robbery or to burn do\\'Il anotl1er perso11's property.39 Society jt1dges these

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!'he I-Iigh Court, tl1ough affuming tl1e A\vraja Court's decision, observed that the real issue 10 the case ?'as. one of -�ho lawfully possessed the land in question, an issue that should have been tried 1n the C1v1l, no t the Criminal, courts. 37. Addis Ab a a b l-Iigh Cot1rt, J 959, Crim. A.pp. No. 618/51, tra.nslated in Lowenstein, \York cited above at note 30, p. 32-33. e. , i 38 · Ther� i� an important distinction betwee.n being awar act, . one's _, e of the 11nlawfulness of e that Jt 18. legally_ Pr:ohibite�, and being awa.re of the reprel1cnsibi p ;�: A act. one 's. of . lity . , n,ay realize_ that h1s act 1s reprehensible according to so1ne i i1ter11ally applted stai�d � not good b_ehaviour �et be u naware that tliat ac prov ision, 81?,1:f the is pen · v iola son al tive t 1e of eve th1 g th �t i t wrong or bad is \V�t eal d tha t cod lega � es lly pro tl1o l1ib se ited In . lcited maJer, inc1 udmg apparently Art. 78 wor n, of tl1 e Etl1ioJJian Penal Cod e (see Grave pro· I b note ,7 pp. 154.- 55), tl1e re1evant e J f the ga the e existen awaren c ess tl1e pertai o 1s to 1 1 ! JO�, .a! th o� gh quite clearly r a tl1e J u tl1e mor e to repr is . e age 1e sible act tl1e ve . of nian,e · . r easier 1t 1s to infer that fh . a\va was · e act . . • 1 s actoi a 1 so tl1e legally that prol11b1 ted and . of 1h1S th · s e b 1 .w n s 39 and 40, ancl acc?mpaoying tex t. l::;-or a careful disc sB� si ,�ng, • ; �,t �� t � : ��uJ� d J is u l t ew . Codes settle spec1fica1ly'' (id., p. 154), see P. Ryu � 455.66, "Error Jz,ri s· es A Comparative Study,'' Univ. a . · at (19 57) , Ch ica go L. Rev., vol. 24 p � de a In fact., m the one situation . , is 111a Int:ss ·neg ordeJ u t wf he e unla nal of m t· P Code reness wl1ere awa requirement for con.• 10 al 1 a �) tl1 case of . a st1bordinate wl10 has car.�ied ?ut �e subo�dinate from 11.is superior was aware of the unlawfu 1 ' t e Code 1n effect creates a pr13sumpt1on that t.1.de arson �� �ess of tl1e or-der, if the order was to con1n1it ''l1 ?m �:ia ional JaWany other grave offence a.gain t s t persons or prop erty, essential public �nterest s or intei

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immor be al, to apart from th�ir being prohibited by penal acts other y man and expe that ct a do sa11e offe nder 1s aware of these community and can we and j.�;groents of morality and hence eq11ally aware that 11is act is immora ].40 How ever, it is qt1ite possible for a sa11e perso11 in Ethiopia to be unaware l1ave conse11 st1al to sex11al intercourse with a female below the crime a is it ht the n betwe ?r ages of 594) fiftee11 rt. 11d eighteen ( (Art. � or 595), fifteen � � of :g: _ to l eg1ster fa1_ 1 the b1rth to o an f _ 111fant cr1me 623), (Art. or that a : is it that _ it is a crime, tinder spec1fie_d c1rc�1n1s_ta11ces, to fail to Ie?d aid to another person ''in imminent a11d grave pe1·1l of h1s life, person or l1ealth ' (Art. 547), or even that a seco11d co11.tract 1narriage before one's first marriage b.as been to crin1e a is it Tl1 616). a11d se n1any rt. r e oth_ prohibitions ( to traced be can d no dissolve � 1?gally le _ _ clear society- wide Judgment of 11n111oral1ty of wl1ich the offe11der 011gl1t to be aware� Some of these forn1s of conduct 1nay eve11 be entirely i11 agreement with the pre­ vailing moral norms of some seg111ents of Etl1iopian society. It is with respect to these offences, as ,vell as others like the offences in tbe Code of Petty Offences, which are on tl1e ot1ter edges of crimi11ality, that the claim of lack of awareness of u,nlawfulness causes the greatest diffic11lty. Legal opinio11 is seriously divided on tl1e question. On the one hand, it cannot be denied that the chief aim of any pe11al code, ''the preve11tion of offences by giving due notice of the offences and penalties prescribed by law'' (Art. 1 of the Ethiopian Penal Code), cannot be achieved with the offender who is honestly unaware of the existence of the offence and tl1e pe11alty. 011 tl1e other 11and, there is the view of tl1e American jurist a11d. legal philosopher, Oliver W. Holmes, Jr, that ''to admit the excuse at all would be to encot1rage ignorance where the law-maker has determined to make men know and obey'' 41 and the ft1rther arg11ment that the claim of ignorance of the lav1 co11ld too easily be made while the l1onesty of the claim ''could scarcely be deter1nined by any evidence accessible to others. "42 In

40. H. Hart,' ''The Aims of the Criminal Law, " La}V & Co11temporary Proble,ns, vol. 23 (1958), pp. 413, 419. And see discussion above at note 38. 41 · !he full passage is: ''Public policy sacrifiCes the individual to the general good ....It 1s rro doubt true that there are many cases in w11ich the criminal could not have known that he was breaking the Jaw, bL1t to admit the excuse at all would be to encourage igno­ rance where the law-maker has determined to make men know and obey, and justice to the individual is rightly 0L1tweigl1ed by tl1e larger interests on the other side of the scale." Holmes, work cited above at note 15, p. 48. Holmes' view has come under increasing attack from modern American theorists on tl1e ground that punishing tl1ose wl10 are ignorant of legal provisions not contrary to the comn1L1nity's moral values is pt1nisl1ing persons wl10 are not in any sense of the term blameworthy. See, e.g., Hart, work cited above at note 40, pp. 418-22; Packer, work cited above at note 8, pp.129-30. It has also been argued force­ f�dly that sucl1 punishn1ent imposes an t1nreasonable restraint upon freedon1 of action and is ''offen­ sive to human dignity." ''SL1bjection of man to sanctions under a ]a\v ,vl1ich is unknowi1 and unkn­ ?Wable to him and whicl1 I1e has no opportt1nity to accept or reject expresses tl1e vie\V that he is a _mere object of the ]aw." I�yL1 & Silving, work cited above at note 38, p. 471. The que�tion is complicated, however, by tl1e considerable variety of offences to wh�cl1 the claim of ignorance can be made and tl1e considerable variety of reasons for such ignorance tl1e accused can offer, botl1 variables affecting the acceptability of t11e c]ain1. Tl1is aspect of the oble m i s treated at Jengtl1 by Hall, \vork cited above at note 8, pp. 386-414. Pr 42_ Au5 lin, Lectc,res 011 Jt1rispr11cler1ce (4th ed., 1879), vol. 1, p. 498, quoted in Hall, work �i t d ab?ve a �,an's knowl�dge of at l1er whet bte� �note ':dou ver, l1owe 8, s, : o]me 378 I Ith law _. . is any difficulty, Tl1e into. gone are 1 r \vh1cl l1arcle 1ons qt1est to many tigate ' than inves · · · · sucb as It is, wo�ld be met by tl1rowing tl1c bt1rde11 of pr_ov1ng rance 01: the 1a\v-br_ea k er, •• 1gn? _ lioImes, work cited above at note 15, p. 48. See the d1sct1ss1on 1n Hall, 1d., PP· 378 83·

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ts, tl1e Anglo-A in . 1en 11n arg e yp y-t lic po r ila sim . d an . . er1 p . ca . n accor d ance w 1•t1·11 these 1ztza 1 ora 1 ig11 . r, e, egz, . 11c1p pr1 11e111z ,1e111 enaJ · tl1e to d lere · adl ex bas , In tl ,,. ar ci,s · Law sys·�t en1 , � . • . 11s v1evv, \1/1: 11cI1 J1 as tlie 1g. , 11. 1 111a o n. s 1se 1 c ex law u noraiice . f the in t Por P _ s f 1 fo i11 itt ed n1m co isl g 1n r p1 f a1 1. be o 11 ca n ence 1n tenr E 11rope oof F rance ,43 a perso ion. n11 as or g 1 t ac. le . a , 1J h · . 1 t e tl1,L bee e war 11na i1 � � was 1111I ': a\vf _ . ·ally altho11gh he l es 11c All at . sta u th t1 111 .. Jec cu ob c1r ly 1al ve ct1 fa e th ke is ma ow kn d 1us act a ti1� act·or rJee crime. y. a11 ive r111 cis Ge De t igl1 in wc 1ed ai1 is acc orded int n1a is w vie site po op The · , e lher rb 't t 11 "fi ca · c11 o spe Y, s l a re ce n1o sen fro in. the to the factor of b1ame\vort11111ess, 1 ss vft lne lav of 11n e l1is t f t a.ct.44 In the 1 a11 1or jg1 ly est 1 1 1 is lo \Vl ? � or act the � ? _ i 5 g ye1. law ,,,as a 1te sec1 Ject pro s11b . d the 011 for n 1s1o tl dec 1 , e rt cou '· c.rime of Ger·man · · · · t 11e equ1yalent offence) in ''Coercion'' (Art. 55� o� the E th1op1an Pe11al Co de . 1s that , e 1t anc 111e1 adv pay an of e his mak fees by tli reaterun he had presstired his cl1e11t to g e , cas jf the m sl1e fro did 11ot pay p . Hi s on tl1.e eve of the trial to \Vitl1dr. a\v . aradoxicaJ defence was that he did 11ot k110,v h1s act vvas unlawf11l. The Germ , Federal Supreme Co11rt, observi11g tl1at ''pe11alty pres?pposes guil. t'' a11d ''guilt�� blameworthi11ess," r11led that a,vare11ess of 11nla\vful11ess 1s a prereqt11site to a findino­ of g1illt. Tl1e actor is liable to pu11ishn1e11t only if l1e was either aware his ac� 1 \vas 111tlawful, or if lie, as perha1Js the lawyer-acct1sed co11ld l1ave do11e, ''\vith a requisite searching of his co11scie11ce'' could have bee11 aware his act was unlavvful. 011ly then ''can blame attach. " 46 '' The middle position between t11ese i'\vo vie\vs is take11 by S\\'itzerland47 and in Arts. 78 of tl1e E thiopia11 Penal Code and 700 of tl1e Code of Petty Ofef nces4S l

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43. '' Application of th e Jaw can.not be st1bordinated to tl1e greater or lesser zeal which thoSc subject to its jurisdiction n1ay exert in order to acquaint tl1emselves \vit h it." Donnedieu de Vabres, Traite de Droit C'riminal et de Legislatio11 Pe11ale Co111paree, p. 86, quoted in Ryu & Silving, work cited above at note 38, p. 432, n. 6S. 44. lei., pp. 442-43, 450 -53. See disct1ssion abo\1e at note .::i1. 45. Decision of Marcl1 18, 1952 (Fed. Sup. Ct., Ger. Fed. Reptiblic), E11tscheiclu11gen des Bun• desgericlztsl1ofes in Strafsacl1e,1, vol. 2, p. 194, translated i11 part in Lo,ve□stein, work ciied abo\'e at note 30, p. 242. 46. lcl., p. 243. This decision and tl1e Gern1a11 tl1eory of ignorantia legis in general is analyzed a'. Iengtl1 by· Ryu and Silving, work cited above at note 38. Tl1e Ger111a11 Federal Suprenle Collit he ther ,vhe i.e., decid ed on'.y tl1e question of Jaw i11volved. TI1e la.wver's "Liilt or innocence, 0 • ., ''could Jiave b eeo aware; was left t<.1 tl1e tria l court. 47. S�e Gr�ven, _\vor� cited. above at 11ote 7 1,p. 236-37; X c. l\1inistere public ?° C��:. d !u"govie (�rib. fed., S,vitz., 1961) J. des Trib. (Droit pe 11al), I' 82, translated in Loi,e · te1u, work cited above at note 30, p. 240. . 48. As Dr. Graven has pointed ot1t, Art. 58 (1) t he provisio11 tl1at defines iot e11ti on, fails '1 1e ! 1 105 !,hree language versions to indicate tl1e rele,,a�ce of awaren 1 t o ! R. u11lav1fuln css. e s r of ess · 37 · J 6 2 )5 1ore be . had t0 .Arts. 7s and 700. Graven, work: 1�4 ote . cited above at 11 7, l'P· ) ,.: 'de-clare-S . �O is ambiguous on a_ key poi11t. Art. 78, as is eXJ)lai11cd in t�c text abov1 , �oa eduction th b Ii:,n r nce of the law 1s no defence•• but does no11etl1e prov1de fo r o r 1" less · '"'Ph! parag a.•nd total exe·n1ptio·n 0f l)Un1s· 11n1ent 1f. certa . . conch. t1011s ' in fir�t ?00, · :, . . . are 1net:. Art nee ol :�m �1Y states: "_Ile who co1n1:11itted a petty to offe11ce may not plead as jt1stific ation s-le ig?i•�oce r a �1st k e as to rigl�t th� cros :s seems (Art. vv11etl1e r 78)." js an1bigu Tl1e ity A:t · �ak e� 10 a� l of Art. 78, including r,be:,·o ,vith, sos, pr · 11 1 exen11Jt io o ovi the reducti on a 1d · more 11.k e1 Y since tl1e penaIt'ies 111 th e sniaII to o estioll ·1s so are Cod e of Offe Pett 11ces y ta k es in .- on 1Y ·tl1e p art of Art 78 tl . . The ·t qu w 1 ·h e 1 e t · � b f t . · o cont�x s a r nce ora the e e�c def 1gn of . · . . _rais.e d � th ss1 0� important because tl ,,1e. claun of 1gn? 1 ance of tl1e law LS 111ore likely to be cu dis of ''petty offenc e (r . 0� 11ature WlY cl1 are esoteri a of or regt1latory � coosidere ! n above at page el83) 11.}t ey �. . 11 · writer is ot aware of any Ethiop1a:n dec1s1011 that · this ambiguity. n

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princ iple, b sic imila r the to the Angl o-Am s erica 11 state approach, that � � 1) ( . 78 , Aft. anc e of the law 1s no defence. It the11 goes on to say, however, that the ''Jgnor good faitl1 believed he had a right to act and had definite and in o ''wh s P�: �ate reason� fo� hol�ing this � rron;ous belief,'' though re�aining �iable to pun­ , , . sh 1ntent1onally, ll e granted a redt1ct1on of act1n bis p11n1shme nt � � for � t n e _ . , _ �sh� 1 49 . Complete exemption of pu·nishment d r Art. 185 (1 e., ''w1tl1011t restr1ct1on ). ases of o11al xcep absolut a11d jt1stifiable ignorance ''i � and good ted � � g· r an � � be :aye , so nt 1s inte 11ot 111al 1t. cr1m a1·e1 app faith and where The competing realities tl1at n1oved the Codification Commission to adopt tl:Lis compromise are recorded by Dr. Grave11: '' ... it would be t111realistic to la.y dow11 a conclusive presumption that all citizens know the la\v wlule the law so far has been almost entirely unwr itten [one n1igl1t add to tl1is the fact of ''the complexities of modern life and conseqt1ent increase in the volume of laws," 11oted in the Emp.eror's Pre·face to the 1957 Penal Code] as it would in all respects be detrimental to the interests of a natio11 in fttll development always to let go free persons who do not take 'due 11otice of the offe11ces and penalties prescribed by 1aw,. . . . ,,51 This compromise solution, as Graven also notes, had been adopted earlier in the 1930 Penal Code: ''The man ,vl10 offends after learning a11d knowing the law of the Gover·nrnent, and after reading tl1e law or l1eariog the proclamation with his own ears, is a wilful offender a11d shall receive full punishment'' (Art. 12), while those who were unaVt1are of the law thro11gh some form of excusable ignorance (the stranger; ''the countryman . . . who has not seen with his own eyes how the (law] work is done but only hears by report the law and ordi11ance of the Govern­ ment;'' ''the poor man who is unable to attend and hear what goes on in any kind of court and is u11able to know the law;'' ''the woman who has not learned the la w and ordinances and does not go out to th_e cot1rts;'' etc.) were entitled to have from one-tenth to nine-tenths of their punishment remitted (Arts. 13 to 21). Though the 1930 Code provisions and Art. 78 of tl1e 1957 Code 'do not appear to be completely parallel (e. g. , ''definite and adequate reasons'' u.nder Art. 78 implies more than ignora11ce due to one's poverty, local or sex), yet it seems likely that the statutes specified in the 1930 Code will continue to be taken into acco11nt under Art. 78. A 1961 decision of the Eritrean High Court in fact did j11st that. It took 49· Art. 79 (1) does not specify the factors the court is to consider in determining wl1ether the ac tor "had definite and adequate reasons'' for believing l1e had a right !O act. The issue is . left to the court's discretion. In this regard, the 1957 Penal Code differs from the 1930 �enal Code where the relevant factors were ent1merated in considerable detail. See discus­ sion .b�I.ow t�is page. One factor that will be very relevant,_ of course, i� tl1e nature of the Proh !b�t!on violated. It will be easier for the acct1sed to claim excusable ignorance \vhere the P�hibrt1on violated is a new addition to Etl1iopia's law (in the sense that it was not an the Fetha Nagast, tl1e 1930 Penal Code or r�levant cus!omary rules) or . is not �. oence under . ether clearly ?efi_ned in _ the 1957 _Code or is not considered particularly reprehensible by g �� t seg ent SO. The � of Ethiop�a� soc �ety to :Vl1ic� the _acct1sed_ be_Iong�. re .i · so , erence to ''cr1m1nal intent'' 1s misleading as 1t 1mpl1es that awareness of tin1�\vfu1�esss mehow a part of int�ntion in Ethiopia as it is in Germany_. !he_ �rot1bl; , agai�.' . �rise f�o. m a traa.slat1 acte n etatt pas l de al1te cr1n11t1 on la e lorsqu et ' error. reads text The French ' apparente '' ,, ' a ' t , . d apparen t no was when act tl1e of lity crirni11a tlze n · · · St. G , _wor k cited above at note 7, p. 237. The second consideration referred to by the n c��r�Catio n Com mission resembles I-Iolmes' viewpoint qt1oted above at note 41.

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rty ve e po 111 tre of ex e e b. tl1 ''t s, ng tlii . accused an r he ot g lon an t un into l 1g 1ci t red c11 ,tc in s l1<:� r the : d] rd sed . pa she ' s t ' an ' or ign U b � an :�� ni : P is e l1 ent fo r a t . m le nd a11 the i cla P1o er d t un. v t 1c ma Tax on a A �fa1�l ure to pa·' y the Federal Salt · 1 rne11t. .imp s . m·end·1ng , f It c.". 1 o d a e 1n ) pct or, 1 u . , 5 of $ e fin ri 0 52 a ll of at t o t · Decree t nt nme r ,I o 53 seven days.

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. is al tu en s ev lu do of t ep nc co e th to Introduction �1de _ d i11cl 111i11 d of e stat u11der ''in_tention.'' d tliir a s :ibe desc _ (1) S8 Art. It is ".l l1 ly 11c r,1.l wl s, alz I1te rztu eve lus a11 clo me , s me na ''i ntent d'Irected . own. by . its Latin '' . best kn . fj · z d d e _ 111e 1s h 1s 1n t a e second paragra h nti1 eve us Do/ nt. eve e sibl pos a toward Art. 58 (1) as . existing ''when the offe·nd�� �e111g aware that his acts may pcau�! the act s n11ts rdles com rega , 11ces that uch co nse. illegal and p un1sl1able co11seq_ue . . . . qu.ences 01�y follow." D�sp1te . its Lat.111 na?1e, �he co11c.e1)t 1s German in or igin 54 and accord1ngly bas received. its most detailed t�eat1nent from . Ger?J,an t heorists.ss It is applied t11rougho11t co11t1ne_11tal Europe and 111 1na11� cou11tr1es, 111cludin g Ethio­ pia, ·wl1ich l1ave borrowed tl1e1r p�11al Ja\V fro1n co11t111eutal E11rope. 56 It is not recognized as such in the other n1�Jor p�nal �a"": syste_n1, the Anglo-Am erican.57 As already noted at the ot1tset of tlus article, 1t 1s e11t1rely new to Ethiopia and if not delineated with care, ca·n be co11fused with advertent negligence defined' in Art. 59 (I). Tl1e justification for the classification of doli1s eventualis tinder i11tention, rather tl1a11 under 11egligence as cot1ld l1ave been done,58 m11st be the n1oral reprelrensibility 52. 53. 54.

55 · 56.

57.

58.

By virtue of A rt. 3 of the 1957 Penal Code, "special laws of a penal nature," \vhich includes taxing 1:irovisions imposing a penalty upon violators (G raven, p. 12), ar e subject to the general principles of the Code (whicl1 would include Art. 78), ''except as other1,,vise expressly provided [i.11 st1cl1 special law]." The Crown v. Faid Mahn1oud Abdel Kader, Federal I{ig h Cou rt of Eritrea, 1961 , Crin1. Case No. 710 /53, translated iL1 Lowenstein, work cited above at note 30, p. 239. For further t��t· ment of Art. 78, se e Graven, work cited above at 11ote 7, pp. 235-39, in particular 23t-.>9. Tl1e term was coined by the Gern1an tl1eorist von \Veber in tl1e nineteenth century. As a state of mind it was recognized earlier uncler tl{e terms clolL1s' i11clirectt1s and do/us indeter,ninaius by the German theorists J. S . F. Bol1mer and Paul Feue rbacl1. K. \Varnke, Die Entstehung ur.d Beh�zdlung der Dolusatten (The Origi11 and the Treatn-1e11t (1/ the l<.incls of Do/us) (19 65, un­ published thesis, Berlin) pp. 34-37. Tl1is tl1esis wl1ich provided tl1e \Vrit er \-Vith the ap proach of the German theorists to do/us eventual is, \:Va; ki 11dly st1pplied by Dr. Klaus Warnke of 1�: �enter fo� Comparative Crin1inal Law, Nev.; York U11iversity Scl1ool of Lav.'. It ,vas translat1,; lnto English for the writer by Professor Hans Schweistl1al of the Ger1nan Jangu age depa rt_ ment of the Haile Sellassie I University. T he I?ri�e concern of German theorists has been to identify a11d describe the n1ental e len,�nrtk� · • · that ·. · Just 1fY tile incI usion of do/us eventualis within tl1e conce1Jt of intention. warn ke ' \\·O cited above at note 54, pp. 38, S5-S?. e Dol i,s ev�ntualis may be specifically c fi s untri 1 1 tl1e Pe11al Cocies of these co le ned i e (s� d itai p re� e.ntative Code provisions quot inJplie d by nJdU and 1 ed 6) be belo r 111ay w it at 1ote 7 o . dec1s1on b ased upon 111·story zerla sn,jf " • n i e, or 1 upon exan1JJ 1 sc 10Jarly wr1t1ng�, as, for . Germany. See below at notes 85 a n d 110. an , as Dolus. eventualis appea·rs· ·10 A . 1e, nan b ng 1 not _ -Ame r ican penal law theory, tl1ot1gl1 Y een intention aggravated form of ,, recklessness � betw , lyin g a sta �1u eller, te sys of ten 1 min tl1a d t in and 1n · advertent negligence I-I II t 7 '·o1 · G. al La\V, '' 116 k wor 5 . i c ted ' 11 pp. ' la . 8, above note . at . · "The German Draft C in r c e- An Evaluation in Terms of American t Illinois L. Foru,n (1961 � 4 �� See below at note 76.

