Laminated & Sandblasted Glass Floor- 40 mm Balustrade- 3 mm
Stainless Steel I-Beams 203 mm x 102 mm
Silver Sheet Metal White Powder Coated
Technical File Existing Site Materiality
Existing red brickwork on the interior and exterior to be kept, restored, repointed. The palimpsestic architecture of the
building was the main appeal to the building from the beginning. The layers of brickwork that is weathered and overlaid has built up over time to create a contrasting palette that reveals the stories of its past. The charred timber from World War II bombings exposes the scars from the buildingâ€™s history. These beams will be cast in concrete to and stabilised to maintain the past. Steel I-beams and wooden joists remain as well as the exterior red brickwork and stonework. The Welsh slate roof of 61 Ludgate Hill will be retiled and restored as the only change to the roof plan occurs on the flat felt roof of 63-64 Ludgate Hill. The existing materials are the vital material palette surrounding the new design for the Jewellersâ€™ Guild Hall as it was these materials that were the catalyst to the entire scheme.
Technical File Balustrade: Sheet Metal
Silver Sheet Metal was the resulting material for the facet balustrading design. Sheet metal is very light and thin meaning manipulation, such as cutting and bending, in to facet shapes can be achieved. Sheet metal
Sheet metal has properties that allow for a cost-effective
enables a lighter quality of material to the walkway that glass could not at this scale. Silver sheet metal is widely used in metalworking and jewellery making. This material therefore relates back to the function of the space where jewellery is crafted and manipulating of materials is explored.
material that can be easily manipulated. There are two possibilities of sheet metal.
Sheet metal is available in flat sheets or coils. The thickness of the sheet is measured by a gauge number where the larger the number the thinner the metal. Foil or leaf sheet metal is extremely thin and thicknesses exceeding 6mm are known as plates. Silver sheet metal forms the balustrading both structurally and decoratively with suitable properties for manipulation and faceting. However, to maximise the reflectivity of light in the space through the prismatic filters, a suitable surface alloy needs to be considered. The use of powder coating is popular for metalwork whereby solvent is not needed to keep the binder and filler parts in a liquid suspension form, unlike liquid paint. The paint is applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat.
1. Stainless Steel- Grade 304: Corrosion resistance, maintains formability and weldability.
White powder coated silver sheet metal would be a suitable finish for the balustrading material. The manipulation of the metal would enable the larger scale facets to be achieved and the use of white powder coating would successfully
Despite this link to jewellery, aluminiumâ€™s strength is not strong and so layers may need to be reinforced or an alternative Grade of the same aluminium group as the jewellery grade would be appropriate.
reflect the light or â€œfireâ€? around the space. Perforation could also be considered to further lighten the material and scatter the light.
2. Aluminium- Grade 1100-H14: commercially pure, highly chemical and weather resistant, ductile for deep drawing and weldable, used in jewellery.
Grade 5052-H32: strong, good formability, corrosion resistant, low-cost and weldable. (Welding ability is essential for the welding of the handrail).
Main alloy is magnesium. Forms well with reasonable inside bend radii. Corrosion resistance and weldability is very good. Better salt water corrosion resistance than 1100. Considerable strength and formability at reasonable cost. Anodizing may be slightly yellowish.
Silver Sheet Metal
Folded Powder-Coated Sheet Metal
Holl NYU: Perforate
Technical File Sheet Metal Manipulation
Bending is a metalworking process used with sheet metal to produce V-shape, U-shape, or channel shapes along a straight axis in ductile materials. As the balustrade design surrounds manipulating, folding and bending the metal in to facets, this process needs to be researched. In folding, clamping beams hold the longer side of the sheet. The beam rises and folds the sheet around a bend profile. The bend beam can move the sheet up or down, permitting the fabricating of parts with positive and negative bend angles. The resulting bend angle is influenced by the folding angle of the beam, tool geometry, and material properties. Large sheets can be handled in this process, making the operation easily automated and so there is little risk of surface damage to the sheet. The images below demonstrate manipulation of sheet metal in to a geometrical finish reminiscent of the facet balustrade design intended in the Jewellersâ€™ Guild hall. The possibility of inlaying prismatic film would be possible if a suitable thickness of sheet metal was used to maintain the structural stability. Due to the balustrades being the safety barrier of a triple height void space, the appropriate thickness is 15mm which is structurally viable whilst still able to bend. The thickness can easily be cut to create the facet shapes. Some facets will be angled and projected out and so the metal needs to be bent. However, these angles will be slight so not to intrude on the width of the walkway and so sharp lines are not needed. As the facets are angled, the metal requires a smoother bend (Bottom Left) so not to create a safety hazard. A smooth bend is less sharp yet due to the shape and size of the balustrading, the illusion of a facet will still be achieved.
