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Convocatorias 2016 Proyectos EMERGENTES Vicerrectorado de Investigación y Transferencia del Conocimiento Universidad de Cantabria AVISO IMPORTANTE INVESTIGADOR PRINCIPAL 1: Francisco Gallardo del Puerto La memoria no podrá exceder de 20 páginas. TITULO DEL PROYECTO: ENSEÑANZA Y APRENDIZAJE BILINGÜE EN CANTABRIA: DESDE LA EDUCACIÓN PRIMARIA A LA UNIVERSITARIA RESUMEN: Este proyecto se basa en la investigación sobre el proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje de lenguas extranjeras y tiene como objetivo contribuir al conocimiento en el campo de la educación bilingüe, donde la lengua extranjera (inglés), además de ser la lengua meta, se utiliza como lengua para enseñar asignaturas de contenido. Este enfoque didáctico se conoce como AICLE (Aprendizaje Integrado de Contenidos y Lenguas Extranjeras) y se ha convertido, al menos en España, en uno de los medios para lograr el objetivo señalado por la Comisión Europea por el que los ciudadanos europeos deben convertirse en hablantes multilingües capaces de comunicarse en, al menos, otras dos lenguas europeas, además de la propia. En este sentido, los programas bilingües están gozando cada vez de mayor popularidad; en Cantabria, por ejemplo, hay varios centros bilingües, tanto en Educación Primaria y Secundaria como en la Universidad de Cantabria donde ha aumentado el número de materias que se imparten en inglés a nivel de grado y de máster. Este proyecto tiene como objetivo analizar, con rigor científico, diferentes aspectos de la aplicación de AICLE en Cantabria en estos entornos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, Primaria, Secundaria y Terciaria. Por ello, solo se concibe sumando los resultados obtenidos gracias a tres líneas de investigación diferentes, cada una de ellas destinada a cubrir uno de los niveles educativos. En primer lugar, en la Línea de Investigación 1, «La adquisición de la competencia comunicativa en AICLE: estudio pseudo-longitudinal en Educación Primaria», el objetivo es explorar el porqué de las diversas dimensiones lingüísticas de competencia en inglés en estudiantes de Primaria que se distinguen por su edad, la cantidad de exposición al inglés y el tipo de instrucción (AICLE y no AICLE). Con este proyecto queremos contribuir tanto al conocimiento acerca de la adquisición de la competencia comunicativa en inglés en AICLE y en entornos no AICLE como a la mejora de los métodos de enseñanza en los centros educativos. Esto se logrará mediante la comparación de los datos recogidos en las escuelas y anotados de acuerdo a los parámetros de la lingüística de corpus, adoptando un enfoque pseudolongitudinal que permita análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos. En segundo lugar, hay que tener en cuenta que una de las bases de la metodología de la enseñanza bilingüe es el enfoque comunicativo, que se basa en los modelos de la competencia comunicativa y que constituye uno de los pilares centrales de AICLE; tanto en la competencia comunicativa como en AICLE, uno de los componentes clave es la Cultura (una de las '4 C' de AICLE: Contenido, Cognición, Comunicación y Cultura). Por lo tanto, bajo el título «De la competencia comunicativa a la competencia comunicativa intercultural: reflexiones en torno a la formación en habilidades interculturales dentro de los programas 1


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bilingües en Secundaria», la Línea de investigación 2 tiene la intención de demostrar que los programas bilingües AICLE son el escenario ideal para la incorporación directa de estrategias y actividades en formación intercultural a nivel secundario, y que tanto la formación del profesorado como el contacto con personas de otras culturas son necesarios para asegurar que la formación en competencia intercultural sea realmente eficaz. Esto se logrará mediante la combinación de técnicas etnográficas con la investigaciónacción con el fin de evaluar cualitativamente la eficacia del proceso de formación intercultural experimentado por los profesores participantes. Por último, aunque se ha escrito mucho acerca de los beneficios de AICLE en Primaria y Secundaria, no hay tantas experiencias documentadas en el nivel terciario. Por esta razón, se incluye una tercera línea de investigación titulada «De la enseñanza bilingüe a AICLE: estrategias y portafolios docentes en la enseñanza bilingüe a nivel terciario». Por medio de la investigación cualitativa basada en entrevistas individuales en profundidad, esta línea tendrá en cuenta algunas investigaciones previas llevadas a cabo por dos miembros de este grupo con el fin de comprobar la viabilidad de las directrices metodológicas AICLE y diseñar un portafolio de autoevaluación adecuado para la educación superior.

TITLE OF THE PROJECT: BILINGUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING IN CANTABRIA: FROM PRIMARY TO TERTIARY EDUCATION SUMMARY: This project is based on research about foreign language teaching and learning and aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the realm of bilingual education, where the foreign language (English), apart from being the target language, is used as the language to teach other content subjects. This educational approach is known as CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) and has become, at least in Spain, one of the means to achieve the aim pointed out by the European Commission in 1995 that European citizens should become multilingual speakers able to communicate in at least two other European languages apart from their own. In this sense, bilingual programmes have, increasingly, become very popular; in the region of Cantabria, for instance, there are several bilingual schools in both Primary and Secondary Education and the University of Cantabria has also increased the number of subjects taught in English in its various degree and master programmes. This project aims to analyze, with scientific rigor, different aspects of the implementation of CLIL in Cantabria in these teaching/learning environments, that is to say, at all levels of education (Primary, Secondary and Tertiary). For this reason, this project has been conceived as the gathering of the results obtained through three parallel lines of research, each one of them intended to cover one of the levels of education. Firstly, in Line of Research 1, «The Acquisition of Communicative Competence in CLIL: A pseudolongitudinal Study in Primary Education», the target is to explore the nature of various linguistic dimensions of English competence in Primary Education students, who are distinguished by their age, amount of exposure to English and type of instruction (more and less intense CLIL and non-CLIL). With this project we would like to contribute both to the knowledge about the acquisition of communicative competence in English in CLIL and non-CLIL settings and to the improvement of teaching methods in current educational settings. This will be achieved by comparing the data gathered in schools and annotated according to Corpus Linguistics parameters, taking a pseudo-longitudinal approach that will allow both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Secondly, we should bear in mind that one of the foundations for bilingual teaching methodology is the communicative approach, which is based on models of communicative competence and can be described as 2