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1e11tual s. 59 gl N gence is e1 the state of n1ind whic � j:1sti'fies dolz,s ( in e � itud � ·att the _ shm nt or no p 1n1shment at all becat1se, as noted before,60. 1t 18 less f � otlie lea st puni _ � _ well as less 9-eterrable. The 11egligent actor as 111te11t1011, than s1ble elien repr orall y r1n. ?n the co11tra�·y, l1e opposes tl1e <;>ccurrence of th� harm I1 the desire � t no :oes hi� act1? 11 wol1ld �r111g ab_o�1t tl1e hari_n, he would desist. He believ�d he if _. and eitl1er because . l1e IDJstake11ly believes the �1arm fores� en action h1s 11es contin only avvare_ tl1at 111s b1·akes are fat1lty, he continue� to drive (e.g., abot1t_ come _ pot will d 11 1 st1ffic1e11tly 111 ,1�1 en1e1�gency), a case of ''poor JU�?ment'� v1ll they that ving � � belie , or becat1se l1e 1s 11ot aware eve11 of the po_ssb1l1ty the r ''advertent 11egl1ge11ce, l1e is 11t (e.g., 11ot are his brakes are ab faulty), a . case of con1e might � �arm �;' . 61 e. t e11c l1g ten ,,er 11eg ''u1attentive ness'' or ''111ad The moral rep,rehet1sibility of dol1,1s eventualis is greater· than that of negligence. In one important sense, it· is eqt1,Ll to tl1at of ''knowledge of certainty or near ·certainty," the second state of mind discussed in Part I. In k11owledge of certainty or near certainty, the actor does 11ot desire or seek the harm, but neither does he oppose its occurri11g. He is too concer11ed with his own action and the end he has in sight (11itting the perso11 bel1ind the wi11dow with the rock, collecting fire insu­ rance on his house, enjoying sextJal satisfaction, etc.) to be col_)cerned _about his action also causing l1arm to some other interest. This 1-11illingl'zes.s to bri11g about harm rather than to give _up what one is doing is tl1e morally reprehensible aspect of this actor's conduct. •

Do/us eventualis involves the same ldnd of willi,zgrzess as does this second kind of n1tention. The key differe11ce between the· two is found i11 the element of know­ ledge. The do/us eventualis actor is aware not of certain or nearly certain l1arm, but of the possibility that his action will bring about harm. To quote Art. 58 (I), seco-r1d parag.raph, agai11: the offender is aware ''that lus act may cause illegal and punishable consequences.'' Dolus eventualis and advertent negligence.

It is the strength of do/us eve11tualis that it identifies a category of moral con�uct deserving greater comn1unity condemnation in the form of greater criminal punishment than either of the two forms of neglige11ce.62 It is its weakness that in

59· In German theory, this is known as the ''guilt content'' (Sc/11,1/dgehalt) of do/us event11alis.

Warnke, work cited above at note 54, pp. 34, 56, 75. 60 · See above at note 11. 61 · Neglig ence, of course, involves more than just '<advertence'' or ''inadvertence." A person might understandabl y take the risk of driving with faulty brakes because l1e l1as no choice in the ratt�r. His child, for exan1ple, could be desperately ill with n o other means of reacl1ing a osp ital available. A person might not be aware his brakes are faulty because they had rorked _ properly the las� ti�e l1e drove �is car. Nt1merot1s lawful _activiti�s present an in­ ferent risk of ha�m. ''Life 1n modern so�1ety," as Andena�s has written, ''1s b_as�d on_ th,� ct that a certa1� causation of danger IS legal." Tl1ere IS an ar�a of ''J?er?:1ss1�le risk. . ;n .denaes, work cited. above at note 24, p. 151', Tl1e test for cr1m1nal l1ab1l1ty 1s always Wheth er the person who caused harm tl1rough ''advertence'' or ''inadvertence'' fail[ed] to take ch precaution s as rnigl1t reasonably be expected in the circumstances of the case.•••'' �en. � . rt 59 59 , \Vork cite� Art on entary second comm n's . Grave lly raph. genera parag See b' A at n (1), te 7, pp. 159-63; Wechsler & Micl1ael, work cited above at note 11, PP· 742-46 , � n enaes, id., pp. l03-to5. 58-59, pp. 11, note at above cited 151, work 217-24; WjlJjams, 62 · Wa rnk e, wo rk cited above at note 54, p. 33; Graven, work cited above at note 7, P• 157 ·

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. er eth wl1 the ain ert asc or act to 's t cul diffi sta be l wil te of . ·t 1 1on s t· a tu. many s1 ,,,a t ·s or the advertent for m of' negli gence. nund 1 was dO , us even " t is sin1ilar to a.dvertent ne . tha s ali ,1tu eve · z,s dol ut abo ch mu . 1 There Is 61 ,gene g e. s es o f t t a • bo tl1. Bo th . . d, min · . k nowledge elen1 ent is tl1e same 1n ·. tl i at is , i The nclud ay i c ·1o 1· h" t h s n a . b t r to r1ng �c 1e abot1t a forb e � fi � an awareness on the part of tl d id e e t er1. lf se e . I 1�v h 1s rs 1 1 1t wr ' l ess era sev ' as. the id i � � � 64 den harin. An�, _thougl1 enr : h h tr11t bot ' do u .1� s eve, lzs, itua ever [ s . z dolu ztual . s and aJ. _ fying characteristic. of 1� n he see 1on 1� _ c1s �t �e 11t. n1e ele h s �ac th! e l11d 1�c e actor mak es � enc lig � 11e vertent g _ t th �f c 1on lity s1b1 J?OS s11 ca11 tl1� 1g . liarm.6s pite des ion act � � his_ e � tinu con . to The e t iev tha bel e tb. e, harm will ilot o advertently ne0'�11gent actor doe.s, 1t 1s tru ccur . and is inentally opposed to its _occt1�rence. B ut. tl1at-. does no� alter tl1e fact tha t tl1e rzsl, of bezng mistalc en . con · tal(en , n11nd 1n has he end ever what for has he cer. '' · � · 111s belief that the l�ar� \VI·11 not occur. ''He h�s c hosen, a� one write r has rung d a cr1be 1 tl1at pro? harn ces cha11 will occur."6 6 The 1ng ex1st the ase incre ''to aid, s dolils eve1zti1alis actor takes no n1e?tal stand . against the h�rm's ?ccurrence and , therefore, does more than take the risk of causing harm. He 1s, again for whatever end he has i11 mind, selfishly willing to let the harm occi,r. The qualitative differe11ce bet,veen these two l<inds of selfishness is clear . The problem., ]1owever, is equally clear. How in a partic11Iar fact sitt1ation will a court be able to determine wbetl1er tbe actor selfisl1ly continued llis action because he mistakenly believed tl1e harm would not occur, or becat1se he did not care whether it wou.Id occur? We can11ot expect the actor to ad1nit to the atithorities the latter attitude, especially whe11, as will be developed more fully later, 67 tl1e Crin1inal Procedure Code allows him to co11sult a lawyer before he is q11estioned. This at present is an e.n1pty right, but as the supply of Ethiopia's lawyers increases it ,vill not remain so. The Criminal Procedure Code i11 addition greatly restricts the po,ver of the police to question the acct1sed concerning his alleged offence. Proof that the actor was willing to bring about tl1e harm will, for the vast majority of cases in the future, h.ave to come from other, less direct, sources, in particular from the objective facts surrounding l1is action. The closeness of do/us ever1titalis and advertent negligence, made worse by tbe unlikelihood of obtaining direct proof that the characteristic attitude of one or the other w�s present when the actor ca11sed son1e forbidden harm, requires the cou�t to exerc1se extraordinary care in examining the evidence. The minimum and maxi63 • 64.

A good deal. of the Gern1an tl1eoretical wri tings on the subject of do/us eventua lis ha_ve been conce��ed with tl1is fact and the consequent problem of justifying the l1igh er puJ11i_s hnJent autl1orized for do/us eve11tualis. Warnke, wo rk cit 54, pp. 55-57, 66·7')· no ab te ov ed at e · t · ''Egoism · · · Is · 51 p 'd 1 b e. essen ce Warn ke of do!i,s , l ces eve,1ti1alis." von Hipple, qt1oted in , ,, he . ! [do/us eventua./zs] actor sl1ov1s by his indifference a feeling to the effect that be p a75 his ends at the sa me 1eve1 , or even • " [fl P· · . I tl1e by high er, as tl1e ones protected a,� ageci' b the "I h case . of do!iis eventualis, the e�vi s harn 1 inl1i tl1e of biti ng, neg va. ativ I ue e the off�n1e� · · IS _weaker tI1an the phs hn�en� s sel· co a posi tive 1 to valu attac e l1es tl1at c l m e act ti 1 0ne is thus able to definitely say 15' 1 a eventu tl1at ' in tl1e case of dolr,s· · . h motivate · 0 • · fish11·es·s · w·h1c gi na) LoCJOZ, ori s · hi 8 action d esp1te the conseqt1ences " (En1phas1s 1n 142. 1 work cited above at note 30, p. . · 30 ' P· 66, translated in Lowenstein , work cited above at note Graven, work cited above at no te 7' P . 157. been t Hall, work cited above t a no s e _8, p . 112. ''Th� adver tently negligent ac or ' h d a ove at ot prevented from acting b � � � cite b h e Y oresigbt of the possible result." Warnke, ,vor note 54, p. 67. See below a t pages 412-414.

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for a do/us eventualis offence ed will in all author�z cases be much ent nishrn . u p II1UIIl than that authorized for an advertent negligence offence.. For those offences greater ligence is not punishable, tl1e court choice 's of doli1s eventualis or advertent · · · neg \Vhere n ta or 1o 11t . l 1ct q1 nv ac . co n ea m · ll ,vi e ne I neg 1ge that some commentators, most notably in Germany, reaso°: this for partly is It of do/us eve11ti1alis based not upon the attitude of interpretation a11 for d argue h e 68 ;; actor toward the foresee1 1 har1n, b1:t 11pon the probability of harm he foresaw. _ . 1 known argun1ent, 1 1 Germany as the ''theory of probability'' tl11s o to rdin Acco d oltlS eventual keitstheorie), is exists ''when the actor had foreseen scheinlich Wahr (Die 1 advertent pro· b able, negligence wl en he had only said to as rest1lt armful] [h the 69 T11is ' possible.' is approach presents the obvious difficulty result him self that the ' ' betwee11 th. e probable and tl1e possible and the gradations line the 'drawing ' of thereof, but, it is argued by tl1e mai11 proponents of the theory, Grossmann and Griinhut, this difficulty is 011ly ''quantitative '': the judge has before him certain objective facts, such as, taking an automobile homicide ca se as an example, the speed at which the _c?-r was being drive11, the number of ped�strians on the road­ way, the road cond1t1ons, etc., a11d he has only to make a Judgment from these prove.n facts a.s to the degree of harm the situation presented. Tbjs, so the argu­ ment continues, is the ordinary task of the judge requiring no special insight or knowledge of human nature. It is far more manageable, therefore, than inquiring into the attitude (the ''psychic process'') of the actor toward the foreseen harm.70 Th.e American writer, Helen Silving, has argued further that the prevailing European conception of do/us eventualis, by ''its disregard of the degree of objective probability ...that the consequence will occt1r," produces results that are ''absurd.''71 She supposes the case of two motorists, one who engages in extremely dangerous con.duct (driving at the excessive speed of 190 lans. per ho11r) trusting that h_e will not hit anyone and the other who engages in much less dangerous conduct (driving at 65 kms. per hour, assuming this also to be excessive) b11t not caring about killing another person. If both motorists should hit and kill someone, then, ac­ cording to the European conception of dolits eventualis, the latter is guilty of dolu! eventualis (and hence intentional) l1omicide, while the former is guilty only of n�gl1gent homicide. This is the result she considers ''abs11rd,'' apparently because it fails to take into account the relative dangerousness of each actor's cond11ct.72 Whate ver the merit of these two arg11ments for the theory of probability,73 the fact remains that the explicit language of Art. 58 (I), second paragraph, that the offender ''commits the act regardless that such consequences may follow,''74 precludes 68· Warnke, work cited above at note 54, pp. 59-61. The second reason lies in the theoretical �ontro ver ?y in Germany on which mental elements justify do/us eventualis' classification as a orm of mtention. See ab ov e at note 55. 69. Id., p. 59. TO. Id., . pp 60-61. 71 · Silvin g, work cited above at note 21, pp. 227-28. . . 72. S11 vr.ng refers also to ''the practical impossibility of differentiating'' the two mental states. Id.. p. 228. 73 · f-�{: second motorist who drives slower it can be argued, displays, in hjs not c aring about �· rng _another perso-n, a subjecti ve da�gerousness or ''dangerous disposition.'' See Graven, ork cited above at note 7, p. 157. 74_ lhe Fre nch version of Art. 58 (1) second paragrapl1 is still more explicit: '' · · · lors que au te�r, s s .elle e ou • e alit e11tu l'ev . r poz1 i co es-c l'ac �ell · mplit neanom�ins e11 acceptant :;dur.rai ent. ''The A.mharic text is closer in meaning to the French: '' · · · 'fci.t�a,. · · · �m- ' ,.,,,., • O"'l/\-r , .r.u,� , fa>'llA , ,f"°l'l?-1' ... O'-RDP • 1.11, • i;a,. SI

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on y up lel so e higl1 deg re e tl1 i sel ba s ali rztu eve lus clo 0 . �,·ion f ta re rp . te 1n n . ard tow e tt1d atti � har111 tl1at r's for acto � ese tlle is en It harm . th e pe11a I Coo.e to.re·.see11 by the ac°tor. . . 1 . 1� th . e hi 1dt 1 i_ er t111d s ' tl1at spe11 t1t, o ab it sibl o g e brin elemeni "'1II1no r1ess to . . 11 f rm see l1a 1s ore tl1e n sig as of ree ed deg h tl llig le 11 le Tl · . 1 zs ,a . ti en ev 1s li . · o . d of rt npo · t1 ·t Tl 1 t t· h a d t a · t 11s ant o e. f v111g we1 pro 1 gl e 1 t . tl 111 in . g ilg aidi , · is cons1ste o 11 d ary ro1e of c se t ti b r. e n b' t1v s11 rs �ec r. cto · a · J: ier t pre . . , to a vvl1 de Co e 1 t t1 o · f t Ar nie tbe 11 23 w1tl1 the overa t . . erm . · • . s . f · i:r e s b as1 .1 · 1 111 l)li1 s 1sh .01 s tor fac 1 t a 1ve g ect ob1 0 ,, m 111 to e nders.7s J ''the n1ora1 ele · ent , e. ocl C al en P 57 19 e th in s fit is al l-Iow dolus e, entu o n1111issio n deci ded to iil C n �ti? c ifi o d C 1 e t� an ter draf ,vi1ert the c]ude the . � _ _ ode arti cle t11at defines crim ic .Pe11al bas the 1n alis tz, 11 ,e 1 e clolus of definition � � . i _ nal n! n rt gl1 v d a. �f ence or as an entirely � inteiition ii1 stead of_ treating rt as a form � � � . 76 tl1ey 111ade a dec1s1011 tl1at 1s crucial for those w]i o , n1111d separate state of musl 1

''Tlie Code n1 ust make it clear at tl1e outset tl1at _it is cl1iefJ_y co11ce�ned, 11�t \:vith the art and the result as sucl1, bt1t with tl1e vvro:ng�loer, for Judgn1ent 1_s not. given_ vv1_tl1 res pect to an act, but witl1 res1)ect to tl1e hun1an be1ng wl10 l'Jerf?rme� 1_t. !l11s subJec_t1ve conception of crin1inal law sl1ould inspire tl1e Cocle, tl1e more so s111ce 1t 1s 1n co11form1ty with the tradi­ tion. of the Fetha Nagast." Expose des Motifs, qt1oted in Graven, vvork cited above at note 7 p. 59. Perl1aps tl1c clearest example of tl1is orientatio11 is tl1e Cocle's provision on the punisb� n1ent prescribed for an attem1 Jt. TI1e offender ''is liable to tl1e punisl1ment attaclting to the the offence l1e i nte11ded to con1mit." Art. 27 (3). Tl1e Code dra\VS short of totalJy ignorin11 0 • factor of objective l1arm by autl1orizi11g n1itigatio11 of pu11.1sl1n1ent for an attempt "if circumstances so justify." lbicl. A11otl1er concession is n1ade for tl1e deatl1 penalty \vhich under Art. 116 (1) is li1nited to offences ''wl1icl1 are co1n.1Jleted." 76. Do/11s ever1tualis is treated in 1nost conti11ental European cou.ntries and in countries \vhose pen.al law is derived fron1 continental Europe as a for1n of intention. TJ1is is often done by statutory provision: "Anybody . . . wl10 co.nsiders [effectuation of tl1e definitio11al elements of the act] possible and does not mind it, acts intentio11ally." Gerrna11 Draft Penal Code E 196� Art. 16, translated in the A1nerican Series of Foreig11 Pe11al Coe/es, \York cited above at note 27. "Whosoever willingly effectuates tl1ose facts \vl1icl1 according to statutory definition are the elen1ent s of tl1e crime, or \Vl1osoever realizes tl1at by l1is condt1ct l1e may effectuate ihem and, in tl1at case, would approve tl1ereof, acts ir1tentionalJy.'' Penal Code of Greece of 1950, Art. 27 (1), translated in Lowenstein, work cited above at note 30, p. 146. "A criminal offence is con1mitted witl1 intent when tl1e offen.der . . . \Vas conscious thai. 8 prohibited conseqt1ence 1night result from l1is activi ty or ornissio11 a11d had consented to its occ�rring." Yugoslav Crimi,iul Code of 1951, Art. 7 (2), translatecl in M. Acin1o vic, "Con­ ceptions of Culpability in Conten1porary An1erican Crimi11al Law," Louisiana L. Rev., vol. 26 (1965), p. 31. "An act is consiclered to l1ave been committed i11te11tionally if tl1e actor foresa.\v that the act woul� accom�lish_ tl,1e consti�uent elen1e11t of a11 offence a.nd sucl1 acco111plisl� 111 ent ,vas no'. contrary to_ hi_s will. , Repitbltc of C/1i1 1a (1101v Taiu,an Crin1 11al Code :1f 1935, Art. 13 � · ) i pei, tr_anslated _in L. Fuller � H. Fisi1er, The Cri1r (Tai Chin a 1i1 1al Code of 1!1e Republic of S1no-Amer1can Legal Series, 1960), p. 5. In some c�untries, the most notable cou : the a11Y , Ger n1 exa mpl and es � being Switzerla11d th b�sis of _}1istory or scholarly e tJ d lishe ac�o n1p wr1t i ngs l1av on e tl1e ct, subj e � ;!na l . �h�og Y in�erpreting the c�ncept . th though of 1ntent101 eve11t1-1a/ 1 1s, to include 1 ,s c/ 0 / C0 des are silent on tl1e subJect. Se e below at notes 85 and 110. J . ve tinenta nte u�opean co�nt�y views do/us eve11tualis as a ki11d � f i o�:a�c�'. ��; : f� ��! � � nc ce. r mple, tt is included w1th1n the stat gen negl i t e of n1ind of adverten te 7'6 wor k ci '.ted. above at note 7, pp no at ve . d abO • . note 5• p. 189. This·18 a1�o th e appro . .. 156 -57; Bouzat & Pi11atel, v.,ork cite ach 1n England an d the U11ited States. See abov e at te sta · Th e German theorist von Sod t r . d seJJa a e . ) a en, P!0 P0s�d tl1at clolus eve11ti as . ew be vi 1,1l is � of m ind category fallin . "/ungstfreor1e. · b etween Intention and advertent negligence ( Die D1:el1te�cce ptance i n Warnke, work cited a�o�� at Germany or elsewllere One r note 5�, P , 57. This proposal l1as no t met wit 1 l Ja\V that, �ason be1,ng, as \Varn.ke says, the iner itia of a pena . until now, knows only in tentiot1 and negligence., , (Ibid.)

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intentio11, d�lus eventualis is a state of n:ind justify­ of 0�111 f a As . Code the 1 �PP Y. •s1unent for practically all offencC:.s 111 the Code. Tl1e only exceptions are (1) iog. pu�� · Code article n1akes p_t1njshable only negligent conduct, or (2) \vl1en the e whre arti cle specifies some· spec ial ele1nent for wlucl1 tloltLS eventi,alis is jnsufficient. applier of tl1e Code accordi11gly 1nust pay strict atte.ntion to the words use. d to offence. r partict1la the ie defit Most statt1tes in tl1e Code specify 011]y tl1ose objective circt1mstarices which ust exist and the specific conseqt1e11ce wl1icl1 must occur· before cri1ninal liability :nder tbat statt1te is established. For exa1nple, the girl mt1st .be below tl1e age of fifteen for sexual outrage t111der Art. 594 or be betwee11 the ages of fiftee,n and eighteen for sex11al outrage 1111der Art� 595, the property taken b� the offender must be ''the property of a11otl1er'' for theft l111der Art. 630, a fact 1n1puted to another must be '�such as to ir1jure 11.is ho11ot11· or rep11tation'' for defa1natio11 u11der Art. 580 (1), etc. For all such offe.nces, clolits eve1zti1alis ll11der Art. 58 (1), second para­ oraph, no less than ''full kno,vledge a11d i11tent'' (i.e., ''will'') upder Art. 58 (I), first para.grap11, is s11fficient for crin1i11al liability. I11 other words, a person w·ho violates tl1ese objective ele111e.nts of the offence, as by hctving sext1al intercot1rse with a girl below the age of fiftee11 or by impt1ti11g to another a fact tl1at injures that other's honour or rep11tation, is p11nishable if l1e V✓as aware the girl rvas belo,v the age of fifteen or the fact l-vas inj11riot1s to tl1e otl1er's honour or rept1tation (Art. 58 (I), first paragrapl1)77 or if he was aware tl1e girl 111iglzt be below the age of he reputatio11, and fifteen or the fact mig/1t be injurious to the otl1er's honour or . did n.ot care (Art. 58 (1), second paragraph).

