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JADE - European Confederation of Junior Enterprises \ Avenue du Frioul 51, Evere - 1140, Belgium \ mail@jadenet.org

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HR MANAGEMENT IN A JUNIOR ENTERPRISE __ A best practices book from JADE


JADE - European Confederation of Junior Enterprises \ Avenue du Frioul 51, Evere - 1140, Belgium \ mail@jadenet.org

HR MANAGEMENT IN A JUNIOR ENTERPRISE __ A best practices book from JADE

JADE – European Confederation of Junior Enterprises Book written in a General Assembly Commission with the contribution of:

Ana Frazão \ JADE Portugal, Commission Leader Carolin Hecht \ BSDU Michelle Hormesch \ BDSU Jean Philippe Dubois \ JADE Belgium Simon Favre \ JADE Switzerland Maria Cetra \ WBC Giorgio Sleiter \ JADE Treasurer and Head of Training, Commission Facilitator April 2018

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Table of Content Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………..……………………………………………….p.5 1. Recruitment and Selection ……………………………………………………………………………………………………...p.6 1.1. Assessing the need of the JE..………………………………………..…………………..…………………………….p.7 1.2. Planning the process ……………………………………………………….……….….……...………………………….p.8

2. Communication Plan………....……………………………………………………...….……………………….……………….p.9 2.1. Online ………………………………….……………………………………………………….……………….…….…….p.10 2.1.1. Website… ...………………….………………………………………………….…………….………………....p.11 2.1.2. Social Media……..………………………………………….……………………………………………….…..p.11 2.2 Events………..……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…p.12 2.2.1 Verbal Communication ...……..…………………………………………………………………………..p.12 2.2.2 Written Communication …………………………………………………………..……………..….......p.13

3. Application Process…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………p.15 3.1 Structuring the selection process …………..………………..…………………………………………..….p.16 3.1.1 Curricular Screening…..……………………………………………………………………………..……..p.17 3.1.2 Telephone Interview....…..…………………………………………………………………………………p.17 3.1.3 Assessment Centre…….…………………………………………………………………………………….p.17 3.1.4 Individual Interviews……………..…………………………………………………….…………………...p.18 3.1.5 Group Dynamics …..…………………………………………………………………………………………p.19 3.1.6 Tests……………………………….…..…………………………………………………………………………...p.20 3.1.7 Competencies and assessment……………………………………………………………………….p.20 3.1.8 Evaluators and Process………………………………….…………………………………………………p.21 3.1.9 Confirmation and trial period…………….……………………………………………………………p.22 3.2 Selection of the Executive Board……………….…………………………………………………………….p.23 3.2.1 The Process……….………..………………………………………….………………..………………………p.23 3.2.2 Induction………….………………………………………………………………………………………………p.23 3.2.3 Things to look out for………………………………………………………………………………………p.24

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4. Integration……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………p.25 4.1. Integration Activities……..….………………………………………………………………………….…………p.26 4.1.1. Reception of newcomers…………………………………….….…………………….………………..p.26 4.1.2. Condensing the information in a manual………………………………………………………p.26 4.1.3. Reception and integration activities……………………………………………………………….p.27 4.1.4. Maintain socialization and accompany integration…………………………….…………p.28 4.1.5. How to integrate new experimental/trainee programs?........................................p.29

5. Performance Management ………………………………………………………………………………..………………...p.30 5.1. What is Performance Management…………………………………………………………………………p.31 5.2. Appraisals……………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…p.32 5.2.1. What do you assess in each appraisal?.........................................................................p.32 5.2.2. How to define the skills being evaluated?....................................................................p.32 5.2.3. Examples of skills that can be considered……………………………………………………….p.33 5.2.4. How to structure these competencies?.........................................................................p.33 5.3 Appraisal Methods and Forms……………………………………………………………………………….p.34 5.3.1 Critical Incidents Method…………………………………………………………………………………p.34 5.3.2 Management by objective (MBO) Method……………………...……………….……………..p.35 5.3.3 Narrative Method or Form……………………………………………………………………………….p.36 5.3.4 Graphic Rating Form………………………………………………………………………………………..p.36 5.3.5 Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) Form……………………..………………….p.37 5.3.6 Ranking Method……………………………………………………………………………………………….p.38 5.4 Evaluating Performance Management……………………………………..…………………………...…p.38 5.4.1 Who should assess the workforce?.................................................................................p.38 5.4.2 Which method do I choose?.............................................................................................p.39

6. Motivation………………….…………………………………….…………………………..……………………………………...p.43 6.1. What is Motivation?.............................…………………………………………………………………………p.44 6.1.1. How to motivate members..................................................................................................p.44 6.1.2. Motivation Theories……………………………………………………………………………………………p.45 Appendix ………….……………………………………………...………………………………………………………………………. p.47 Conclusion………..…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………p.50

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Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The following document was built with the aim to provide a gathering of Best Practises to all Junior Enterprises and Entrepreneurs around JADE network. By focusing on organizational support and development activities, the book support JEs to increase their effectiveness and efficiency in the processes, reserving most of their time to deal with the challenges of their core business and not with cross-cutting or support activities. We firmly believe that good internal and organizational development enhances success in external activities and service delivery activities that have a greater impact on the development of members and Junior Entrepreneurs. The chapter is focused on the Human Resources strategy and it was conducted by a group of national confederations that gathered and discussed Best Practises within their countries and Junior Enterprises. We expect this manual to be useful for the development of the network and the Junior Enterprises across Europe. Yours Sincerely, JADE – European Confederation of Junior Enterprises -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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chapter 1

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

The next section will guide you through a comprehensive framework that will aid you in capturing new talent and retaining the current talent pool. The HR function alongside other line managers and members of the Executive Board will draw up a recruitment and selection plan.

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1.1. Assessing Needs of the JE At first, the JE will identify the roles that need to be filled and/or the number of junior entrepreneurs needed. The variables listed below or a wider range of these will help you to make/give an accurate estimate of the number of members needed.