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one of the core features of CLIL; within both CLIL and communicative competence models, one of the key components is often described as Culture, one of the ‘4 Cs’ of CLIL (Content, Cognition, Communication and Culture). Thus, under the title «From Communicative Competence to Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring Intercultural Skills Training in Bilingual Programmes at the Secondary Level», Line of Research 2 is meant to prove that bilingual CLIL programmes are the ideal setting for the direct incorporation of intercultural training strategies and activities at the Secondary Level, and that both teacher training and sustained and meaningful contact with persons from other cultures are necessary to ensure that intercultural competence training is truly effective. This will be achieved by combining ethnographic techniques with action-research in order to qualitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the intercultural training process undergone by the participating teachers. Although much has been written about the benefits of CLIL in Primary and Secondary Education, there are not so many documented experiences of CLIL at the Tertiary Level. For this reason, this project includes a third Line of Research entitled «From Bilingual Teaching to CLIL: Teaching Strategies and Teaching Portfolios for Bilingual Teaching at the Tertiary Level». Using qualitative research based on individual indepth interviews, this line will take into consideration some previous research carried out by two members of this group, in order to test the feasibility of the methodological CLIL guidelines and to develop a selfassessment portfolio suitable for Higher Education. (2). ANTECEDENTES Y ESTADO ACTUAL Line of Research 1: The Acquisition of Communicative Competence in CLIL: A pseudo-longitudinal Study in Primary Education This project is based on research about foreign language teaching and learning and aims to contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the realm of bilingual education, where the foreign language (English), apart from being the target language, is used as the language to teach other content subjects (e.g.: social sciences, physical education, etc.). This educational approach “where curricular content is taught through the medium of a foreign language” (Dalton-Puffer 2011: 183) is popularly known as CLIL, an acronym which stands for Content and Language Integrated Learning. Since the European Commission pointed out that European citizens should become multilingual speakers able to communicate in at least two other European languages apart from their own (see White Paper on Education and Training: Towards the Learning Society DG XXII, 1995.), CLIL has become, at least in Spain, one of the means to achieve this aim. However, the results produced by the early school introduction of foreign language teaching in our context were at first quite unsatisfactory (see García Mayo and Garcia Lecumberri 2003 and Muñoz 2006). These poor results become even more conspicuous if compared with the highly beneficial effects observed when such introduction is made in natural contexts where the target language is used in the community outside the school environment, as confirmed by many “studies of immigrants” on the age factor (Birdsong, 1999; Singleton, 2001). While there is extensive research on the age factor since the 1960s, a general implementation of bilingual programmes in our schools has taken place only recently. Also, research in language learning environments based on content is still in its dawn in our country. In this regard, there have been several calls for research in these contexts over the last decade (see Lasagabaster and Ruiz de Zarobe 2010 and Ruiz de Zarobe, Sierra and Gallardo del Puerto 2011). There are several bilingual schools in the region of Cantabria in both primary and secondary education and the University of Cantabria has also increased the number of subjects taught in English in its various degree and master programmes. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to carry out an investigation with scientific rigor in these teaching/learning environments, as has already happened in other regions (see the work carried out by research teams such as LASlab in the Basque Country, or GLAUR in Rioja, or, to name but a few, by researchers like Francisco Lorenzo and Sonia Casal in Andalusia, Teresa Navés or Carmen Pérez 3


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Vidal in Catalonia and Ana Llinares, Emma Dafouz or Ana Halbach in Madrid). It should be noted, however, that CLIL programmes vary significantly from one region to another with respect to variables such as the subjects taught, the hours of exposure and the teachers’ level of competence in English, among others (Gallardo del Puerto & Martínez Adrián, 2013). Although CLIL is often referred to as an educational approach where both content and language play an equal role, it has also been acknowledged that the integration of these two elements might be far from being optimal in praxis (Dalton-Puffer 2013). Thus, this project aims to analyse different aspects of the implementation of CLIL in Cantabria at all the levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary). On the one hand, its purpose is to analyse the effect of the use of English as a vehicular language at an early age. Several researchers who have studied the age factor in formal contexts have indicated that children cannot benefit from the implicit learning mechanisms if exposure to the foreign language is not sufficiently wide (Gallardo del Puerto, 2007; García Mayo & García Lecumberri, 2003; Muñoz, 2007). The implementation of CLIL programmes in Primary Education has meant a considerable increase in the amount of hours of exposure to the foreign language in early childhood. Therefore, we intend to investigate the influence that a more intensive treatment of English language instruction (via CLIL) has on the development of oral and written proficiency in English at an early age. More specifically, we will examine the differences between school exposure to English only as a foreign language (approximately 3 hours per week) and the additional exposure to this language as the working language in CLIL programmes with different intensity (3 or 6 hours per week approximately). This approach is related to the research carried out to test the effectiveness of language immersion programmes, in which the second language is used as the medium of instruction (Johnson and Swain, 1997; Wesche, 2001), and on content-based instruction (Met, 1998; Marsh and Marshland, 1999). These studies indicate that the development of communicative competence in a second language benefits from its intensive use as a vehicular language. In addition to content-based instruction, it is obvious that our approach is also based on studies carried out in CLIL contexts (Ruiz de Zarobe & Cenoz collected the traditions of both approaches in a special edition of the journal Language, Culture and Curriculum in 2015). CLIL is a very different way to learn the language when compared with a traditional foreign language class, generally based on the presentation of grammatical rules subsequently applied in a series of exercises. CLIL is, so to speak, a more 'natural' way to learn the language, much more like the way we acquire our mother tongue. The language in CLIL programmes has a real communicative value and the studies carried out seem to indicate that there exists a positive effect of this approach on communicative competence in a foreign language (see for example Ruiz de Zarobe and Jimenez Catalan 2009). However, it should be noted that, as already pointed out (see Dalton Puffer, 2008; Ruiz de Zarobe, 2011, 2015), not all language areas develop in the same way in CLIL. While there are areas where CLIL students seem to show a certain superiority, such as reading comprehension, vocabulary at a receptive level, oral and written fluency and certain morphological phenomena, there are many other language aspects in which participation in CLIL programmes does not seem to result in a significant improvement, such as listening, pronunciation (see published work by the main researcher in this project, e.g.: Gallardo del Puerto, Gómez Lacabex and García Lecumberri, 2009), vocabulary at a productive level, syntax and discursive skills. The analysis of the various linguistic aspects of the data collected in Cantabria will allow us to shed more light in this respect. Besides, in this project, as two of its members have experience with Corpus Linguistics, the oral and written data obtained from learners will be treated from this perspective to create oral and written English learner corpora. Corpus linguistics aims at studying language based on the analysis of naturally occurring data stored in a corpus. A corpus is simply "a body of text made available in computer-readable form for purposes of linguistic analysis” (Meyer, 2002: xii). Arhire, Gheorghe & Talab (2014) have recently advocated the use of corpora for educational purposes in CLIL. We also believe that acquisition research on CLIL is to be benefitted from this methodological perspective whose object of study and analysis is real life examples (in our case second learners’ productions), that can be objectively observed, studied and verified (McEnery & Wilson 2001). What is interesting about the use of a corpus for our purposes is that it can be 4