The aluminium sheet metal will be slightly manipulated to create angled facets protruding from the linear balustrade. These facets will be connected by overlapping the individual facet sheets in a tessellated formula. The tight interlocking of the shapes fit perfectly together to create a compact strong balustrade. The handrail runs throughout the entire exhibition walkway to represent the Culet of the diamond that connects the facets together. The design of the handrail is reminiscent of a ring where a metal cup will hold a glass handrail that will intermittently exhibit pieces of jewellery angled at the visit. The handrail needs to be fixed to the balustrading. This will be achieved by welding the linear sheet metal balustrade and the metal under cup of the handrail to create a seamless finish.
Technical File Sheet Metal Manipulation
Powder coating will enable the reflective white colour intended for the sheet metal balustrades. This colour will give an aesthetically appealing finish to the metalwork and contribute tot he reflective quality of the interior by assisting the prismatic filters in the roof, floor and balustrades. The process of powder coating:
Interpon Powder Coating: Architectural- Specifically suitable for balustrades and handrails
Silver 2525- Futura Interpon D2525- YW206F Matt
Silver 2525- Futura Interpon D2525- YW206F Matt
Bronze 2525 Interpon D2525- YW283F Matt
1. Select the material to powder coat and a suitable powder for the finish. Powder coating is done with thermoplastic or thermoset polymer powder, and these materials are formulated for bonding with different base metals to give the best result. 2. Disassemble all threaded or lubricated interfaces, including anything not intending to be coated. 3. Clean the base metal thoroughly. Using bead or abrasive blasting. 4. Apply the powder to the object to be powder coated. This is done using a “gun” or compressed air sprayer which electrostatically charges the powder material so that it sticks to the grounded base metal object receiving the coating. 5. Cure the metal at a temperature appropriate for the powder material you use. A conventional oven or an infrared heat lamp or other flame less heat source needs to be used. Normally, the object is heated to 350° to 375° F (175° to 190° C) for about 10 to 15 minutes, and allowed to cool.
The appropriate powder finish would be either the gloss white or the Grazalema collection. The gloss has high reflective qualities to circulate light from the roof off the angled faceted balustrades. The Grazalema palette are white matt yet have a speckled silver quality that shines and glimmers creating a luminosity of light.
Thermoplastic coatings- items that can remould. Thermoset coatings- items that will remain essentially permanent, cannot re-melt after undergoing an irreversible chemical bonding process. Thermoset coating would be suitable for the facet balustrade design. Thermosets reinforce the structural integrity of an item, therefore they are suitable for heavy wear-and-tear which is essential for a balustrades safety. Thermoset coating also enables superior chemical and heat resistance. Advantages: aesthetic look, cheap, strength, stability and resistance to extreme temperatures.
Grazalema- 2525 Interpon D2525- YW266F Matt
Hipca White- 9910 Interpon D1036- SA570E Gloss
Technical File Prismatic Film
angles. Prismatic glazing can be used to exclude sunlight from a space or redirect it. Prismatic glazing works effectively only at certain solar angles. As the sun moves beyond the critical angles, sunlight passes through the glazing and can cause glare.
use of acrylic films. Tokujin Yoshiokaâ€™s Rainbow Church A 9-meter-high stained glass installation. Approx. 500 crystal prisms fill the space with rainbow color.
PrismTo achieve the prismatic light effect of a diamond in the design, prisms needed to be studied. The three sided prism is made
predominantly in plastic, glass and fluoride and it is polished to refract light. A prism can literally be used in design for this effect, for example in Tokujin Yoshiokaâ€™s Rainbow Church. However, this is appropriate for a smaller installation or a singular prism feature. The process would be costly and lengthy and the shape would detract from the linear facet design, therefore alternative methods need to be explored to achieve a similar finish.