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There are, however, some Code articles which, with respect to one or more specified objective circumsta11ces, require more than that tl1ese objective circtrmstances exist; the person is reqt1ired to l1ave acti,al knolvledge of their existe11ce before he

b�comes criminally liable. For these offences, the person's awareness tl1at such �1rcumstance or circu1nstances migh.t exist and his i11difference towards tl1eir existence is not the equivalent of knol1- i11g they exist, and l1ence for these offences only ''fttll knowledge and intent'' and not do/us e1,e11ti1alis, will suffice for criminal liability. Thus, the offence of calt1mny, Art. 580 (2) of the Code, is defined so as to require that t�e offender utter 01· spread false and defamatory statements .''with knowledge 0! the1 r falsity.'' St1ch act11al knowledge is indispensible to guilt under that provi­ sion. For this offence, being aware tl1e stateme11ts 1night be false and bei11g indiffe­ e .f nt _towar, ds_ that fact would not be enougl1. False de?;1nciatio11, Art. 441 (a), ikew 1 se requues that the offender denot1nce to the autl1or1t1es as the perpetrator of a� offence ''a person he knows to be in11ocent'' and thus, as a Swiss case dealing wi h an identical provision in the Swiss Penal Code has held, ca11not be committed \ un ess the offender actually knew the perso11 to be innocent, and not merely was are he mi�ht be nd did not care.78 A third example is Art. 373 (1) (b) �f �: � . Code which pun1sl1es tl1e person who ''knowingly l1ses . . . false or counterfeit 1

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77 Se a b ove ·at pages 378-379 � : _ . 78 st �i:i ere �ub li � du canton d'Argovie c. M orgentl1aler (Trib. fed. Switz., Dec. 1, 1950), J. de s to be O?r oit pe� al), p. 1�6, where tl1e Swiss c �u rt said: ''By t1sing tl1e terms 'tl1at 11� knew ra tnn?cent the legislator wanted to require tl1at the offender be aware of tl1e 1 acc1;1? liis denunciation. . . : He who restricts I1ims lf to k owi!1g that n accusation 13 pe��aP�f. n e . � , Translated. f? . false doe� not make it against a person l1e knows to be innocent. the r ite zerlan�� r by Miss Mar ta Rozankowskyj, Licence erz droit, lice11sed translator, Geneva, S\VJt-

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] els lab as s, n1p sta gent1.ine or u1 1used ', '1'l.. er bb ru . l] n1ark.· s [e. g·, sea . cia , ls · · . . [offi 1c1e, wo11 ld h._a,;e to lcrzow that �rt s thi r J..oe de un . · ed ish tm be the to offe�dr h .0ffic1at too s ere are . aw , e1t 11 I i er , ess 1n I cot f ! t or t tha � : se fal i is i n n usi s 1 -lghr be mar t ar tha v1 t tow fac e l ere d. . ou nc iff ind d • bis t &' d an not suffiice t ei 1 .1 ter 11 t1 o c r fa1 se o or 79 . criminal liability de �o a �f rds icle wo art tl1e is by well illustr ate d yed pla role e isiv _ dec s , Thi ' y b . l t 11a w1 t10 als e11 de 1nt l1 or ( 1) lp 50 cu t. Ar able 1 rrespo _ Ar·t. 50 (l) of� the Code. . . . .. ns1 . t . 1a or d . ng d. 111g I c re uc u i e b" 1· ns 1 s1o x 1 lity ov pr he o ''T b1· i·1tY' ,, a-nd pu n1s1iment - reads: . . rr, , �1 . t co�11 t d o an er _ 0 r 11 h �rz e11 o tv e. n pers? _i,itentionally u _tl!e to � � apply � not shall _ t t P d 1te of l11n or y ns po 1l1 res s1b on esp 1rr lity ibi of n t1o 1 11 by . me ans of himself into a co d , . . b . Ei , alcohol or dru0crs or by· any• other mea11s . . . . ( mp as1s s11p1)l1ed.) Addr cssino . · , (1) . a? d �eIy1ng · Ar t • 50 11po11 the fac t tha� himself to the t�rm, ''1ntent1o?a1 1 Y,''. 1n dolz,s eve,itualis 1s a �or1n of 1nt�11t10�; Dr. Grave11, Ill his_ commentary on Art. 50 (1), inakes the following _obser�at1on: U11der st1b-art. (1), [the accused ren1ains full liable when he] d ri11ks either In order to do \Vrong or w�e11 he knows and acce ty l tl1e possibility of doing . wrong (e.�•,. he lc?ows he 1nust drive a�d, being a\vare tfia� r he migl1t run a pedestrian �own 1f �e �rinks too m11cl1, tel�s himself that it is late at night so that nobody \VIII see him 1f he r11i1s a peclestr1an do\vn)." 80 Graven' s example acc11rately describes a11 attitude of in�ifference toward the safety of pedest­ ria,ns on the road and, tl111s, accurately describes a do/us eve11tualis state of mind. However, what Graven has done is to include dolus eve11tualis i11 Art. 50 (1) w]1en it is specifically excl11d .ed by the phrase, ''in order to con1mit on offence.'' Th·e person in Graven's example may have shovvn deplora·ble indifference toward the safety of others, but he hardly can be said to have drt1nk alcohol and become irresponsible ''in order to'' run a pedestrian dow11. I-Iis p11rpose in dri11ki11g was 011ly to enjoy hin1self . The pl1rase ''in order to'' used in Art. 50 (I) and phrases of similar import I such as ''for the pt1rpose of'' and ' 'with the object of'' demand more than a dolus eventz,alis state of mind.81 79 • If the actor's actual knowledge can b e proved, other elen1e11ts of tl1e offence can b� estnb· l1 slJed . witl1 do/us eventual is. Tht1s, i n Art. 580 (2) , it is provided that the in1putat1ons or alleg ations. known to be false mt1st constitute ar1 "i1 1jury to l1onour or repu tation.". J:,. person wh o k·now1ngly utters false statements and who is indifferent to wl1ether tl1ey are 10Jurious to the other party's hon our or rept1tation violates Art . 580 (2). 80. Graven, work cited above at note 7, p. 139. 81 · !,t C? ul �, be tl1at. qrave� is relying upon Swiss decisions wl1icl1 l1old t11at for a p.e��o�e: . desi g�, as faor 111s 1:1t�n!1on, clol�s eventualis is a sufficient state of p1ind. !l1 us, for ex a f ), 1.n l\1eierhofer c. M1n1stere public du canton de Zuric11 (Trib fed S,v1tz. July S, 19 4 n1an , n inn ·• · � ocent ·de11ounc · · J), p. 54, the offender krne,v that J• des t rz'b • (D:? 1· t pena at th"e i11g � l1e \Vas to tlle authorities. It was l1eld by tl1e Swiss cot1rt that tl1e Article's requiren,ent th r denoun�emen t be ''witl1 a view to having penal proceedin 1e t ins ag insti tuted a . t! t pJ �;a, gs as s "; iSfied, by proof t_hat the offender was willi 11g to I1ave st1cl1 proceedings i n� t,tf echarges � t· e 0 eo<l�r 8 purpose 1n denouncing clear lumsell. 0 Gr vcn's the to been man l1av 111ig e ht was leld irrelevant. According to a 10 at · th arg ue · 1 to suc . h . rea · soning, 1 t. 1 s p o.ssible . fl"enee" • o example the person•s purpose in a n ·t ni comi l ' 1 · e ., ''1n order . to 110u1?h 1 cou Id aIso be establ'ish ed· bY ev1d · ·e?cedr1ok1n. g alcol1o . . �. even u , occ �ce e ofl of 111s an l1ave w1ll1ngness to eventual,s J0,,11 his act� 1 purp ose. ':"as only to s 1 of dr1n.k and enjoy l1imself. Witl1 sucl1 a view Art. in tile wrJ : , st isagree. Langua 5 er t. or ge in a C Ar e in as '' � sucl1 ode articl ;: : �� in 50 (l) r t.· e_ purpose of,'' as in he ct O ' obJe t the t ''wit h l1 Art or 261 (b) , t a •fie . • . . ' d oth 450, an .er s1m1lar phrase s d mean e arlY 1 c1 spe actor must have des,,..ed t hat a . enot1og a specific purpose for act ing, c_ins t tha d tea sar p�rt1cula r goal when lie was acting. To p urpose to brin bo ut a part he actor was, hat ris g cular wo b m t i sl1ow t resul � c by can be d lisl1e estab s � ! f e ugh o th.r t indifer n e or som other t e 0 1 occur result Code, , reason � ' a ;en l wil.ling to have tl1at beyond their Ordinary meanmg, and thus is prohibited by Art. 2 (1) of the

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w will identify the characteristic att�tu�e of dolus follow,. that s page � _ · In the Switzerland wl1ose Code served as the principal from foreign cases using t·s 82 This will be followed by general eventua Cocle. rules on when Penal 1957 the f � sou ce tl1_ r ee hot?icide Ne�t, cases, _one f�om Ge�ma_ny and two ntualis. ev dolus : Iy � to p will be exan11ned 1n coi1siderable detail. This exam1nat1on has two a, tthiopi fr;; operation of the tl1ese general rules in a very seri?us illu�tr�te to first, s o es: Pet pc ommon type of cr1m111al offence, a11d, second, to demon�trate the sort of pa1ns­ a needed befo e court facts an be t1sfied s beyond a tl1e reasonof ysis ,: � � anal . iaking ble doubt that the do/us eve11tua/1s attitude was 1n the m1nd of the actor. Lastly, and as a ground for the co11cluding section, we will examine the probl�m of this see wl1y to problem is even more acute in Ethiopia eventualis do/z,1s g ;rovin than in continental Europe. The characteristic attitude of dolus eventualis: two Swiss decisions.

The leading Swiss case on do/us eve11tualis is Elsasser c. Procureur general du Canton de Berne, decided in 1943,83 a case of fraudulent misrepresentation in vio­ lation of Art. 148 of the Swiss Penal Code, the model for Art. 656 of the Ethio­ pian Penal Code. 84 The prosecution's evidence showed that during World War II one Ernest Hertig, a chemical manufacturer, bad received large quantities of sugar, a food commodity , in short supply due to the \var, from the Swiss Federal War Office for Food. The sugar was allocated to Hertig specifically for the p_urpose of manufacturing chemicals. In violation of this condition, l-Iertig sold part of the sugar to bakers

s o-called ''principle of legality.'' See Strauss, work cited above at note 10, pp. 419, 429, 440. If the drafter of the. Code, by including the definition of do/us eve11tualis in Art. 58, meant to make do/us eventualis a sufficient state of mind even for language in a Code article that appears on its face to exclude such a state of mind, then he did not make his purpose clear enough. 82- �aven, work cited above at note 7, pp. 2-3; S. Lowenstein, ''The Penal System of Ethio­ pia,'' J. Eth. L., vol. 2 (1965), pp. 385-87. Dr. Graven in his commentary on Art. 58 (1), sec ond paragraph, draws heavily on Swiss case decisions. Graven, work cited above at note 7• pp. _156-58. Other European Codes were consulted by the drafter. Graven mentions the Italian, Greek and Yugoslav, in particti}ar. Id., p. 2. 83· Trib. fed., Switz., May 21, 1943, J. des trib. (Droit penal), p. 73. The case was translated for _the writer by Miss Marta Rozankowskyj (see note 78 above). S,viss decisions are writte.n 10 : 1ther French, German or Italian, depending upon the language spoken by the accused. Elsas­ e f r s �ongue was German. The court's decision thus was written in German and tl1en trans­ _ated into French for publication in the Journal des Tribunaux. The translation for the writer into English is from tl1is French version. 84· Art. 148 of the Swiss Penal Code reads in part: ''Any person who, with intent to make :1runJav.:f ul profit for �imself or a.nother, shall fraudt1lently mislead another person by false ly p en �i ng or concealing facts or shall frat1dulently use tl1e error of another and tl1us cause the � c i ed person to act detrimentally against I1is own or anotl1er person's property, sl1all e ev b on i e _ in the penitentiary . . . . '' Translation, Friedlander & Goldberg, ''The Swiss F:d�r I f n ? 53. Crimi �nal 1939), (Supp., 30 vol. Code," Sci.; J. Pol. & l., Cri,n. L. Crimi11o , Art ;56 of the or obtain to intent with ian Ethiop oever, ''Wl1os part: in reads Penal Code to P. · rocure to person to a a causes third lently fraudu ment), person enrich an ful (sic: unlaw act 10 a man ther whe on, pers ner tl1ird a pre of e or tl1os ial , udic erty to in prop ts his righ j such cts are of commission or omission' � a) 1the· · · · e r bY m isleading statements or by misrepresenting his status or situation . or bY concealing facts which he had a'duty to reveal; or b) by tak.ing '' · · · ad vantage of the person's erroneous beli efs, 1s pun1shabl e · · · ·

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d, fie d tis e l t sa cic e no d. g, to rti I-fe " l sel et. rk to 111a b ak ers . k lac ''b d 11 ca � so�� tl1e he ac tually had in l1is l)o y tit _quan. 1an 1 q_ the t1 l1a r ate ore t ssess10 . · ti ties of st1gar 1n11. ch o • F f' ice or ffi d n O( a1 O . "OO W the . 11e n War fro1 r ive l·ece .. E Is er , the ass .:i:or r.he co11ld expec t to .· 1 b iy rs t1a 1 te tl1e e l s o l o cat e JJO n t 1ga g rti r. In 1ate 1 11e by � . d iste enl acctised ' \Va.S ' · t sold � f. I 941 c. . · total of' seve11 , n . · e g s a g . t1 r e to11 s a s r e ss of a ls • , s " . 1 gar t an · d ear·ly 1942 , E . 1 t o e 11c va al_ 111 o ar s11g r l1v e the cl for . ery 1t 1e1 )r11 pa Elsass er . . �rs, recei,,ing t'\\� o ba kPro u �fh n r ve y tl1i t ,vi s or r sh k a ba ti1n . th e o e. e. b _ to ar s gar \Vas n11sed to deli'ver the sLig este 1.e cl11 g v1e d ert1 I _ • d T a11 .r. . a11d ·, • prose clited, as er ass Els .: 3 194 In ' . delr·vered · . . never stated . 1 1t y e1 1 .. 11 d u above, for obta111111g 1no11ey fra tted ud 1!11i fra con by e l1av to obtai11i11 g rnone " ged alle e wer 1 en n t\vo · · The v ror J" I 1 er h · , er. strgar whicll they never i11tende� to de 1..1· � _. :- � � _ _av111g dealt directly· ,vith g tl:at w111 the I�11o ey mon r st1ga ers buy wotild never b tl1e took e, Offic d Foo the deiivered. However, since Elsasser had neve .r dealt with the_ �ood Office, it ,�'o ul� have been qtiite diffict1lt to prove that l1e l<ne,v t�at no adcl1t1011al st1gar ,,,as gain to be allocated to Hertig a11d, therefore, th�t delivery of tl1e sugar could never 0! made to tI1 e buyers. Therefore, the prosecution atten1pted to IJrove Elsasser's i nten­ tio11 to defraud tl1e buyers by sl10,vi11g tl1at he had acted vvitl1 doli,s eventualis (in Frencl1, le do! eve12tuel), a form of inte11tion i11 Swiss la\.v as it is in Ethio­ pian la\.V. 85 It could easily be proved tl1at Els,1.sser \\1 as aware, whe11 l1e made the sale to the bt1yers and 1Jro1nised delivery, that I-Iertig did not l1ave tl1e st1gar in stock ai tl1at ti.n1e. I11 addition, be mt1st l1ave bee11 aware tl1at stigar was a ''restricted comtnodity." It cot1ld be proved, in otl1er words, tl1a.t Elsasser was a,:vare of the risl-c of not bei11g able t o cleliver tl1e st1gar as pron1ised and yet, despite this a\vare­ ness, l1e accepted tl1e bt1yers' mo11ey. Tl1is, as tl1e Swiss federal Coi,r de Cassaiion (appellate cotirt) pointed out, was n o t e11ot1gl1 to prove clolzts eve11tz1alis. If Elsasser, tbougl1 aware of tl1is risk, nevertl1eless believed that the st1gar ,:vould be delivered (perb.aps because of what Hertig had told l1i1n), and, more important, ,vas llll\ViJljng to keep the n1oney if it were 11ot delivered, tl1e11, 110 111atter 11 0\v n1istaken or even naive l1is belief was, l1e w ould be guilty of no more tl1an adverte11t negligence and co11ld not be co11victed under tl1e Swiss (or Etl1iopia11) prov.ision. w·bat h.ad to be proved for clolz,ls eventi,ali,r; \Vas stated by tl1e S\viss appell ate court in tl1e following language: that Elsasser ''\vas aware fro111 the begi11ning that_h e might find it i�possible to deliver the st1gar and [that] l1e had tl1e idea of . keeping the money received in adva11ce anyway shot1ld s11ch a case arise."86 This nicely spells out tl1e sel:fi.s11 attitude involved i11 dolits eve11ti1a/is. i d The esti�n q� a remain ed attitt1de as to how to prove that st1ch an b e� i�:. . ttit 10 Elsasser s mind. Elsasser had an sucl1 had not admitted that he had a d _he On_ th.e contrary, he l1ad denied its existence and clain1ed, instead, tha � belJeved all along that the s11gar wot1ld be delivered · There \\1ere 11 0 positive. ::ts d att1tu e . • • . · on Elsasse · · r' 8 par t showin . · g otherwise. Desprte tl1is l,tck of direct evidence, t he

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85 · � !u e;e t�alis was not expl citly 1 a Pen s S\vi s � f 194 incl 2 ude fi. i d in Art 18 of the , r c1 e . e 111!1g .intention. In view e l.1i story in. Switzerland of including clo rsu t 18 ... of th un der intention the Swiss ourt • · g· ''A · . oes reason1 d mpl 18, 1 e ? i n Art. its . presence in . � io rovis must be consid�red t inc Iu� e p s . t i of . . [le do/ eventuel] as 1011g as the text not in the least exc lu�e t h 15 interpretation.'' J . des trib., p. 7 7. . 86. Id., p. 78.

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eventi,alis co11ld be i1lferred fro1n his action, the co11rt said, if dolus ct to · amount1�b rmful resul t occurri11g ''would have imposed itself on the l1a the of ility th� :0 1 actor in s11cl1 a way t�at lus act . c�t1ld 11ot be interpreted in any the roin 1 tl1e acceptance of this res11lt''; 1f; 1n other words, the probability 1 tha way 0 s11gar l1 r th d bee11 d· e live. ob ective ly to so high that it would able � beii1g }h�� � � t _tl1at therefore, lie 0 to Elsasse1 clear , and been m11st l1ave been had to have occ11r w�1�11 l1e accepte� tl1e buyers� mo11ey. Tl1ere was res11lt a such t1ave to ��fng the. prob�b1l1ty w�s this h1gh. Tl1e ev�dence produced by tl1at case _the in of pro 00 refore, fatled to establ1sl1 a do/tis eve11ti1a/1s fra11d beyond a the , ecut1011 pros the 87 doubt. reasonable general du Canton cle Vaud, The later Swiss case of C1·ete11oud c. Proci11·ei1r decided by the federal Co111· de Cassation in 1960,88 further explains tl1e meaning of dolzJS eve,1t11aliLr,.89 Crete11011d was the n1anager of a lciosque, a small retail shop tl1at sells newspapers, cigarettes, cl1oco]ates a11d tl1e like. His duties were to take care of the kiosq1Je, sell the merchandise providecl to hi111 by his em.player a11d t11rn over all saJes revenues to l1is employer. For this he received a fixed salary. From th.e begi11ning, C retenoud seen1ed n101·e interested in enjoying hi1nself than in ,vorking. He ope11ed the store late. I-le freque11ted cafes or went to watch spo rt­ ing events, leaving care of tl1e store at tl1ese t.imes · to other persons, sometimes children. He neglected his bookkeepi11g, ofte11 returning 11nsold ne\vspapers to l1is employer too late for lus employer to receive rei1nbursement f rom the p11blisher. At the time he left his job, about one year after l1e \Vas l1ired, he was keeping no records at all and \Vas unable to acco1111t for Sw. fr. 7,826.50 (roughly Eth. $ 4,800). Cretenoud was prosecuted for ''u11faithf11l management'' 11nder Art. 159 of the Swiss Penal Code, the model for Art. 663 of the Etl1iopian Penal Code (''Mis­ managemen · t of private inte rests'').90 Botl1 p1·ovisions p11nish the pe rso11 who inten­ tionally causes harm to anotl1er's property with wl1ich he was legally o r co11tr­ actually entrusted. Cretenoud v1as con'✓icted on the theory that he had ha rmed his employer's property interests witl1 dolus eventitalis. His state of mind in this regard col1ld easily ?e proved. He could not have been opposed to injuring his employer's financial interests to have behaved the way he did. The probability of causing harm to his

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87· The t�i�l court and, apparently, the prosecutor l1ad mistakenly believed that awareness of the . possibility of the harm's occ11rring migl1 t alone allow an inference of do/1.1s eve11tualis. Otl1er relev_ant evidence on. the issue of dolz-1s ever1ti1alis n1ay have existed but \Vas not prodl1ced or cons1dered at tl1e triaJ. Tl1 erefore, tl1e case \Vas retl1rned to t]1e trial court for reconsideration. 88· rib. fed., Switz., Jan. 13, 1960, J. cles trib. (Droit penal), p. 74. Tl1 e translation of �l1is J ase appears 1n Lowenstein work cited above at 11ote 30, p. 143. Tl1e double translation pro blem mention ed above at' note 83 does not exist in tl1e Crete11011d case since Cretenol1d's tongue \Vas French and l1ence tl1 e opinion was written i n Frencl1. 89 · he case is considered a significant one witl1i11 Switzerland. See co111n1ent on case by. C. � �nnar<l, J. des trib., cited above at note 88, p. 79, also translated i11 Lowenstein, work cited a ove at note 30, p. 145. 90· Art. 159 of the Swiss Penat o.f ano�her resources tl1e dissipates Code reads in part: ''Wl1oever e p son entr usted to hin1 by law or contract sl1all be confined in prison. • • • '' Translation, �d Fr1e lander & G oldb above at note 84, 54. erg, \vork cited p. Ar 663 of contrac­ or the I _legal is ia Etl1iop oever Wl1os n ''(1) Penal JJart: � n i reads Code tu;i, Y _ botio<l uses c y l al_ tiori nten to 1 � �110 ch �nd wat , tl1er a11o r of ove 1ts y rigl tl1e propert pre·Ju_dice _ ther eto by misusing his powers or by failing i 11 J1is dt1t1es, 1s punisliable ,vith siiiiple im·Pr1so nment or fine."