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annotated. As Meyer (2002) mentions, apart from structural annotation (e.g. bibliographic citation, age and gender of the participants, paragraph boundaries, etc.), we can also have part-of-speech annotation (e.g. noun, verb, preposition, etc.), and grammatical annotation (e.g. phrases, clauses, etc.). In addition, one could add orthographic, phonological, prosodic, semantic, lexical, discursive, stylistic, etc. annotation, too. LR2: From Communicative Competence to Intercultural Communicative Competence: Exploring Intercultural Skills Training in Bilingual Programmes at the Secondary Level. One of the foundations for bilingual teaching methodology at all levels is the communicative approach, based on models of communicative competence, which can be described as one of the core features of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning). Within both CLIL and communicative competence models, one of the key components is often described as Culture, be it the ‘4 Cs’ of CLIL (Content, Cognition, Communication and Culture)[ CITATION Ben10 \l 3082 ] or the sociolinguistic aspects of communicative competence described in the models proposed by Bachman (1990) or Canale and Swain (1980). However, many experts argue that the now classic sociolinguistic competence set forth in these models is inadequate when approaching the specific context of foreign language instruction, and in our case, bilingual teaching and learning. Whereas in the past, the ‘perfect model’ of communicative competence was always a native speaker of the target language, now many authors prefer to describe the competent individual as someone who is capable of transcending cultural and linguistic borders in order to respond appropriately in intercultural contact situations (Forsman, 2006; Forsman, 2010; Liaw, 2006; Yashima & Zenuk-Nishide, 2008). Thus, it is now necessary to concern ourselves with how to develop intercultural communicative competence (ICC) amongst second language learners at all levels. Nevertheless, attempts in the past to introduce cultural aspects into FL and Bilingual teaching methodology have often proven limited. While the integration of sociolinguistic competence in the conceptualization of communicative competence did suppose a leap forward in terms of the inclusion of cultural content in FL instruction, it is only with the inclusion of an intercultural component where we can begin to speak of a true transformation in the way culture is taught in bilingual teaching and learning contexts. In fact, in recent years, teaching standards and language learning guidelines on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have embraced the concept of intercultural communication skills, beginning with Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century, first published by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages in 1996, and most recently updated in 2012. More specifically to our setting in Europe, the Common European Framework of Reference (Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2002) also explicitly defines key intercultural attitudes, knowledge, skills and awareness that should be developed by language learners. In the specific context of bilingual education, it is important to note that methods for training intercultural communicative competence share many of the key elements with one of the pre-eminent bilingual methodologies (CLIL): collaborative learning, experiential learning and a student-focused class-room approach (Norman, 2016). Intercultural training is strongly rooted in the experiential learning process (Kolb, 1984) and employs a series of methodological strategies which are not unfamiliar to bilingual education practitioners, such as: role-playing, simulation, self-assessment, immersion experiences, dialogues, social media and tandem exchanges (Fowler & Blohm, 2004; Huber & Reynolds, 2014). Finally, contact with other cultures is key. In the same way that bilingual education methodology promotes guided contact with target language and culture through authentic sources, and when possible, individuals from other cultures, simulated or real intercultural contact, guided by an experienced trainer, has also proven key to developing intercultural communicative competence. Previous research into intercultural training in both FL and bilingual education settings has shown that in order for intercultural communicative competence to develop, it must be specifically addressed in the curriculum and include real contact with other cultures for its effects to be both profound and enduring (Elola & Ozkoz, 2008; Engels & Engels, 2004; Forsman, 2006; Forsman, 2010; Vande Berg, 2009; Vande 5


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Berg, Connor-Linton, & Paige, 2009; Yashima & Zenuk-Nishide, 2008). At the secondary level there have been few studies on how intercultural training affects the acquisition of ICC in second language learners. Forsman (2006, 2010) carried out in-depth case studies with her students on how simulated contact with other cultures impacted their intercultural attitudes while Yashima & Zenuk-Nishide (2008) observed how participating in intercultural training and/or study abroad impacted the intercultural and communicative competence of students at a bilingual Japanese-English high school in Japan. The findings of these studies reflect the results of recent research done in the context of Cantabria. Over a period of two academic years, from September 2010 to June 2012, a study was conducted to evaluate Global Classrooms Cantabria, a Model United Nations (MUN) carried out in English-Spanish Bilingual Secondary Programs thanks to funding grants from the Fundación Botín. One team of researchers, led by Isadora Norman, involved using both qualitative and quantitative research methods to examine whether or not the program methodology could be considered an example of intercultural training and if participating in the program was more effective at developing intercultural competence than participating in a conventional bilingual program. Ethnographic methods such as field diaries, participant observation, and in-depth interviews were used over the course of the two years to understand the program structure and application from within, and participating students from 16 schools completed pre- and post-test questionnaires following a quasi-experimental longitudinal design, with 11 experimental groups participating in the Global Classrooms MUN program and 5 control groups which did not. Additional objectives for the study included identifying external variables which might affect the development of ICC, best practices within the schools in the experimental group, proposing suggestions for improvement, and suggesting strategies for transferring intercultural training methodology both across the curriculum and to other grade levels (Norman, 2016). While it was found that Global Classrooms Cantabria (GCC) did in fact contain nearly all of the elements of intercultural competence training and that students in the experimental group experienced more improvement than their peers in the control group (notably in intercultural attitudes and skills), the program itself was not explicitly designed as intercultural training and, logically, did not meet with all of the criteria set forth in the training literature. Specifically lacking in the training cycle for both teacher and student participants were steps related to consciousness-raising regarding both one’s own culture, other cultures or cultural contact itself. This lack of attention to intercultural consciousness also extended to the type of activities carried out in the classroom, a deficit found to be shared by other MUN programs (Bisset, 1997; Jensen, 2007; Miliziano, 2009). It was also observed that participating teachers’ level of commitment to the program also correlated positively with improved development of intercultural skills. It was additionally found that for those students who reported having sustained contact with other cultures through classmates and friends, participating in GCC resulted in statistically significant improvement in at least three aspects of their intercultural competence, while those students who did not report having sustained intercultural contact did not show improvement in all areas, despite participating in the program and having real and simulated contact with other cultures (Norman, 2016). As a result of the study, and in consonance with the objectives set forth, continued research is needed in several areas, notably in the development and testing of appropriate teacher training and class material designed to develop ICC in the FL classroom, and specifically in CLIL settings. While the GCC program has been shown to be an effective means of improving ICC levels in secondary school students in EnglishSpanish bilingual programs, this key aspect of sociolinguistic competence is not being fully addressed in ordinary bilingual programs nor in the initial or ongoing training of educational professionals involved in the implementation of said programs. Using the results of the research carried out by Norman (2016), some of the next steps in this area of research have involved the development and pilot implementation of a teacher training seminar on intercultural competence in bilingual settings titled “Understanding Ourselves, Understanding Others: Intercultural Games for the Bilingual Classroom” which was carried out during Spring semester 2016 with approximately 20 university-level students from the Teacher Training School of the University of Cantabria. 6


