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EDUC2030/6738 S1 2009 The Writing Cycle: Modelled Writing Debbie Debbie Bradbery Bradbery

What do writers need to know and do? • Knowledge of: graphology – the way letters, letter clusters and words look phonology – the sounds letters and letter clusters make grammar – the structure of the language semantics – the meanings behind the writing

Debbie Bradbery

Roles of the Writer • Text Encoder – spelling, handwriting • Text Participant/Constructant – knowledge of field, semantics and grammar • Text User/Chooser – knowledge of the social purposes of texts, text structures and grammar • Text Analyst/Catalyst – knowledge of audience to achieve social purpose and grammar

Debbie Bradbery

Links between Reading and Writing • Reading and writing are both acts of composing. Readers using their background of knowledge and experience, compose meaning from the text. Writers, using their background of knowledge and experience compose meaning into the text.

‘Text Text is a two sided mirror rather than a window, with writers and and readers unable to see through to each other but gazing upon reflections of their own minds’ (Frank Smith, 1982) Debbie Bradbery

Before Reading/Writing What READERS do before Reading

What WRITERS do before writing

The proficient reader brings and uses knowledge:

The proficient writer brings and uses knowledge:

- About the topic (semantic knowledge)

- About the topic (semantic knowledge)

- About the language used (syntactic knowledge)

- About the language used (syntactic knowledge)

- About the sound symbol system (graphophonic knowledge)

- About the sound symbol system (graphophonic knowledge)

The proficient reader brings certain expectations to the reading cued by:

The proficient writer brings certain expectations based on:

Previous reading experiences

Previous writing experiences

Presentation of the text

Previous reading experiences

The purpose of the reading

The purpose of the writing

The audience for the reading

The audience for the writing Debbie Bradbery

During Reading/Writing What READERS do during Reading

What WRITERS do during writing

The proficient reader is engaged in:

The proficient writer is engaged in:

DRAFT READING: Skimming and scanning

DRAFT WRITING: Writing notes and ideas

Searching for sense

Searching for a ‘way in’, a lead

Predicting Outcomes

Selecting Outcomes

Redefining and composing meaning

rereading Revising and composing meaning

RE READING: Re reading parts as purpose is defined, clarified or changed

RE WRITING: Re writing text as purpose changes or becomes clearer

Taking into account, where appropriate, an audience

Considering readers and intended message

Debbie Bradbery

During reading contd. Discussing text, making notes

Discussing and Revising Text

Reading aloud to hear message

Rereading to hear message

USING WRITERS CUES: Using punctuation to assist meaning

PREPARING FOR READERS: Reading to place correct punctuation

Using spelling conventions to assist meaning

Proofreading for conventional spelling Deciding on appropriate presentation

Debbie Bradbery

After Reading/Writing What READERS do after reading

What WRITERS do after writing

The proficient reader: Responds in many ways e.g. Talking, doing, writing

The proficient writer: Gets response from readers

Reflects upon it

Gives to readers to engage in

Feels success, wants to read again.

Feels success, wants to write again

Debbie Bradbery

Components of a Balanced Daily Writing Program • Independent Writing -

Students Write Independently Develops understanding of the multiple uses of writing Supports reading development Develops active independence

• Modeled/Shared Writing -

Students and teacher collaborate to write text. Teacher acts as a scribe. Develops concepts of print Develops writing strategies Supports reading development Provides model for a variety of writing styles Models the connection among and between sounds, letters and words Produces text that students can read independently Necessitates communicating in a clear and specific manner Debbie Bradbery

Components of a Balanced Daily Writing Plan • Interactive or Guided Writing - Teacher and student compose together using a ‘shared pen’ technique in which students do most of the suggesting/writing. - Provides opportunities to plan and construct texts - Increases spelling knowledge - Provides written language resources in the classroom - Creates opportunities to apply what has been learned.

Debbie Bradbery

e d o M

Gu ide

d ll e


Model the features of the text. Deconstruction, sentence structure grammar Jointly Building construct text knowledge using scaffolding of the field TEXT Final edit, choose font, Layout, illustrations & publish


Construct a similar text individually

Draft, revise, proof read, edit & conference

Independent Debbie Bradbery

How we structure texts to achieve our social purpose Social Purposes for writing • Entertain, e.g. “Rosie’s Walk” • Describe, to amuse, create empathy • Respond personally to a text

Type of Text • Narrative Literary recount • Literary description • Response or Review

Literary Texts Debbie Bradbery

How we structure texts to achieve our social purpose (cont.) Factual Texts • Describe to inform • Provide information in categories on a topic • Tell how to do/make something • Explain • Argue, persuade • Provide both sides of an argument

• Factual description • Information report • • • •

Procedure Explanation Exposition Discussion

Debbie Bradbery

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Giving students the background knowledge on the topic:

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Building knowledge of the field


The literary focus is far more paramount than the subject focus

Debbie Bradbery

• Experts • Excursions • Reading • Class talks • Watch a video May also include: • brainstorming • predicting • using diagrams As well as gathering, selecting, organising and recording information by students.

Modelled Writing • Building knowledge of the field - How do we do this? 1. Provide rich classroom experiences 2. Provide students with a purpose 3. Provide students with an audience 4. Provide a rich reading program & good models of texts to help students 5. Include rich oral language activities to help students build & organise their knowledge Debbie Bradbery

Think about the QTM & writing? • QTM – Significance • Purpose

• Audience

Debbie Bradbery

Building field knowledge

• • • • • •

Excursions Life experiences The 5 senses Guest Speakers, Mentors, lots of talking Videos/DVDs/Books, Brochures etc. Blackboard- “You Tube” video bapps%2fblackboard%2fexecute%2flauncher%3ftype%3dCourse%26id%3d_1299163_1 %26url%3d Debbie Bradbery

e d o M

d ll e

Text is selected based on the purpose of the writing.