Prismatic Film or glazing- Refraction is the main principle. The material has ridges on one side that bend light to specified
Acrylic Film- From studying precedent designs and material research, a way in which to achieve the prismatic effect can also be found in the These thin films can be the decorative interlay in the laminated glass walkway and the use of prismatic films creates the illusion of a prism light effect without detracting from the glasses reflective qualities.
Prismatic glazing can refract as well as reflect light and thus can be used for daylighting, shading, or both. The balustrade design surrounds the sheet metal being manipulated to facet at angles and so the introduction of prismatic and glass inlays in the metal will effectively cast prism light during sunlight if angled correctly.
Prisms can be up to 100 microns in height with variable pitch. Top angles to less than 40 degress are possible which is suitable for the angle the balustrade factes will be. Production Parameters Production Format Continuous rolls Film Structure Width Up to 1m Maximum Structure Height 100 microns Substrate Thickness 10 - 500 microns Substrates PET,PMMA,PC
Technical File Glass For the detail of the threshold and bridge it is important to consider materials. As a prismatic effect reminiscent of a diamonds “fire” is essential, glass will be an appropriate material for its reflective qualities. Originally, glass was going to be the material used for the facet balustrading and so research was important. Properties for Glass Balustrading-
Sandblasted Glass would be suitable for the floor plate of the 3 meter bridge over the triple
height void. The properties of the material enable it to be nonslip when a textured effect it applied. A PermaClean solution can also be used to prevent residue caused by the elements. Although the glass design will only be applied to the interior walkway, the exterior bridge could effect the interior when visitors walk in from the outside. This informed the threshold design where a transition space and double set of doors provided a block to the weather and to allow underfoot drying.
• 12mm or 15mm toughened glass balustrades. • Clear float (standard) or low iron (extra clear) glass balustrades. • Tinted glass balustrading; • Sandblasted or satinated glass balustrades; • Kiln formed glass balustrading. Balustrading Fixture Systems• Bolted Systems: whereby the glass panels are securely fixed using specially designed balustrade bolts. These are specified in accordance with the glass size and weight and provide a frameless system. • Post & Rail Systems: using stainless steel balustrade posts with glass infills, this is our only framed balustrade system. • Channel Systems: whereby the glass panels are set into a metal channel, providing a frameless balustrade system. • Resin-Set Systems: whereby glass panels are fitted into a channel and then resin set, providing a frameless system. • Clamping Systems: whereby glass balustrade clamps are used and are then clad in timber or metal to provide a concealed system.
Using glass for the entire balustrading detail would of been extremely heavy, expensive and due to the scale of the facets it would of hindered the delicacy finish the balustrading needed. Therefore, glass was to be replaced by sheet metal powder coated white to achieve the reflective properties needed. Despite this, glass was still essential for the flooring of the bridge and the inlays in the metal facets.
Laminated Glass is an ideal type of glass for the balustrading. It is mainly used to produce extra thick glass with
decorative interlayers meaning it is suitable for the balustrading as well as the floor. Its properties provide a strong glass that withstands loading weights and security for flooring or stair treads. The thickness is 30-35mm and the use of the interlay bonds the two layers of glass and so if broken no major breakage occurs.
Handrail Detail White Powder Coated Sheet Metal Welded 12 mm Handrail Diameter 50 mm Glass Sheet Inlay 3 mm Prismatic Sheet Inlay 100 Microns
Technical File Glass The triple height void space is the lightest part of the entire scheme with a partial glass roof, existing windows and reflective materials; such as white painted brickwork, white sheet metal, glass and prismatic film. The void space primarily was designed for an unexpected immersive threshold in to the building. The bridge allowed views through the glass floor of the staircase and walkway below, hinting of what is to come. The space created an opportunity for a piece to connect all three levels. As the balustrading detail is fairly complex in varying facets, a simple approach was taken. The glass sculptural piece (opposite) is reminiscent to a diamond structure. Twelve wires suspended from the ceiling connect the thin glass diamond facets together. They alter in size to achieve the diamond shape and are positioned haphazardly so the piece becomes kinetic and can contribute to the reflection of light. This piece is suspended to reference the act of jewellery being worn as well as draw the visitors eye in to the space upon entry.