External Projects (Sales increase/ decrease) Continuity

> Determine average of projects per semester and/or year. > Actual signed contracts for the next month/period. > How many members intend to stay? > How many members will finish their studies soon? > Consider any year/semester abroad students. > The turnover or even attrition ratios might also be calculated. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned aspects are useful to understand how many consultants you might need to hire and can be indicative of any issue within the JE.

Long-Term Strategies/

> Think strategically: Is the JE planning to expand? Or participate/ start

Internal Projects

projects to foster the JE and the movement? Are you planning to go out of your comfort zone and need a leader? > Take into consideration if the JE is a consultative member of JADE.

Competencies

> Identify skills that might be needed in the future for internal/external projects (technologies emerging, major changes in law). > Evaluate the current team and their aptitudes. > Productivity Level.

A good way of evaluating competencies and the intentions of the members to stay within the JE might be during appraisals, especially if they are done just before a recruitment process. Once these are evaluated and there is a clear selection/recruitment plan the HR department alongside with other departments, and Executive Board should draw job descriptions, ideal profiles, set diversity targets (if any), performance expectations and minimum requirements.

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1.2. Planning the process Draw a recruitment timeline. It might be helpful use reverse thinking. For example: starting by the date by which you would like to have a fully operational team, then decide the date by which you would need to deliver the induction, then the date of the last interview, and so forth. Make sure you include the opening and closing dates for receiving applications, as well as the date(s) of the assessment centre(s), interviews. Moreover, create an advertising plan to support your recruitment aims, and set the starting date and length of the probation period. You might want to consider drawing up a timetable for the entire process, but try to decrease the length of the it, if possible, without compromising its efficiency. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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chapter 2

COMMUNICATION PLAN

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Multiple channels of communication are usually the best solution; however, it is needed to determine which ones would be ideal to target the best candidates. Make sure you include written/print, spoken, and online presence for best interactions with your audiences. It is also important to remember to be as responsive as possible in all online platforms or emails as this might be the first impression of the JE candidates and other stakeholders are getting. Moreover, there should be a clear message and purpose for each channel. In other words, remember to be coherent. Finally set objectives for each channel, target specific audiences, a budget, if any, decide which tools you might need to accomplish the stated goals and if possible measure the outcomes, so the usefulness of the channel can be evaluated, and the processes be improved.

5 W’s & 1 H: What? When? Which? Who? Why? How?

What When Which Who Why How

Announcing that the recruitment process is open. Deadlines for application. If there is any group assessment the date can be shared once candidates submit their application so that they can keep that day/hours free. Determine the open positions. Include descriptions of the main activities, minimum requirements. Think about your ideal candidate and key skills you would be looking for (transferable skills, self-motivated individuals). Attract your candidates. The meaning of being part of this worldwide movement & the experience that comes alongside that will surely foster employability. Make sure the candidates are aware of all the stages they have to go through during the recruitment process.

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2.1. Online The key is to attract candidates with interesting open positions and exciting facts about your JE however; candidates should also understand that this is a junior enterprise and their commitment and motivation is crucial. Be as impressive as you can yet keep it concise and close to the reality.

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2.1.1. Website It is important to always have a careers section on your website where there is always highlighted the benefits of being part of the movement. Here, candidates should also be able to find the open positions, job descriptions, essential skills we are looking form deadlines and the description of the process.

2.1.2. Social media Beforehand there can be an audit of the current posts on the social media to ensure consistency and that a poll of candidates with varied skills is obtained. Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, Blogs are usually the most common social media platforms, Facebook being the most relevant one.

Facebook \ > It can be used a different section just for careers. > Joining societies, freshers and or/halls groups to be able to post there can also be a way to promote recruitment. > Events even if it is just about open day stall can be created and shared. > Encourage the marketing department of the university to share the JE recruitment posts on their official page.

LinkedIn \ > Be careful as it is easier to attract the wrong candidates (graduates, company employees).

Content \ > There should promotional material prepared beforehand and having in mind the current trends on each platform. > Social media platforms usually have different purposes; thus, the material should not be the same.

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> Think about the best ways of interacting: through videos, testimonials, Instagram stories with questions and news, personality tests. > Work closely with the marketing department ensuring that the content is simple and clear but most importantly that a “call-to-action” is present (eg: “Apply Now!”) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.2. Events Events organized by the JE can be about: > Recruitment process, open positions with Q&A session discussing the open positions and the recruitment process. > Open Day: how is the life of a Junior Entrepreneur? > Workshops and/ or other activities (with guest speakers). > Events organized by the university (career fairs, societies fairs). > Engage with the university events about Entrepreneurship or areas related to the field of your JE. > Get a stall in the relevant campuses during open days. The actual promotional part of the event is also important to raise awareness within the students.

2.1.1 Verbal Communication Lecture “Shout outs” \ Is it hard to find a time where you can gather all students? How about the first lectures and classes of the semester where there is a good number of students coming? Talk to academics and obtain their support! Ask/Email them to get the first 5 minutes of the class and smash it with a short and captivating presentation. You may use this opportunity to share the event.

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2.2.2 Written Communication Written \ This refers to the leaflets, posters, brochures which can include key information about the role, the company, application deadlines and a brief list with the required skills and experience. These can be placed and/or distributed strategically around the campus or campuses (if targeting different ones), as well as during the events. Physical material can be for the recruitment process but is also a good way to promote events.

Career Development Centre \ They may control a platform that advertises jobs and other voluntary experiences. Do a mock assessment centre alongside the career development centre open for all university students, this would promote the JE and foster employability. Many students who have not attended any before take this an opportunity to practice. Of course, this should not be conducted during recruitment and selection process.

If all the methods or a combination of them are deployed, the recruitment process will be more effective by: > Ensuring that candidates find out about the open positions; > Encouraging candidates to apply and building up their confidence; > Improving the relevancy and standard of applications; > Leaving a positive lasting impression on the candidates and of the organization.