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.s b llaviollr ·(iiot keepi11g records, lea,,ing tl1e store in th employer by _hi ; spapers in time for his e! ?re of new rn retu to ing fail n ldre others,_ son1et11nes hi er to v abl: k · ista was t111m pf Y r clea c er) lish pub . Ac tl1e ord· e t from einJbu s r et � e;} � eventualis tl1at could n.ot be draw11 i11 Elsasser's case b;�g Y, the ; e e o r s nfe e the u ed t pro not . high was , v � � o be o 1 n �. 01 e11 buyers tl1e c 1gh to arm of t y l b 1 1_ l d be a b pro u 91 , , drawn 10 Cretenoud s case. 011 i!1fere11ce �Ione. There was y rel to ve I1a r tito sec pro sepa rate . No.r did the . 11d m1 A nd of frie te sta of 's l1is ud no ete Cr of who was a1so, ce den evi t · c e , 1r d e n1or . . ' his . . b a bl. pro . � nc� eque 1e co11s t 1 . o f s hin1 of ed \\,ar11 behaviour a l<-iosque 111anager, had te 111a ord st1b ad A . Ii . l1er quit over the \Va · at gh Jat1 to n bee had e ons His resp h e � i e 110 11ge mad I1ad cl1a 11d teno i11 e Cr yet l is behav lour. was n1anaging the kios· qite, · • d t t I b e wan · 11 011 y td e_11Joy I111nself ev l c1n wor · 111 d te s � ntere 1 t 110 was he lly, Plait if it restilted i11 harm to his2 e111ployer's interests: the selfish attitude which is t�: hallmark of doliLs eve11tz.talis. �V�1at �s also interesting _about tl1e Cr�te11oitd �ase is tl1e Swiss co1 1rt's attempt to d1stt11g111sl1 doli1s eve11tualzs from adverte11t negl1ge11ce. Tl1e cot1rt observed whai l1as been poi11ted 011t before: tl1at there is a danger of COi1fusing the t\VO because each involves (l) the perso11's awareness that l1is actio11 1nay produce a harn1 for­ 'bidden by la\v and (2) l1is contint1ed actio11 i11 tl1e face of tl1at awarenes s. The point ''wllicl1 catcl1es the decisive difference '' bet\veen tl1e two states of mind, accord­ i11g to the court, is that the doli1s everztualis offe11der ''consents'' to tl1e production of the harn1, i.e., is willi11g to have it co111e about, wl1ereas the adverte11tly negligent offender ''far f'ron1 conse11ting to the eventt1aI resttlt of his acts, 011 the contrarv rejects it and expects tl1at it \Vi11 11ot come about. "93 Tl1e probabiJity of the l1arn1's occt1rri11g migl1t J1ave been l1igh enough i11 the Cretenoud case to constitu te knowledge of certainty or near certainty, tl1e second kind of intentjon considered in Part I. TI1e trial court, in fact, I1acl foL111d tl1is intention. T11e cantonal and federal appellate courts did not feel it necessary to ''go that far." It may l1ave been that t�e appellate cot1rts wanted this opportunity to clarify the doli,s eve11tt1alis standard within S\VJt• zerland in view of son1e confusion as to tl1at sta11dard in earlier decisions. See co1nn1ent on case by C. Bonoard, cited above at note 89. 92. Tl.ie reference to Cretenoud's do/us ever1ti1alis attitude of ,vanting ''to enjoy hin1self" even al !I1 e expens� of his employer's interests does not co11flict \Vitl! the. earlier analy�is of the.perso� in Graven s example who drank alcohol ''in order to enJoy l11mself" knowing ch at ne l�a to drive and_ not ca.ring abou t hitting a pedestrian. See above at note 81, and accon1pa nyin � text. The writer acknov.:Iedge�I tl1ere that tl1e attitt1de of tl1e person in Grav en's exan1ple con::ie tute_d � do/us eventua!Ls c1:tt1tude. W�at \Vas pointed 0L1t tl1er� i� that Art. 50 _(l) 0 E th iopian Penal Code specifically requires tl1at tl1e p11rpose of dr1nk1ng be to con111:1 t frirni· nal offence and. lience a do/1,s evi:ntualir attitude is not sufficient under that Articl e.a In t .he" case 0.f botli th� S\.viss _and Etl1iopian · provisio11s on ''n1is111anagement ?f p rivate. int��1���s tl 1ere is no specific requirement as to the pi1rpose of tl1e ofTender's action (see the '·r gui·11· quoted above at note 90) and , therefore, do!11s fo eve11ti1alis is a suflicier1t state of mirr d 1 actes ses . 93. The court's opinion reads· " • . . I'au teur de ' · eve , . "OtL1el tat I rcsu 01n cle . I au consent1r at · ' ve b • o · 1e refiuse· au con tra�re et compte qt1'iJ ne a d .'' (J. des tr,b., ci·te " s e prod pas L1ira the n�te 88, pp. 77-78,) incorre_ctly rendered as: e case th of in Lo tra we nsl to 11st ati ein on 's fu�e� o �nder, far. fr �m consenting to th v ry re 144, cont a 1 e 1e I1is e r 011 entu st tJ al lt acts r of e be1 1eve th·at 1t:• 1n fa · ct'. Wt·11 come about." Lo\venstein, ,vork cited' above at note 30 . P· be ' rnaY O�he � w1ss cases illustrating furtl1e 1 ty us eve11t11al�fc1e that do/ Vi'l1ic] 1 r tl f { e pes in offen ces o re p s en o l ow. The first referenc e r a C.) . P (E . i to s , a.l code tl1e .Ethiopian Penal Code l correspond s to t11e swis� · en · pena . 1 Code offence involved in tl1e case. Tl1e s 55 J n \V�-e (S.P.C.) articl e and c·Itat1on to . s of t Sv,1iss pe a the Code articles h ave been taken from Journal des Tribu11au,'C follow. Title ve at 1n ote 84 . Trans· lations of the cases were done fo Friedl�nder & Goldbe rg, work cited ab? (see no te 78 above), r the wr iter by Miss Marta Rozanko,vskyJ

91.

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. is al tu us en ol d ev g n yi pl ap r fo GeneraI ruJes the that ev oli,s ntitalis show actor's cases � attitude of willingS\viss � two e . Thes . . he makes to accept causing harm ''as part of the bargai11,"94 ion decis ness is a

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or false aclulterated goocls. (S.P.C., Art. 154. Selling adulterated Uttering 400. Art. P.C. E oods.') Pr�bst :· �linistere pt1bl}c clt� can�on de Zt1ri�l1 (T�ib. fed.? S':"itz., 1:Jay 1, 1963), ' Tl1e 111te11t1on of cl1eat1ng tl11rd part1�s 1n business relations . i 7,: p. penal), (Dro1t trib. des j_ . . . not excl11ded by tl1e fa':t �l1a� tl1e firn1 . . . l1as �old tl1e coins to the appellant ex­ is pressly declaring tl1at _the)' _\vere 11!11tat1ons. E�en l1e_ wl10 11?for1ns th_e fir�t buyer cot1ld have imitated the n1erchand1se vy1tl1 _a view to _cheating tl11rd parties, especially if be l1as the direct idea or even only t11e possible idea of see111g st1bseqt1e11t bt1yers cl1eated. . . . At tl1e very least, the possibility of leading st1bseqt1e11t bttyers into erroneous concl11sions cou]cl be so evident to the mant1factt1rer that l1is act sl1ot1ld be i11ter1,reted as an approval of cl1eating.'' B.P.C., Art. 539. Co111□1on vvilft1l irijt1ry. (S. P. C., Art. 123. Simple assault.) Annen c. Minis­ tere pt1blic du canton de Vaud (Trib. fed., Switz, May 15, 1959), J. des trib. (Droit penal), p. 99. Father abused l1is rigl1t of correction by striking l1is eleven year old son witl1 a leather belt because the son haci stolen n1oney fro1n his wallet; ''From tl1e fact tl1at Annen let him­ self be seized by a fit of anger, grabbed a leatl1er belt and lashed l1is son a good number of times on ,rarious regions of tl1e bocly, one n111st conclL1de that lie voluntarily caused the bodily injuries. Indeed, l1e mt1st l1ave known tl1at l1is action wot1ld necessarily bring them about, and even if l1e did not exactly want this result, be at least accepted it as such.'' (Query, 110\.vever, whetl1er this is not ''knowledge of certainty or near certainty,'' ratl1er than do/us evet1t1-1alis.) E. P. C., Art. 594. Sexual outrage on infants or yot1ng persons. (S. P. C., Art. 191. Immora­ lity ,vith cl1ildren.) Langenegger et co11sorts c. 1'Ainistere public dt1 canton de Scbwyz (Trib. fed., Switz., February 11, 1949), J. des trib. (Droit penal), p. 6. Accused had sexual inter­ course with t\.vo girls below tl1e prescribed age (16, in tl1e Swiss provision); if the accused "acted with the idea tl1at tl1e girl cot1.ld l1ave been 16 or even older, but tl1at they also l1eld that it was possible that she was younger [and] were determined to act even in the latter case," then they acted ,vith do/us eve11ti1alis. E. P. C., Art. 656. Fraudt1lent misrepresentation (S. P. C. Art. 148, Frat1d.) Schmid c. Minis­ tere public du canton de Bale-Ville (Trib. fed., S\vitz., Sept. 13, 1946), J. des trib. (Droit penal), p. 18. The offence of fra11dulent misrepresentation is committed by making misstatements 10 applying for a loan when tl1 e lender ''must have considered it, if not certain, at least very probable tl1at he would not be able to pay off in time'' and he accepted tl1at rest1lt. E. P. C., Art. 686. Unjustifiable preference (S. P. C., Art. 167. Pri,1ilege to one creditor.) Schodler et Hagenbucl1er c. Ministere public dt1 canton d'Argovie (Trib. fed., Switz., Marcl1 24, 1948), J. des trib. (Droit penal), p. 143. Tl1 e debtor, Schodler, kt1owing l1e was insolvent (st1cb kno\vledge is sufficient for the Swiss })rovision \Vl1ereas tl1e Etl1iopian provision also requires the debtor to be ''bankrupt or [have] given a declaration of defat1lt''), gave l1is creditor, Hagenbucher, a mortgage as sect1rity for a loan when l1e was not required to do so; do/1,1s eventualis if Schodler ''positively foresaw'' that l1e \Vas favoring one creditor to tl1e l1arm of the others ''with enot1gh serio11sness so that the gt1arantee by 1neans of tl1e mortgage could not reason ably be interpreted in any other way than tl1e acceptance of tl1is rest1lt." . B. P. C., Art. 744, Code of Petty Offences. Violation of provisions regarding lotteries, gamb­ lmg_ and betting. (Arts. 4 and 6, Swiss Federal Jaw on gaining establisl1n1ents. Prohibition st , gaming_ establisl1ments.) Stierli et consorts c. Ministere pt1blic du canton de Zoug _ri · fed., Switz., Jt1ne 17, 1955), J. cles trib. (Droit penal), p. 21. Proprietor of a tavern t;� � a. to stop g�mbling fr_om go�ng _on wl1en l1e ,vas preset�t in tl1e tavern, l1o�vever ?id bing to stop it from going on going gat11bl1ng _ of disapprove� ]1ad l1e ''If absence. 111s 1n on wh�n I,e was not tl1ey after tl1ere, since, he 1etl1111g to prevent 1t, so11 done have wot1lcl had tried to _contin could l1e t1e 01)positio11, l1is playing of SJJite in 1,resence l1is in illegally infie� that this wot1lcl 1 is conclttsion \Vas so clearly Tl l1a1)pen abse11ce. l1is n1ore even i11 ob to im tl1�t tl1_e [trial cot1rt] . . . cot1ld inter1 )ret l1is passivity as approval of the � ga;• 1�: g o �ng of tl,e 744 o Art. facts 1n sa�11e his tl1e on 1ent." (Note tl1at n i establisl1n g Code .0 f Petty . . n1ust nder e off tl1e nces e Off tl1at es specifi 1t WOllld 1se ted becat be viola 11ot "organ1z"'' - ' the ga , mbl.1ng, etc. ''f.or profit.") 94. The actor's " · . . fo · t he ..actor's ,, . k' t a I ter111 ing-t ' e h t 1s eq me 1 1e-cons . nal l11/cai1f ( 11' -barga1 11to-tl1e uence-1 state of nitotl j �, appiov . _ 111�. of idea comm tl1e only w1tl1 often d applie 0L1gl1 1 altl ny, in Germa the consequ Silviog, Wor enc�s (billige11de lnkai,fnaf1me). Warnke, worl<: cited abo,,e at note 54, P· 4 ' k cited above at note 21, pp. 226-27.

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. mplisl1n1er1t of the end Ile h . acco . the for pay to as i n · th·e price he 1s rea dy o t b ue en e .rs rev n1p 1 es sal er oy nd. of •� " ag s los t ain h the · st d he g i 18 Cretenot 1d . we to ar s the d acce h pt 1n 1ploy hi er e11 to ss E . . own decid e lsa . and , 1 n e m er y Jo 11 ,1, . . Perso. 11a 1 e ghed Wei , . . 1 d ' b s . 1 a1<:e 1a t 1e d at t pat h t for r st1ga a -ag ng veri deli inst h.18 ot n _ iarnl 1 ing caus_ O\v e pro ce n ffi de1 i \Vas ev. cJ n 1 1 d11c inst the gh tl thou cie al t d , t a , O y · e prov desire for mo11e k s. a It, b h er e t to 1 rn a b e th t ep cc a to d . dec1'de n 1ay· 11ave se cases Vlhicl1 most soci· tl1o of ve tati esen repr are sser Elsa . aiid d O t u. Cre.en t·1es vie , . easy t. o . e se� t·h I�, is, � case at _ the s11ch 111 actor was Willi ful. harm ly cular parti as not . \ n\ ed ast 11tr Co l1 11. ,v1.t ga1 bar ten Cre tl1e of oztd and El to accept the 1 1arm ''as part sserg s u�� d 1s by cat tl1e ar 1 or e act th. e: l m i great, s are cases \Vhere the gravity of as es of cas at In gre tl1. dea 1n, l1ar 's so11 per it is difficu� w11e11 tlle liarm is another find that tlie actor ,vould be willi11g to accept the l1ar m '' as part of the barga in�� Wliat is being suggested here is the firs � consicleration for judgin g cases of clolus eve, 1ti,alis: tfze gravity of the har111 cai,sed by t!1e. actor. \,Vhere. thc1t harm is great, the court n1ust presume the actor was not . ,�11ll111g to a�cept 1t, that instead he opposed the occurre11ce of tl1e ba�m and cont1nt1ed the act1011 \-vhich created a risk of that harm only becat1se h� believed the harm ,vot1ld 11ot oc�t1r. This "pre­ sumptio11'' in great l1arn1 cases \V1ll h.ave the effect tl1at all prest1mpt1ons have, that of alerti11g the j11dge to tl1e greater th.an normal _need. for clear a11d convincing . e\iidence of tl1e existence of the do!its eve11titalis att1tt1de l'h'

all cases of dolit.i, eventualis, the seco11d co!'1sideratio1z will be to cleter111ine H,/1,et/1er tlze actor 11}/1en fze acted 1vas civvare of tlze possibility of the l1ar111's occ11r­ rir1'<. The cot1rt can infer llis awareness from the circ11111sta11ces of the case: if an ordi11ary and reaso11able 111a11, k11owing tl1e sa1ne facts as the actor, would have been a\vare of the particular risk of l1arm, tl1e court may asst1me tl1at the actor \.Vas aware. Tl1is infere11ce, like all infere11ces, ca11 be rebt1tted by a11y evidence sho,v­ ing that, despite wl1at an ordinary a11cl reasonable 111a11 would l1ave been a,varc of, the actor was in actt1al fact not a\vare of the risk ot· 11 arm. It mt1st be remen1bered that this elen1ent of awareness is common to bot 11 doli,s· eve,z.tualis and advertent negligence and hence by itself can11ot co11stit11te l)roof of dolz1.r; eve11tualis. A,llareness of the possibility of harm was all that was proved i11 the Elsasser case, a.nd the prosect1tion for tl1at reaso11 failed. The t!1ird cor1,sideration, the most diffict1lt for the court, is to detertnine lvheffler I' th� a�tor possessecl the attititde reqitirecl /01 · doli1s eve 1tz1alis. I1: n1aki11g_ tl1is de ��� : mi,�ation,_ the �ourt mL1st be 011 tl1e lookout for certa111 categories of ev1de 11ce fr . which this att1tt1de 1uay be establi shed. These c,1 tegories are: . (a) The significance to the actor of the end lie was seekina or the motire �o� c,� p� which he acted. Since the clolits event1,1a/is att tt1d e ''th i e l1as bee11 desc;ibed as 011: �the actor] is eady to pa� f?r the accom in_ as 1 I I plis111 uent of th.e end l1e � to it follows tl�at the more s1g111fica11t tl1a t ll \ I r act o tl1e t ,1vil li110end e n1o tl re 1 V b . 0 0, 10 . t ac . . ''pay the . price'' Of c.a 1is1· ng l1a1.m. The 111ot1v 5 r c 1s tl1e reaso11 for tl1.e acto 011ey . ich s ca ti . sed . w hii n to act For e xample, i�1 Elsasser tl1c en� sotigl1.t a : 1 cy, ���: 1:� 01 _ n sho\vn tl1at. Els also bee for asser was mot1 vc1 ted b y a special 11eed • chil d, his . .g.' to pay off some pressing debts y or to pay for a n op--ration 11eeded b to cause I � ow �uc11 easier it would ha ve bee11 to conclude th;t l1e was vvilliog I' pecuniary harrn to the bakers • as a conseque11ce of getti11g tl1at money. to ss c n ng (b) A ·11· c t o m n t h ate e ts of t e actor tending to demonstr.ate his. w• �e tenoud's } hav the h:;ma s r s c e .I occur. A good exan1ple 15 nc e ev of tl1is category of ide ii I11

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probable of friend the co11seql1e1 a 1ces b · y of his behaviour. war11ed tl whe h r d�tern1ining �11e relevance of this in e� kind of nee evidence to be w�ll � . ca!e Jau!i!! Sp sect1011, · we will see several exan1ples of acts or state­ this 111 e. attitud tor's c t1po11 analy�is, are see11 bl1t, to be ambiguous or vv1l1olly releva11t ar appe tliat ::n:S , . va11t rrele i �r·11e clear ad1nissions. adn1issio11 _ o r co11fessio�1 by tl1e _ov,·n accused'� The (c) 1 1ll111g l1ave tl1e l1ar111 to co111e abot1t w1ll be rare. f.Aore fre­ Vi vvas }1e th,tt tor a� il will be cases whe1·e t]1e _act�r adn1�ts t? _tl1e a11tl1orities so1:11e fact or dispo ­ ie t iition fron1 ,vhich t�e. co1�1·t 1nay 111fer 111s w1ll111gness. I-Jere, again, th� _c_o11rt 1nu�t be careft11. A11 adn11ss1�11 by the actor �l1,1t he was_ awa�e of t}1e JJoss1b1l1ty of his actio11 cat1si11g h,1.r111 ,v1ll ]1ave 110 bear111g llJJ011 his attitude toward that foreseen t to tl1e seconcl only co11siclera ion described abo,,e. In t11e three relevant is . It rm ha homic ide cases to be aJ?,alyzed later· i11 tl1is sectio11, we ,vill examine a 11t1mber of adiuissio ns, so111e l1elpft1l a11d some 11ot l1elpft1l in determining the existe11ee of the doli,s event11alis attit11de. (d) The probability of tl1e harm's occurring. This .particuJa1·Iy valuable category of evidet1ce resen1bles tl1e secorid co1·1sicieratiorz above, except that instead of aware­ ness of possibility, ,ve deal he1·e with a,vare11ess of _probabili(y. Objective probability of harm ]1as been considered earlier . a s a sepa1·ate theory of doli,s eventttalis.95 Its evide ntiary role in proviJ1g the existe1.1ce of tl1e doli,s eve11ti1alis attitude has also been Gonsidered earlier, in con11ection v1itl1 the Elsasser and C1··etenoucl cases. In t·hose cases it ivas sl1ow11 that the mo1·e probable the harm appeared to t]1e actors the

more likely it is that l1e was willi11g to have the harm occ111· when lJe acted. Its value as evidence will increase as the degree of p1·obability increases. Analysis of a hypothetical case offered by Dr. P. Grave11 will show how these considerations and categories of evide11ce interact.

''A is driving a car a11d B, his 1:>assenger, points to rum that l1e drives too fast and might l1it son1eone. To whicl1 A replies: 'You needn't \Vorry. I'm � �ood driver a11d nothing is going to happe11.' A moment later, B again 11 1s1sts that A sho11ld slo,¥ down. A then answers: 'I've told yo11 before I'm a good driver. Anyway, it's two o'clock in the morning, tl1e police are asleep and nobqdy will see us if something shol1ld happen.' Thereupon, A r11ns down a pedestrian who dies."96 's respon.se to B's firs1: war�1ing �011fir1ns A's awareness of t�e possi?ili�y of � stri kin� someone, �he sec�11d cons1cl�1·at1on a_b_ove. As Graven says, �t also 1nrucates his attitli de of . hav111g ''reJect�d'' this poss1b1l1ty, another \vay of say1ng that he was ppose d to such a rest1lt and only co11tint1ed drivi11g at an excessive rate of speed � use e believed he v1as a good driver a11d so ,vo11ld 11ot strike anyo11e-tr1e h a-�� 1 de of _adverte11t 11eglige11ce. Graven tl1e11 says that after the seco11d stateme11t to _ ��B ag' a. It 18 virt ually certain that [A] J1ad accepted the possibility of cat1sing a result rnst whic]1 B had [a of gul1ty ore, theref l1e is, d tl1at warne and him t\vice do! . :::n!ualis aft:: n1ind his ho ged cha11 icide again he tl1at le obab it for i1npr , is rn l · king th.is second state1 nent."97

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-95. see above at pages 389-390. 96 · Graven . d 1 , wor c cite above at note 7, p. 158. 97 · Ibid. '

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f e'' 01· drivir1g ,lt a 11 e otiv '·1n A's e vid pro not s doe xces si. v r en v Ga e �te of l t no ci,L tl1a spe e , tiv ore mo ref the s exi ue, 1 u. ass te st mu "' d. ,�re speed ra 11d A ccord1ng '' A couId I1ave 1 1ad l· n ·1n1n_ · d t_o �as that of dri ''end only , the ie facts tl in h v 1 g so d e11 a rav oes G 11ot . d e spe give of . IS rate facts from v atttomobile at a fast cb to er o11 a u tl1at k l t i ld \\'Ot1 ; s � be ? prob � al1 l� of str ee degr ic � . , the rnine deter s c . . ! tl1e nL1mb�r of person 11 t�e acttial speed 0� t11e car, th� dr1v�ng c�1 1d1t1011s s _ _ 0 the 111 tl1 e mor11111g ,v11e11 th Ho\tvever· , tl1e t11ne stated 1s 2 .00 etc. roadway e stree.ts, . · ' · · 1e e b b p y. t Tl · o 11 · 1 · d b y r, 1na 1 p1 no a 1 . are . 1ty r�1 city, of a y o y b eve11 10 tlie capital . eing ' no , t atter 1 11: sl1gb. as ured n1eas wl1at be tl1e must speed of A s struck, tI1 erefo . • re, car · ' s. 1 1 rt10 98 d n · co 11g 1v1 dr a11d tl1e The only evide11ce to establisl1 tl1e ex..iste11ce of t11e doli,s eventua!is attit d 1 good driver'' ao. d a t!1at ''is tl1at _l1e B ''a11y\v�y, to statemen_ t A's it's two o�c�c i in the 1nori111 1g, the police are asleep a11� nobody will see 11s 1.f somethi i1 g should Jiappen." T�1is stateme�t appears to be ev1de11ce, und�r category (b)_, of A's willing­ ness to strike pedestr1a11s ratr1er th.a11 slovv dowi1 tl1e speed of h1s car. Ho\.vev. measured agai11st the first co11sicleratio11, na1nely, lhe 1Jrest1n1ptio11 against an acto;;� willi 11 gness to ca11se great l1arn1 a11d the 11eed, tl1 erefore, for partic11Jar]y clear and c0 - 11vi11cing e\1idence of st1c]1 a11 attitt1de, th.e e,1idence of ,\'s staten1en.t is 110t suffi. cient to prove A's dolits e11enti1alis state of mi11d. TI1is first co11sicleratio11 and the co1nplete lack of a11y other evide11ce ir1 the case-110 sigi1ificat1t end or motive, no ad1nissio11s, 110 probability of the l1arm's occt1rr.i11g-force a judge to v.ie,v the state­ ment very skeptically. It i s possible, ot� cot1rse, that A meant ,vhat l1e said, that drivi11g hjs car at a higl1 rate of SJ)eed vvas so i111porta11t to J1im (perhaps as it ga,,e l1i11 1 a feeli11g of power) tl1at be v✓as vvilli11g to rt1r1 a pedestrian do\.v11 rather tha11 slow l1is car dow11. B11t it seems jt1st as possible tl1at A did 11ot 1nea n what he said . Indeed, co111ing ,ifter A's first statement to T:3 tl1at 11othi11g \vould l1appen because A is a good driver a11d B's ir1siste11ce for tJ1e second tin1e that ''A should slo,v dow11,'' it is possible that A, a1111oyed at B's seco11d i11terrt1ptio11, said ,vhat he said just to sh.tit B 11p. It is also possible that A at tha.t ti1n e of 11igl1t tittered the statement due to tiredness arid not seriously. This state111ent, i11 otl1er words, is too ambiguous to be the basis for a conviction of a11 offe11ce as grave as dolus e11e11tualis homicide. If we con1pare A's state111ent to : B ,vitl1 tl1e laugl1ter of t11e accused in_ tbe Cretetzoucl case, tl1e interaction of tl1ese co11siderations a11d categories of eviden ce e beco1nes eve11 clearer. Cretenot1d's lat1gl1ter cot1ld . also l1e i11terpreted i11 an inooc _ : � _ v;,ay-for exa.mple, a person 111ay la·ugl1 as 1n11cl1 fron1 11ervo11st1ess ,ts from n11rtli�b ly ve relau 9 it is instead ''evidence of the highest probative val11e'' 9 beca11se of tl1e l?\V har111 involved in tl:e �ase a 1d he ver 1-Ligh -:,robabili.ty of tl1at har.n�'s occ:; : � 1 � ring. �no_ther. way of v1e\v1ng this, 111 p rl1 ttlar the key role of tl1e gravitY.. o � � harm in JUdg1ng cases of doltLJ' everzt z1al1s, 1s to ask wl1etl1er v\ e ,vould 1: esit, t rely upon A.'s stateme11t to B if it \Vere a 111atter of rL1n11i 11g over a cl1icken. 1

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riib \� e . cid · · 98. TI1e circu msta�ces rn.ake 1! doubtft1l wl1ether A cot1ld evefl be conv1.ct�d _of. l10mi he night, _ nt negligence. Judging from t a�verte 1 the way n1ost people flri\�a at �J1r�t t1n e �fe nce un�er A _s conduct does not appear unreasonable enougl1 to conslitt1tc r11 11n l ne ess1�e � 1 a g\,� exc t Al. t . 59 (l) of tl1e Code. It h.as ge11erally tes t ·ke and ki. ll bee t1el i11 the U111ted St a 11 d r1 speed alo,ie doe s not make a person liable st J,e d sho ul l1on hon1icide l'icide for neg lige nl �omebody, altb?ugh, _ad.mi!tedly, tl1e s tandard f�r crii11i11al 11eglige11ce, at le ast \v her�k.Jyn, The o (Br ts cooce_rned, is stricter in the United La1 11 l Cri rnina States · R · Per· kins ' Foundation Press, 1957), pp. 667-68, 671. 99. J. des trib., cited above at note 88, p. 78 .