On the first floor exhibition, due to the large space, it proved difficult to exhibit pieces of jewellery that can be seen from a distance as the walkway was essential to remain a one-way route where the jewellery was untouchable.
A way to combat this was inspired by a Jewellersâ€™ Loupe. A loupe is a multiple lens magnifier that can magnify up to 30 x in power and is usually a cylindrical piece held in the eye to closely inspect jewellery. This led to the idea of magnifying the jewellery. Harrads Jewellersâ€™ use a similar approach to magnify some jewellery in their stores.
Convex + Concave Glass = Positive Magnification Glass Lens Maximum Thickness 5 mm Minimum Thickness 2 mm Lens Height Level 1.2 m Fixed to Existing Wall Lens 600 mm Diameter
Magnifying glass uses a convex lens to magnify objects. Magnifying glass surrounds a the distance between the eye and the object and at what angle. This varies between ages and eye sight and so the standard magnification power is 0.25m. A typical magnifier has a focal length of 25cm and would become a 2x Magnifier. This means the exhibition stands showcasing jewellery using magnifying glass would need to be nearest to the visitor/ walkway. Opposite the design surrounds suspending three necklaces as if worn on the body. A metal lens containing a head size magnifying lens is fixed to the balustrade on a runner strip. The lens can be slided to the chosen piece of jewellery and the optical power altered dependent on the visitors optical strength. Moreover, the diamond cases have a glass dome placed over the piece to act as protection whilst magnifying the piece.
As magnifying glass can only reach a particular magnifying power from a distance, an alternative form of magnification needed to be found for objects placed even further away. The concept of convex and concave lenses became the solution. The lenses were placed near the further wall with the objects placed in front to create the enlarged image to the visitor from the walkway. The lens acts as an optical device to transmit and refract light; converging of diverging the beam. A concave lens would be suitable for nearsighted objects, like the magnifying glass dome used opposite. Therefore, the use of convex lenses would correctly create a real image for the farsighted eye. The Planoconvex lens would be appropriate for this function to magnify the real image in the focal point of the far sighted visitor.
Magnifying Detail Magnifying Glass 5 mm Thickness Metal Slider Strip Fixed To Balustrade Lens at Eye Level 1.7 m Lens 300 mm Diameter
Glass Facet Insertion Triple Height Void Sculpture 8 m
Faceted Glass 3 mm 82 Stainless Steel Wire 7 x 7 Construction
f = Focal length of the lens S1= Distance from object to lens
S2= Distance from lens to image
Glass Facet Insertion Triple Height Void Sculpture 8 m
Faceted Glass 3 mm Stainless Steel Wire 7 x 7 Construction
The main use of wire will surround the suspended staircase in the void space. The concept of suspension derived from the act of jewellery being worn on the body. This installation would require the 1x19 construction stainless steel cable. The properties remain decorative yet is non flexible creating essential tension and strength of wire rope. Stainless Steel Cable 1x19 (NonFlexible- Low Stretch)
Premium quality, high performing, A4-AISI 316, marine grade stainless wire rope and stainless steel cable, 1x19 construction, is non-flexible and is extremely corrosion resistant. Highly polished and very decorative it is perfect for balustrading, stainless steel cable railing, yacht rigging and other decorative applications where flexibility is not important. Also known as wire rope strand.
Stainless Steel Cable 7x7 (Flexible) Premium quality, high performing, highly polished, flexible, 7x7 construction, A4-AISI 316, stainless steel cable is suitable for tensioning, security cables, cable garden trellis, marine and architectural use, stainless cable balustrading, stainless steel cable railing and decorative applications. Cable diameters below 2mm are very flexible.
Stainless Steel Cable 7x19 (Extra Flexible) Premium quality, high performing, highly flexible, 7x19 construction, A4-AISI 316 stainless steel cable is suitable for most running load applications and numerous applications such as security cables and winch cables.
The staircase would require 4 main structural wire ropes suspended from the roof place to the landing. Moreover, 4 wire ropes below the landing corners to fix to the floor plate to prevent too much movement when people walk on it. These main ropes require the maximum thickness with the largest fixtures. Around each main rope will be other multiple 1x19 wire cables at thinner widths to maintain strength, disperse the weight/load and remain decorative so the staircase appears suspended and floating.