General Tip: For many reasons, one of them being employer branding, companies tend to provide advice to candidates to help them succeed. Remember that candidates should be selected for who

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they really are and sometimes and not by some last-minute nervousness or the fact that they are still young ad are not aware of some simple tricks for interviews, for instance. In fact, the main one is that candidates are selected for what they are and represent and not for their luck or last-minute nervousness. This can be done through the website, blog posts or email/newsletter; some might even do a brochure just for their candidates. Share tips on‌ (1) How to do a good CV & cover letter; (2) How to prepare for an interview or assessment centres. This would build confidence and give comfort to the candidates so that they pass through the different stages. Unfortunately, many candidates are still excluded for small mistakes and this might avoid great losses of talent. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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chapter 3

APPLICATION PROCESS

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The application usually has three elements - application form; CV and motivation letter. Application

Mandatory elements: name, course and year, student number, email and/or mobile

form

phone; Optional elements: Selection of department/position, availability (check Erasmus), etc; The form may be a Google Form or any other platform - the more accessible and intuitive the better.

CV

The CV of the candidate that can be attached to the application questionnaire or sent separately to the Junior Enterprise.

Motivation

This helps you to perceive the profile of the candidate and to prepare an interview.

letter

If requested, a template should be defined to standardize what will be delivered (e.g. number of pages, type and font size, etc).

Any element that is required in the application should have an impact on the selection process - all information should be considered. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.1. Structuring the selection process Selection is a multi-stage process for recruiting new Junior Entrepreneurs. It is essential to define the profile and requirements for selection to be effective. Each phase should have a set of parameters/competencies, that are being evaluated objectively - this assessment should be organized for each candidate and be easily comparable (quantitative scales are often the simplest method). The most common selection processes comprise a group dynamic (group phase) and an interview (individual phase). Regardless of the number of phases, the quality of the process is measured by its effectiveness in the objectives outlined. The number of phases should rather be adapted to these objectives and ensure better filtering of candidates - e.g. it is natural that the more applications should be associated with a more extensive process.

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Application >

Group dynamics >

Interview >

Integration

It is fundamental that for each phase there is a clear script of how to process things, key best practices and guidelines to standardize the process for all applicants.

3.1.1. Curricular screening Selection based on specific criteria according to the information provided by the CVs of the candidates. Criteria are considered such as age, minimum length of stay in JE, etc.

3.1.2. Telephone interviews They consist of brief interviews (5 to 15 minutes) that essentially serve to perceive the motivation of the candidate and outwit some questions or confirm application data. Logistically they may be tricky to coordinate, but they can be important to mislead primarily motivation bypassing the written letters, easily not so honest.

3.1.3. Assessment Centre They are considered one of the most effective selection tools. However, an assessment centre spends immense time and resources and is likely to be unfeasible in any Junior Enterprise - it is a one-day / evening-day program where applicants run through various phases and demonstrate individual and group expertise in a very practical of the tasks they are applying for and very problem-oriented. Some of these practical exercises may be transposed for an interview or dynamic, spending much less resources. It is essential to consider the number of applicants, since the logistics of the assessment centre is complicated.

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Example of structure for an assessment centre: Example 1 \ 9h00 | welcoming + coffee break 9h30 | presentation of the program 9h45 | ice breaker (individual) 10h00 | Prioritisation/Survival challenge (group) 11h00 | Case study (group) 12h30 | Group presentations on case study 13h30 | JE Presentation 14h00 | Closing After the AC, select the successful candidates and invite them for the last interview in the following days.

Example 2 \ 9h00 | Welcoming + Coffee break 9h30 | Case study 10h30 | Group test 11h15 | Group Presentation 12h30 | Lunch 14h30 | Interview 17h30 | JE presentations 18h00 | closing

3.1.4. Individual interviews Interviews that may be behavioural (about what has already happened, what the candidate has done) or situational (from the domain of the hypothetical, "what if ...?"). The interviews in a Junior Enterprise should always cover two dimensions: the technical dimension, so the hard skills, the specific and specialized knowledge; and the human component such as values, convictions and soft skills that complete the profile of the candidate. The Junior Enterprises may choose to do two or even more interviews, dividing them by parts: first soft skills, then hard skills. Consider the content allocated to each interview to avoid interviews that are too long (never more than 1 hour). Avoid having more than 2 evaluators for one candidate.

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An interview typically has 3 phases: pre-interview (prepared by the interviewer, with review of the previous elements of evaluation and review of the script); interview (process per se, from candidate's fulfilment and ice breaker, to questions that reflect motivations or competencies at the close of the interview and definition of the next steps) and post-interview (appreciation of interview performance).

When writing an interview script, what should one ask? > Behavioural questions \ Why did you choose that field of studies? \ Why this department? How do you manage your time? What did you learn from experience? > Situational questions \ If you had to react to a negative response from a client, what would you do? How would you lead a team with little time to gather? > Technical questions \ How do you quantify the potential market in the United States? How would you structure the solution for a customer who wants to increase their sales? What is the best way to do x or y? > Logical questions \ How many trees are there in Lisbon? How many golf balls fit in the Eiffel Tower?

Tips for a good interview: > Encourage applicants to speak frankly; > Follow a chronological and a logical structure in the issues; > Listen more than talk; > Be clear in the formulation of the questions; > Never judge or evaluate the candidate’s answers – be totally neutral; > Demonstrate interest in your posture and attention; > Be consistent in the various interviews and record the main points.

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3.1.5. Group dynamics Group dynamics are moments of group assessment in which candidates solve problems or exercises together. Usually there is a baseline problem or a case with a set of challenges and / or questions that must be resolved by the team and include presentation. Do not have more than half the number of candidates. Ensure that candidates are from different backgrounds to enrich the debate The structuring of a case for a group dynamic should consider the main technical or functional aspects of the Junior Enterprise. It is appropriate that before the discussion of issues there is an ice break time as a team, encouraging open debate. In the end, there may be room for presentation of ideas by the team or even questions on the part of the evaluators. The time of a group dynamics may vary greatly, however, it is recommended not to exceed 90 minutes.

