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• Metafiction vs. post-modernism • “Self-conscious” or “narcissistic” mode: Don Quixote, Tristam Shandy, Las Meninas • Double reference to – Reality outside the text – The text itself as an artifact

• In comic strips: very early examples Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction: Definition and types

• Robert Alter: “a novel that systematically flaunts its own condition of artifice and that by so doing probes into the problematic relationship between real-seeming artifice and reality” • David Lodge: “Metafiction is fiction about fiction: novels and stories that call attention to their fictional status and their own compositional procedures” • Double referentiality: to reality and the text • Degrees, rather than types Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality • “Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text • Horizontal references: Intercomics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• “Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text • Horizontal references: Intercomics • Vertical, intermedial references: – Painting – Literature – Film – Design – Music

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Hopper’s Nighthawks

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• “Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text • Horizontal references: Intercomics • Vertical, intermedial references: – Painting – Literature – Film – Design – Music

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• “Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text • Horizontal references: Intercomics • Vertical, intermedial references: – Painting – Literature – Film – Design – Music

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• “Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text • Horizontal references: Intercomics • Vertical, intermedial references: – Painting – Literature – Film – Design – Music

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• “Mosaic of citations” that constitute a text • Horizontal references: Intercomics • Vertical, intermedial references: – Painting – Literature – Film – Design – Music

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• Genette’s Transtextuality: “all that which puts one text in relation, whether manifest of secret, with other texts”. 5 types: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Intertextuality Paratextuality Metatextuality Hypertextuality Architextuality Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

1. Intertextuality: “the effective co-presence of two texts” in the form of quotation (explicit), plagiarism or allusion (implicit).

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

1. Intertextuality: “the effective co-presence of two texts” in the form of quotation (explicit), plagiarism or allusion (implicit).

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

2. Paratextuality: the relation between the text and its “paratext” (titles, prefaces, dedications…). – Book editions

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality 3. Metatextuality: when a text “makes comments” about another one (Metatextuality for direct, explicit “comments”

and hypertextuality for indirect references)

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• Metatextuality

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

• Metatextuality

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality 4. Hypertextuality: the relationship between one text (the hypertext) to an anterior text (hypotext), which the former transforms or modifies. In hypertextuality, the reference to the hypotext is worked into the plot (or the gag) of the hypertext,

as opposed to intertextuality, where the two works simply co-exist

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, JesĂşs A. GonzĂĄlez


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to    

Literature Painting Music Film

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

4. Hypertextuality. References to     

Literature Painting Music Film Comics

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: this refers to the generic taxonomies suggested or evoked by a text. We can use this category for “cross-overs” (comic characters appearing in other strips), which make an obvious reference to the fact that they all belong to the same genre and are published together

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: “cross-overs”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: “cross-overs”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: April Fools’ Day

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: Peanuts Envy

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: Peanuts… Envy?

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: Peanuts

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality Breaking Discourse Levels

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality Breaking Discourse Levels

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


First Degree: Intertextuality/Transtextuality

5. Architextuality: Breaking Discourse Levels

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Second degree: Metacomics • A second, deeper degree of metafiction are self-conscious comics which somehow break the “realistic contract” established between the author and the reader and call explicitly the reader’s attention to the artificiality of the text: metacomics. 2 types (Linda Hutcheon): – “diegetic narcissism”: comics whose metafictional references remain in the realm of the diegesis, the story being told by the author. Narrative metacomics. – “linguistic narcissism”:the “metafictional break” (or shortcircuit) happens in the realm of the discourse, the way the story is told. These fictions “demonstrate primarily an awareness of their linguistic constitution” and show the “building blocks—the very language whose referents serve to construct that imaginary world”. Linguistic metacomics. Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative Metacomics

• Comics which tell the story of comic artists and their creations: very frequent in graphic novels.

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative Metacomics

• Comic artists in comic strips

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative Metacomics

• Comic artists in comic strips

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative Metacomics

• Comic artists in comic strips

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative Metacomics

• Characters as comic readers • As newspaper editors

• Or even as comic strip “owners”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative Metacomics • Comics-within-the-comics: Mise-en-abyme – Graphic novels: Tales of the Black Freighter – Comics-inside-novels:“The Escapist” in Michael Chabon’s novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier and Klay

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative metacomics

• Comic strip-within-the-comic strip: Fearless Fosdick within Li’l Abner

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Narrative metacomics

• Comic strip-within-the-comic strip:

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels (Genette’s Metalepsis)

• Characters conscious of their fictional nature

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters conscious of their fictional nature

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters conscious of their fictional nature

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Author’s intrusions

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters complain to the author

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters complain to the author

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Character in search of his author

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters address the reader

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters become authors and alter their fictional world with authorial tools

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters become authors and alter their fictional world with authorial tools

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Characters become authors

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Readers become authors

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Combination of several devices (“Metafictional overkill”, Patricia Waugh): – Character addresses the reader – The character acknowledges his fictional status – Characters become authors

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Breaking Discourse Levels

• Combination of several devices (“Metafictional overkill”, Patricia Waugh): – Character addresses the reader – Character becomes author – Reader becomes character

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Panels and panel borders

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Panels and panel borders

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Panels and panel borders

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Balloons

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Balloons

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Reading order (right to left)

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Onomatopeias:

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Icons:

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Pacing

• Straight Lines

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Use of close-ups and other soap opera conventions

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Living in a newspaper”: Dates

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Living in a newspaper”: Post-production

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Man, I hate living in the funnies”: Post-production

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Post-production

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• Combination of character and balloons: “Silent Garfield”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Readers become authors: Webcomics

• Garfield minus Garfield:

• Pearls minus Pig:

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Readers become authors: Webcomics

• The Garfield Randomizer

• The Digital Calvin and Hobbes

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Metafictional Overkill”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Metafictional Overkill”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Metafictional Overkill”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Linguistic Metacomics: Showing the “building blocks”

• “Metafictional Overkill”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Functions

Reflection Self-Parody Experimentation

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Functions

Reflection Self-Parody Experimentation

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Functions

Reflection Self-Parody Experimentation

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Functions

• Metafictional realism? – Metafiction sometimes creates an intimate connection between the reader and the real author, who breaks the conventions and barriers to “whisper” to the reader and offer his true self

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Functions

• Extroverted metafiction, when metafictional devices not only show the artificiality of fiction, but they also make comments about the artificiality of life: “Maybe in real life we are all comic strip characters”

Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González


Thank you! Metafiction in American Comic Strips, Jesús A. González

Metafiction in American Comic Strips  

Metafiction in American Comic Strips

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