Wire Rope is needed in multiple spaces in the Jewellersâ€™ Guild Hall. The permanent exhibition displays a wire rope installation that takes the structural lines of a diamond to encapsulate a metal diamond plinth in the centre. These wires are
predominantly decorative yet due to the tension needed to hold and balance the plinth, a 7x7 stainless steel cable wold be suitable as it allows flexibility for movement yet would remain structurally viable as it is used for tensioning. The 7x19 wire is appropriate for the decorative use of suspending individual jewellery pieces in the first floor exhibition where flexibility is intended so the pieces are free flowing and naturally hanging. The glass facet 8 meter installation would need to use the 7x7 construction with its strong interior architectural qualities. There will be multiple strands of wire linking one linear line of glass facets with the central line holding 12 wires that reduces in number as it spans out to achieve a diamond shape. This piece will rely on strong fixtures and fittings to secure the wire to the roof plate and the glass to the wire rope. Due to the one way walkway this piece would never be directly above any persons, meaning it is untouchable and safely out of distance. 83
Key Words: Etch Imprint
Heat Negative/Positive Polish Transfer
The process of etching was originally a process to be used in the design. Therefore the process was researched as only then could a full grasp of the technique be achieved to compare key features to the casting process and apply it in to design. This example surrounds the use of copper etching.
Creating the transfer: A chosen design is printed on to glossy laser paper and cut to appropriate size.
Transferring the image: The paper is placed face down on to the plate.
Decreasing the sheet/ plate: The dry/wet paper is used to thoroughly sand the sheet for a matt finish. The plate is cleaned for a grease free finish.
A hot iron is placed squarely on top of the transfer/plate for 2 minutes. This ‘tacks’ the transfer image to the metal. When tacked, the iron is placed for a further 5 minutes.
Cool: The metal plate is left to cool in water until the water is saturated and image visible. 84
Removing the paper backing: The paper is peeled off leaving the toner, paper residue is removed and any small areas touched up with a pen.
Preparing to Etch: Tape is used to over the back and edges so mordant does not seep to the front of the design.
Etch solution: The plate is placed at an angle (design face down) in the mordant to allow ‘drop off’ during the etch.
Finishing: The tape is removed and the toner sanded down with the use of wet/dry paper of wire brushes, resulting in a rustic copper transfer image.
Key Words: Mould Imprint
Heat Negative/Positive Cast Layering
The process of casting inspired the design of the workshop spaces. The process needed to be understood as this concept had an impact on the materials of the space. This is an example of a conventional jewellery lost cast waxing. The wax mould created inside is now removed from the rubber mould. This leaves the model used for the lost wax casting process.
The mould and design is chosen for the casting.
The wax model stand is secured to the bottom of a casting flask with more melted wax. This leaves is propped up for the casting process.
The mould is gently tapped with a hammer to break away the mould and leave behind the jewellery casting.
The casting flask with all the contents is placed in a kiln at 1100 degrees Fahrenheit/600 degrees Centigrade. This hardens the mould and melts the wax away resulting in a hollow chamber in the centre of the mould.
Gypsum plaster mould material is mixed with water to create an appropriate solution,
The metal is left to cool completed.
7 The wax is left to cool for the instructed time depending on the type of wax used.
Pour the casting: a selected metal is poured inside the crucible and then melted in a foundry. Liquid metal is poured from the pouring crucible into the mould through a funnel provided by the melted wax support.
The mould is then left to completely set.
A thin stick of hard wax is melted to the model to create a stand to support the piece.
Melted wax is injected in to the mould using a double-boiler via the channel previously cut out. A range of waxes can be used for particular finishes.
5 An unvulcanised rubber moulding compound is made, the design is pressed in to the mould. The rubber is then cured by heat in order to vulcanise. A scalpel used to cut down the centre of the piece to remove the mould. The object is removed and the mould is sliced with a channel to allow for the syringe, leaving behind a hollow chamber.
The mould mixture is then poured in to the casting flask to completed surround the model mould inside.
Any imperfections are buffed away with a jewellery buffing wheel.
The mould is removed from the flask.
