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P R I N C E T O N U N I V E R S I T Y, 2 0 1 6 . B . S . E . C I V I L & E N V I R O N M E N TA L E N G I N E E R I N G

JACQUELINE PORTFOLIO

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S T R U C T U R A L E N G I N E E R I N G | S U S TA I N A B L E D E S I G N ARCHITECTURE | URBAN STUDIES ‣ Projects ‣ Work Experiences ‣ Leadership ‣ Skills ‣ Photography ‣ Fine Arts


PROJECTS 5 S U S TA I N A B L E BUILDING DESIGN

PRINCETON ARCHITECTURE L A B O R AT O R Y

1 P O R TA B L E RENEWABLE ENERGY

POWER IN A BOX

2 THE ART OF S PA N I S H B R I D G E D E S I G N

L A B A R Q U E TA BRIDGE

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6

RE-IMAGINING URBAN LANDSCAPES

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND A N A LY S I S O F S T R U C T U R E S

NANPU H I G H W AY INTERSECTION

4 DESIGN OF TA L L B U I L D I N G S

6 0 - S T O RY MIXED-USE TOWER

BERLIN MAIN T R A I N S TAT I O N

7 EARTHQUAKE H A Z A R D A N A LY S I S

COMMUNITY RESILIENCE I N S E AT T L E


COLLABORATIVE PROJECT 2012 - 2013

P O R TA B L E RENEWABLE ENERGY

POWER IN A BOX

Power in a Box is a 1kW portable hybrid wind-solar power generation system, an EPA award winning renewable energy device. The system folds out of a standard shipping container, can be transported on standard trailers, and is deployable using only manual power. Before I joined the Power in a Box team of students and professors, an initial prototype of the device had been constructed and demonstrated at the 2012 EPA P3 Student Design Competition. During the 2012-2013 academic year, I led a team of 14 students to begin design and construction of an upgraded prototype in Princeton. The beta prototype fulfills the design requirements of increased capacity and reliability during inconsistent weather conditions. I designed the improved electrical system and added the HOBO U30 GSM data logging system to assist data collection and performance analysis. During summer 2013, three other students and I worked on completing the following: • Design, construct, and test the beta prototype • Collect and analyze wind speed, solar radiation, and power production data • Supply power to research sites in the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences and the National Museum of Bermuda • Demonstrate the system to local communities in Princeton and Bermuda

S U S TA I N A B L E D E S I G N ADVISOR: CATHERINE PETERS

Electrical system schematic

Solar panels and wind turbine power generation

Deployment sequence


COLLABORATIVE PROJECT FA L L 2 0 1 4

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THE ART OF S PA N I S H B R I D G E D E S I G N

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STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING | URBAN STUDIES ADVISOR: MARIA GARLOCK

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deformed shape

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L A B A R Q U E TA BRIDGE

applied loads

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axial loads

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N 7k ,77 17 kN 128 N , o -a 8 1 58 k o -b 18,2 9 kN 2 o-c 18,3 o-d 18,367 kN o-e ,385 kN 18 o-f 3 kN o-g 18,39 o-h 18,395 kN o-i 18,395 kN o-j 18,395 kN o-k 18,395 kN o-l 18,3 o-m 18 93 kN ,385 kN o-n o-o 18,367 kN o-p 18,329 kN 18,2 o-q 58 k 18 , o -r 128 N kN 17 ,77 7k N

4 e 5 f 6 g 7 h 8 i 9 j 10 k 11 l 12

bending moments

m 13 n 14 o 15 p 16 q 17 r

SAP2000 analysis

Graphic statics analysis

Over one semester, 20 students and two professors worked together to create an exhibition on Spanish Bridge Design. Eight bridges were studied in detail. My team of three students focused on La Barqueta Bridge,  a 168m-span bowstring bridge. We performed structural analysis using graphic statics and SAP2000, built a 1:100 scale model using 3D printed resin and laser-cut MDF and cardstock, as well as  produced a  structural analysis report, exhibition poster, website, and short video.

1:100 Model


INDEPENDENT PROJECT SPRING 2015

RE-IMAGINING URBAN LANDSCAPES

N A N P U H I G H W AY INTERSECTION A R C H I T E C T U R E | U R B A N S T U D I E S | S U S TA I N A B L E D E S I G N A D V I S O R S : M A R I O G A N D E L S O N A S + B R U N O C A R VA L H O

Over the course of a semester, students and professors explored urban environmental challenges in a small seminar setting. The final product of the course is an independent project to design an urban intervention. In many cities across the globe, elevated highways are defining elements of the urban landscape. These massive structures are often grey, unattractive, and associated with undesirable noise, air, and light pollution. At the same time, they only serve the single purpose of transporting motorized vehicles, without any direct positive engagement with people or the environment. But what if these infrastructure were transformed into active social spaces that facilitate the interaction between people with their environment? This exploration culminates in an urban intervention within the city of Shanghai, focusing on social and environmental issues surrounding the traffic and elevated highways. This re-imagination of the Nanpu Bridge Intersection takes the spiraling and monumental architecture of elevated highways as a generating form, and develops an active arena that aims to reduce pollution and transform the way people think about and inhabit transportation devices.