3.1.6. Tests Online or written tests - about logic, opinion, small practical exercises (directly related to the functions they apply for) or even linguistic or business case based. Testing is a way to check a candidate's knowledge in a more objective way. The tests should be objective in the evaluation (multiple choices, e.g., make evaluation easier). To be applied, it must be done at the beginning of the selection process. Testing is not a widely used instrument in Junior Enterprises’ selection processes, yet it can be applied e.g. in an interview on a much smaller scale.

3.1.7. Competencies and assessment What to assess throughout the selection process? Naturally, the two dimensions of competence divided into soft and hard skills. Soft skills

> Leadership;

examples

> Communication; > Teamwork; > Critical thinking;

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> Time management; > Orientation to results; > Customer orientation.

21 Hard skills

> Technical expertise of the Junior Enterprise, focusing on the critical and

examples

conceptual thinking and the reasoning ability of the candidates.

These skills should be evaluated in grids to standardize the process - the most common is to consider grids from 1 (very bad) to 5 (excellent) or 1 (very bad) to 6 (excellent). There should always be space for notes and a complementary qualitative evaluation. Moving through the stages of the selection process should take this evaluation into account the more transparent and objective it is, the more advantageous will be for the effectiveness of the process.

3.1.8. Evaluators and process Who should evaluate the performance of candidates in the various stages of the process? Necessarily the human resources director/person responsible for the specific function or responsible of the recruitment and selection process must be present in the maximum of moments of evaluation - it is him/her who must guarantee the standardization and effectiveness of the process. In interviews, it is natural for other coordinators / directors / members of the Board to intervene, even to choose candidates who will join their respective departments. When it is necessary to include more evaluators (e.g. case of group dynamics and assessment centres) it is advisable to involve Junior Enterprise members - giving them the experience of a process like this, which will make them better candidates in the future, as they understand the nature and specificities of recruitment and selection processes. It is a great way to enhance the participation and development of the members themselves. It is critical that all evaluators, regardless of who they are, have appropriate training for what they will evaluate - ensuring the standardization of evaluation is crucial to the effectiveness of the selection process.


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Also, in line with consistency, each candidate should have all the information that concerns them organized and clearly detailed in the evaluation. The subsequent selection phases should also be based on the information collected in the previous phases, ensuring the smoothness of the process. In addition, it is imperative that the Junior Enterprise is prepared to give feedback to candidates who are leaving the process – it is also important for the strategy of employer branding. In the field of employer branding and professionalism, the presentation of recruiting materials in line with the graphic image of the Junior Enterprise, the selection of dynamic spaces / interview / etc. which reflect the ideal conditions for a selection process, the treatment of the candidate throughout the process, contact and evaluation are essential for a strengthening of the brand of the JE and characteristics important for a good recruitment and selection process.

3.1.9. Confirmation and experimentation Many Junior Enterprises, especially in Brazil, define a trial period after the selection process a set of collaborators or trainees who will be in the period of experimentation in the JE. These elements are then evaluated and passed on to effective members. Any trial period is positive because it confirms (or not) the outcome of the selection process and ensures that the selected members are in fact the best profiles for the Junior Enterprise. Given the high turnover of members in a Junior Enterprise, it is most appropriate that the periods of experimentation be short - at most about one month. It must be ensured that the trainee has very concrete activities and objectives, that there is close monitoring and a very objective evaluation - that will dictate or not its continuity as a member. It is necessary to guarantee the confidentiality of the data of the Junior Enterprise, since it is not guaranteed that all trainees become members - which can make it difficult to receive these same elements. There are other experimentation options that do not interrupt the selection process - and keep it fluid and followed directly from the host and integration. For example, asking the candidate for a certain task or small project (between the penultimate and the last selection phase) in which the candidate takes his or her job to the interview and presents / discusses it with the interviewer may be a good way to achieve the experimentation without requiring major logistical efforts in trainee or internship programs.

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3.2. Selection of the Executive Board The composition of the executive board determines the strategic direction of the Junior Enterprise and so involves a more rigorous recruitment process. The candidates are evaluated from a strategic point of view with consideration to their integration into the team.

3.2.1 The Process > Stage 1 \ The initial stage involves the screening of CVs and cover letters specifying their motivation, skills and strengths that they can apply to the managerial role. > Stage 2 \ After filtering through the first stage, successful candidates are offered an interview where they are required to discuss their 10-point strategy for the department, assuming they were selected for the role. The interview is conducted preferably with the HR manager and the candidate’s departmental manager to critically consider the candidate’s capabilities. > Stage 3 \ Following the interview, HR and the management board critically looks into past performance records of the candidate, interview performance and the proposed strategy to identify the candidate who aligns best with the rest of the board.

3.2.2 Induction > Training \ This includes managerial training to make the transition faster and more effective. The list also extends to any other department specific training that the manager should be aware of such as the use of the relevant software and technical knowledge. > Handover \ These sessions are delivered by the previous manager or the manager in-line. The main purpose is to brief about main responsibilities surrounding the role and any background knowledge that is essential for the successful completion of the role. > Feedback \ As the manager progresses within his defined role, his progress is closely monitored in relation to the strategies proposed and the outcome of reviews are provided in the form of feedback. The flow of feedback must be consistent throughout the period to main a system of check and balance.

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3.2.3 Things to look out for > Diversity \ Having a management team with identical backgrounds and work experience may reduce the diversity of ideas and solutions to problems. Many companies today value the selection of candidates with distinct work and educational backgrounds to encourage different approaches to decision making. Identical thought process may narrow > Mentoring skills \ The difference between a normal consultant and a departmental manager is that the manager is responsible for ensuring effective teamwork within their respective department. This involves ensuring that every consultant can participate fully in the relevant activities and where they are not able to do so, relevant guidance and support is provided. The manager must be able to deal with grievances and provide relevant support where necessary. > Credibility \ The managerial team should comprise of candidates who are ideally credible to external and internal parties. Credibility derives from their interpersonal skills, experience and knowledge. Having a credible management board means that stakeholders such as clients and consultants take the business and departments seriously. > Strategic thinking \ Individuals who can see the bigger picture and identify issues prior to them developing are highly valued for managerial positions. Additionally, it is beneficial to have managers with reasonable background in the department itself so that they fully understand the limitations and strengths of the department. > Alignment to overall strategy \ If the company’s strategy is already in place, managers who can align themselves and develop sub-strategies that lead to the accomplishment of these aims are ideal candidates for the role. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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chapter 4

INTEGRATION

Finalized the selection process and choosing the new members, how can we guarantee their correct integration? How to accompany them and ensure their full framing in the organizational culture?