Technical File Rachel Whiteread
Cast & Etch had the strongest design possibilities to inform sculpting the spaces and so experimentation of these concepts had to occur. These processes related most to the concept of palimpsest in regard to the idea of a new layer, an overprint
and an echo or ghost of the past. The jeweller process also linked with duality where casting requires a positive and negative form that could be an interesting design approach, combining Scarpaâ€™s ethos of disassemble to reassemble. To spark inspiration for these two elements as a conceptual driver for design can be found in precedent studies.
Casting: Nineteenth-century sculptors referred to the process of bronze casting as life, death, and resurrection as the original live object was destroyed in the casting process and resurrected in bronze. Whiteread adopts this ethos with a new material to create the ghost of the building.
Negative/Positive: Whiteread defies conventional casting processes with moulds of objects to then be cast. Instead, she uses the
objects themselves as moulds. Her piece, Sequel IV, illustrates this with a casting of a library shelf to demonstrate the reverse of the bookshelf. This reversal meant the book spine titles and the books were untouchable and instead became shadows of their former selves; an echo of the past.
Rachel Whiteread is a British sculptor and artist with her work predominantly surrounding casting. A piece of her work to inform the concept and design for the Jewellersâ€™ Guild Hall can be found in House, 1993. House was completed in 1993 at 193 Grove Road in London. The old Victorian terraced house was transformed by Whiteread with the introduction of a large scale concrete casting of the interior of the entire house. The remaining houses of the street were all demolished and so the concrete piece caused controversy but also held a hidden message. In 1994 the house was removed by Tower Hamlets London Borough Council.
This piece portrays casting in an architectural design. House personifies palimpsest whereby an echo and ghost of the past is seen by a new overwriting layer. This informed the design for the Jewellersâ€™ Guild Hall by grasping a similar design approach of implementing a new layer that can be reassembled in a new context, material and space. 86 Sequel IV
Technical File Casting & Etching
Concrete can be used for casting featured. Concrete is a mix of Portland cement, an aggregate, water and other additives that give the mix particular properties. Aggregates vary depending on scale, colour, strength: Large: stone or gravel Small: sand Fine: stone dust (eg limestone or marble) Extremely fine: silica fume, metakaolin Ideally, a concrete casting would use a mould then in the first 4-12 hours of drying it can be carved and sculpted.
cast could be an appropriate material to cast elements of the existing building, such as the front decorative stonework. A plaster cast is primarily a copy made in plaster of another 3-dimensional form or object. Opposite: Design work- casted elements. Casted brickwork to form plinths. Casted timber beams to create a structural frame yet reference the past layer. Concrete cast funnel lighting. Concrete table plate elevated out of floor. Floor is engraved with the bench shape giving the illusion of it being projected from the floor.
Left: Experimentation of taking an existing feature of the building to then carve and engrave the negative print. The top layer is peeled off to leave a trace. This was then paint printed to show another layer and imprint of the original object. Top Left: Experimentation of silver foiling, scraping away the top layer to reveal a new one whilst still referencing the original image. 87
Technical File Cast Timber
The workshop design needs to consider the concept of duality and crafting the spaces. As the exhibition takes form of the Jeweller process of embellishing to create a polished finish, the workshop space will need to contrast. As the aim of the Jewellers’ Guild Hall is to expose the process and craftsmanship behind the final product, the workshop spaces need to be inspired by another process conceptually. Earlier in the project, the concept of casting was essential and so can be introduced in to the scheme for the workshops. Casting references jeweller crafting whilst continuing the concept of palimpsest where a cast creates a negative and positive to result in a trace, a ghost form and a memory of the past.
Visual portraying the First Floor workshop space. The glass facet partition exposes the visitors to catch a glimpse of the Jewellers at work. Cast timber forms work benches, stools and tables. Concrete cas
Ground Floor visual of the equipment room. Large glass partition wall allows visitors to view the process being jewellery. Traditional machinery and modern equipment is utilised.
Peter Zumthor- 112 tree trunks make a basic construction for a ‘wigwam’. Layered concrete of 50mm thick was poured in to achieve 24 set layers. Once completed, the timber was set on fire and burnt out, resulting in a black charred cavity imprinted with the original trunks texture.