COLLABORATIVE PROJECT SPRING 2015

DESIGN OF TA L L B U I L D I N G S

6 0 - S T O RY MIXED-USE TOWER STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ADVISOR: RICHARD GARLOCK

Teams of three students worked together over one semester to design the structural system of a tall building according to ASCE7-10, with considerations of architectural program, construction timeline, and costs. Our team designed the Newman Tower, which aims to introduce a tall building aesthetic into the landscape of Staten Island. The simple design hopes to instigate building development in the area, while not disrupting the existing aesthetics. Positioned in the vibrant and up-and-coming community of St. George in Staten Island, the site chosen for this multipurpose 60-story building has breathtaking views of the Hudson River as well as downtown Manhattan. We envision a mixed-use building that is part school and part residential dwelling, with an open space at the ground level of the building. The ground level is an open plaza that provides space for both a school playground and a public park, and provides flood resilience for this low-lying building. The first five levels of the building are dedicated to the school. The sixth level is a lobby space for the residents. Finally, levels seven through sixty are dedicated to the residences. The building employs a core and outrigger system to resist lateral loads, with belt trusses that assist the column gravity load takedown. Outriggers and belt trusses are positioned at three different levels throughout the building and coincide with the mechanical floors. Gravity (dead and live) loads as well as seismic and wind loads are taken into consideration in this design using ASCE7-10. Reinforced concrete is used for columns and foundations while steel is used for beams, girders, outriggers and belt trusses.

Structural schematic

Flow of forces

Effect of outriggers on 
 shear and overturning moment

moment concrete perimeter column

concrete core column

steel girder

wind

r ge rig ut 00 o el x5 ste 14 W

compression

steel girder

moment

Outrigger connection detail

Building program

Lower level floor plan

Foundation design


COLLABORATIVE PROJECT FA L L 2 0 1 5 ( O N G O I N G )

S U S TA I N A B L E BUILDING DESIGN

PRINCETON ARCHITECTURE L A B O R AT O R Y

Over one semester, teams of three students perform energy design and analysis of the new Princeton Architecture Lab. The Princeton Architecture Lab, to begin construction in 2016, will be an Integrated Research Structure. The building will have prefabricated wood structure and facade, with bands of glass for views into building and operable hydraulic hangar doors. The following energy analysis and design were performed for the building: (1) Energy analysis using ASHRAE 62.1-2010 and ASHRAE 90.1-2010 to determine heat losses, heat gains, total UA, design heating load and annual heating loads. (2) Low energy and exergy design with a pellet furnace and high temperature radiators heating system, sized according to Schmidt 2004 and ECBCS Annex 49. (3) Energy design with ground source heat pumps using GSHP-Calc 5.0, with the goal of achieving low capital and operational costs. (4) Indoor air quality risk assessment using Standard 01350 Specification 2010.

S U S TA I N A B L E D E S I G N ADVISOR: STEPHEN SONG

Source: Princeton University

Building layout

Energy and exergy flow analysis


Graphic Statics: Funicular Arch and Force Polygon

COLLABORATIVE PROJECT FA L L 2 0 1 5 ( O N G O I N G ) Roof section and photograph during construction. Source: Schlaich Bergermann & Partner

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND A N A LY S I S O F S T R U C T U R E S

Teams of three students perform structural analysis on a structure of their interest. Schlaich Bergermann und Partner’s (SBP) Berlin Main Station is the largest crossing station in Europe and serves as an important transportation nodal point. The overall structure is open and transparent, with glass roof and facades that employ complex yet lightweight and elegant structural forms. Of interest to this project is the 320-meter long glass filigree grid shell structure, which covers six rail tracks with a maximum span of 66 meters. This curved roof is supported by a series of freeform arches stiffened by a cable truss system spaced at 12-meter intervals.