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LR3: From Bilingual Teaching to CLIL: Teaching Strategies and Teaching Portfolios for Bilingual Teaching at the Tertiary Level. Although much has been written about the benefits of CLIL in Primary and Secondary Education (for example, Muñoz 2007, Dalton-Puffer 2007, Lasagabaster and Sierra 2009, Liubinienè 2009 or Vártuki 2010), there are not so many documented experiences of CLIL at the Tertiary Level. Paradoxically, due to “the growth of student mobility and the evolving epistemology of university disciplines in a globalising academy” (Costa and Coleman 2010), more and more universities across Europe are teaching courses and even whole degrees in a second language, almost always English. However, university lecturers do not seem to take advantage of CLIL research and experiences from other levels of education, probably because, as Costa and Coleman state, ICLHE (Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education, as CLIL at university is often referred to) “typically represents a top-down approach, an institutional initiative dictated by the strategic need for internationalization” (2010: 20), and one that does not take into account CLIL at other levels. Wilkinson (2004), Wilkinson and Zegers (2007, 2008), Fernández (2009) and Costa and Coleman (2010) have tried to look at the possibility and challenges of implementing a CLIL approach at the Tertiary Level. This approach is becoming more and more necessary due to the increase of bilingual programs (bilingual degrees, bilingual itineraries and just subjects in English) in public universities and general degrees where the students do not necessarily have the necessary proficiency to follow a complex class in English (Fernández 2009). Where previously EMI (English Medium Instruction) practicioners did not have to consider a different methodology, now CLIL has become necessary to make cognitively demanding content available to students with a limited knowledge of English. Two of the participants of this research project have looked into CLIL literature and have interviewed Primary and Secondary CLIL teachers in order to identify the best methodological guidelines and teaching strategies to be followed in CLIL classes (González and Barbero 2013, Barbero and González 2014). These guidelines have been published and summarized in a “CLIL-methodology Decalogue” to be used at the Tertiary Level, and which reads as follows: 1. Communication is a must. English should be used as much as possible, but the mother tongue can also be used in case of communication blockage. 2. Scaffolding is essential. Identify language demands and provide support strategies. Use visual aids and written language whenever necessary. All students, but particularly all those whose listening skills are not the best, will appreciate the use of slides summarizing the main ideas stated in class. Model and break up the tasks if appropriate. 3. A reference lexical corpus is required for every task. Advance work (with warm-up activities like video comprehension, webquests or the like) on specific vocabulary should be done prior to the explanation of cognitively challenging content. 4. Use ICT, in particular software and on-line material in English. 5. Use a student-centred approach. Put yourself in the students’ position. Provide the opportunity for as much hands-on learning as possible. Use pair work and group work. 6. In assessment, content should be a priority over language: linguistic competence in the foreign language is an added value which should be rewarded, but the lack of fluency in the foreign language should not be a major obstacle for a positive evaluation. 7. Use diverse assessment instruments: self-assessment, peer assessment, rubrics, and language and content portfolios. 8. Repeat and consolidate. Do not hesitate to repeat, paraphrase, and/or present information in different formats. 9. Plan carefully in order to be flexible.

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10. Turn problems into opportunities. Be bold as far as methodology is concerned and take advantage of this new educational context to work on a different paradigm. Teachers are facilitators and mediators between language and content, not mere transmitters of knowledge. Assess your teaching practice (with instruments like the EPOSTL, or “The CLIL Teachers’ Competences Grid”). The following step in this line of research is to test the feasibility of these guidelines at University level. A first attempt was made within the framework of the University of Cantabria’s “Convocatoria de Innovación Docente” in 2015, when 10 University lecturers teaching their subjects in English were interviewed to test the validity of the “Decalogue”. These interviews were recorded and transcribed and are a very valuable corpus ready to be analyzed in detail. One of the pedagogical fields where interviewees reported more difficulties was assessment. Alternative forms of assessment (self-assessment, peer-assessment) have been suggested, but the authors identified a need of self-assessment instruments of teaching competences, specifically designed for CLIL practicioners. Although some models of teaching profiling portfolios do exist (European Profiling Grid, European Portfolio for Student Teachers of Languages-EPOSTL), there seems to be a lack of specific self-assessment portfolios for CLIL teachers at university. (3). HIPÓTESIS Y OBJETIVOS GENERALES Line of Research 1: The general hypothesis rests with the idea that additional exposure to CLIL is a beneficial approach to the acquisition of communicative competence in English. The starting point is that those schoolchildren who use English as a vehicular language will obtain, in general terms, better results in various aspects of English communicative competence than those students who are involved in programmes where they only learn English as a subject. Besides, we expect more intense CLIL programmes to yield better outcomes than less intense ones. Additionally, we expect differences among the aforementioned programmes to augment with increasing age/grade. In other words, the older the learners, and thus the more exposed to CLIL, the better their English competence comparatively. We also expect different language dimensions to behave differently in this regard. The main general objectives in this line of research are the following: 1) To conduct a pseudo-longitudinal study on the acquisition of English communicative competence by young learners in formal instructional contexts in Cantabria, a community where there is a lack of published research on the topic 2) To examine the similarities and differences regarding the knowledge and use of English as an object of study versus English as a means of instruction 3) To analyse the effect of different degrees of exposure to CLIL instruction over communicative competence in English 4) To create both an oral and a written learner corpus of English learners in Primary Education LR2: The main hypothesis for this second line of research is that bilingual CLIL programs are the ideal setting for the direct incorporation of intercultural training strategies and activities at the secondary level, and that both teacher training and sustained and meaningful contact with persons from other cultures are necessary to ensure that intercultural competence training is truly effective. The general objectives for this line of research are: - Use lessons learned from the Global Classrooms Cantabria program and evaluation to improve ICC training for teachers and language assistants in Cantabria - Explore L2 and CLIL teachers’ attitudes towards intercultural education - Assess how to maximize the impact of real intercultural contact on the development of ICC through specific training activities 8


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Develop and test both teacher training and student training materials Generate proposals for knowledge transfer to pre-primary, primary and tertiary levels, as well as the life-long learning field.

LR3: The general hypothesis is that the methodological guidelines and teaching strategies identified in González and Barbero 2014 can be applied at the Tertiary Level. The general objectives are the following: - To build bridges between different levels of education, specifically between Primary-Secondary and the Tertiary Level. - To test, by means of qualitative research (the “long interviews” specified by McCracken 1988 already used in previous research), whether the methodological guidelines and teaching strategies identified in González and Barbero 2014 can be applied at the Tertiary Level. (4). OBJETIVOS ESPECÍFICOS. IMPACTO PREVISTO Line of Research 1: The specific goals of this line of research are the following: 1) To analyse various linguistics aspects of the communicative competence in English shown by Primary Education students in different instruction programmes (English as a foreign language vs. CLIL). We will analyse different aspects of both written and spoken abilities: a. Phonetics - e.g.: vowel and consonant perception and production, foreign accent, intelligibility, etc. b. Lexis - e.g.: receptive and productive vocabulary, etc. c. Morphosyntax – e.g.: verbs, subordination, complexity, etc. d. Discourse - e.g.: linking words, coherence and cohesion, etc. 2) To examine the pseudo-development of communicative competence in English in three different grades of Primary Education: grade 2 (age 8), grade 4 8 (age 10) and grade 6 (age 12). 3) To conduct a comparative study of the pseudo-development of communicative competence in English in non-CLIL and more and less intense CLIL programmes. All in all, our target is to explore the nature of various linguistic dimensions of English competence in Primary Education students who are distinguished by their age, amount of exposure to English and type of instruction (more and less intense CLIL and non-CLIL). With this project we would like to contribute both to the knowledge about the acquisition of communicative competence in English in CLIL and non-CLIL settings and to the improvement of teaching methods in current educational settings LR2: The specific aims of this line of research can be subdivided into three main areas: 1) Explore L2 and CLIL teachers’ and conversation assistants’ attitudes and knowledge of intercultural education and training through in-depth personal interviews both prior to and subsequent to participant in specialized intercultural training. 2) Develop and implement teacher training workshops and peer-teaching seminars based on previous findings. Said training will include both an introductory and ongoing component: a. Initial training: focused on developing ICC in the educational professionals themselves, familiarizing them with the ICC training process, discussing the role of intercultural contact, and providing strategies and models for using ICC training in the CLIL classroom b. On-going training: to be carried out in a seminar or work-group format the objective of this training is collaboration amongst participating teachers and conversation assistants in order to develop classroom materials and activities in conjunction with real and imagined intercultural contact situations, to include e-twinning, exchanges and the conversation assistants’ presence in and of itself. 9