The floor texture consists of frozen molten lead and the void is left open to the elements. This immediately channels light in tot he space, drawing the eye up to the sky. This technique references the history of the site that is currently charred due to World War II bombings whilst maintaining the raw jeweller process of casting.
The concept of casting can be explored with unusual materials. Following Zumthors’ work, the idea of the charred timber references the past of 61 Ludgate Hill that is severely fire damaged. These joinery wood castings are by Israeli designer, Hilla Shamia. The pieces are created by pouring molten aluminium onto the rounded, bark side of square sawn timber. The molten aluminium chars the area of the wood, darkening it and creating a stark contrast against the light metal. The charring causes further splitting in the timber, which the molten aluminium can penetrate in its liquid form and form a strong bond with as it solidifies. The flat square sawn timber comprises the upper surfaces of the Wood Casting furniture range while the aluminium sections are cast into moulds above it which form elegant tapered legs. This demonstrates a possible technique of material exploration that references casting and the ideo of positive and negative forms.
Above demonstrates possible ways furniture scale design can incorporate the casting concept. The lighting can have a concrete cast shell produced from a mould to create an industrial form that is a trace of the past object.
Technical File Environmental Strategy- Renewables
A decline in reserves for energy resources, such as coal (70 years) and oil (100 years), meant it was essential to strategically consider renewable sources in the new design. 61-64 Ludgate Hill is situated in a densely populated urban city environment of Birmingham. Despite an open car park area opposite and green public spaces at the top of Ludgate Hill, alternative methods of achieving a sustainable design needed to be addressed.
In regard to the new function as a workshop space, a waste of materials is a common problem in this realm. From visiting the local Museum of the Jewellery Quarter that demonstrates an old jeweller workshop, an understanding of saving waste and re-cycling was vital. The owners Smith & Pepper would collect the metal and gold dust from all surfaces of the workshop daily. From melting this scrap material down, at the end of the year ÂŁ7,000 was made. The idea of re-using waste and scrap metal is essential in a workshop environment to establish a sustainable strategy. As there is little vegetation surrounding the site, renewable energy needed to be alternatively found. The Birmingham-fazeley Canal is located further up the road from 61-64 Ludgate Hill. Canals are manmade and controlled, meaning a flood risk is not high in the area. Canals can also contribute to channelling river water through a turbine in hydroelectric power plants. However, a canals current strength is minimal and so a natural way to harness hydro-renewable energy is possible but challenging.
Geothermal renewable energy is a main candidate for the environmental strategy. It is
Passive Solar Gain
Day lighting, heat gain and heat loss all contribute to the sustainability of a building design. Passive solar gain allows maximum solar gain during the winter and controlled solar loss during the summer. Direct solar gain can occur with the use of double or triple-glazing that can optimise solar gain in both lighting and heat, otherwise known as the â€˜greenhouse effectâ€™. This can then be controlled with shading techniques during hot weather, such as recessed glass and low-E glazing.
Shading above openings and recessed glass with trickle vents all contribute to controlling passive solar gain. Glazing rejects 13% of the light that hits the surface whilst the remaining 87% is directly transmitted and absorbed in to the building. The use of shading reduces glare in to the site that is critical in a workshop area with high levels of concentration.
Light shelving is another alternative to passive solar gain. This involves reflective material shelving to bounce natural light in to the space. This would
ideally be used in the workshop and archive/library area where ambient lighting is essential. The shelves or reflective material would be on the South facing rear elevation for maximum results.
possible to use the heat from the ground to control a buildings temperature with the help of a heat pump. The use of pipe work and insulating fluid is a common geothermal technique where by the pipes are placed approximately 10 metres below the building. This enables heat to rise during the winter and then the pipes absorb the warm air to cool underground. 61-64 Ludgate Hill has an unaccessible basement level. This can be re-used as a ventilation area to help determine heat levels in to the site.
Technical File Environmental Strategy- Ventilation
Ventilation is essential for the workshop function of the Jewellers’ Guild Hall in regard to sustainability, health and safety. As the site has previously
Natural methods such as passive ventilation can occur with the use of the ‘Stack effect’. The master plan for the Jewellers’ Guild
accommodated for this function, numerous bay window openings are available on the front and rear elevations on all three levels. The use of lots of small windows results in the air being brought in faster.