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e whe do/us el'e cases lis ntu is 1uore likely to _exist is bar1n great ; of � class _ A e s death son1eo while 1n t!1e col1rse of carry111 g out l1ses c � wl10 � actor . that Of tlie itself da11gerot1s to l1fe. offence ii These cr1m111al are offences like a 111 fro g i or ���ap or aggravated robbery (Ar.ts. 636 a11� 637 of _tl1e P �11al Code), rape (Art. ri�) ;5011 (Art. 488), aggravated 11.legal restra111t or '' k1_ d11app1ng'_' (Art. 561 (I) (b) ), 5 1 ays 1.11cl11de two categories of e,11de11ce from ,vbicl1 al\\ cases of 'Thes e types the sjg11ifica?· ce �.f the end the acto1· is seeking and i1nplied: be ca11 ,alis eventi ���ts _ . his 111otive for act111g (categor�, (a)) a11cl th.e dange.rot1s n1ea11s or acts employed (category (b) ). A si111ilarity exists betvvee11 tl1is cl,1ss of 1Jote11tial clolus e1,e11ti1alis cases a1 1d the so-called ''felo11y-n1t1. rde1·'' rt1le cleve101Jed i11 Engla 11d 100 and applied i11 the United States. This rule as ge 1 1erally stated deen1s the actor gt1ilty of the eq11ivale11t of iote11tional ho111icide, \vl1at is called i11 tl1ese cot1ntries a ''kil1i11g wi tl1 malice'' or ' 'with 111alice aforetl1ought," v�·be11eve1· he cat1ses a perso11's de ath i11 the cot1rse of c on11Ditti11g or atte1npti11g to co1J1111it an offe11ce da11gerous to life. 1 0 1 The rationale for tl1is rttle .is st1pplied by the America11 writer, Perl<i11s: '' Certain cri111es such as arso n, rape, robbery and bt1rglar:'.)', have bee11 fot111d to i 1 1volve such an l1nreaso11able element of l1uma11 risk, eve11 if the v1rongdoer had no sl1ch thought in mind at the start, that one perpetrati11g or atte1111Jting sl1cl1 a11 offe11ce is held to l1ave a state of nlind \\ lticl1 also falls t111der tl 1e la·be1 of '111alice aforethot1ght' so that if homicide is cat1sed thereby it is m11rder, l10\\1ever t111i11te11ded tl1e killi11g may be. " 102 The extraordi11ary aspect of tl1e A 11g1o-American ''felo11y-1ul1rder'' r11le is disclos­ ed by the last phI·ase i11 Perkins' state111e11t, ''ho\vever l1ni11te11ded the lcilli11g 111ay be." Any killing caused by a11 acto1· who v1as e11gaged i1 1 the commissio11 of an offe11ce dangero11s to life is treated as if i t ,vere intentional and is punisl1able ,1s slich. 103 This is more a 111.atter of social policy tl1a11 legal theory: the offe11cler is warned that he ,vill be liable to a charge of intentio11al homicicle shot1ld he eve11 acciden­ tally cal1se anotl1er perso!1's death ,vl1ile e11gaged i11 co1n111.itti11g an offence dangerol1s 1

100. T e Homicide Act of 1957 ''p11r_ports to I1ave abolished'' the ''felony-n1urder'' rL1le in Engla11d, h but the language of tbe Act is not co11clt1sive. W. Russell, Ri1ssell on Cri111e (12th ed. by J. 'N. C. Turner, London, Stevens & So11s, 1964), pp. 467, 500-501, 503. 101. This is tl1e n1ore 1nodem state111ent of the ''felony-1nurder'' rt1le. Io tl1e early Britisl1 con1n1on law it was stated as a l1on1icide rest1lting fron1 an ''t111lawfL1l act'' not necessarily dangerous to life. Perkins, work cited above at note 98, p. 33. 102. Id., p. 713. A British · e interpreted aL1thor has st1ggested tl1at tl1e I-Iomicicle Act of 1957 b 10. nJa�e a killing in furtl1crance of a felony, ''n1t11·der," only if ''tl1e sL1bjective attitt1de of 1nd in the pri�oner revealecl by evi ence [is� tl1at ,vhet1 acti11g as /1e dicl !re realised tfrat � � ivas e,1cla11ger1ng tlze otlrer rr1a1L's tire ·, or' 1n otl1er \VOrds, that l1e consc1ot1sly took tl1e J' r isk f k'II' 1 mg the man." (Emphasis in origil1al.) Rt1ssel], work citecl above at note 100, p. SO�. 103 • fuhis a�proach has on occasion Jed in the United _States to astot1ncling rest1lts; for exa !11.� le .l1eld gt11lty of ''felony-n1t1rder'' wl1ere tl1e_ vlctn11 ne case, one of two robbers was of � he robbe y was t arson1 a11 shot _case, a11cl another I otl1er ro?ber. killecl tl1e . _ � � � held u lty of felony-mt1rcle r'' v1l1ere l1is acco111pl1ce, '\-Vh1le perpetrating tl1e arson ca1eJ essly, killedg111� mself . Con1mon,:vea]tl1 _v. T11omas (SLlJJ. Ct. Pe�1nsylv�nia, 1955), Pa. Rep., vol. 382, p. . 639' A tlant1c a11d Mate­ Cases Rep. ar110, I I(2nd A. 111 p. Series) JJrtnted 117 204 voJ. ' ' ' r.,a1s 011 C111 · I Lal v & J>rocec/1,1re (4tl1 eel.� Cl1icago, Callagl1an & Co., 19_5 7) , P· ..-', 30 ·, • · nli7a . _ : Con1m on\.vealtl 11 tic At�a .:,50, 391, P v. vol. Bol1sl1 . ReJJ., Pa. (Su1J. � 9�8), Ct. Pennsylvania, · � Rep. 2 d Se ies K.adis � : r ), vol. 138,_ J) 447. These and s10 11lar types of cases are. �11 sctissed 111 · . Brown nd I\1. Pat1lsen, Cr1n111: 1al Lau, a11cl Its Processes (211d ed., Boston Little, . Co ·, 1969) =>c·· 11nsylvan1a · • J t pp· 347.- 48. Th e dec·1s10 · 1 ttei seq SLl b · y a 0 1n Tf1orr1as was overrL1Jed b · Sup reine Court . ' dec1s1on, Com111on1vvealt:h v. Reclline, 1Jrinted icl., pp. 342-4?.

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.ter . Wm fror11 co n111uttiug ?e to d pe l1o is it ng rni wa � . . Tllrouoh this th at to Iite 111 a 1t t less 11111 co11 rti. Pa ge to dan l1im s roti tice ind 1 to na t leas 11 e ,:, at r n u la.r offie nce or e. o g., ( d pty . an e1n r itl1 l1e rat t 11 tha ery bb o vv a r · a it lo de gun.)'°" ?i nduce the ro_b,b er to do1nm . . . . . : '' n 1 e, r11l us · r d�l rde ntzt eve 11 y-m lo11 ''fe alzs . an ternls ca eric -Am glo An e Th. n g a s l111 wa be w1I to �r e11q off e s . tl1e c,tu t tha ely h siv not zclu co, er' J)erso, ume· . ·11 l 'b�e sa1'd to pres. . ' ' ·ive . Th. � '.Ge lo11y-1u11rder ' n s c t a o .eg I. b1s g r1n tl1e ft1r of rtile there. death as t.l1e price ' fi:oll!S eve11tuc1l1.s· r11 le for SllCb. sitt · e tl1 nl fro ct pe as l ca iti cr a tat . ' 1 'erS in 1or .&' e, d'fi ions . . . In , t 1)L . · t en1 t· a o lt 01 . llffi cor on an 1ss1 n1n co1 offe s or' act nce dangerous . lis , tlie do/u· s eve,1 tua · · •fro111 \Vh'h · o t a n ve ita1·is t·'t d ..., tts .,, e .ti illS c,o u t 1c 1nay be imp lied ce e11 id ev 11y 01 is e lif to . e L1rd 11s y-m lon .1110 ''fe r'' case fro1 n Engl a in fa ted stra illt1 is ce eren diff This 1 5 The accused ��s co1:_victe d of a ''fel��i� rd. v Bea � _ Director o_f Public. Prosecittiorzs_ . rotii·der'' for causing the deatl1 of a tb1rtee11 year old gi1l dt11111g a rape. The i 1 had struggled to escape a11d, in order to _ overco1ne her strt1ggles, tl1e accused ''placed his hand over l1er moutl1, and l11_s thurnb on her throat , thereby causin 106 Beard was gt1 lty of ''felo11y-n111rder'' regar l s · on." suflocati y b d es o f th; deatf her 1 . 1 actual state of bis mind when he pt1t 111s liand o,,er her 1no11tl1 and tl1urrib on her throat. It wo11ld have made 110 differe11ce whetl1er I1e 111ea11t only to qt1iet her so as to complete tl1e rape a11d whetl1er, i11 addition, he \vo11ld have abandoned his atten1pt to rape her l1ad lie kno\vn tJJat h.is actio11 \Vot1ld ca11se lier death. Had t11 e &a.111e case occ111·1·ed in :Etl1iopia, Beard's guilt of a llo!11s eventua/Ls ho1nicide wot1ld not J1ave bee11 clear. As stated, l1js goal of raping the girl and the inl1eret1t da11gero11sness of the acts i11volved would be releva11t evidence of his \Viiling­ ness to cause her death it1 tl1e event sl1e resisted. So \Vould be the higl1 probability o.f deatl1 fro111 his acts to stop her str11ggli11g. Ho\vever, all e viderlce i11 tl1e case neec/J· to be exa111ined to determine t/1e existence of clolus eve1zt1,1c1lis. For exan1ple, there was evidence in tl1e case that Beard v,as intoxicated whe11 lie co1nmitted the act of raping t11e girl. The Britisl1 HoL1se of Lords disnussed this evidence of il1toxication with the words: ''There \Vas certai11ly no evide11ce tl1at [.Beard] \Vas too drunk to form the intent oi' committi11g rape. Un.der tb.ese circu 1nstances, it ,vas proved that deatl1 was ca11sed by a11 act of violence do11e i11 tl1e fLtrtherance of the felony of rape. Sucl1 a killing is by tl1e la\. 1 of Englai1d 1nt1rder." 107 Tl1e evidence of intoxication, held by the col1rt to be irreleva11t to tt1e c1t1estion of ''fe!o11y-111�rder/' \Vould be relevant to the question of p1·obability a11d be11ce to tl1 at of .Beard·s gwlt of dolus eventualis homicjde. .If he \Vere drur1k, he 111igl1.t l1ave bee11 unaware of ho\v m11ch force he vvas using 011 the girl's 1not1th and tl1roat and tl111s l1ave been t111aware of the higl1 probability of her deatl1. ios

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.d���re.:; 104. This po� icy app!·o acl1 has_ b�e11 criticized: tl:e ase incre '' ... \.Vl1tre it is sougl1t to force _of_ a punishn1ent, 1t is usually accepted as \Viser to strike at the harm intc:n neJ· 11 er �Ile crinitual rath�r th.an at the greater l1arn1 possibl y flowi 11g fron1 l1is act \Vhic�i ,v�s :ti• ntled no r de sire? by hirn; th at is . to say! ..., to i ncre,ise pet1alties on feloni ��!:iati• ���:rly armed f�lonies-wJ1e never retaliatory force c,it1 be .fo.rcseen, rather than °? tRe�ponsi· ccasion s wh en the greater l ons 6) �p. 67. vel ''The i " ft in even Lla Fe t\1orris, N. har1 tes. t bl y S t e L etlial Acts of Otl1ers," Utliv. .Pe11r1s ,! 1a1· 19 5 vo J 1 1ia L ..Rel'., .1. 10 ( · ' 105. Ho use 0 f Lords, Eng., 1920 , All E ng. L. Rep . Re . privrt, 1920, I'· 21. /d 106 .. ., p. 23 .

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108.

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rt c?u tbe Wl1ich of by rd' 8 two acts caused tl1e Bea 1 c . d cate · · i . od 1 . clearly rnb1ne gir l 's cle·itl1 11ot was ' · 0 bec·at1se 1t was not mater1a e c ·J • tl1 be · 1 to the issue er _t 1 red . o appe ns a of ''felony-murder." It o ''c effect of the two act although g in . s tl1ere o at 1nd1.cat thr was a girl's m,: 1. rk t11e on able pr�s.sure'' f:rom th, e acc used's thumb. Id., p. 22.

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applying for rt1les ge11eral do lits tl1e eve11.tualis, _ let 11s. turn of·. st11dy her furt For Germany from one a11d cases, two from homicide Ethiopia .. nore 1 three . no\\' to leadi11g 011e i11 that cot111try 011 tl1e · st1bject of dolus tl1� is case. 1 erroa1 G The tl by 1e Ger111a11 Federal S11preme Court (the 1955 111 dec1ded vvas It • ·s eve11t1,1all· 109 Tl1e facts of tl1e case are as follows: tl1e tv✓o · accused, J a11d . of) 1 ts/ d sgerich of acqt1ainta11ce a11 t]1eirs, assa11lt M 011e to (Ger1na11 crin1inal r togetl1e d �otte f'n a11d acc11sed ot11er i11volved tl1e a11cl parties), of l1is take na111es 1no11ey the omit ' � a c ; clothir 1g. Their scl1e111e v\1as to re11de1� NI 1111.co11scio11s ,111d wl1ile he was uncon­ :�ous to take tl:c 111011ey a·11cl �lotl1i11g tl1ey Wc 111tecl. T11ey tho�gl1t �f t1:ree _separate metJiods of 1naking _I\1 1111co11sc1ot1_s. Tl�.e first ,:vas to pt1t. sleeping pills 111 �s coffee. This tl1 ey act11al.ly t1·1ed, bt1t tl1e pills d1cl 11ot p11t M to sleep. The seco11d idea tl1ey had \vas to overcon1e 11 b)1 force, faste11 a leatl1e1· belt aro1111d bis 11ecl< and tigl1ten it un til he lost co11sciot1sness. However, "''l1e11 t11ey l1ad an opportu11ity to 11se this plan, they did .11ot tal<e it._ !hey st1bseqL1�11t�y decided to abando11 tl1!s pla11, as they apparently told tl1e al1tl1or1t1es? for . tl1e s1gn1fica11t reaso11 t�at tl1ey d1d . not want. to risk cl1oki11g 1'tf to death. Tl1e1r tl111·d plan, cl1ose11 to avoid enda11ger111g f"1's life, was to knock 1:uiu ot1t by lutti11g J1j111 over the head ,:vith a small sandbag. One eveui11g wl1en J and 1( \Vere staying in r.A's flat, tl1ey decided to pt1t their sandbag plan into operatio11. When M ,vas asleep, J hit llim over the l1ead with the sandbag. Tl1e effect was not to 1·e11der 1·1 1111consciot1s, bt1t rat11er to v1ake liim 11p. \¥orse for 1· and K, tl1e sandbag S}Jlit OJ_Je11 011 the third blo,v. In the ens11i11g confusion at1d excite1nent, a11d ,v11ile J and l\A were grappling, K ran Olit of the roon1 and came back with a 1e21.t]1e1· belt. He tl1re,v it ove1· M's 11ead. He ,..vas able after s0111e fumbli11g to tigbte.n i t arollild M's neclc vvhile J l1eld 'l\.1's arms. M quieted , a11d J a11d K began to tie llim llD. Before tl1ey could :fi.11isl1, 1\1 regained co11sciousness ai1d again bega11 to strt1ggle witl1 J a11d K. K tigl1tened tl1e belt again. Whe·n J 11oticed tl1at M l1ad_ sto1Jped str11ggling a11d \¥as again c111iet, l1e told K to stop, which K did. Tl1e belt this ti1ne was left tightened arot1nd :tv1's neck, the e11d tl1r_ough the b11ckle. J a11d I( tl1e11 fi11is]1ed tyi11g M 11p and went abo·t1t th.e flat taking a 11111nber of ite111s of clothi11g a11d ·li11en. Wl1e11 they were fi11isl1ed, 11l's appearance alerted tb.eni to the fact tl1at be 1night be dead. They both tried to revive him, b11t in vai11. Tl1ey tberet1po11 left tl1e flat. M was, as tl1 ey had s11spected, dead. The Gern1an St11)re111e C611rt acl(110 1..vledged tl1at tl1e actio11s of J and K did 11ot a 1 attit11de of indiffere11ce towa1·d the life of M, b11t, 011 tl1e co11trary, s]1owed ;how '. , ; feelrng of resista11ce a11cl repL1gt1ance'' to,vard ca11sing lus deatl1. Tl1e co11rt 11ever­ t eless fou11d tl1at J a11d I( 11,td con11nitted ]1 oi11icide witl1 dolits eve,iti,ctlis a11d hence coul d �e pt111isl1ed for i11te11tio11al l10111icide. The vie\v of t11e co111·t \�1as tl1a.t tl1ey . were ,vill11 1g t� bri11g abot1t l\ !l's deatl1 i11 spite. of tl1eir earlier oppositio11 to st1cl1 a rest �1t becat1se they were 11 M's property tl1an l1is life. Tl1e i11terested more i reason1uoo of tl1e . . co11rt 111 tl11s 1·egarcl follows: ''Even in tl1e case of do/its eve11ti1alis [i11 Ger1nan, beclingte11. Vo,·satz], the occurrence of the restLlt 111igl1t be 1111desirecl by tl1e J)erpetrator. Tllis •

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. Decision Of A. pr1l. 22, 1955 (Fed. ·Su1J. Ct., Ger. Fed. Republic) E11tsclz ic!t111ge11 d,es Btri,c,esgericl1t hofes 111 Strafsacf1e11, vol 7, p. 363 Tl1 s case \Vas kindly SLlJ)pl1�e(f to _tlie "vri.te b D r. Ki� :boo� . . i . us Wariil<e of tl1c Center for Con1parative Criminal Lavv, New York: Un 1v�r 5 it� � of la� 111, tlie r e aich rese B., LL. d, r nfel Grt1 l1 s Rt1t Ivl s 1 by e ll1c \-Vrit r r. lt �va t ". :slat�cl f<?� Baile ;�lla ssie I Un1vers1ty, 1-aculty of J_a,N. .1

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JOURNAL OF ETI-lIOPIAN LAW·- VOL. VIlI - ·No.