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3) Knowledge transfer from the teacher training sessions to both the secondary classroom and other educational levels. This is to include: a. Application and evaluation of strategies, materials and the training process in pilot bilingual secondary class groups with assistance from teachers and conversation assistants b. Development of training seminars for educational professionals from other education c. Send results of different stages of the research process for publication in high-impact journals (best practices and recommendations identified in the GCC evaluation, development and testing of the teacher training sessions, teacher attitudes towards intercultural education, etc.) LR3: The specific goals of this line of research are the following: - To analyze the corpus of interviews to University lecturers and test the feasibility of the methodological guidelines. - To modify the guidelines according to the suggestions of interviewees. - To develop a self-assessment portfolio of teaching competences, specifically designed for CLIL practicioners, based on the models of the European Profiling Grid developed by EAQUALS, and the EPOSTL. - To send the results of this research for publication to a high-impact international journal. (5). METODOLOGÍA PROPUESTA Line of Research 1: The design of the study will allow us to find an answer to the following research questions: 1. Are there any differences as regards various dimensions of English communicative competence between CLIL students and those who are not involved in CLIL when compared at the same age/grade? 2. Are there any differences as regards various dimensions of English communicative competence between the students in more and less intense CLIL programmes when compared at the same age/grade? 3. Are there any differences regarding the pseudo-evolution of various dimensions of English communicative competence between CLIL students and those who are not involved in CLIL? 4. Are there any differences regarding the pseudo-evolution of various dimensions of English communicative competence between the students in more and less intense CLIL programmes? Participants The subjects who take part in this project are taken from Primary schools in Santander and its surroundings. They have all started to learn English at age 4. They are divided into two main research groups. One group is made up of students who are enrolled in CLIL programmes, (experimental group) and the other group contains subjects who follow a traditional instruction of English as a foreign language (control group). The experimental group is divided into two different groups according to the intensity of English exposure through CLIL. The control group (Non-CLIL=NC) is exposed to 3 hours of English as a subject per week approximately. The experimental groups, in addition to these hours, are exposed to either three (1CLIL= 1C) or six (2CLIL = 2C) additional hours of CLIL per week. In each of these research groups, the sample is composed of 75 schoolchildren taken from three different grades: grade 2 (age 8; n=25), grade 4 (age 10; n=25) and grade 6 (age 12; n=25). The following table displays the distribution of our sample: Group

Number of Participants

Grade

Age

1C2 1C4 1C6

25 25 25

2 4 6

7-8 9-10 11-12

Years of English Exposure 4 6 8

Hours CLIL exposure 200 400 600

of

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2C2 2C4 2C6 NC2 NC4 NC6

25 25 25 25 25 25

2 4 6 2 4 6

7-8 9-10 11-12 7-8 9-10 11-12

4 6 8 4 6 8

400 800 1200 0 0 0

With regard to participant groups, two types of comparisons will be made. First, groups from the same grades will be compared (see comparisons 1 to 6 next). Second; groups from the same programme will be compared (see comparisons 7 to 9): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

[1CLIL2 + 2CLIL2] vs. NCLIL2 [1CLIL4 + 2CLIL4] vs. NCLIL4 [1CLIL6 + 2CLIL6] vs. NCLIL6 1CLIL2 vs. 2CLIL2 1CLIL4 vs. 2CLIL4 1CLIL6 vs. 2CLIL6 1CLIL2 vs. 1CLIL4 vs. 1CLIL6 2CLIL2 vs. 2CLIL4 vs. 2CLIL6 NCLIL2 vs. NCLIL4 vs. NCLIL6

The first set of comparisons enables us to know whether there are differences between CLIL and Non-CLIL learners (comparisons 1 to 3) and between learners with more and less intense CLIL (comparisons 4 to 6). Since we have data from three different ages/grades, this design will also offer the opportunity to see whether these differences grow with grade/age. The second set of comparisons (7 to 9) will give us a picture of the pseudo-development of English communicative competence in the three types of instruction (less intense CLIL, more intense CLIL and non-CLIL). We will also be able to see whether there are differences in the way these three types of learners pseudo-progress in their acquisition of English. The reason why our study takes a pseudo-longitudinal approach, and not a longitudinal one, is because the project we are applying for involves a timespan of just two years, and a longitudinal study with this very same design will involve 4 years of data gathering (from grade 2 to grade 6). A pseudo-longitudinal approach, however, will permit collecting all the data in just 1 academic year. Instruments 1. Background questionnaire to collect information about learner variables such as age, sex, socioeconomic status, first language, etc. 2. Questionnaire about extra-curricular exposure to English 3. Oral English production task (e.g.: a narration) 4. Written English production task (e.g.: a letter) 5. Grammar tasks 6. Vocabulary tasks 7. Pronunciation tasks Analysis The data provided by the different tasks will allow both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Whenever possible, data will be quantitatively rendered and subsequently analysed by means of statistical software. Both objective and subjective evaluation procedures will be used. As for the latter, a number of judges will be needed to assess learners’ individual productions both in the oral English production task and in the written English production task. These two tasks will also make up the basis of both written and oral corpora of English learners in Primary Education. These corpora will be annotated by means of different types of mark-up (parts-of-speech, grammatical, orthographic, phonological, lexical, discursive, etc.). 11