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4.1. Integration activities 4.1.1. Reception of newcomers After a recruitment and selection process, we must ensure the best reception and integration to accelerate the full activity of the members - since their turnover is so high there is no time to lose. The welcome will also serve to reduce anxiety and develop the psychological contract of the newly admitted. After the selection and communication to the most recent members of the Junior Enterprise, it is necessary to make a first impression. Welcome messages; receiving events with the newly admitted are a good first step. When working on the first impression that you want to pass, you must strike a balance between the professionalism that will always be required and the relaxed and accessible environment that you want to have among the members. To create and deepen ties between the team, team building activities are the most recommended. For the professional side, training moments are important. There are also junior enterprises that promote the signing of a work contract or a commitment statement with members. Basically, these documents summarize what is expected of the newly admitted, making them commit and deliver to the Junior Enterprise - they are instruments that support the psychological contract of these new members, which is the most important all.

4.1.2. Condensing the information in a manual In the integration, the reception manuals are common. These concentrate a set of information about the Junior Enterprise which will help to contextualize its activity and facilitate the integration.

A typical structure of this manual contains: Message from the

> Initial message with the main objectives and purposes of the Junior

President or the Board

Enterprise.

Contextualization

> Brief historical context and main achievements of the Junior Enterprise; > Approach to the National and European Junior Network.

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Junior Enterprise

> Purposes and strategic objectives; > Structure; > Functions / competencies of the structure / departments; > Portfolio of services.

Members

> Main statistics of members; > Rights and duties; > General guidelines on performance appraisal and benefit plans and / or progression; > General guidelines on training activities.

Communication

> Best practices of communication of the Junior Enterprise (e.g. definition of titles and norms for CV and LinkedIn); > Access to Business Development materials to publicize the services of the Junior Enterprise.

Next steps

> Final recommendations to the new members.

Relevant channels and

> List of channels where the Junior Enterprise is present (communication

documents

networks and internal networks) and indicate the main login procedures; > List of documents (and where they are located) which are to be consulted by new members (e.g. Internal Rules); > Bank access credentials, if needed; > IBAN and others applicable for reimbursement of expenses.

Contacts

> Contacts of the Junior Enterprise, Board and / or department heads; > Plant or map for location of facilities.

The manual should be concise and complementary to the integration - i.e. the integration cannot be done only through the manual, ignoring other initiatives or activities.

4.1.3. Reception and integration activities In addition to receiving the newly admitted, it is necessary to integrate them into the structure and present them to the members who already belonged to the Junior Enterprise.

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In the field of activities, some common ones are indicated below: Formal reception

> To receive the new members in a more formal session where the theme is the Junior Enterprise and the challenges for the future; > Session dedicated essentially to the newly admitted; > Possibility of signing an initial declaration/ non-disclosure agreement.

Team building

> Weekend or day for all members with the objectives of interaction and

week or day

coexistence between them; > Training or non-team building activities are discarded.

Initial training

> Technical or processes training, guaranteeing the necessary knowledge of the newly admitted (and reviving it in the former members).

The above activities may be more or less complex; may involve external partners or stakeholders - they must be fully targeted to the members and the specific purpose of their integration.

4.1.4. Maintain socialization and accompany integration Throughout the semesters of work, it is always convenient to maintain socialization activities among the team. It is fundamental for the creation and maintenance of an organizational culture of its own and even for the strengthening of Junior Enterprise’s employer branding. Socialization activities do not have to be rigorously detailed and planned - there should be a kind of library with team-building activities or other initiatives that are easily implemented and that reduce the time that is allocated to your organization. However, spontaneous activities, such as dinners, gathering, partying, or group outings, often have more impact on members and do not require greater involvement of the structure. Junior Enterprises only gain by involving Alumni in their socialization activities, or even other Junior Entrepreneurs - through, e.g. regional events. All the synergies you gain are positive.

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Examples of socialization initiatives: Team dinners

Team trips on vacations

Team building weekends

Dynamic internal challenges

Gatherings

Internal communication channel for socialization

One part that needs to be better structured is the follow-up given to newcomers - either by following the area/department manager or by a mentoring program that involves more experienced members or Alumni. It is important to have the clear idea that all members feel integrated into the culture of the Junior Enterprise. A final note regarding the socialization and reception activities has to do with the monetary burdens for members. It is appropriate that the JE share or finance as much as possible this type of activities, so that there is never a monetary impediment to their participation. Still, a symbolic value per activity helps pay the expenses and motivates a greater commitment on the part of those who subscribe or express interest.

4.1.5. How to integrate new experimental/trainee programs? When there are periods of experimentation after the selection process, it is necessary to make an initial reception in what are the objectives and processes inherent to that phase. The integration period itself may be done following the final determination of which trainees / collaborators become members. From here, too, the importance of such experimental programs being not so longstanding. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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chapter 5

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

The following section will focus on the Appraisal Process, which is a process that falls under performance management scope.

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5.1. What is Performance Management? Performance management is the process of defining, measuring, managing and developing the performance of the team in an organisation. Performance appraisal, on the other hand, is an ongoing process to evaluate the member's performance.