BERLIN MAIN T R A I N S TAT I O N Cable Truss Shape

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING ADVISOR: MARIA GARLOCK

While a funicular arch does not experience bending moment, the freeform curve does and so would experience large amount of deformation even under self weight. A tension stiffening cable truss system can be designed to in order to provide resistance to bending moment. The BLOCK research group presents the method of “Freeform Thrust Lines,” an elegant four-step graphic statics solution based on the principle that the stiffened arch will have the same reactions as the funicular arch with the same set of boundary and loading conditions. We implemented the BLOCK method using Rhino and Grasshopper to find the cable shape of the Berlin Main Train Station roof, and examined the effect of different parameters on the cable shape. A 1:200 teaching model was constructed from plexiglass to demonstrate the stiffening effects of the cable truss.

Effect of Hinge Location 1:200 Scale Model

Source: Schlaich Bergermann & Partner


SENIOR THESIS 2015 - 2016 (ONGOING)

EARTHQUAKE H A Z A R D A N A LY S I S

COMMUNITY RESILIENCE I N S E AT T L E STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING | URBAN STUDIES
 ADVISOR: MARIA GARLOCK

Fire following earthquake can pose major threats to regions prone to seismic activity, and studies such as the California ShakeOut Scenario (Scawthorn 2008) have shown that significant physical, human and economic losses can occur. The resilience of a community to a hazard depends heavily on the performance of the built environment, whose vulnerability can be described by fragility functions. The use of fragility functions in the context of community resilience requires that computational time and required data be minimized. Thus, it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of fragility functions to its parameters and determine the necessary level of detail for resilience analysis. This thesis will achieve three main tasks: • Analyze fire fragility functions for steel gravity frame

structures to determine sensitivity to fire scenario, using methodology developed by Gernay et al. 2015.

Thesis scope in the context of the built environment

• Analyze earthquake fragility functions for reinforced

concrete structures to determine sensitivity to cladding and detailing, using SYNER-G (2011) data and tools. • Apply the findings of the previous chapters in the

context of community resilience through a case study in Seattle, and identify limitations and areas of further research of the use of fragility functions in community resilience assessment. Sample community in Seattle. Source: King County Parcel Viewer See next page for interim poster presentation. Source: seattle.gov/dpd


Interim Poster Presentation Jan. 08, 2016 This poster presents of an overview of the thesis research progress, identifying areas of further progress for the remaining four months of research.

Fire and Earthquake Fragility Functions in a Community Resilience Context Jacqueline Li. Advisor: Professor Maria Garlock Case Study: Seattle

Fire Fragility Function

Research Overview

Gernay et al. (2015) have proposed a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for steel frame structures. They have conducted sensitivity analyses on parameters except fire scenario and occupancy type. This thesis attempts to fill in those gaps and construct final fragility functions for the building. The sample building under consideration is shown in Figure 1.

1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire. Source: California Department of Conservation

Fire following earthquake can pose major threats to regions prone to seismic activity, and studies such as the California ShakeOut Scenario (Scawthorn 2008) have shown that significant physical, human and economic losses can occur. The resilience of a community to a hazard depends heavily on the performance of the built environment, whose vulnerability can be described by fragility functions. The use of fragility functions in the context of community resilience requires that computational time and required data be minimized. Thus, it is necessary to assess the sensitivity of fragility functions to its parameters and determine the necessary level of detail for resilience analysis.

Step 1: Fire scenarios Three fire scenarios have been identified: the Eurocode parametric fire (Buchanan 2001), the One Meridian Plaza (1MP) natural fire in 1991, and 2003 experimental fire at the Cardington laboratories (Lennon 2004). These are illustrated in Figure 2.

FEMA (2008) ranks Seattle the fifth US metropolitan area most susceptible to earthquake exposure, behind four locations in California. Indeed, Seattle has had a long history with earthquakes, including the 2001 Nisqually Earthquake (Figure 7) resulting in a cost of $20 million. The Seattle Office of Emergency Management (2014) ranks fire as the most dangerous secondary hazard in Seattle, estimating 450 serious fire ignitions following a moderately large earthquake. The results of the previous analysis will be applied in a case study on an urban community within Seattle, leading to the determination of building functionality in fire following earthquake scenarios. Additionally, this case study hopes to identify limitations and areas of further research for the use of fragility functions in the context of community resilience assessment.

Figure 1 Building plan and elevation from Gernay et al. (2015).

c) Cardington Fire

b) 1MP Fire

a) Eurocode Parametric Fire

Figure 2 Fire curves for 12 fire loads of 100 to 1200 MJ/m2 floor area.

Step 2: Fragility functions for columns The complementary CDF for the maximum steel temperature in each column is developed, assuming normal distribution. These will be convoluted with PDF of steel temperature capacity to derive fragility functions for each column, as shown in Figure 3. A set 1-CDF curves for a W14x90 column under the three fire scenarios is shown in Figure 4.

1-CDF 1

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Figure 3 Sample fragility function taken from Gernay et al. (2015).