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LR2: Research Design The proposed methodology for this line of research combines ethnographic techniques with actionresearch. In the first sense, techniques stemming from the ethnography of schooling will be employed, such as in-depth interviews and participant observation, involve the type of deep description championed by Geertz (1973) and the dual role played by participants as both those who apply and analyze the proposed training modules (Spindler, 1982; Bhatti, 2012). Additionally, this project is strongly rooted in the tradition of action-research, in other words, participatory and reflective research which aims to improve educational contexts and practice (Carr & Kemmis, 1986.) In our case, the proposed change is in how bilingual secondary school teachers are trained to teach culture in the L2 or CLIL classroom in conjunction with real and virtual intercultural contact. This planned change will be carried out through introductory and on-going teacher training activities, followed by a planned change in classroom activities, applying concepts covered and materials created during training in the classroom. To close the circle, teachers will be interviewed on the experience and participate in a focus group to evaluate their teaching practice and provide feedback on the training cycle, thus assisting the research team in the subsequent planning stage for knowledge transfer to other educational sectors and professionals. Participants The key participants in the action research cycle will be teachers and conversation assistants currently working in English-Spanish bilingual secondary school programs in Cantabria, including the researcher herself. An estimated 20-24 teachers will participate in the introductory training. These teachers will be a combination of teachers actively recruited who are already participating or planning to organize an exchange with a school abroad and those interested in the training itself; during the final term of the 20162017 teachers known to be participating in etwinning will be contacted about participation, and when the training is announced in September 2017 it will be open to any secondary teacher currently participating in a bilingual program. Those teachers who participate in the training will be invited to join a seminar or work group on intercultural teaching strategies and materials and work together to design projects or training modules for application in the secondary school classroom, based on the initial training received. Ideally, 510 participants will continue with this part of the study and will be able to carry out pilot versions of projects and training modules in their schools. The other participants in this study are the conversation assistants assigned to bilingual secondary schools in Cantabria. Coinciding with their reception and introductory training, all of the language assistants will be offered a short course on intercultural skills and intercultural training. Those language assistants assigned to work at schools where the participant teachers are based will be invited to participate in the study as well. Ideally, between 5-10 teacher-assistant pairs will be formed, which will assist in the development and application of the projects/training modules. All participants will participate in both entry and exit interviews as part of the action research cycle, as well as a potential round-table evaluation of the experience at the end of May 2018. Instruments In order to qualitatively evaluate the effectiveness of the intercultural training process undergone by the participating teachers, and the adequacy of the resources developed by the seminar/work group, it will be necessary to develop a series of research tools, namely an in-depth research schedule, as well as evaluation rubrics for both the teacher and student training modules. These instruments will be developed according to the methodology outlined above. While in the previous study carried out by Norman (2016) an intercultural competence questionnaire was used to evaluate students’ development of ICC, due to the more limited 12


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sample size and exploratory nature of this study qualitative methods have been chosen, with the possibility of a more complete quantitative analysis of the impact of CLIL-specific ICC training on students’ acquisition. Analysis The entry and exit interviews, as well as a possible focus group evaluation will be recorded and transcribed in order to carry out a content-analysis to determine key themes and contrast the opinions and attitudes of the participant teachers toward ICC training prior to and after participating in the experience. Results The main outcomes for this project include the development and testing of both teacher and student ICC training modules, as well as in-depth case studies of teacher attitudes towards intercultural education and how participation in ICC training affects those attitudes. Secondary outcomes include increase in teacher intercultural communicative competence in L2, transfer of knowledge to other levels of education, and dissemination of best practices in bilingual education. LR3: The methodology is inspired by action-research principles (McNiff 2001), and uses qualitative research based on individual in-depth interviews, designed to “co-create meaning with interviewees by reconstructing perceptions of events and experiences [and] to discover shared understandings of a particular group (Di Cicco-Bloom and Crabtree 2006: 316), or, as Grant McCracken defines it, “the long interview” (McCracken 1988: 9). The features of in-depth interviews are defined by Woodside and Wilson like this: “a) a face to face meeting with the interviewer and respondent; b) interviewing the respondent in his or her life space, that is, the environment related to the topic under study; c) asking open-ended, semi-structured questions with deeper exploration of unexpected topics related to the study as opportunities occur; d) tape recording of responses (when not disruptive) during the interview; e) verification of responses by triangulation of research methods (eg., comparing answers with data from direct observation and documents)” (Woodside and Wilson 1995: 39) Since we already have a corpus of interviews, we are going to analyze that corpus in detail and verify those responses “by triangulation” with the available literature and, if possible, class observation. As to the development of self-assessment portfolios of teaching competences, once developed, they will be tested with lecturers teaching or intending to teach subjects in English at the Universidad de Cantabria and taking part in the course “Content and Language Integrated Learning: Methodological Orientations for a Better Practice”, organized by the teacher training department of the university. (6). DESCRIPCIÓN DE LOS MEDIOS MATERIALES: Photocopies, audio recorder, videocamera, statistical software, corpus annotation software, content-analysis software. (7). CRONOGRAMA Line of Research 1:  2017 January-April: revision and updating of bibliography at the University of Cantabria Library; selection of testing schools; preparation of English tests; meeting with schools; setting the data collection sessions at schools; photocopying of questionnaires and tests. 

2017 May-August: administration of questionnaires and tests.

2017 September-December: correction of tests; creation of learner written corpora; creation of oral learner corpora; report writing-up. 13


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2018 January-April: creation of statistical database; computerised processing of data

2018 May-August: statistical analyses, display of results.

2018 September-December: distribution of results in seminars, conferences and scientific publications; final report writing-up.

LR2: 

 

 

 LR3:      

2017 January-April: Update bibliography on ICC training, specifically in bilingual contexts, draft publication on lessons learned from the GCC evaluation and their implications in designing ICC training, meetings with representatives from the Centro de Profesores and the Cantabrian education authorities to discuss training plan for 2017-2018, identification and recruitment of teachers already participating in virtual or real exchange activities who would be interested in participating in trainings. 2017 May – August: Revision of teacher training materials, analysis of workshop carried out in 2016 with teacher training students, development of training workshops, development of entry and exit interviews for training participants. 2017 September – December: Identify potential research pairs (conversation assistants + teachers), conduct entry interviews with teachers and conversation assistants, carry out specific introductory trainings for conversation assistants and teachers, commence seminar or work-group for teachers who have decided to continue with the study 2018 January – April: Continue seminar or work-group for teachers who have decided to continue with the study, development of classroom activities and materials, application of projects or training modules in schools 2018 May – August: Application of projects or training modules in schools, focus group with participating teachers and conversation assistants to evaluate teacher and student training modules, exit interviews with participating teachers and conversation assistants, analysis of entry and exit interviews, revision of teacher training experience, meetings with representatives of the Centro de Profesores and the Cantabrian education authorities to discuss the outcomes of the training experience and possibilities for continuity/transfer to other educational levels. 2018 September – December: Presentation of results in conferences in seminars, conferences and scientific publications, writing up of final report, possible continuation of training activities. 2017 January-April: Analysis of the corpus of interviews 2017 May-August: Triangulation of findings by means of the revision of literature about CLIL at University, CLIL methodology and self-assessment portfolios, and class observation, if possible. 2017 September-December: Development of prototype of self-assessment portfolio 2018 January-April: testing of prototype 2018 May-August: Presentations of findings at specialized national or international conferences (AEDEAN, AESLA, specific conferences on bilingual teaching and CLIL) 2018 September-December: At least an article will be written and sent for publication at a highimpact international journal

(8). EN SU CASO, JUSTIFICACIÓN DE LA NECESIDAD DE CONTRATACIÓN PERSONAL This project involves gathering and analysing large amounts of learners’ and teachers’ data, as well as a series of in-depth interviews. It implies several visits to the schools to collect learners’ and teachers’ data. It also involves assessment tasks which require the help of independent evaluators. Since it is our aim to