Model the features of the text. Deconstruction, sentence structure grammar

Final edit, choose font, Layout, illustrations & publish


Teacher may need to revise the features and layout of the text type. Develop a spelling focus for the topic - technical Construct terms, brainstorm word a similar text banks, rules and patterns individually that emerge

Draft, revise, proof read, edit & conference

Independent Debbie Bradbery

The text’s specific sentence structure and grammatical features will be made explicit.

Modelling •

Modelling the text type - talking, reading & using text type - explicit teaching about: social purpose text structure audience specific language features

This means both models and modelling. Modelled writing refers to the selection of models to show students how writing works.

It also refers to the teacher's practice of modelling or demonstrating writing to students.

In modelled writing, teachers provide students with examples of the type of text they will be composing, explanations of how these texts work and structured demonstrations of what efficient writers know and do.

Modelled writing helps students gain the knowledge about language, vocabulary and text structures required to write for a range of purposes

Modelled writing should also include explicit teaching about the processes involved in composing texts. Debbie Bradbery

Explicit Teaching

• Use real examples of the text type: from other KLAs, community texts, internet, spoken texts etc • Deconstruct texts • Reconstruct text >>>> scaffold sheet • Modeling choices & processes of writers by writing in front of the class, with the class Debbie Bradbery

Focuses for Modelled Writing • Text types and their uses or purposes. The children can be made aware of the purposes for writing and the relevant text types. e.g. a procedural text to learn how to cook Gingerbread Babies

Debbie Bradbery

• The effect of context, purpose and audience The children can be shown how situational and/or sociocultural contexts, purposes and audience can affect the choice of text type and the writing process.

Debbie Bradbery

• Structure and Features of text types The children’s knowledge and skills can be developed through explicit teaching about:  Structural & organisational features  Links between visual & written text  Grammatical features  Figurative language purposes  Vocabulary & word usage  Elements & conventions of print, visual texts & multi-modal texts  Punctuation  Spelling Debbie Bradbery

• Strategies Children can learn about the strategies for:  Planning & preparing for writing – topic, purpose, audience, text type, needs & expectations of the reader  Drafting, re-reading and reworking  Proofreading for meaning, spelling & punctuation  Publishing – layout & presentation

Debbie Bradbery

What do writers need to know and do? • 4 sources of spelling knowledge - visual knowledge - etymological knowledge - phonological knowledge - morphemic knowledge iend r f r you f o end e h t fri’ ‘ r e Nev “i” bef ore “e ” exce pt aft er “c” Debbie Bradbery

Visual Knowledge (the way words LOOK) • Good spellers know when a word ‘looks’ right • The degree of difficulty does not necessarily determine the level of success • Children with good visual knowledge recognise letters and letter clusters and can use this knowledge to spell new and unfamiliar words

Debbie Bradbery

Morphemic Knowledge clues (the spelling rules) • More consistencies than inconsistencies – prefixes and suffixes are added to words with regularity • E.g. double the final consonant when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel (stop, stopped, stopping, stoppable) and drop the silent ‘e’ when adding a suffix beginning with a vowel (hope + ing = hoping) and keep the silent ‘e’ when adding a suffix beginning with a consonant (hope + ful = hopeful).

i’ t h r f ‘ er Nev


f yo o d en

end i r f ur

“i” bef ore “e ” exce pt aft er “c”

Debbie Bradbery

Phonological knowledge clues (the way words SOUND). • 26 letters , 44 phonemes and over 1200 spelling variations • E.g. the vowel sound is the same but can have a variety of spellings – pain, feign, bay, obey, tame, ballet, soiree and great • Mastery of the many different sounds, syllables and words can provide knowledge to spell new and unfamiliar words

Debbie Bradbery

Etymological knowledge clues (the history & meaning of the word) • Should support visual, phonological & morphemic knowledge • Many words have a history reflected in the letter cluster, e.g. aqua – associated with water – aquatic, aquaplane, aquamarine • Not necessary to know ALL the Greek and Latin roots

Debbie Bradbery

Why teach spelling? • Spelling is for writing – when someone else is going to read it • Why is spelling important when our writing is ‘going public’? • Missed spellings can interfere with meaning • Misspellings distract readers from our message • People judge us on our spelling

Debbie Bradbery

Spelling Lists - a warning • 10 new words per week from K-6 = 2800 ‘new’ words • Even if we learnt 20 words per week from K-6 = 5600 ‘new’ words • Is that enough????????

Debbie Bradbery

Debbie Bradbery

Bibliography • McLeod, J., Reynolds, R. (2006). Quality Teaching for Quality Learning. Planning through Reflection. Thomson, Social Science Press. • Winch, G., Johnston, R.R., March, P., Ljungdahl, L. & Holliday, M. (2006). Literacy: Third Edition: Reading, Writing and Children’s Literature. South Melbourne : OUP • Wing Jan, L. (2009) Write Ways. Modelling Writing Forms. Third Edition. South Melbourne:OUP. • Lecture 2007 UofN – Paul Shearman • English K-6 Syllabus, Board of Studies NSW, 1998 • Debbie Bradbery

Writing Cycle  

Writing Cycle