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. r in orde y ebod som to . . e l1 acl1i whic ve c in a ases c· 11 e a rta1n o . . ecat1s 1- .,.. k . 1s so tn b e lv . 110,vs that lie ca a t, n 1 ie d e g p x e n a s e li p p a n acbie _ tl Y . re1uctan t . e d' Th _ve_ _,,,. _ . ie11 pe e s to _ t 1 etra �J�1, P . __ by .. . h r . . .' only � 1 } w o ac ts his desired goal With " l 1lt] mfu rest har 111g [tl1e feel t1 with 1 at tlJJ s if lie ti,alis pttt d0 1 s no ehan t · e ed edi esir exp u11d . t1se l wil the l1e 'ise 11t er\\ oth ! , eve � l T ac 11Jeve h i s goa. '. . · . . a . · · • e . c to e a es pos e c c a mstan c1rct1 ssion of s t lc c the rti les used wanted under any tlia t 111pt atte to the do r [ Afte . so . . by ip. ersl1 own less dan g were in M's u altl , ot :� a11gle 1.gl st1 to tl1ey � : 11 ed �ecid · l1ad _ they ] , fai1e� befo mea.ns re r � � Tl1�y . 11ature did tl11s n. o t becatise tll ey g s per1lot1 its ed discuss and nized n , w le t ossib tl1e t l tl1 resttl d p ved wot1l belje a � not occ ir contrary to before, t tl1eir ob ecti give e u1 to 1der a11y circ u11 1sta ;l ce� j ,, UJ? because they �d 11ot �.va11t even in the event that the strangl111g would leacl to tl1e deatli of M."'I� This statement acct1rately desc1·ibes the do!t1s· eventuc1lis attitt1de of willingness. _ there was }Jroof of t]lis .attittide be onc., a The critical qu.estio11, tho11gh, is whether . . y o e11ce f were d ev1 p r�set1t. First, their end r �onable doubt. All fo11r catego1:1es . of e M of his propertf was a s1g111ficant �11e, tl1ot1gl: their 11eecl for his propert robbi11g which ,votild have supplied them ft1rther with a n1ot_1ve for tl1eir ac tion, does n�� appear in the case. Seco11d, the acts they pe1·fo r111ed ,v1th tl.1e leathe r belt did tend ., to demonstrate a willingness to have l1is death occt1r. 1 hird, they appare11tly admit­ ted to tl1e authorities, sit1ce the evide11ce cot1ld 11ot 11ave come f rom any other sou.rc e, tl1.at th.ey k11e\-\' tl1at tl1e use of tl1e leather be-Jt \VOlLld endanger M's life. Fourth, and perhaps 111ost importaL1 t, tl1ei1· act of tjgl1teni11g tl1e belt around M's neck and leaving it buckled tigl1t \vl1ile tl1ey wen.t about l1i s :flat gatl1ering his property created a very higl1 probability of M's choking t o death. The German appellate cotirt's decisio11 t1111s was a11 u11dersta11dable one. There was, however, otl1er evidei1ce i11 tl1e case tl1at seen1s to raise doubts as to J and K's attitude. They l1ad taken co11siderable precatttions 11ot to kill M, right up to the mo1ne11t of pa11ic when K went f'or the leather belt. Even dL1ring tl1ose con­ fused rnorne11ts, they seemed to show oppositio11 to M's death. J told K to stop tightening the belt when M l1ad again become qt1iet, and K did as he was told. They then tied M tip, indicating that tl1ey belie-ved l1e was still alive and �hat he might agaiLl regain conscious11ess a11d cat1se the111 trot1ble. \\rhe11 tl1ey realized he .might ht dead, they made efforts to 1·evive 11011, evide11ce poi11til1g a1vvay from a willingness to have bin1 dead. Even the strongest evidence against tl1en1, tl1�t _theY left tl1e belt buckled arou11d M's neck \\'hile they went abot1t tl1e flat, 1111�ht be explained by the co11fusion a11d excite1nent of the 1110111e·nt - tf1ey 1nigl1t 11ot have realized that the belt was bt1ckled. That they took the trot1ble of tying l1ini up seems to support this possibility. Tlie case is a close one. The writer feels howeve r tl1at t}1e evidence \vas not ' ' con· · c11· 1g'' nougl1, tl1 111 to JlIS ''�I�ar a·nd conv1n tify · ca . s e es , sta ha nd r1: ar gr n ci ea fo t r � .11 the 01ind _ _ victxo? of dolus eve11tualis hom1cide. A reaso1 1 exists, at le,1st . do bt 1a . 11 ble - ouO'h r, of thi8 writer, and tlierefore he would rbr e nicid have convicted J a-nd K of ho1

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f .. ·ther do/us 110. Id"1 p. �69-7o.. In 1955, when of 111 tion upon defi this no case was was tl1ere decidecl �; i nl! =�����1 is ;� :tent ion in th� German Penal Cod �. Tl1e German _court w �s !e appears in · IY t ti gs on the subJect. A , 1 cone mind of definition of these state . Ger . man Penal C t.he new ode. See above at note 76. 111. See the first consideration disc ussed above at p. 398.

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112 T ). , to 1rse y of co1 ber n, rob itio add h e ca (1n se is u · ce a particlilarly n lige e t 0 ad vertcn _ l O�e for the following admonition by the Swiss writer, Logoz: suitab e do11bt after in careft1l examination of tl1e mental m ains re. j11dge the ·•If es9lve st1ch 111ust do11bt in conforrnity with the ht; offender, � the c ess of P;�ciple in dubio pro reo [wl1e11 in_ doubt favo11r the acc11sed], that is to �e cide · in favo11r of [adverte.11t] 11egl1ge11ce ratl1er tl1an. dolt1s eve11tualis."113 is . P i,blic roseci,tor v. discussio11 Belcele Gheb,·e Michael, r f t case ? next . The 114 1gl1 E Co· u rt Ababa 111 196 � G.C. f\dd.1s Tl1e case e tl bega � ? as a decided by � . . t. 526 (1) of the Penal Code, but dt1r1ng the 11nde1 At cl1arged e ho1111c1d gent oli e tl1e utor to p. r o e alter tl1e ordered charge to one Cot1rt of inten­ � � lligl1 the �i;l court appare11tly is given tional horo.icide 11nder Art. 523, exerc1s111g a po\ve1· tl1e by Art. 119 (1) of the 1961 Crin1inal P1·ocedure Code.115 The farts t1pon w]licl1 tl1e cou1 t relied were s11pplied by two wit11esses, both policemen. Tl1e accused Vlas a tax.i d1·iver. He was driving his taxi in Addis Ababa on the street near tl1e Coca-Colo factory at 8 :30 p.m. on a rainy .night when he ran over a man lyi11g in the roadwa.y. The body was dragged by the car for ap­ proximately five kilometers. It ,vas discovered when the acc11sed stopp�d at a gas station to rc,fuel bis car. Tl1e car (a Fiat 1100) l1ad to be lifted in order to ex­ tricate the body from the underpart of tl1e car. Tl1e body was so mutilated that at first it \1.1as impossible to determi11e its sex. The accused admitted to the police wit11esses, once at the gas station and once at the police precinct station, tl1at he l1ad seen the man lyi11g on the street and that he had not stopped his car, but ''had to r1111 over 11i1n." He ''feared tl1at if h.e stopped he would be charged with killi11g the ma11." He f11rther ad1nitted that he heard ''a noise'' underneath llis car after be ra11 over hin1. To tl1e first wit11ess, he said that be thot1ght tl1at tl1e noise was d11e to the ro11gh road so he did not stop. To the seco11d witness, at the police station, he said that he ''co11ld 11ot stop because it was raining'' and besides, he tho11ght the reason for the noise was that ''something was wrong with his tire."

,, A third witness, also a police officer, testified tl1at the accused bad told bin1 he had knocked the man dow11." As to the noise 1111der his car, the accused allegedly stated that be tl1ought it was d11e to the ro1:1gl1 road and the fact that 112. A robbery in which a deatl1 occt1rs is treated in Germany as an aggra,,ated robbery. Ger­ an Penal Code of 1871, Art. 251, tran.slated in Tire A1nerica11 Series of Foreig11 Pe11al � odes, work cited above at note 27, vol. 4, p. 130. (Tl1e adoption of tl1e new Gern1an Clode, to the k nowl dge of tl1e writer J1 as not proceeded to tl e Special Part.) It wot1ld 1 ' · o b e an aggravateed as robbery under tl1e Ethiopian Penal Code, Art. 637 (2). 113. Log oz, work cited above at note 30, p. 66, translated in Lowenstein, work cited above note 30 , p. 143. 114. Add" · Court, Aba�a High translated wa� case Tl1e ). lisl1ed 1965 (unpub 553/56 Crim. Case No. , · . ·r or :� e wri�er fron1 �n1l1aric by two Law IV stt1dents, Ato P�t1Jos. !esfa G1org1s and A:� AbduJ asi t1su f, t�depenclently of eacl1 otl1er. N_o st1bstant1al cl1flerences .were noted �et e W Y ween t two translat1ons. Tl1e case was located 1n the files of tl1e Addis Abab a I -Iigh Court 115 • Th · .Y Ato Pat1los. It is in tl1e Law Fact1lty library. trial co t rt is t given the power in Art. 119 (1) to alter a cl,arge on its own 1 !1°� 1011 "w� _ e , · e accused is 01�� s 1 o r err r,. <? essential containing brot�ght . . _ �� �h to t .rial on a cl1arge . e �nly qt1al1�cat1on of t�is power _ app�ars to_ be Art. 120 (3) wI11 9h �equi 5 court to 0rd r _al is lik ely ...·to _ _ 1 t Prejua·tee the e an adJournrnent '' if proceed111g 1mmed1ately \V1tl1 tl1e i accused in hi-s defence.. . . ''

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. "' JOURNAL OF E1 I-IIOPIAN LAvV - VOL ' . 'IIII - l'Jo. 2 ,,he 11ad b.it a stone." Tl1e accused 111ade a staie111ent i11 cotirt de . l a11d ody b n1 11o d J:1ear over� · 11 a 1· 110 � os he tl1at 11ois said He t everytl1i11g. e 111 . h i 1 t1 1d er 11d . foL1 111s 11 bee car d . h,1 at y bod tl a 1 e He adn1 itted tl1at gas station,s cahur. . t he claiu1ed tl1at it l1�d 1 1ot �ee11 a�tached to_ l1�s ca�, bt1.t l1ad bee11 lyin 0 n g cl c1 the a11d ed1te 011 t11e vers1 tl11s ed acc11s ted reJec 's alleged grotind. TJ1e co11rt t s emen street, the and i11 lyi11g t � 111ar1 11ot a tl over 1 rtin a.t · that he had he llad n ecked s0111eo11e do,v11. Bekele was c�11victed . of i1�te1:tio.11al l1ou�icide 1111cl�r . Art . 523 Q_uite . a _ . ide s fr 0:�1 a ser1ot 1 s de[ect tl1e1 e 1s 111 qt1est1ot1, tl11s the do/1.1.s eve11tua/1s co11v1ct j 011. No e _ ,i­ de11ce vlas prese11ted tl1at tl1e person \vho was ly111g 111 the road was ali vhen of 011e tl1e acct1sed. A11y tl1.e n1assive wot1nds desc�� e� he was 1·lt11 over by tl1e 1nedical expert ,vot1ld ha\1e ca11sed tl1e deatl1 of tl1e deceased ar1 d any 0 by the1n cot1ld ha\1e bee1� inflictecl by s01ne otl1er 1:erso11 or car before the ac��is�d ra11 o\rer and dragged tl1e deceased. Tl1e deceased m1gl1t eve11 have been clttbbed and 111t1rdered a11d lefi iu tl:1e road. Thus, tl1e prosectttor failed to prove tl1.at the t of tl1e acct1se d caiLse.d tl1e deatl1 of th� victim, as reqt1ired by /-\rt. 24 of the Code��6 Based llpo11 the ev1de11ce prod t1ced 111 cot1rt, th.e 011ly charge tl1at could JJroperly have �ee�1 brot1ght agai11st the a�cused was 11nder Art. tt87,. "ot1trage 011 the repose and d1gn1ty of tl1e dead;'' tl1ere 1 s no do11bt that tl1e dragg111g amo1111ted to ''muti­ lation'' u11der st1b. art. (1 ) (b) of tl1at article. 117 For his co11viction under Art. 523 Bekele was sentenced to eigl1t years of rigoro11s i111priso111nent. \Ve ca11, l1owever, for the pt1rpose of ot11· disc11ssio11 l1ere asst1111e that such missi11g evide11ce had been i1.1trod11ced, a11d 1Jroceed to consider tl1e qt1estion of the acct1sed's state of 111i11d. Tl1e J)rosecutor's 011ly argtunent 011 tl1is questio11 \Vas that the accused ,vas 11eglige11t and tl1,tt l1is 11egligence \vas ''gross." 1�11e Higl1 Court ,vas .n1ore explicit: ''It is a grave fault," t11e co11rt said, for a. perso11 ''to run over a body for fear tl1at he wot1ld be blan1.ed for tl1e act if he stopped." It '11as also ''a grave fat1lt," the cot1rt conti11t1ed, �1l1e11 the acct1sed ''k110\vi11g that be had driven over a body lyi11g i11 tl1e road a11d l1eari11g a 11oise 1111der 11.is car, ... rud not stop to look 1111der l1is car."

�1��g

Since th.e co11rt co11victed tl1e acct1sed of inte11tional l1omicide 1L11der AIL 523, without sayirJg tl1at tl1e acc11sed actttally i11te11ded tt1e cleatl1) it J)robably bad .Art. 58 (I), second paragrapl1 (the dolzts eve11ti1alis provisio11) i11 1ni11d.118 B11t, if so, the c�urt .misapplied that provisio11. Tl1e ac�11sed' s ad111issio11 tl1at 11 � h.ad seen fl1e n1a1 . _ lyi ng 1 n tJ1e street before J1e rar1 over l11 1n d i d ft1rn1sh proof oi 011e of the r�enta elements of do/us eventz.tali.i;: tl1e accused's aware11ess, in tl1e ,;vords of Art. )S (I) ,

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. had have Id "vou d a. c cuse Ev1de.11ce that tl1e perso11 v1as alive v1her1 J1e was run over by tl1c . run re e to come fron1 witnesses vvho had see11 the J)er son r1.1ove or 111ak:e b ingnt i.e . a soLtnd t btefo n1on1e. ,1 over b Y tI1e accused, or who had. l1earcl a sound. corne fron, the IJerson a· -l1e was actu ally rL1n. over by the accusecl. nes . or profa . . . . Art. 48? of the Penal Code reads 111 parl: ''(.l) .\Vl1osoever: . . . (b) viola.tes_ ro fanes or tl1e restin g place of a dead person, clcg rades or clefiles a funeral n1onun1ent,. 01 )f 1. 1prison· 1 ;u ishes multiJat �s a ��ad. p er�o11, vvl1ethe.r: �uried or not; . . . is pu11ishable \\1 i th . sin1i�c1e n �11ent . 01 fb1e.. As pointed ot1 t ea.rlter (see above. at 1�otes 12 and I 3 ), 1111:. ��erein. 1ntent1on.al act1011 onJ y, even. tl1ougl1 tl1e worcl '' i nte11t1011'' does not ap1Jeal ti be to case • I� 1s · a1so poss1· bl e that tl1e court i11. tl1e Belcele · case, like tl1e court 1·1 1 ti1 c. next n uon, : i t in e dis�tlssed, the Meker_ia case, ap 1)lied Art. 523 11ot realizing tl1at it only p un�s ie�oted :t?�ve This does not seen1 l1ke]y, however, botl1 becatise of tI1e language of tl1e c�ur �nl 11eghgi.;ot f r 3 .. s and becat1se tl1e court expressly ordered the charge i11creasecl to Art. l1omicide under Art. 526.

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WLEDGE OE CERTAINTY;'" A.ND D9Lqs _ BVENTUALIS KNO ' ''' IRE, ''DES

cat1se illegal a11d pu11is�able· conseqtiences." m�y �ct is h _ ''that , h grap. para d on .sec . · the roadway, tl1e acct1se� 111t1st 111 have been aware lying ma11 the seeil er }IaV ::, n1igl1t him over cause driving hat t deatl1, lus the second and · alive be t � h r < i ,n that . case. However, was there st1fficie11t evidence of everztualis do/its a in t ;, rati s d: tl1e acct1sed had drive11 over tl1e 1na11 }Villirig to !,ill !1 i111 ? that , d�ration i cons hird �i; : Tile evide11 ce prodt1ceci i11 tl1e case_ does not . prove tl1is atti_tude._ Tl1e probability was alive was h1gl1 e11ot1gl1, ev1de11t1ary category (d), adway o 1· the in ma11 the t ha accusecl 1vvl1e11 l1e clro�e over tl1e 1nan· was willing to. cause. . tl1e that ce eviden be !o be �1·t1e 1f Bekele l1ad been _able to avoid the can tl11� 011/J' }lowever, . death his mail yet drove over h1m a11yway. I-I1s staten1e11t to tl1e police that. he ''hacl to ;ti n O\'er hin1'' raises a st1bstantial dot1bt 011 this crucial iss11e in the case. It seems to st1ggest tl1at the accused was 11nable to avoid tl1e perso11. Since it was dark (8:30 p.111.) a11d raiui1Jg ''ratl1er l1eavily," tl1is is not impla11sible. \:\That \Vas 11eeded was at1 ad1nissio11 from tl1e acct1sed, category (c), that he cottld l1avc avoided the body bt1t did not bother to. In tl1e abse11ce of s11ch an 1.19 is ho1nicide eve11ttta./is dolL1s fo1· co11viction m ss. no possible. ion, i ad : Furthermore, ,:vhat cot1ld l1ave bee11 Bekele's e11d or motive? To answer this question \,,e have 011ly his staten1e11t that he '' feared that if he stopped he would be charged with killing the ma11 ." While this is not a praise\-vorthy attitude, is it a sjg11ificant motive for cat1sing someo11e�s deatl1? Ratl1er, it seems like a motive for not stopping after having r1111 over sornebody, an interpretation tl1at see1ns con­ firmed by his preceding stateme11t that l1e '' had to rt1n over hin1."

Finally, there is the evidence that the acct1sed had co11tinued to drive, dragging the victim, althot1gh l1e co11ld l1ear ''a 11oise'' t1n.der his car. Tl1is appears to fall under evidentiary category (b), nan1ely, an act ''tendi11g to demonstrate [t11e actor's] willing11ess to have [deatl1] occur·." However, llI)On analysis, the evidence is a.1nbi­ guous. There is, first of all, the acc11sed's clain1 that be thot1ght the noise was dt1e to such things as ''the rot1gh road," a defective tire or the fact that he ''had hit a . stone. " His offering of three separate explanations to tl1ree separate \Vit11esses raises some doubts as to the· trutbft1lness of the explanations, bt1t not enotrgh, this writer believes, to discredit this claim. Co11tradictions and the dot1bts tl1ey raise do not replace actual proof. 120 Mo1·eover, wot1ld Bekele l1ave driven his car. into a gasoline station if I1e had thought tliere was any likelil1ood it was draggi11g a dead body ? Even u Bekele had actt1ally know11 l1e was dragging a body or had accepted t�at fact, wot1ld this l1ave sl1ow11 a willingness to ca·use death? The very 1igh probability wo11ld have bee11 that tl1e person being dragged already was ad by the. ti1ne �he. 11oise wa? heard ancl t!1at Bel(ele wottld �ave k110,v11 tl1at. � T erefore, his co11t111u1ng to drive for five kilometers, perl1aps _ 11: the l1ope th�t th·e body would become _ disengaged, would have sl1own 011.ly a w1ll1ngness . to 111ut1•

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119 • Depei1din� upon. tl1e evidence as to tl1e speecl at wl1icl1 Bekele was drivi11g, 110'-'' bad the ���d conditio·ns were, \Vl1ether tl1e road was Iigl1tec) or not, etc., it n1igl1t even l1ave been cult to convict him of l101nicide tl1rot1gl1 adverte11t negligence. ; . 120 • his is trtle at least tinder the comn100. law wl1ere falsehoods, fabrications, etc._ are given n the ce of­ i;rleyt b auxiliary role of adversely affecting the credit to be given to otl1er �videnBro, y the falsifier or fabricator. J. I{. Wig111ore, Evidence (3rd ed., :Bosto11, Little, � o., 1940), vol. 2, pp. S. a, cutt Cal ed., l1 (llt e de11c Evi of 120-25; · S. Sarkar, Law Sarkar & Sons. 1965), pp. 49-50.

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t no ddea ed e iev h t' bel d itu att and er ov e run of d .1 evenc y ead alr e n o 1e n so late o i,s 121 ua. e. icid hom /is· t of or sh tl1e f�� l1 11ig ls f'al s thu nd sta ed uc od pr ard of Proo e nc ide ev e Th . e Tl1 st . 111o t de. 11c1 tl1a 1 1 l10 re, e f . Bek rs i,al le ent v e· us do/ of tl COl e cas a d • 1 1 d h qwr :e. 1 ve been a c of 11 pro bee t tl)a l1ad e l1er his t .ing act tim ass l l ad aused couv1cted of' aga in . tl1e 122 1· t r t ·en d g ve a . ne ce 1 l 1 1 g e l1 h 1g ro t e 1d ic n 1 ho as w li at deceased's de , c bli Pit is n sio cus dis Proseci,tor v. iv[ekeria '\'r b for e cas ide mic ho rd · e tlJi Th 1 ao 121 · · . . Th 1965 GC e t111d'ISJ?llt�d e ideil n 1 t r l1 o C l1 1g I Ia 1n _ n1 J'i e th by d de v ce in th'ts deci case was t hat the accused thre,:v l11s spear at tl1e· deceasecl p1erc1ng llitn and 1 b� a11s fron1 tlle accu�� ing his death. At !he time, the deceased w�s e�1ovi11g ��­ ed state of acct1 tl1e 1111nd ,:vJ1en he kille d � � beari field. The ev1dence as to th! h l1ot1se s w!1e-1 l1e heard a cry deceased was as follo�s: the acct1sed w� s 11: � from a woinan na,n1ed Wass1e Ba� ou. Accordi�g to tl1c; accl1sed s state 111eL1t to til e police bean field, bl1t sl1e did not k il ha.d got 111to the g n she called out ''that sometl11 . ow . whether it was an an1n1al or son1e ot l1e� t11111g:·' The accused further sta.ted to · the police tl1at following the _cry of ,�ass1e Bayou 11 � _ra11 . o�t ,vitl1 his spear to tl1e field. To the pol1ce, he said that he cot1ld not cl1st1ngL11sL1 ' 1vvl1ether the thino at ,vhicl1 he tlirew lus spear ''·was an a11i 111al or a l1u111a11 being." In court h; said that l1e pierced tl1e deceased ''because he mistook lu111 for an animal." Later i11 l1is court staten1ent, i10,vever, he said tl1at ''as it \Vas dark he could not dis­ tingujsh wl1ether the rustling was made by an a11in1al or a ht1ma11 being,'' thus repeati11g wl1at be had said . to t]1e police. To the police, be added tl1at before tl1rowi11g his spear he l1ad see11 wl1atever it \Vas ''011 tl1e point of ca rrying a\vay a b1111dle of bea11s." Ft1rther evide11ce \vas tl1at tl1e acct1sed and deceased were neighbors and tl1at tl1ey l1ad l1ad n.o previo11s q11arrel. The l{igt1 Court convicted tl1e accused of l101nicide under Art. 523, but on a th.eory of negligence, appare11tly overlool(i11g tl1e fact tl1at l\.rt. 523 is a11 offence req11iring int entio11.124 Tl1e cot1rt said that tl1e acc11sed l1ad ca t1sed tl1e deatl1 of the deceased ''by rus failt1re to exE-rcise d t1e care." Elsewl1ere i11 t11e opi11ion , in fact, the cot1rt cl1aritably labeled tl1e act as ''some\vl1at accide11tal." Convictio ·n und er Art. 523 was tht1s incomp2tible, \Vitl1 tl1e co11rt's ovv11 a.ssessn1ent of tl1e facts. According to that assessme11t, Art . 526, neg]ige11t l101nicide, was tl1e appropriate provision. There was ample evidence, however, to est,1blisl1 tl1e acc11sed's c/0!1,s eventualis state_ of mind and, hence, properly to convict hi n1 1111der A1 t. 523. The accused admitted botl1 to t he police a11d i11 open co11rt tl1a t wl1e11 l1e thre,v t l1e s1)ear be ,vas uncertain wbetl1er tl1e tlung at \Vhich he \Vas thro,ving ,,vas a11 a11 iin,:1l or a hum�n being. �l1is adn1issio11, coupled with tl1� rest of the evidence in tJie case, convicts Meker1a. d epte acc d If· 1't couId . h ave been provect that Bcl<ele kne\ l1e · a body or l1a f 1 his drag ging V v.1as that fact, hls con.tinuing to driv e in the l1ope l. b cfy w becon1e dise nga.ged" ould 1e t o r�( 0ote ve car would establtsl1 the inte11tion to "n1ulti abo (b) (see (1) 487 0 d of late '' und 1· Art c: · • , ecease · )· .BekeJ_e couId harctI Y argue 117 d J on t 1e tl1at effects ]1e tt1e was of aware not dragging him for five kilometers . . see _ ult 122. On the fact·s, a convic diffic · 1•ion f or advertently ·negligent 1ould 1ave been l1orn icid \\ e l · a bove at no te 119 .· t a · d bove a · 123. J gi1 Cotlrt, 1965, Crim. Case No 51/5 , r II · rk cite i . P. :: cl Stra i11 � 7 tlSS, 1 wo ansl t ate 9. n requi nog as 124. Alth • o�gh Ar d · t. 523 says only ''Wl1osoever a r s be t mt1 e it " com I1cim n1its icide , · 1ntent1on. See above at notes 12 and 13

121.