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create two learners’ corpora (a written and an oral one) as well as two different teachers’ corpora, personnel will be needed to create and codify these corpora, as well as to help in teacher training sessions. (9) PLAN DE DIFUSIÓN The research findings will be publicised in specialised national or international conferences (AEDEAN, AESLA, specific conferences on bilingual teaching and CLIL), and at least three articles (one for each line of research) will be written and sent for publication at a high-impact international journal. It is also our prime motivation to make our research outcomes available to foreign language teachers in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education. Therefore, the results of the research will be made readily available to both future and active educational professionals through collaboration with the Centro de Profesores and the regional educational administration. We also plan to disseminate our findings through more informal means, specifically by means of our blog http://bilingualteachingunican.blogspot.com.es, and our classes to lecturers teaching or intending to teach subjects in English at the Universidad de Cantabria and taking part in the course “Content and Language Integrated Learning: Methodological Orientations for a Better Practice”, organized by the teacher training department of the university. Additionally, discussions of the pedagogical implications of our research for the improvement of English teaching will be welcomed, as well as research assistants and MA/PhD dissertation students interested in this line of investigation. (10) REFERENCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS Arhire, M. Gheorghe. M. & Talab, D. (2014) A Corpus-based Approach to Content and Language Integrated Learning. In Conference proceedings. ICT for language learning, 7th Edition (22-25). Florence: Pixel. Birdsong, D. (ed.) (1999) Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Dalton-Puffer, C. (2008). Outcomes and processes in content and language integrated learning (CLIL): current research from Europe. In W. Delanoy and L. Volkmann, (eds.), Future perspectives for English language teaching, 139-157. Heidelberg: Carl Winter. Dalton-Puffer, C. (2011) Content and language integrated learning: from practice to principles. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 31, 182-204. Dalton-Puffer, C. (2013) A construct of cognitive discourse functions for conceptualising content-language integration in CLIL and multilingual education. European Journal of Applied Linguistics 1(2), 138. Gallardo del Puerto, F. (2007) On the Effectiveness of Early Foreign Language Instruction in School Contexts. In Daniela Elsner, Lutz Küster & Britta Viebrock (Eds) Fremdsprachenkompetenzen für ein wachsendes Europa. Das Leitziel Multiliteralität (215-229). Frankfurt/Main: Peter Lang. Gallardo del Puerto, F., Gómez Lacabex, E. & García Lecumberri, María Luisa. (2009). Testing the effectiveness of Content and Language Integrated Learning in foreign language contexts: The assessment of English pronunciation. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe and R. M. Jiménez Catalán (Eds.) Content and Language Integrated Learning: Evidence from Research in Europe (pp. 63-80). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Gallardo del Puerto. F. & Martínez Adrián, M. 2013 ¿Es más efectivo el aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera en un contexto AICLE? Resultados de la investigación en España. Padres y Maestros, 349: 25-28. García Mayo, M.P. & García Lecumberri, M.L. (eds) (2003) Age and the Acquisition of English as a Foreign Language. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Johnson, K. y Swain, M. (1997). Immersion Education: International perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press. Lasagabaster, D. y Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (2010) CLIL in Spain: Implementation, Results and Teacher Training. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishers. 15


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Marsh, D. & Marshland, N. (1999) Learning with languages 1999. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. McEnery,T. & Andrew W. (2001) Corpus linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Met, M. (1998) Curriculum decision-making in content-based language teaching. En J. Cenoz y F. Genesee (eds) Beyond Bilingualism: Multilingualism and Multilingual Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Meyer, C. F. (2002) English corpus linguistics. An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Muñoz, C. (2006) Age and the Rate of Foreign Language Learning. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. (2011) Which language competencies benefit from CLIL? An insight into Applied Linguistics Research. In Y. Ruiz de Zarobe, J. M. Sierra & F. Gallardo del Puerto (eds), Content and foreign language integrated learning: Contributions to multilingualism in European Contexts, 129-153. Bern: Peter Lang. Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. 2015. The effects of implementing CLIL in Education. In M. J. Garau & J. SalazarNoguera (eds.), Content-based language learning in multilingual educational environments, 51-68. Berlin: Springer. Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. & Cenoz, J. (eds) (2015) Content-based instruction and CLIL: Moving forward in the 21st century. Language, Culture and Curriculum 28 (special issue). Ruiz de Zarobe, Y. & Jiménez Catalán, R. (2009). Content and Language Integrated Learning: Evidence from Research in Europe. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Ruiz de Zarobe, Y., Sierra, J. M. & Gallardo del Puerto, F. (2011) Content and Foreign Langauge Integrated Learning: Contributions to Multilingualism in European Contexts. Bern: Peter Lang. Singleton, D. (2001) Age and second language acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 21: 7789. Wesche, M. B. (2001) French immersion and content-based language teaching in Canada. Toronto: The Canadian Modern Language Review 58 (special issue). Bachman, L. (1990). Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bennett, J. M. (2009). Cultivating intercultural competence: A process perspective. En D. K. Deardorff (Ed.), The Sage handbook of intercultural competence (pp. 121-140). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Bently, K. (2010). The TKT course: CLIL module. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bhatti, G. (2012). Ethnographic and representational styles. En J. Arthur, M. Waring, R. Coe, & L. V. Hedges (Edits.), Research methods and methodologies in education (pp. 80-84). Los Angeles: Sage. Bisset, R. J. (1997). The implementation of analysis of a Model United Nations program in a grade 9 setting. Winnipeg, Manitoba: University of Manitoba. Obtained from: Proquest Digital Dissertation: http://search.proquest.com/docview/304393001?accountid=14529 Byram, M. (1997). Teaching and assessing intercultural communicative competence. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Canale, M., & Swain, M. (1980). Theoretical Bases of Communicative Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing. Applied Linguistics, 1, pp. 1-47. doi: 10.1093/applin/I.1.1 Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education, knowledge and action research. Oxon: Deakin University Press. Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2008). Blogging: Fostering intercultural competence development in foreign language and study abroad contexts. Foreign Language Annals, 41(3), pp. 454-477. doi: 10.1111/j.1944-9720.2008.tb03307.x Engle, L., & Engle, L. (2004). Assessing language acquisition and intercultural sensitivity development in relation to study abroad progam design. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, X, pp. 219-236. Obtained from: http://frontiersjournal.org/past-volumes/vol-x/ Forsman, L. (2006). The cultural dimension in focus: Promoting awareness of diversity and respect for difference in a Finland-Swedish EFL classroom. Abo: Abo Akademi University Press. Obtained fromhttp://www.doria.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/4132/TMP.objres.86.pdf?sequence=2 16