The aims of performance assessment are commonly, but not limited to: > Assisting in achieving sustainable improvements in an organisation’s overall performance; > Serving as a lever for change in developing a more performance-oriented culture; > Enhancing the members’ motivation, team spirit and performance; > Giving individual members the means to develop competencies, improve job satisfaction and reach their full potential to their benefit and that of the organisation; > Offering mechanism for regular dialogue and enhanced communication between individual members and their managers; > Providing an outlet for members to express their aspirations and concerns; > Prediction of job performance and assess intentions within the JE (achieve a management position or even as president; member leaving in a certain period). It is based on the performance assessment that the appraisal can be done. Then feedback to the members is given, enhancing a positive upward cycle as members have the basis for continuous development. A simplified version of the performance management cycle can be found in Figure 1 below.

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5.2. Appraisal As well as carrying out an effective the appraisal process and ensuring members deliver, the HR department plays an essential role in nurturing key people skills across the JE. By giving constructive feedback and contribute to the growth of the JE while making sure there is synergy and everyone is aligned with the strategy. If junior entrepreneurs, executive board included, are working hard they should be rewarded. People put the greatest effort into performing well and if they know and understand what is expected of them and they have had an involvement in specifying those expectations. Employee’s ability to meet performance expectations is based on: (1) individual levels of capability; (2) degree of support provided by management; (3) the processes, systems and resources made available to them by the organisation.

5.2.1. What do you assess in each appraisal > Trait appraisal \ Identify physiological characteristics > Behavioural appraisal \ Evaluate the actions taken > Results/Outcomes appraisal \ Goals achieved through a work process Regardless of the process used, there are some set skills that should be defined, ones common to all the members, others accordingly to positions and departments. These skills should then be listed in a glossary - platforms such as Google Forms may be useful for this purpose. Some examples of how to do this can be found below.

5.2.2. How to define the skills being evaluated? Resultsdriven

The ability to be focused on the goals established and achieve the KPIs established. This can be seen situations such as: > Showed resilience and is aligned with the strategy not giving up quickly during difficult conditions; > Capacity to prioritise and being able to deal with pressure; > Has risk appetite and takes responsibility for their actions (success or failure).

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Note: In the forms completed by the JEurs questions/affirmations to be verified should not be as obvious and direct.

5.2.3. Examples of skills that can be considered

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> Verbal communication Skills

> Process improvement

> Industry knowledge

> Critical thinking

> Written skills

> Creativity

> Ethics

> Planning and Organization

> Flexibility

> Proactivity

> Managing people

> Emotional Intelligence

> Leadership

> Cognitive Flexibility

> Innovation driven

> Problem-solving

> Results driven

> Team working

> Client focus

‌.

5.2.4. How to structure these competencies? General

Applicable to everyone

> Emotional Intelligence > Proactivity > Team-working > Results driven > Flexibility

Specific

Marketing Department

> Creativity

(To be added to

> Client focused

the general ones)

> Analytical skills Quality Management Department

> Critical thinking > Attention to detail > Written skills

Human Resources

> Interpersonal skills

Intra-specific departments

> Critical thinking Specific IT, Translation, etc.

Executive Board/ Management Team

> Leadership > Strategic thinking


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The behaviour can also be assessed based on organizational behaviour. For instance: > Participation in trainings > “Peer-oriented" > Help towards organizational development > Availability > Self-motivation > Personal development > Respect for the organization culture values >‌

5.3. Appraisal Methods and Forms 5.3.1. Critical incidents method Manager keeps a written record of a positive and negative performance of members throughout the performance period. The method is used for both developmental and evaluative decisions. When

> Formal reviews take place 2x a year; > Question: Do you want to wait for an official meeting when members are not performing up to the expectations?

Why

> Do an in-depth assessment of the entire review period (coaching and informal talks when needed).

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How

> Have a file/folder for each member; > Positive Notes, such delivering outstanding work, save angry customers from terminating business or critical incidents, constant lateness, and so forth shall be written in the file; > The manager should inform members if there is an outstanding note or a warning. A common mistake is to focus on the negative side. However, it is crucial to remember the positive performance as well, as it can also be a channel for motivation.

5.3.2. Management by objectives (MBO) Method Managers and members jointly set objectives for the members, periodically evaluate performance and reward accordingly to the results. This can be considered the best method to develop members. When

> This is an ongoing process; meetings should be scheduled periodically to obtain continuous feedback.

Why

> This process truly involves junior entrepreneurs rather than making them believe that your objectives are theirs as well; > On the other hand, each member goals may not be aligned, with each other and organisation culture, in which case MBO would be more time-consuming.

How

1. Set Individual objectives and plans. The objectives should be SMART and developed alongside a manager to avoid unrealistic expectations/goals, especially if it is a new member not too familiar with the culture. An example of a form can be found in the appendix. However, this can be done verbally; it is crucial for process efficiency to write down so that precise expectations are defined.

2. Give feedback and evaluate performance Here communication is vital in determining the success of these process. There should be a regular critique, which is the basis for development.

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3. Reward according to the performance Performance is measured accordingly to the objectives. Recognitions can include, praise, promotions, an employee of the month, and so on. 36 5.3.3. Narrative Method or Form Requires managers to write a statement about the employee’s performance. There is not a formal standard defined, however narrative can be a method or a form. When

There is no specific time. However, it is usually done after a formal assessment. Hence this is used in combinations with other methods.

Why

Evaluate performance in a written form so that it goes beyond a simple “checkbox� to describe an assessment item. The developmental plan can also be written.

How

Managers write what they want (method) or answer in a narrative specific question.

Note: A narrative based on critical incidents and MBO results is the best basis for a written assessment.

5.3.4. Graphic Rating Form Performance appraisal checklist on which a manager rates merely performance on a continuum such as excellent, good, fair and poor. Usually, this includes a scale which can 1(lowest performance level) to 5 (highest performance level). Self-Assessment and Skill Builder uses an 8-1 graphic rating scale. Examples of these can be found in the appendix. Mostly used for evaluative decisions. When

Throughout the process (Example: preliminary evaluation and formal appraisal).


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Why

Can be used for different positions and require minimal time, effort and training. Most commonly used during the formal appraisal, however, can be used beforehand for self-evaluations for instance. The downside of this method is that it can be subjective and in these types of questionnaires people don’t bother reading the whole affirmation.