Hall includes the rear South facing courtyard.
Likewise, large bay openings on the ground and first floor could be used for simple ventilation during hot weather. 61-64 Ludgate Hill also houses two existing chimneys that run the triple height space and so could instigate the introduction of natural air circulation in to the space.
The area receives wind in its cocooned location. The rear ground floor of 61-64 Ludgate Hill has a total of 9 trading bays that are currently exposed to the landscape. These bays could embrace the courtyard and act as a form of ventilation directly in to the workshop spaces that circulates through the spaces. The introduction of planting could also contribute to the sustainability of the site.
The workshop spaces will remain one large open plan area and the implementation of air vents and grills will help contribute to ventilation. With the use of concentrated machinery, tools and equipment, alternative methods of ventilation needed to be explored.
Centrifugal fans are ideal for the workshop environment as air can be dispersed long distances to rid of metal dust, gases and harmful chemicals. Individual
Finally, the proposed insertion in to site of the existing Great Charles Street Bridge would be a benefactor towards ventilation. As it will enter on a higher level and remain a one-way circulation walkway, this will channel natural air in to the site. Alternatively, threshold options, like double sets of doors, on the entrance and exit, monitor air in to site so it can be concealed in the colder months.
extractor fans would also need to be introduced to particular machines if necessary. Air conditioning is another form of ventilation that could be introduced as along with the extractor fans, this can be monitored to suit the changing climate.
Technical File Environmental Strategy- Insulation
Heat loss is a common problem instigating unsustainable design. Heat loss is calculated in U Values with the North facing areas of a building losing an average of 2.2 in U-Value compared to the Southern elevations. Insulation can be combined with passive solar gain whereby heat and light are both generated and can
It was important to strategically consider the life span of the building’s new function. The Jewellers’ Guild Hall primarily accommodate for a permanent exhibition, temporary exhibition, workshops, archive and library.
Thermal mass is a benefactor to insulation and solar gain. Thermal mass involves how much heat a material absorbs and how dense it is to sustain that heat. Masonry has a strong thermal mass, therefore maintaining and re-using the red brick exterior and interior of 61-64 Ludgate Hill will be sustainable. Red brick takes a longer time to heat up during the day yet by night the properties of its high thermal mass results in a long storage period of the heat as it is released.
Therefore, the use of solar collectors, such as triple glazing or a glass wall, will collect UV rays and penetrate the heat to subsequently heat the spaces behind it. The use of trickle vents can control the warm air to enter the site and can be closed off to prevent this in hotter months. Once heated, the brick and clay will store heat for a maximum period, preventing heat loss.
Brown roofs or earth is an alternative strategy in the future development. With a flat roof on 63-64 Ludgate Hill, this technique could be considered whereby planting, earth, gravel and insulation are used above the roof material to combat thermal loss and benefit insulation.
• Permanent Exhibition- An average life span for a permanent exhibition is 20 years. This exhibition will originally showcase Victoria & Albert
Museum silver collections, historically made in Birmingham. Although permanent, these pieces will change and expand when a relationship is established between a network of galleries and museums. The aim is to connect with these similar galleries and share, exchange and rotate artefacts between the different cities. Possible Museums: V & A (London), Bowes Museum (County Durham), The Hepworth Gallery (Wakefield).
•andTemporary Exhibition- This gallery will exhibit resident jewellers’ art work. The exhibition will accommodate for three artists out of the 12 residents will change quarterly. This will allow enough time to exhibit their work whilst the next jewellers’ prepare their pieces. It will also attract visitors to return to the site to experience the diverse range and development of artists’ work.
•or loaned ArchiveThe library will document a range of inspirational books and journals for the resident artists. This collection will need to gradually be bought, digitally copied from nearby libraries and galleries, such as Birmingham City Library. The Archive will document the resident jewellers’ work over the years. This is a future development that will take years to build up to a wealthy archive. The archive will be digital and store imagery of all development, prototypes and final pieces. The life span of the archive varies as the intention would be to continually collect the documents over the years.
•theseMaterialsThe life cycle for the materials of the space will vary. The assumption can be made that the permanent exhibition will need a re-model every 5 years as spaces, particularly the temporary exhibition, will be highly adaptable to accommodate for various scale objects, installations and events.