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Forsman, L. (2010). EFL education in the new milennium: Focus on the promotion of awareness of difference and diversity. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 54(5), pp. 501-5017. doi: 10.1080/00313831.2010.508926 Fowler, S. M., & Blohm, J. M. (2004). An Analysis of Mehtods for Intercultural Training. En D. Landis, J. M. Bennet, & M. J. Bennet, Handbook of Intercultural Training, third edition (pp. 37-84). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books. Guest, M. (2002). A critical 'checkbook' for culture teaching and learning. ELT Journal, 56 (2), pp. 154161. doi: 10.1093/elt/56.2.154 Hall, E. (1981). Beyond Culture. New York: DoubleDay. Huber, J., & Reynolds, C. (Edits.). (2014). Developing intercultural competence through education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Jensen, T. W. (2007). A U.N.ified Front: An ethnographic examination into why five educators in underserved Houston Middle Schools implement the global education experience Global Classrooms: Model U.N. Houston, Texas: University of Houston. Obtained from Proquest Digital Dissertation: 304848367 Kaplan, R. (1966). Cultural thought patterns in inter-cultural education. Language Learning, 16, pp. 1-20. doi:10.1111/j.1467-1770.1966.tb00804.x Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Nixon, R. (2014). The action research planner: Doing critical participatory action research. Singapore: Springer. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Kramsch, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Liaw, M.L. (September de 2006). E-Learning and the development of intercultural competence. Language Learning & Technology, 10(3), 49-64. Obtained from http://llt.msu.edu/vol10num3/liaw/ Mehisto, P., Marsh, D., & Frigols, M. J. (2008). Uncovering CLIL: Content and language integrated learning and multilingual education. Oxford: MacMillan Education. Miliziano, K. R. (2009). Teaching social studies in an age of globalization: A case study of secondary social studies teachers' participation in the UNA-USA's Global Classrooms Curriculum Program. University of South Florida. Obtained from: Proquest Digital Dissertation: 304996233 Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte. (2002). Marco Común Europeo para las lenguas: Aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación. Madrid: Instituto Cervantes. Obtained from: http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/marco/cvc_mer.pdf National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. (2006). Standards for foreign language learning in the 21st century. Lawrence, KS: Allen Press. National Standards in Foreign Language Education Project. (2014). World-readiness standards for foreign language learning. Alexandria, VA: Author. Obtained from: http://www.actfl.org/publications/all/world-readiness-standards-learning-languages Norman, I. (2016) Global Classrooms: Un programa de formación intercultural. Evaluando un programa de formación para adolescentes.Tesis Doctoral. Universidad de Deusto: Bilbao. (soon to be published in TESEO and Proquest) Sen Gupta, A. (2003). Changing the focus: A discussion of the dynamics of the intercultural experience. En G. Alfred, M. Byram, & M. Fleming (Edits.), Intercultural experience and education (pp. 155178). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Spindler, G. (1982). Doing the ethnography of schooling: Educational anthropology in action. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press. Thanasoulas, D. (2001). The Importance of Teaching Culture in the Foreign Language Classroom. Radical Pedagogy, 3(3). Obtained from: http://www.radicalpedagogy.org/radicalpedagogy.org/The_Importance_of_Teaching_Culture_in_th e_Foreign_Language_Classroom.html

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Vande Berg, M., Connor-Linton, J., & Paige, R. M. (Fall de 2009). The Georgetown Consortium project: Interventions for student learning abroad. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 18, 1-75. Obtained from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ883690.pdf Yashima, T., & Zenuk-Nishide, L. (2008). The impact of learning contexts on proficiency, attitudes, and L2 communication: Creating an imagined international community. System, 36, 566-586. doi:10.1016/j.system.2008.03.006 Barbero, J. And González J.A. 2014. “CLIL at University: Transversal Integration of English Language and Content in the Curriculum at the University of Cantabria”. In Breeze, R., Martínez-Pasamar, C., Llamas-Saiz, C. and Tabernero-Sala, C (Eds.) Integration of Theory and Practice in CLIL. Amsterdam: Rodopi. Costa, F. and Coleman, J. A. 2010. “Integrating Content and Language in Higher Education in Italy: Ongoing Research”. International CLIL Research Journal, Vol. 1 (3), 2025 June 2013. Dalton-Puffer, C. (Ed.) 2007. Empirical Perspectives on CLIL Classroom Discourse. Franktfurt: Peter Lang. DiCicco-Bloom, B. and Crabtree, B. F. 2006. “The Qualitative Research Interview”. Medical Education, 40, 314–321. EPOSTL http://archive.ecml.at/mtp2/fte/pdf/C3_Epostl_E.pdf (retrieved on Sept 19 2016) European Profiling Grid. http://www.epg-project.eu/?lang=es (retrieved on Sept 19 2016) Fernández, D. J. 2009. “CLIL at the University Level: Relating Language Teaching with and through Content Teaching”. Latin American Journal of Content and Language Integrated Learning, 2(2), 10-26. González J.A. and Barbero, J. “Building Bridges between Different Levels of Education: Methodological Proposals for CLIL at University”, Language Value, 5 (1), 1-23. Lasagabaster, D. and Sierra J. M. 2009. “Language Attitudes in CLIL and Traditional EFL Classes”. International CLIL Research Journal, 1, 4-17. Liubinienė, V. 2009, “Developing Listening Skills”. CLIL Kalbų Studijos 15, 89-93. McCracken, G. 1988. The Long Interview. Thousand Oaks: Sage. McNiff, J. 2001. Action Research: Principles and Practice. London: Routledge. Muñoz, C. 2007. “CLIL: Some Thoughts on its Psycholinguistic Principles”. Revista Española de Lingüística Aplicada, volumen monográfico, 17-26. Vártuki, A. 2010. “Linguistic Benefits of the CLIL Approach: Measuring Linguistic Competences”. International CLIL Research Journal, 1 (3), 67-79. Wilkinson, R. (Ed.) 2004. Integrating Content and Language. Meeting the Challenge of Multilingual Higher Education. Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht. Wilkinson, R. and Zegers, V. (Eds.) 2007. Researching Content and Language Integration in Higher Education. Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht. Wilkinson, R. and Zegers, V. (Eds.) 2008. Realizing Content and Language Integration in Higher Education. Maastricht: Universitaire Pers Maastricht. Woodside A. G. and Wilson E. J. 1995. “Applying the Long Interview”. Direct Marketing Research. Journal of Direct Marketing, 9 (I) 37-55.

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(11) PRESUPUESTO Presupuesto razonado de los costes del proyecto de acuerdo con los conceptos de gasto establecidos en el artículo 5.2. Justificación

Personal contratado

Importe solicitado (€) 7.700 €

Material inventariable

6.800 €

Material fungible

500 €

Cámara de vídeo para grabar entrevistas (1000) Ordenador portátil (1000) Impresora (300) Material bibliográfico (2000) Software (2000) Hardware: Disco duro externo y pendrives (500) Fotocopias y cartuchos (500)

Viajes y dietas

11.000 €

Asistencia a congresos de los participantes

2 becarios para procesamiento de datos, análisis de corpora y formación de profesorado.

Otros gastos

Total

26.000 €

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Memoria cientifico tecnicabilingual teaching and learning in cantabria  

Proyecto de Investigación Grupos Emergentes: Bilingual Teaching and Learning in Cantabria: From Primary to Tertiary Education

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