How

Filling circles or choosing the number for the rating. To avoid the issue just mentioned, it can be used reversed scales or questions being asked in different ways.

5.3.5. Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) Form The BARS is a performance appraisal that provides a description of each assessment along a continuum. Also includes a scale from low to high When

Throughout the process (Example: preliminary evaluation and formal appraisal).

Why

More objective than the rating form as they provide an actual description of the performance for each rating.

How

Similar to the previous method. Example: Attendance — excellent, good, average, fair, poor Attendance — number of days missed 1, 2, 3–4, 5, 6 or more

5.3.6. Ranking method Members performance is evaluated from best to worst. There is no formal standard and there is no need to rank all the JEurs. When

Useful for decision-making purposes (Promotions).

Why

Useful for decision-making purposes (Promotions); Development purposes (knowing where the members are in comparison to their peers).

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How

By comparing different members. Predefined percentage of members categories, for example, excellent 5%, above the average 15%, average, 60%, below the average 15%, poor 5%. Managers, peers and self-assessment should be done. 38

5.4. Evaluating Performance Management 5.4.1. Who should assess the workforce? Line

Usually is considered the best to evaluate the performance. However, it is

Manager

not always the case, and problems can arise: > What if they do not see each other frequently? > What if there is personality clash? > What if they are not aware of all the activities the member is doing? > What if there is bias due to close ties? The best way to avoid this problem is to have other junior entrepreneurs assessing. For instance, having a member of Human Resources or Quality Assurance allocated to each department who does a report after each meeting and does the rating of the appraisals as well. Another example can be in the case of projects having the whole team evaluating each other.

Peers

Peers may be useful and valuable if they are also present in the ‘work-life’ of the junior entrepreneur. They might know better how the member works in the group. However, this is subject to subjectivity.

Subordinates

Members evaluate ExBo, project managers, managers in line, etc. Can give a great insight into managerial practices and potential missteps of people who control the JE or part of it. Moreover, this can be valuable to find valuable information, not available otherwise. Problems can, of course, arise from this. Hence, there should be extra care for potential conflicts. Most importantly, there must be confidentiality when doing such type of evaluations.


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Self

Usually done virtually before the formal appraisal and scales/ skill builders are used. Even if it is not formally done there is always at least a selfreflection of the past period. There is usually overestimation of capacity and capabilities, thus, there should be extra care for validity.

Customers

Provide useful information about who might be doing an exceptional or not as good job. Used if members have permanent contact with the members. And it can also include internal customers, for example, a partner whom we supply hours of consultancy weekly in exchange for training can be considered as one. The only issue is that it can be very subjective.

5.4.2. Which method do I choose? Determining the process depends largely on the objectives of the JE. Usually, it is used more than one form to have a fair process that represents the reality. Thus, it is recommended the 360º Feedback which includes all the options above. Regardless of the method, it is important to notice that a good appraisal does not only rely on the formal process used once or twice a year. It largely depends also on the manager interpersonal skills and knowledge to be able to provide valuable recommendations to help members develop.

\360º Feedback As mentioned, includes “all the above” and analyses everyone’s performance from all angles. This is the best to provide objective feedback and for individual development. It is considered very time consuming, however very efficient. An example of how this can be conducted is the following:

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[Before any appraisal process starts] 1. Set/Align organization, departmental and individual goals Ideally done verbally in a meeting and with a department team member (ideally the manager and seen as a crucial part to help setting SMART and realistic goals). Then, the information collected is transferred into a file that will be kept by the Human Resources Department. If members are new, debrief them on why they are doing this and how this will be used during the appraisals.

[During the Performance] 2. Keep record! A member of HR, quality assurance would be present in departmental meetings and record tasks allocated and completed, thus, capturing the reality. If needed, managers members provide feedback.

[Formal Process starts] 3. Self, Peer and customers assessment Members should be sent two documents 1) for self-assessment 2) peer assessment to be filled and used to produce the final report. For customers, it can widely vary as depends on the type of customer and the stage of the process. Around this stage, it should be reinforced that the appraisal process is crucial for improvement so that the whole team is “on board�.

4. Formal Meeting The evaluator has considered all the factors and will obtain any clarification needed, collect information about the line manager- strictly confidential or about peers if this was not done in the form. This is an excellent moment for reflection, and some initial guidance for the future can even be provided.

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[Towards the End] 5. Follow-up Report After the meeting, a follow-up report should be sent to all the members. If there is any critical decision to be communicated, such as promotion, demotion, exchange of department, or even expulsion from the JE, it can be done at the end of the meeting or in a separate one.

Common problems

Avoiding problems

Bias

Develop accurate performance measures

Stereotyping

Use multiple criteria

Halo error

Minimise use of the trait-based evaluation

Distributional error

Train your evaluators

Proximity error

Use multiple raters

Recency error Contrast error Attribution error

Common problems to avoid: > Bias: a personality-based tendency towards or against someone or something. > Stereotyping: Mentally classifying someone into an affinity group, and then assume specific characteristics about that member. > Halo error: When the appraiser generally has a positive or negative impression of a member and artificially extends that general idea into other categories. > Distributional errors: Usually happens during ranking or rating. There are many cases of this error. Examples include when rating members tend to rate all members as an average or excellent. > Similarity error: When raters evaluate based on personality similarity. > Proximity error: When similar marks are given to items that are near each other in the performance appraisal form.

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> Recency error: When someone’s work is outstanding or poor few weeks before the formal assessment and regardless of the overall performance is disregarded. > Contrast error: When the appraiser compares too often two members. > Attribution error: When there are wrong assumptions based on a single attitude that might have been misunderstood. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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chapter 6

MOTIVATION


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6.1. What is motivation? Motivation is defined as the process which encourages and guides your behaviour. Junior Enterprises are made of people and understanding members will never be easy. Consequently, there is no one simple theory that will assist you - no ‘one size fits all’. facility when it comes to motivation. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, (2) incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class. It is the Board task to motivate members to do their jobs well. Start everytime by thinking how you would want to feel about that task or project. The aim must be to encourage members to be productive and effective to deliver a high-quality project for the Junior Enterprise’s client.