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EVENTUALIS

concl11si�e evidence _of furnis?es t?e . element of awareness, sion admis ria's Meke strong ev1de11ce of his w1IJ1ng11ess to bring about eration, and 1s consid d · · the secon Th n· row111g erati spear 'd at a cons1 target one third knows ? might . tlie � rm, ha .1s clea� v1de11ce of a �1�l111g11ess to rause that _the human being's bei11g an � a hum be second adn11ss1on tl1at he could see tl1e tlting ''on s Meker1a n, additio In de:th ?11ndle of bean�'' makes it probable that the creature a v aJ' aJ, 1g carryi1 of t ·oin h � Js field was a l111n1an be111g, fL1rtl1er evidence, 1111der category (d), that when was ,villing l1e to kill spear a l1111uar1 bei11g. the hrew t ria �eke fi of a sigt1.i cant end-the protection of the accused's dence e,,j have we , Finally fron1 . a11_ i11tr11de.r. Tl1e Etl1.iop�an reader of this article fi_ e Jds Ins and crop bean s1gn1fica11t hovv s11ch a11 of JU end might be_ to St a_ perso11 like j11�ge er tt . be a is Mekeria, b11t 1t wo11l� , see.r1;1 _ 11uportar1t e?ot1gh to be substa.nt1al evidence under catego ry (a) of Mekerta s w1ll111gness to kill even sl1011ld the intruder turn out to 125 httroan. be The evidence, therefore, is ''clear and convincing'' enough to prove Mekeria's . 126 homicide under Art. ou 523 beyond l doli,s eventz,alis a reasonable doubt t a of i 0 The obstacle to obtaining admissions. Writers on tl1e s1tbject of dolus eventualis have been pessimistic concerning its practical value. Dr . Philippe Graven has written: ''Natu1al as the distinction [be­ tween do/i,s eventitalis a11d advertent negligence] may be, it entails difficulties with regard to evidence since it lies i11 the doer's state of mind a11d tha 'acceptance' or rejection of the co11sequences of the act may be almost impossible to prove, . .. '' 127 The; American commentator, Gerl1ard Mueller, has stated that ''the perpetuation of the distinction between [advertent neglige11ce] and dolus eventi,alis is q11estio11able for practical reasons." 128 The Nor\vegian jurist, Johannes Andenaes, has gone even further: ''Doli,s eventi,alis ... is of no great practical significance, since it rarely will be possible to prove the thought of the perpetrator." 129 Andenaes' statement goes too far. We have seen in the preceding section of trus article that ''the tho11ght of the perpetrator'' can be established from such factors as the significance to him of his end or motive for acting, the acts he may perform or statements he may make, the probability of the harm's occurring, an.d from his own admissions on the matter. 125. The deceased's wife had also testified that she ran out to the field on hearing a shout and fou nd her husband wounded. He then told her tl1at the accused had pierced hin1 and then ha? ''pulled the spear out . . . and \Vent away with it." Tl1is, if it was true, \Vas fu.rtl1er evidence of indifference toward tl1e life of tl1e deceased, eitl1er on tl1e grou.nd that it showed that Mekeria indeed did not care \Vl1at creature l1e l1ad hit witl1 his spear or on tl1e ground that � _order to avoid being identified as the person who had wounded the deceased he was w1lhng to leave him behind to bleed to deatl1. 126. Mek�r:ia could not clai111 legitimate defence under Art. 74 as a defence to the charge of �ormci�e. As Strauss has pointed otit, Art. 74, in conjtinction with Art. 52� (a), '.'fix�s an� mpbasizes a �oral norm-tl1at killing in tl1e defence merely_ of property 1s not Justified. 5 r�uss, work cited above at note 10, p. 399; Graven, work cited above at. note 7, P· 227· J owever, as what Mekeria did is t1se '•disproportionate n1eans'' in repelling the unlawful trespas� on bis property and theft of his beans, he \Vould be entitled tinder Art. 75 (l) to ��stricted :131iti�a tion of the penalty imposed under_ Ar�. 523. Hi� s�ntence of th_ree ye�� � so ous 1mpr 1sonment, when Art. 5235 minimum IS five years, 1nd1cates be receiv ed nlitl sa tr� n. r 127 • Gra ven , work cited above at note 7, p. 157. 128 • Mueller , work cited above at note 57, p. 47. 129 • A · . ndenae-·, 8 Work cit ed above at no te 24, p. 213.

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s , tl1;a t pron11� ts ar1d jt 1sti fi es t io 11is ad1 ? � n ow t s or' act 11e t, las I t i s tl1is h n 1 t11e Elsasser case tlla e above . . l. It Vias the abse11ce of ad111 1ss1o ns t. �ade pessiini_s o 11ly 1n1i tl1e senc JJre talis. It was it tl eJJen e s it / d of o ,e pro, ad o 1 . 1 1mp oss1 b le · t ss101 n . 18 e 1cl t ll , tl d . k M . e . . con 1 � er1a to s i 111 t l1ad ed lovv al acted 1,1e!ceria case tl1at the

\Vitl 1 c/ofus o 11e ss1 s01 n11 re ad we ns, t re b11 the e. cas ti · e l le /(e Be . .., · key oK.ne con. eve11 I1-lCll1··s • r.11 tllp -. 1 111 t 1-.1e roa d\Vay \Vas lack so1 per e tl 1 .1d avo to ility ab ing ·. cerrut1g Be kel e's . . ey · d f· cas a11c o K 1 J e er11 1�n e ., h at G t in g lea st 111 ck la � accord ·Ulg to. m i ssi o11s were al so l oltc the te11 111 Cre e ly cas 011 ts. fac re ad ini. ss,· o11 ,ve t11e of is lys 311a t}lis writer's , s ll ·n. . . o f the J1ar 111 s OGC . 1 g. was . . � r11 l1r so very 11 igb . ·necessary beca11se t11e pro ba b1l1 ty Tlle q�iesti?u be.ing . raise� �� �he _ a_b � ve ,vr i ters �11d _t l1e . 011e \Ve n1 ust conside r e acctis \rV1l l pr_ov1de the police or th�. t tl1a 1t s 1 kel)' l ow 1 } s 1 oint � tllis at _ � p _tl1at the . to o,,e }JI d neede he acted \Vitl1 do! cotirt \Vith the ad1n1ss1011s 11suall y . . event 1.talis. T11e a11s,;ve � . \:vil_l , depe11d fi � st a11d fore1:1ost upon tl1e_ � yste1n of crinii n�� procedt1re � n force. Eth101)1a s S)'S�e1� 1s poorly des1g �ed for obta11ung ad1nis sion s. In fact, i t is correct to say tl1at 1 t 1s_ pllrJ)OS:!Y . de � 1g11ed to d1sco1Lrage resor ting to admissio11s to prove gL1ilt. A_ c �1npa�1s011 of _ tth.1 ?p1a's syste111 of crimi11al proced ure with cont i11e11 tal Et1ro1Je's \V1ll 1llt1111111ate this po111 t. J\. l<ey fig111·e i 11 co11ti11i11tal E11roi::ie's systen1 is the ' ' i n.vestigati11g magistrate," tl1e jlt¥e f'ins/!·11c �io11, i11 Frai1ce, 8.11d �}1e . [!11tersz1c/1i,1:gsricl1t_er, i11 Ger1na11-speaking . 1 0 co11nt1'1es. -' H e 1 s ;1 me1nber of tl1e Jt1d1c1ary co1111)letely 1 11depende11t of t11e IJro­ sec11tor,s office . 1 3 1 lie thus i s expected to co11dt1ct an i111partial exa111inatio11 of the case a11d to decide, 011 tl1e basis of t]1e evide11ce collected, ,vl1etl1er the accused should be discl1arged from custody or lus case se11t to tl1e prosect1tor for decision wbetl1er to prosec11te. His j11riscliction ,1 aries fro111 co1111try to coL111try. I n. all count­ ries, l1is investigative JJO\vers are extensive. Tl1ey incl11de the p<)\.ver to s111111non and i11terrogate ''wi t11esses," ,vl1ich at tl1is stage of the case ,vil l incl11de the person f acc11sed of tl1e ofence. The i11terrogatio11 of tl1e perso11 acct1secl 111ay take place \Vitl1 or witl1011t his consent ancl, der:,e11di1Jg llJJ011 tl1e serio11s11ess of tl1e case, over a period of days, ,:veeks or ever1 111011ths. T11e acc11sed ca11 l1ave l1is la\vyer present ar1d 11eed 11ot a11s\ver the qL1estions of t l1e 1 11agistrate. Tl1e effect of L1is refusal io 130. The princi1ial sources for thjs very brief descri1Jtion of contine11tal European crirninal pr�­ cedure, all written in Englis]1, are as follows: A. Anton, "L'I11struction Crin1inelle ," 11111 "r�­ can 1. Co,np. L., vol. _9 (1960) , l) , 441 ; S. Bedfo rd, 111c Faces of Justice, 1 Tr arell�� ! !?,eport O'-l ew Yor�, S1n1on & Sc11ustcr, 196 1 ) ; 1-I. J-!arr1111eh11ann, ·'The Ev1dencc 0� .,1 . . r oner at [-l 1s � �·1al ; A Con1_1)a!·at iv e A11alysis, :' <;a11aclia11 Bar Rev., vol . :.7 _(I �:9), P� , 5(j'. � ,: _ 1! · H. Jescheck, Ge1_1nan. Cr1m1na.l Procedure;' 111 T/1e Accusecl, /J Co1npa, at 11 e_ Sru 1)Co.fe l·rent;h Coutts, ed., London, Stcve11s & S011s ' 1966) ' p . 246·' G · ·t<. ocl( The 11, lnir(Jc/11c tio J , ' 0 , •C,1 �1·n1 1·na I procedure (A111erican Series o f Foreig11 I->c 11al Co<les, G. M tie ll�r , -�d ;' Sou;v'11•1 l-Ia�l-.ensa�k, Ne\.v _Jers_ey: Ft�cd �- Rothman & Co., 1 964); �1. Piccl<, "Tl1e A cusld 1 i s {962), !ege A_garnst Se1r�n1cr1n1111a t1on 10. tl1e Civ il J_a,:v," ,;J 111erica11 J. C'o111p. L., � \ O�1 (Scrie's p. 5J5 E. Schii, idt, lritroclLtction, Tf1e cri1.: 1 (A°. re Gern1c11i C<>c!e c7/ Cri1ni11c1/ Procedu . ; : RotJ1· , red. . of Fo 1 eign Pen al Codes , G. Mu elle r eel. F. · Jers ey, Nc\ V Sou 1ck 1 tl1 1s, l-l'lcl·c ' " '· ' ' ' : · �du 1·•�,'' Proc• I · · '·n & C. o., 1· 965) · 11)·� . ) ; F". S, ull1van, a11111 Cru '' i11 A Comparative PrcJblen1s S of 1rvev . c;·inrinal t ,)t. Louis Viziv. L. 1., vol. 6 (196 1), p. 386, exce�·pted i11 S. Fishe r, E!bioptall 1e 1 ,,1· • o e Pr c cli!re : .,4 Soilrc ebook (Ad dis Ab a ba � f': acu . Vou10,vo I· 5' 95 . Jt, f L . . · 1 p. 69) 1 ; a-.v, ) Ji 0 9 Protectton· of t 1i �"' A�cused u1 · French Cr:11111nal Procedure," J11t ,I ' Co111p. L.· Q uart., ( 19 56 ) PP 1 , 15 7 (L □ t\:O parts). : : ep_t1on .0� ·e ubliCS, _ . 131 . �n exc L�n1 to _tl11s I S 111 the Soviet Un io11, at Jea. st in tl1e large:;;t of the 15 I �1agisi· ;�;e' �it:s�1 iai� Sovie t Fe?erated Socialist Il ep ub l i c ( R SFS R) . There the " i 11 ve:.�1ga��f g Benh�0 , � .I1e loffice aiid und er tl1e st1pe.1,1 isio11 of tl1e prosectito r ("procurato r ). :v�rd Univ, . S�v .. ret Crin11na Lav., ar1c! Procec/ure : Tl R SF,�J?. C' l ., lfaL • s a d 1e (Ca bri in ge ' M · � • v es c s P1ess, 1966), l)IJ, 75-78.

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the magistrate c�n ''deduce sucl1 co11sequences as [he that is ce, Fran in Wer . .ans ' . I 32 i '' r. 1 e a n to �sw I sa es 11 t f G W er re an y, a th is pr ac tic m e o of drawing fr � . s] se . , <;hoo _ 1 the acct1sed s silence 1s being abandoned.133 111 practice fron es infere nc b]e oura fav to sed acc ren1ain sile11t the for entire t1al � interrogatio ii, par� unus is .tl1 rot1gh the . s stage ar1 d at the trial there 1s no sanctio11 for lyiilg.134 th at both u t since larly tic The interrogatio11 of tl1e acct1sed 11eed not e11 d J1ere. At his trial, l1 e will be asked if he wis11es to 1na k � a .stateme11t.13 � Sl1ould he 111ake a statement, he will _ be questioned by the pres1d111g Judge. The Jt1dge is aided in his questionii1g of the - accused by the dossier, the file con1piled by the i11vestigati11g magistrate, \.Vl1 icJ1 the judge \Viii have exa.111ined before tl1 e beginning of the trial.136 Though, again, there is no obligatio11 to make .a state11 1e11 t or to answer the questions of the judge, in Germany ''the court can 1nc.rease a se11tence where it is convinced tl1at persistent denial by the defendant of the ·facts is an indication of bis u11willingness to admit the wrong he has done (BGHSt 1,104)." 137 The extensi,1e interrogation of the acct1sed by judicial officers allowed in the continental syste1n tends to produce greater evidence of what v"Vas in l1is mind before and during ·the con1mission of tl1e act charged against him. This is illt1strated by the German case of J a11d K. The detailed evidence of the variot1s plans they devised to take M's property, tl1eir fear that the leatl1er belt would e11danger his life, and all that happened in M's flat, mt1st have come from the acct1sed themselves. E,1en in st1ch a procedural system, l1oweve1·, there is little that can · be done in a doli,s everzti1a!is prosect1tion sho11ld the accused deny the existence of the 11eces­ sary mental attjtude. It is qt1ite difficult, unless tl1ere is objective evidence that the

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132. Anton, work cited above at note 130, 11. 449. 133. This trend is visible botl1 in scl1 0Iarly writings and in recent decisions of t11e German Fe­ deral Supreme Court. Scl1warz & Kleinknecht, Strafprozessordnitg (27th ed., Munchen, C.H. Beck's, 1967), p. 555. 134. The accused is not placed tinder oatl1 and l1ence no charge of perjt1ry can be lodged against him for lies that may be discovered. ScL1midt, work cited above at note 130, p. 18; W. Clemens, ''The Privilege Against Self-I11crimination-Germany," J. Crim. L., Crimi11ol. & Pol. Sci., vol. 51 (1960), pp. 172, 173; R. Vouin, ''Tl1e Privilege Against Self -Incrimination­ France," J. Cri1n. L., Cri,ninol. & Pol. Sci., vol. 51 (1960), p. 170. 135. This is the practice in Germany. Scl1midt, work cited above at note 130, p. 18. It is dif;. feren.t in France. Art. 328 of the Frencl1 Crin1inal Procedure Code reads: ''The president shall interrogate the accused and receive his statement." French Code of Criminal Procedure, work cited above at note 130. 136. The practi-ce of the continental EL1ropea11 judge of informing l1i111self of the facts of the case before the trial is controversial being opposite to tl1e attempt in Anglo-American countries (ancl in Ethiopia) to shield the'judge (and, in Anglo-American cot1ntries, tl1e jt1ry) as mt1ch as possible f rorn the facts of tl1e case before tl1e trial begins. Regarding France, one Frencl1 writer has characterized tl1e trjal as more a trial of ''a dossier'' tl1an a tria{ of '' a n1an." Anton, work cited above at note 130, p. 456. A defence of the 11ractice l1 as be�n offered by the German writer, I-1-H. Jesclieck: ''. . . the presicling judge sl1ot1!d have prior kn?w­ Iedge of the file. Only in this way can lie infor1n hi111self of the natt1re of the_ case inv­ olved �nd decide accordingly J1ow to plan a11d direct l1is O\V?- c�ndttct . of th � trial • · · · There ts a danger of a jL1dge be�ng biased, a rislc inl1erent '-11 l11s hav1 �g prior knowledge of the ·file of tl1e case. This danger is abated by the fact that German Judges are en_ c?tlfa­ ged to view the charge, and tl1 e evidence t1pon wl1icl1 it is based, as a mer�ly provisional �n d Preparatory compilation of tl1 e material forming tl1e basis of tl1e proceecl1ngs. The fin.al Judgment must be the result not of a preliminary investigation, but solely the Otltconle of the main trial (s. 261, above at note 130, PP· 246, 247· cited \Vork , Jescheck StPO)." 137 • Id., p. 250.

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to le, bab pro trad con lily lug _ict t11e acctl se 11 bee bad d lrre . t occ ch wlli llar,ni d's cl i d a11 r I1 ad a ct1 oc t m 11o t1e t t111 011 l 0t1 d � ri1;1 � to V:7 act . he . had trusted the ha �. . onl or hha t shal to ely f e a t Y 1l1 1 I t1 fr 1s 111 . . k 1g � 1on1r t quest 1at iiltied t � � Con n. reaso . claim, e3 _ t � pec1a1ly if he ha.s tL1e be11efit of tl1e advice of co1111sel. It 1s tl11s fact tllat e pl ins a the 1riters tov,,ards tl1e practicality � v\ 1 pear E11ro of of 11 tile eve n 1 i11us Pess do!lts eve1111 1· 1a is co11cept. resen1bles tl1e A11glo-A111erica11 system Ethiop. ia's cri111inal· 1)roced11re · · This · . . 1s · e acc11s 1e 1 d · t 1s f · o 1 r11ed. gat101 co11ce TJ1e Ail glo-A . especially so ,¥11ere the 111ter1·o r ther tl1a1� r : i 'i11qt1isitor w ,'' ," ' cc11satorial � l systen1 is said to be '' � � _ a catcll or } trcan syste111 i11 whicl1, tl1eoret1cc1.l_ly at least, 1n.terrogat1011 01)P?rtt�111t1es ar e strictly li � a , mi�ed. SltJ)re111e States Court Jl1st1ce r11ted ·u11der t1:iis systen1.- a U · once ,vrote , , so · · 1ely c 1 1 rge �ga111st t 1 carries tl1 e b.t1rdeu of . pro_v1ng its c � _ :: e accused 11ot ot1t of liis O\V establ1sl1 its �ase, 11?t by 111ter�ogat1011 of tl1e acc11sed, even unde� n111st It �10�1th. _ _ er1d JUd1c1al safegt1ar?s, b11t b � ev1de11ce 111de_ 1? �11tly sec11red tl1�·ot1gh sk illful investi a­ tion. "138 Tl1ere 1s, acc�rd1n �ly,_ 1 :0 J?rov1s1011 _in tl1 � 1961 Etl110 :pia11 Criminal Pro�e­ dure � ode that au �l10�·1zes �ud1c1al 111terrogat1011, either at . tl1e 111,1estigatio11 stage or _ the trial stage. 139 It 1s entirely up to the accused a11d 111s Ja,vyer ,vl1 etl1er I1 e v-1ill or ,vill 11ot give testin1011y. Even should l1e decide to testify, tl1e court, ,vhelher it be at l1is prelin1inary inquiry or at ltis trial, is restricted si111p]y to rec ording his staterne11t. 1 4 ° Cross-exami11 atior1 of the accused, 011e of tl1e 111ost dra1natic episodes in ,tn A n · glo-A1nerica11 trial a11d a ti111e-tested way of getting ,1t tl1e i11ner thoughts of the acc11sed� is forbidde11 i11 Etluopia. Tl1e trial co11rt j11dges n1 ay p11t questions to t.l1e acc11sed bt1t 011]y ''for tl1e p111-pose of clarjfying any })art of his statement."141 I11terrogation op1)ortu11ities do exist i11 Eti1iopia, as tl1ey do i11 all countries-a1 the poljce station. It is 1111dol1btedly tr11e, as 11t11nero11s observers l1ave J)ointed out, that u11restriclecl J?Olice i11terrogatio11 ca11 be 111ost effective i11 eliciting incri1ninating admissions fro111 a11 acc11sed, e,1en witl1011t resort to J)l1ysical brt1tality. 142 For this \rery reason, tl1e A11glo-A111erican systen1 a11d tl1e Etl1iopia11 Cri1ni118.l Proc ed11re Code 138. 139.

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Watts v. Indiana (SL1p. Ct., U.S., 1949), U. S. SUP. CT. REP. (La\vyers' ed.), vol. 93, p. 1806 (Frankfurter, J .). The appearance of the a1Testcd person before a judge t1r1cler ,<\_rt. 29 of the Crin1inal Pr�­ c�dure Co�e clearly is not for the purpose of interrogation. It is only to decide . th� q�c�k t1011 _of bail versus co11ti11t1ed custody. S. Fisl1er, Et/1iopia11 Crir11i11a( Procedure : A S01!1 cebo� ,1 r (Addis_ Ababa, Faculty of Law, 1969), PIJ. 144-46. 1,here is a little-used �o,ve _g"e � ft Art. 3.:> of the Code to ''an)' court'' to ''record any stateo1ent or confession n,ade. 0 e­ t only refers l:'l.t _a�)' tim befor e tl1e openin Tl1is -" trial _ g of a }Jre] in1i11ary i_11q �1iry or It odies � . to volui,teer. .,., 10 cording staten,ents or confessions the accusecl l1as .1r1d1catecl lie \V1shes . cssen 1-ia11), ,,a deVJL!; . . 110 t autI1or1ze • quest1o n1ng of the accused bv J tl1e court. Art. 35 1s · · · 1 tar)' avo1·ct �oerc1ve CJL1est1on111g of an arrested person by tl1c }JOI ice. S . F'1sI1 e 1,. "fnvoun 330. , (1966 ) Confess1ons and Article 35, Cri111inal Procedure Code," J. Et/1 . L., ,,oJ. 3 . p nt . ake a stateme . . . . es to n1 At . , tl1e accusecl 1s askecl "whctl1er l1e \V1sl1 tl1e pre- 11m1nar · . y .1nquuy . ' a anY· ro. answer to tlle charge." Art. 85 ( 1) . I-l e is "ir 1f or111ed th,1t l1e is 11ot_ b�u rid_ t o rra �'' Art t l . thing an� tl1at aoy staten1ent 11e n1,1y \visl1 to 11iake ... n1ay be put 1n Lit , _ h,� rl ,vriting 85 (3). If he elects to n1ake a staten1e11t "st1cl1 statement sl1all be take11 dov. i read o,,er to him, signed by tl1e a.ccused' a11d 1< ept in tl1e fi le." _f\rt. 86 (Z). th : oa nder . t Art. 1 t:1,2 (3). On _t. l1e 11nresolved question of wl1etl1er the accused can be pu u c de to o before l1e makes l11s staten_1ent ancl tl,�s be li,tble t in cler Art. �Li7 (2) of the_ � cn: I e fisher, a charge of a�gravated perJLtry sho11ld 1t subseqt1e11tly be establ1sl1ed that I1 e lie ' e Sot1rcebook, _cited above at note 139, PJl. 315-16. . (SUP• Ct., See, e.g., d1sc11ssion by United States Su1Jre1ne Court in Miranda v. Ar1zonf U.S., 1966), U.S. SUP CT. REP. (Lawyers' ed., 2nd Series), vol. 16, PP· ?OS� 3 .

