When thinking about Urban Morphology or shape (pattern) it is important to remember that we use urban models to identify and compare the shapes of the settlement. For AS level Geography you only need to know 2 main types of urban model but it is useful if you are familiar with some of the others also.
U r ban M odel 1: Bur gess’ Concentr ic Zone M odel Burgess suggested that towns grew outward from the centre in a concentric pattern. This means that buildings become more recent closer to the edge of a city. It is possible that up to 5 rings may develop:
A Central Business District (CBD): most accessible to the largest number of people contains services such as shops, offices, banks, etc. multistorey buildings as land is very expensive (build upwards to save cost)
U r ban M odel 1: Bur gess’ Concentr ic Zone M odel B ‘Twilight Zone’ has 2 sections: 1 wholesale light manufacturing (transitional) 2 low class residential (old inner city areas): 19 Century terraced buildings no gardens cheap, dirty slum areas GRID IRON street pattern high rise blocks were built after slums were pulled down attract crime old industries found here
U r ban M odel 1: Bur gess’ Concentr ic Zone M odel C Council Estates: Semidetached housing with gardens in large estates. Less expensive private estates also here. Not top quality (medium class residential). INTER WAR AREA D Commuter Zone: High class residential area. Private, top quality housing. Detached and semi detached on cheap land. People can live here as are prepared to pay to get to work.
U r ban M odel 1: Bur gess’ Concentr ic Zone M odel
E Countryside Areas (suburb / exurbs): Countryside surrounding the urban area. Can also contain villages / hamlets in which town / city workers live.
A key point to remember A key thing to remember is that different text books and resources will use different labels for the different parts of the model. It is very important that you are familiar with them all so make sure that you use Essential Geography and Integrated Geography as a basis for your notes
U r ban M odel 2: H oyts’ Sector M odel Hoyt proposed the idea that towns grew as sectors or "wedges". That means that if, for example, industry grew up in one part of a 19th century town, future industry would then develop in that sector. As the town grew, so would the area of industry and therefore it would grow out in a wedge shape.
A – Central Business District B1 – Wholesale Light Manufacturing B2 – Low Class Residential C – Council Estates D – Commuter Zone (Suburbs) E Countryside
City T r ansect Increase in vegetation
This city transect shows a cross section through a city. The CBD is located in the centre of the diagram and the other areas are clearly marked. On your diagram, add 10 labelled arrows which show changes in the three quality of life environments towards and away from the centre of the city. Examples: traffic, costs, vegetation, etc.
City T r ansect Examples of labels Increase in vegetation Decrease in traffic congestion Increase in housing cost
Decrease in land costs
Decrease in services
Increase in building height Increase in crime Decrease in space
Increase in competition for land
Decrease in car ownership
U r ban M odel 3: L ED C M odel Cities in LEDCs have a very different land use pattern to those in MEDCs. The CBD is dominated by modern administrative and commercial activities. Richer people live in modern highrise apartments around the CBD. Recently arrived migrants from rural areas live in derelict land and on the outskirts. Housing quality decreases with distance from the CBD, unlike in MEDCs, where quality increases with distance from the CBD.
Bid Rent Theory â€˘ (From Essential Page 278) â€˘ These models all share common the idea that land use in cities results from economic forces. It is based on the idea that most landusers want to maximise their profit that they gain from a particular location. Accessibility is the key idea for businesses, shops, offices and people
Bid Rent Theory 2 • Different land users compete for accessible sites near to the city centre. The amount that they are prepared to pay is the bid-rent. • Generally, the closer that a piece of land is to the CBD – the dearer it will be
Mann Harris and Ullmann