6.1.1. How to motivate members There are many ways to motivate members. Managers who want to encourage productivity should work to ensure that members: 1. Feel that the work they do has meaning or importance - make people feel important; 2. Believe that good work is rewarded; 3. Believe that they are treated fairly; 4. Clarify objectives and escort the process; 5. Ensure proper team building. All these tasks fall under one or more motivational theories.

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6.1.2. Motivational Theories Expectancy

It outlines the connection members (e.g. members of a Junior

theory

Enterprise) expect between effort and reward. If a member does very well and puts forth additional effort, they will likely expect to be rewarded accordingly. Members who do not feel rewarded become unmotivated. Think about how you might feel if you continually worked as hard as possible but never received additional recognition or compensation.

Equity theory

This theory indicates that members are best motivated when they feel that they are being treated equally. If two members perform the same task, and believe that they do so equally well, they would expect equal outcomes and equal recognition. Lack of equity, whether real or imagined, may damage motivation. Again, imagine you are working as hard as you can and find that someone else who works at the same level has more recognition for it.

Maslow

The ‘hierarchy of needs’ theory is based on the premise that individuals

Pyramid of

require satisfaction on ascending levels of need. Maslow, who developed

Needs

the theory, suggested that when one level of satisfaction is achieved another level of need becomes important, rather like an ascending staircase or pyramid.

The levels (from the bottom up) of the pyramid are: > Physiological needs \ The most basic needs, at the foot of the pyramid, are physiological, namely: Air, water, food, sleep, sex. How? Make sure there are adequate breaks, holidays and time for members to rest and recuperate; > Security needs \ Here we need to be safe from harm and to achieve this we require: Shelter and clothing, personal safety and security. How? Provide safe working tools and equipment;

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> Social needs \ Since we are not social islands we need: Friends and colleagues, to be part of a group and a team. How? Allowing the same people to work together on a regular basis; > Esteem needs \ This is about enjoying a personal status. Within our group or team, we need status and a role to give us individuality and an identity. This allows us to be ourselves and express our personality. How? Encourage individuals and reward their personal contribution and achievements by such things as: member of the month or individual bonuses; > Self-actualisation needs \ This is our need to be the best that we may be, with all the talents and gifts that we have. It is about being our true selves: having achieved all that we have set ourselves out to achieve, being what we want to be, feeling satisfied with our position and knowing that we have done the very best we can with what we have. How? Continually recognising good work.

Within a Junior Enterprise and while performing and delivering high quality projects, the members want appreciation, feeling involved and help with problems that the JE may have. In fact, those aspects of work that recognise them as real people who have individual feelings and aspirations. This links in with the higher needs of Maslow’s theory (Pyramid Man). As a rule, some management tips would be: > Show as much appreciation for good work as possible; > Involve your subordinates in as many work decisions as possible; > Show real care and help for members in difficulty or with problems. Finally, the board should have in mind the nine rules of motivation for members: You must be motivated to motivate.

Motivation requires lots of individual recognition.

Challenge only motivates if you can succeed.

Motivation requires a SMART goal.

To motivate you must participate.

We all have motivational hot buttons.

Motivation, once established, does not last forever.

Progress and success motivates.

Team membership motivates.

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APPENDIX Examples of forms that can be used for various processes 1. Performance Management: setting SMART goals and expectations

Consultant’s SMART Goals 20X-X Name Department

Position

Manager in line Along with your Manager in Line, please come up with three SMART goals for upcoming period (until next appraisal), that you would like to achieve. Make sure they comply with these objectives: They are SPECIFIC | They are MEASURABLE | They are ACHIEVABLE | They are RELEVANT | They are TIMELY While setting up your SMART goals, please thing about these three questions: How are you planning to succeed with these goals? Do they have many things in common? How can your Manager in Line support you in order to achieve these goals?

Personal objectives for this year: 1\ 2\ 3\ . Objectives towards your department: 1\ 2\ 3\ Objectives for the JE as a whole: 1\ 2\ 3\

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2. Form sent out to the consultants before the appraisal Appraisal Form 2017

Name

Surname

Department

Position:

Period covered:

Time in present position:

Length of service: Appraisal date & time

Appraiser:

Appraisee to complete before the interview and return to the appraiser by X/Z/20YY Part 1 \ 1\ State your understanding of your main duties and responsibilities.

Part 2 \ 1\ How would you rate the past period? Good/bad/satisfactory or otherwise, and why?

2\ What would you consider your biggest achievement of the past period?

3\ What do you like and dislike about working for Westminster Business Consultants?

4\ What elements of your job interest you the most, and least?

5\ What elements of your job do you find difficult?

6\ What do you consider to be your objectives in the next period?

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7\ What action should be taken, if any, to improve your performance in your current position by you, and your manager in line?

8\ What kind of training/tasks would benefit you in the next period? Consider non-job skills as well.

9\ What sort of job would you like to be doing in next 5 years?

Part 3 \ 1\ Considering your current capabilities and your performance against past objectives, on what activities and tasks would you like to focus in the next period? Please consider your personal aims and passions while answering those questions. You can also write about you career plans at WBC (e.g. becoming a manager).

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CONCLUSION ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Overall, this book covered both theoretical and practical aspects of HR to give you a broader perspective of this fascinating department. As mentioned before, the content was collected and written from a commission of countries reflecting the best practices of the Junior Enterprises all over Europe. We do not suggest you follow the book word-by-word, but instead, to pick what you think is most relevant to your Junior Enterprise’s current situation and implementing it in your internal processes. We hope it will help you to create/improve the recruitment and appraisal processes of your JE as well as enhancing the motivation and team spirit of the people working in it.

Best of luck for your future developments, JADE – European Confederation of Junior Enterprises -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

__ If you have any question regarding the book, please contact training@jadenet.org

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