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the i n of way s sttch obstacl ''un1·est1·icted'' police i11terrogation. e ial stant sub pl:;e m i11 tl1e Crin inal these Proce of ur 27 (1) : Code is tant Art. � and � im P?� ost _ _ T· his prov1s1on imposes _upo11 the pol1ce tl1� obl1gat1011 to 1nform the arrested T (Z). n eitlier j11st bef01·e or Jtist after they ask l111n to a11swer the accusation agains·t perso ' · t · · l t t o a1_ 1J_ 1 swe1 o �11 d tl1at a11y state1ne11t he may m ke r!?1 · e h t l1as _ 11 t ''tha � _ . � . hlm, l11le 1t !s 1mposs1ble to deter1111ne �xactly l1�w ef· fect1ve 'Y _111 e_v1dence. e used b niay 1erc ?111111g tl1 111I1ere11t 1Jress11res o, of n the 111terrogat1on '' 1s atm s­ � ing ? ! warn this . . will depe11d t1po11 s11cJ1 fac ors 1e11ess 1 t1, effe ts as the ,vay 111 1 w}11c}1 : � � phe.re," 43 s111ce _ qt1est1oner a11d tl1e police age, edt1cat1011, etc. of the arrested tl1e by stated is •t �erson, it seen1s sa re to ass�1111e tl1at a wa�·niog of this so.rt: by_ re�je�ing_ some of the arrested perso11 s fears, .1ncreases tl1e difficulty of obta1n1ng 1r1cr.1Il11 .nat1ng state­ ments from l1in1. Tl1is certainly is t'he ass11.1nption 11pon which the Anglo-American -system o�erates, and_ is pro?ably the. reaso11 tl1at i11 tl1e conti1_ �en! al Eu!·opean system, which relies so heavily 011 111terrogat1on as a n1e·ans of establishing guilt, the arrested person is not so warned.144 Moreove1·, once the arrested person has decided not to ans\ver tl1eir qt1estions, it is very do11btful wl1e.tl1er the police .i11 Ethiopia may ques­ ti on bi1n further in tl1e hope he will change l1is mind. 145 A second obstacle to unrestricted qt1estio11i11g of the acc11sed i11 Etl1ioJJia is Art. 61 of the Crinlinal Proced11re Code, vv llich provides tl1at ''Any person detained on arrest or re1nand shall be per1nitted f01·th,vith to call ancl interview his advocate .... '' As tl1e nt1mber of trained l awyers increases i11 Ethiopia, and tl1is rjgl1t be­ comes more widely k11own, 146 it ,vill almost certainJy add to the diffict1lty of ob­ taining admissions fro1n arrested perso11s. The average lawyer, before leaving his

143. !cl., p. 720. 144. Pieck, 'rvork cited above at 11.ote 130, pp. 596-98. 145. Art. 27 (2) states that the accused ''sl1all not be compelled to answer'' tl1e accusation or complaint. Tl1is, admittedly, is an1biguot1s and could be taken to mean that tl1e police, after warning the accused, may not resort to force, threat or other improper inducement t? mak:e the accused ans,ver tl1eir questions, bt1t that tl1ey 1nay other\vise continue to qt1es­ t1on him. However, tl1e police are specifically forbidden to tise sucl1 improper inducements by Art. 31 of the Code.It see111s u11likely tl1at the langt1age in Art. 27 (2) tl1at the arrested person ''shall not be compelled to answer'' was n1eant only to repeat the prol1ibitio.n against improper inducements contained in Art. 31 or to remind the police of sucl1 prol1 ibition. Eact1 provision in a Code is ''intended ... to l1ave some unique function. [Tl1 e draftsman] \vould not _ knowingly include some superflt1ous provision or repeat something already provided for, si.nce the only effect of tl1i!i: would be to conft1se." Strat1ss, \Vo.rk cited above at note 10, p. 393. It could also be argt1ed tl1 at an incriminating statement is not given ''of tl1e arrested person's own free will'' (tl1e standard applied in at least t\.VO cases, Leggesse Tt1111tu & Arga\v Ma­ . metch a v: Attorney General (St1p. I1np. Ct., 1964), Crim. A}?JJ. No. 634/55; Public Prosec�­ t�r v. S1ntayeh u Makonen (A. A.. Higl1 Cot1rt, 1966), Crim. Case No. 1092/58; botl1 1n Fisher, Sourcebool,, cited above at note 139, pp. 41, 43), \Vhen it l1as to .be coaxed ou! of . the reluctant arrestee. In this connection, tl1e United States Supren1e Cot1rt has maintaine d that "any statement taken after the person invokes hjs privilege [to ren1ai11 silent] can 11ot be other than the product of con1pt1lsion, st1btle or otl1erwise.'' Mira.nda v. Arizona, cited above at note 142, p. 743. 146 • There is no requirem ent in Art. 61 that tl1e arrested person be advised of I1is_ rigllt to c? sult with Tile rigllt. e 1 tl of se exerci ibit 1 inl el will co11ns an oinission that tindoubtedly i er ) la �� 1!. however, might a r, Fishe � by d t repor case : one be enforced in otl1er \vays. In � _ taioed an e.,., parte order from the Higl1 Cot1rt ordering the pol1ce, among otl1er th11103 • _ _ to per mit abo,,e at citecl ok, cebo So11r him er, Fish to ts. clien consult with his two arrested . 139 note , p. 86_

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JOURNAL OF ETHJOPIA1'T LAW - \'OL. VfII _ No; 2 cl to advise hii11 cte pe ex e b· . n ca . t47 e, lic po e tl1 n th to wi s I . t Io e c �!�e :n d to inform his client .that �e ha.s a right to r �m�iu sile nty �� ot�·ng 10 a _ h at ly ab ob ll be pr \V1 l1t 1 r1g nv co at tl1 ct 11. g 10 in go the �onseqtience of fore 1t to co11st1lt \vitl1 one' rigl the a11d g nin \var the of s 1 a Wyer d The v,1.lue · · · s 1 · · h I t t 1 ,v1 se Y o n1p co tw e�end e l1 po icle art tl1e er eth ,vh ud, _ on � up : if ly _ initial � . the fad t11 c s to tl1e by rce to e!tfo 11 . �ake ·es p com as111 e 1n. { � _ the liai1c n tipo e. � conlply, In ngl and, 148 pro\11de d1rect1ons to tl1e polLce a11d the '' s le u cotir R ts on .tl1e oes' · · I tl · d0 · le ''Jti . B 149 r1t . 1s 1 cot1rts are g1ve 11 tlle ct· er 1y av I a . to ss ce ac d War. an e ir dt ce o pr 1 1 · g n1· 1 · scret . . • . 1011 to . . d ,1 011 any d nuss1 o se r acct1 ss the co11fe of ion obtained . _ exclude from the trial . _ in V10. 150 I11 the United States, excll1s1011 of " a11 admissio· latio11 of the ''Rules. r con. o fession obtai11ed withot1t a proper v.:a:rning or vi1it4ot1t access to cou11sel manda­ Ababa I-Iigl1 Co11rt imi)lied tllat tory.151 T\vo 1966 decisions of tl1e /1.dd.is a rule l 1s2 b� 1ld pted wot ado by that cotirt_ of exclusion ·, 1ith res1 )ect to Art. 27

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It see111s likely that Etl1iopia11 co11rts on tl1e part of �e police to co1111)ly \,,�tl1 voluntary co1npl1an�e by tl1e pol1c� �1111, Tl1e co11sequei1Ce vv1ll be fewer adm1ss1011s

\Vill l1a,,e decreasi11g patience with ra·i · A1· �s_. 2� a.11d 61. It �lso seen1s Jikel; ��:� w1tl1 time, occur with greater freque ncy. tl1a11 ca11 be expected at present .

Conclusion.

Judges thus \vill have to decide whether or not a perso11 had acted with do/us eve,ztttalis too often v1itl1011t benefit of 011e of the 1najor categories of rele vant evidence a11d too often, tl1erefore, 011 tl1e basis of irtfere11ce a11d pote11tia!Jy ambigu011s ite1ns of proof. A11 error by tl1e court in decidi11g tl1is q11estio11-a findin g that 147. Art. 61 does not grat1 t tl1e lav1yer tl1e rigl1t to be JJresent during police interrogation, nor does it require the police or any otl1er age11cy to ap1Joint a. lawyer for an arres ted. person \Vl10 can.not afford his ow11. In this sense, it falls far sl1<.1rt of the most contr�vers1al.p�t of tlie holding in tl1e A111e1ican Miranda case. A1Jpointing lawyers f or tl1 e indigent at t.he police investigation stage wo11ld clearly be in1practical for the present i11 Ethiopia. See com• ments in Fisher� id., pp. 270-71. 148. Tl1e "Judges' Ilules'' are sun11uarized i n Fisl1er, id., pp. 68-69. 149. The "Rtdes" ?n access to a lawyer are less st;:ingent t]1an Art. 61. Tl1ey pr�vi�e_: 7 (a) A person 1n custody sl1ould be allowed to spealc on tl1e tele1Jl1011e to h1s 1,ohcit or" �r·t� of · frien "s,es 1 r 1.118 1e t · o d to p s · provided that no hindrance is reasonably likely to be caused · ce - and Rules inves!i�atio�, o_r . tl1e . administration of j11stice by l1is doing so." "The Judges' Aclm1n1strat1ve D1rect1 ons to the Police,'' 1964 Cri111. L.. }�cl'., p. 173. 150. Fisl1er, Soitrcebook, citecl above at note l 39, JJp. 68, 69. 151 . Miranda v. Arizo11a, cjted ab o ve at note 142. . I 1er, So11rceoook, 152. p_u bl"ic prosecutor v. Sintayel1u Fis 1. at note 14-5, Ma n i Cr koo abo cite e11 ve d. 66) cited above at note_ 139, l? 43; Publi Co u�·t,_ f.�v d!ence of I-I'i gh A: (A Pr c . os X v. ecu tor · i · Co? :;aid _ · Case No.. 1339/58, F1�l1er, id., rt p. 45. I u the latter case, tl1e I-l1gl1 1963, In � o ession t aken. without les�- he p�lice alue 1 I_U i?first c rigl1ts c f � v or his of ing 11se l tl1e c a :h; ��pre1ne · t lmpe11al C?tlrt l1ad im1)!1ed tl1e opposite) tl1at a state111ent n1ade t . obtained e witho t p oper othe l , 23i/56, rW wo11ld not be ex clt1ded as long as it V/�S No 1ng \Vam r � � f law es.1on1e Gebre :'· A_ttorney Genera Cr1n1.. Ap �- Art. 416 of 19 63 ), Ct ., (S l I11 LlJ 1JJ. J. Fish�r y.id , p 45· Ex�lusion is l availab 11t 1 not the only 111easure of enforcen e t in a�· cep · the p' 1 · C .d e s ''Any PU?li c serva11t w J10 arrests or detains anotl1e[ er by t�,v, �� vide corda�� wi� t:r� e . aw, or wl,� disregards the forms and safeguards pre cr b,, 1il 5� ci, A ;, punishable ' th •gorous_ . s. r A a�d llllp r1so , nn1 e yea rs de, nt not exceeding five CG l against the :� ;. 1 :vi . � police officer and agai11st tl1e state is also possible 1 2031 2035 ' 21;�-;��' Rev. C onst., A rt 62 (b). '

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LEDGE OF CERTAINTY,'' AND DOLUS · · EVENTUALIS ''KNOW '' SIRE, ••DE

. when the evidence does present not support. sucl1 a finding-in was alis eventu do1us accused. A n to t he erroneous finding of injustice do/us eventz1a/is s seriou risks r� : pros ec ution for homicide. wot1ld bring �he. c�se 11nder Art. 523 of the Penal S Art. 522 (1) 1f (c) 11nder It found that the homicide was I even , perhaps or de C '' (tl1e �itu�tion in the. German concea] ar1o_ t l1er �rime to_ . ·or further ''to tt�d· °m �o � . purusl1m pr�v1ded ent 1n Art. The 523 1s rigorous 1mpr1sonrrient K). and J of case 1 a 1111l ma m of twenty rears. U nder Art. 522 (1) (c), 1�d yea�s fi_ v � of um � minim � a _ for , rigorous _ 1 1npr1son1nent 1s for l1fe, authorized or death." If the finding ment punish the dvertent �egl1gence, the case wo11ld come 11nder Art. 52� were case a same the in 1 p11n1sh1ne 1t could be and the no more than three years of Code Penal the of simple impr�so_nment.153 In . a property offence, . e.g., Art. 656, _fraudulent_ :tJ?-isrepre­ sentation, an incorrect find111g of do/us eventi,alls would rest1lt 1n a conv1ct1on and perhaps a sentence of rigorous imprisonment as high as five years. If the finding were adverterit negligence, the person - would be entitled to his complete freedom, misrepresentation included, if committed with since most property· offences, frau�u]ent 154 adverteot· negligence are 11ot punishable. The subjective orientation· of the P�nal Code, 155 and of the Fetha Nagast, as well, 156 justifies, if not requires, higher punishment for -persons who act with selfish willingness to cau.se harm. However, that state of mind must first be proved. It is regrettable in this respect that the Criminal Procedure Code, enacted four years after the Penal Code, did not take into account the subjective orientation of the Code it was su.pposed to implement. 157 The Avant-Projet of the Criminal Procedure 153. If the negligent ho micide were caused ''by a person who has a special professional duty to safeguard life,"· the m aximum punishm ent would be five years of simple imprisonment instead of three. Art. 526 (2). 154. Negligent offences, as was pointed out at the outset of tl1is paper (see above at. notes 9 to 13, and accompanying text), are not as a general rule punishable under the Penal C9de. The major exception in the case of· property offences are those offences against property that also constitute a clanger to the public safety. Arts. 492, 493, 495 and 496. 155. See above at notes 5 to 8, and aecompanying text, and at note 75. 156. See quote from the Fetha Nagast above at note 7. 157 · A further coll"3equence of this mis-m atching of Codes can be seen in tl1e important area of "attempt,'' Art. 27 of the Penal Code. The test laid· down for when an attempt begins a�d therefore, for most cases, when ·criminal liability begins, is ''when the act i;,erformed clearly aims by way of direct consequence, at [the offence�s] com pletion." Art. 27 (1), second paragraph. Dr. Graven, in b.is commentary on Art. 27, bas ·argued, probably correctly, that this lan­ guaget: to?ether with the overall approach of the Code to. the question of attempt, establishes a sabJective or ''mental proximity'' test for when an attempt begins. ''A person begins to [ attempt] an offence when he does something such as to show .that he is detefJilined to cause hai:n .... [T]l1e Ethiopian· Code adopts 'the criterion· of tl1e unequivocal nature. of the act, man i festing the doer's firn1, irrs-vocable intent to acl1ieve by way of direct consequence t·eh result he seel�s to achi eve.' '' Graven, work cited above at note 7, pp. 72, 74. The nature of this test 1s sucl1 that 1t will ·freqt1ently involve an i nvestigation of the ''character :d _ante�dents of the accused . . . , for an l1abitual offender may overcome 'the crisis of e .1 mm1n ent act' and reach the point of no rett1rn earlier tl1an a person who bas no · viou s convictions.'' lei., p. 73. I t is at this point that the Criminal Procedure Code f:� ru_des. Art. 138, entitled ''Antecedents of acct1sed,'' states: ''(1) Unless otl1erwise expressly rh�Vlcied by l_ aw, the prevjous convicti<;> ns of an. ac cused p�rson. sl1 all not be disclosed to _ _ ·a basic pr1nc1ple cou.rt until _after �e h_as been convicted.'' Thi s 1s co_ mmoi:i Ia � _tl1e of desi�ed to avoid . tr i al if his the _ d uring preJud1ce person: that can accrue to an acct1sed the _ ury nds out that he l1as one or m ore prior convictions. G. W1ll1ams, Tl1_e Proof of fi G ,J1 (_3r � ed., Stevens & mmo c� this of \visdom Sons, 1963), the pp. 213-16. It is not � Ia: . · Pnnciple that is in continenta question. The point, rather, is that it is rejected 10 the ✓

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JOURNAL OF ETliIOPIAN LA\V - VOL. VIII - 1'1o. 2

n d be:e l1a n ''a 6, 195 i� nly eve n ave Gr '1nixed' co 11 Jea by d Code, drafte nt· 1 s11bseq11e11tly ne 1a . \¥as abando this 1 11 but ed re , tl d e n c for ro p · , 158 p1s con1n1on la, w an , . 0veralJ · s1 1g e r h g e st · s a . s ry a a rs e ,, d a . rea.son fo tJ • on more substantially des1c .. . r 11s t h \ e e rs a p 1c d d a ro e1 1y :1 B I ' fl ' ce 1 . d 11 1ti s re t1 r1 s d & a h nce 1941 t at ''the Ethiopiai1 courts I a _ ast; sed ve cau l1a s1o ght 1fu m1 co1 11re ced n pro to in s 11 � io rat io alte Eth substantial pia's � 159 J ges s." te ca vo ad d an more exte11sive questioni· n Unless ''inqtlisitorial'' proced11res wl1ich · allow . 1· g of th c 1s is ove itua re1n eve1 us d o · d l l u11t1 from or , uced trod 1 the defi111·t· accused are ii 160 o j Ion \Vi be to ha ii ve ery t1d ge s v sp ar , i11g . de Co l na Pe 1 in e i t1 1 in intentio11 .• • t le· r t1se off . .1,· · tu1s article, even if tlnS\\' . dolits evel1ti,alzs. The general rules pres.ente . d 111 .v1 ngly· e1 ·. . of error. To · e poss1·b·1 1 1ty applied by . Ethiopia's co11rts, c�nno_ t . e11�11n�t_e th further _ protect against such error and tl1e 111Jt1st1ce 1t ca11 cat1se, tl1e Jt1dge mtrst also e e r n s ec a 11st x be s , the 1 of /; eve11tu exceptio dolus fi11di11g A ai11t. n self-restr e p i allY _ ­ cise n -� after cases. carefully ing If ex harn1'' ''great , a1ni11 other ho1nicide and all of \Vitl1. a11y doubt as to w.11ether the pe : � left is evidence on t!1e question, the jt1dge _ o r bad acted with do!L1s eventz1al1s, _l1e n111st �ollovv_ the co111:sel_ of tl1e Svviss jurist Logoz, and ''resolve such doubt 111 conforn11ty w1tl1 the pr1nc1ple in clubio pro re' [wl1en in doubt favot1r tl1e accused]," that is l1e n111st rt1le tl1e case 011e of adver� tent neglige11ce. European non-ju.ry S)'stem where proof of prior convictions is regularly considered by judges on tl1e issLte of guilt as part of a greater freedom allowed tl1em in the evaluation of evidence (for a grapl1ic illustrati on of tl1is, see Bedford, work cited above at note 130, pp. l 7i-80), and tl1e S\\1iss drafter of tl1e Etl1iopian Penal Code quite apparently believed it \1/0uld likewise oo rejected in Etl1iopia's non-ju.ry syste111. It was not, and tl1e substantive doctrine of attempt i s tl1us deprived of one of tl1e 1najor categories of evidence needed for its proving. 158. Fisl1er, Sourcebool<, cited above at 1 1ote 139, p1J. x-xi. 159 . Id., p. xi. 160. Do/us eve,itualis could be removed from intention and treated as it is in France and the Anglo-An1erican countries as an ''aggra\ ated forn1'' of advertent negligence. See above nt notes 57 and 76. If tll is were done, tl1e task of tl1e juclge and, n1ore in1portantly, the _con­ seqL1ence of error, would be greatly redt1ced. \Vl1etl1er tl1e judge found do/us eventifahs or advertent negl igence to be present, l1e would l1ave to cl1oose only an appropriate pun1shn1ent within tl1e si ngle range of punisl11nent for advertent negligence, and would not have to choose between two widely disJJarate ranges of pL111ishn1ent, one ra11ge for inte11tion an� the 0ther for advertent negligence, or between punishn1ent and freedom. The di fficulty ,v1 th thus �e­ n1oving do/us eventualis fron1 intention is tl1at it wo11ld J1ave to be preceded by a maJ fr t a r evision of tl1e Pe�al Code. An enlarge111e11t of ad vertent neglige11ce to include do!us ev�n u Ylo uld fu·st . require some_ increase in tl1e 1naxi1n111n penalty fo�· off�11c:s con:in�itted \\ � abe vei_tent negligence. Few Jtldges or members of tl1e co111111t1n1ty, 1t 1s belie,ed, ,vo 1 satisfied, for instance, \Vith a n1axin1um of three years of sin11Jle imJJrisonn1ent fo� a pers�1 nn . . e of• w1·,1·1ng n s involved •itted . . \V·I10 was Pl·aved to 11ave comm tl1e att1tt1ci . ho1n1c1de . w1tl1 es ·. .a . . require . . I xt · ne. d0 I.us eventuatis. Inclus1on of clolus event11alis \V1th1 n adverte11t 11cgl1g. ence vvou d • I1a ble · uo1s " . · � · p · . ase 1n �s cons_1·derable 1nc1e · t he nurnber of offences for \.vl11cl1 adverte11t 11eghge nce . f do/us Agata, property damage or fraL1cl con1n1itted \Vitl1 tl1e indifference cl1aracter1st1c O t under eve,itualis would probably give rise to dema_nds of pt1nisl1n1�11t tl1at could �ot ��;1� in�l rin1 t�1e .�resent systen1 tl1at makes adver tent negligence a 1 exceptional state of 1 111nd 11 1 ss . " 1 essne . ck Jiabilit:7 Ad_vertent negligence would l1ave to t ke on tl1e c_l1aracter of _"r � /i that in . � ty i Anglo A�erican penal lav,1, �h1ch, ratl1er tl1a11 being an except1on�l forn 1 of Jiab t ,vha ·rising syStem, IS generally as pt1n1shable a state of com p botl i on, 1 I Code, as is i11tent en tllat sy�tem terms n1ens rea or ''culpab i l i " m i1 1d , e.g., tl1e An1erica11 Model P �nted in ty. See to p wor� c1�ed above at note �5, Sec. 2. 02 er� tl ents _at cotn m ve draf (3), � ters' the and abo Kad1sl1 & Paulsen, work cited above c 1_ted \vork 10• . s, Will ian1 t at 22? note ie E h 103 p 1 t ' . . . · 1n . . note · ' . · , 11 ' pp. 30-3 T 1 · ning h e de 1 only ren1a . except10 o 11al form of cr11111nal ]1ab1 l1ty • p al C n e pian. Penal Code would the.n be tile of n inadvertent negligence. Such a revisio entai1 s problems and policy consid erations requiring further study . 1

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Journal of Ethiopian Law Vol. 8 No. 2 (1972) [Part 1]  
Journal of Ethiopian Law Vol. 8 No. 2 (1972) [Part 1]  
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