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Figure 4 Complementary CDF for maximum steel temperature under a) Eurocode parametric fire, b) 1MP fire, and c) Cardington fire.

Step 3: Fragility functions for the entire building The fragility function for each column will be weighted and added together to find the fragility function for the entire building under each fire scenario. These will be compared to find sensitivity of fragility functions to fire scenario.

Hazard Scenario Earthquake

Figure 7 Building damage in Seattle from the 2011 Nisqually Earthquake. Source: Wikimedia Commons

Figure 8 Probabilistic spectral acceleration in Seattle. Source: USGS

Action on Infrastructure Excessive deformation Fire following EQ Fragility Functions EQ fragility functions Fire fragility functions

Damage to buildings in a community

This thesis will achieve three main tasks: 1. Analyze fire fragility functions for steel gravity frame structures to determine sensitivity to fire scenario, using methodology developed by Gernay et al. 2015. 2. Analyze earthquake fragility functions for reinforced concrete structures to determine sensitivity to cladding and detailing, using SYNER-G (2011) data and tools. 3. Apply the findings of the previous chapters in the context of community resilience through a case study in Seattle, and identify limitations and areas of further research of the use of fragility functions in community resilience assessment.

References

Earthquake Fragility Function

Physical Inventory Buildings

SYNER-G, a European joint research project, provides an in-depth database of fragility functions for reinforced concrete structures and presents a method for comparing fragility functions. This thesis attempts to perform sensitivity analysis of SYNERG fragility functions to cladding and detailing. Material

Structural System

Height

Code Level

Cladding

Detailing

Non-Ductile Bare

Low-Rise

Reinforced Concrete

Moment Resisting Frame

Mid-Rise

Shear Wall

High-Rise

Ductile

Non Seismically Designed

Regular Infill

Seismically Designed

Irregular Infill

Dual System

Figure 5

Step 1: Gather fragility functions Reinforced concrete fragility functions available on the SYNER-G database fit into the cases illustrated in Figure 5, with parameters of interest being cladding and detailing. Step 2: Harmonize fragility functions Since a large number of authors contributed to the database, the fragility functions use a variety of intensity measures and damage states. They can be harmonized using SYNER-G’s Fragility Functions Manager tool. Step 3: Combine and compare Once harmonized, the functions can be plotted, combined, and compared, either in Fragility Function Manager, MATLAB, or Excel to determine sensitivity to parameters. Figure 6 shows a sample mean curve for MRF, midrise, seismically designed, bare building types, from SYNER-G.

Figure 6

Buchanan, A.H. 2001. Structural Design for Fire Safety. Chichester, UK: Wiley. FEMA. 2008. HAZUS HM Estimated Annualized Earthquake Losses for the United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Washington, DC. Gernay, T., Elhami Khorasani, N., Garlock, M.E.M. 2015. “Fire fragility curves for steel buildings in a community resilience context: a methodology”. Submitted to Engineering Structures. Gernay et al. 2015. “Sensitivity analysis of fire fragility curves for steel gravity frames”. Lennon, T. 2004. Results and Observations from Full-scale Fire Test at BRE Cardington, 16 January 2003. Client Report. Building Research Establishment. Scawthorn, C.R. 2008. The ShakeOut Scenario Supplementary Study: Fire Following Earthquake. SPA Risk LLC. Berkeley, CA. Seattle Office of Emergency Management. 2014. Seattle Hazard Identification and Vulnerability Analysis: Earthquakes. SYNER-G. 2011. D3.1 Fragility Functions for Common RC Building Types in Europe. Seventh Framework Programme, Thessaloniki, Greece.


WORK EXPERIENCES

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SUMMER 2013

SUMMER 2014

SUMMER 2015

CONSTRUCTION MANAGER

CIVIL ENGINEERING INTERN

LAND & URBAN PLANNING INTERN

Designed, constructed, and tested a 1kW portable hybrid wind-solar power generation system, an EPA award winning renewable energy device.

Constructed full prototype with three other students.

Used device to supply power to research site in BIOS.

P ro d u c e d re p o r t o n d e s i g n f e a t u re s , construction process, deployment procedure, and power production analyses.

Assisted traffic infrastructure team in construction management for Doha Expressway Group 5 projects.

Completed preliminary and detailed design drawings in AutoCAD.

Calculated internal forces and deformations of segmental tunnel lining for a 20km twin rail tunnel Follo Line Project in Norway.

Analyzed geological data from core drilling reports to determine rock properties.

Produced site analysis and area development studies for Disneyland Resort, Shanghai Disney Resort and Walt Disney World.

Communicated and coordinated with lead planners and executives.

Created maps and graphics illustrating the evolution of Disneyland Resort’s storm water management system in accordance with 10-year theme park expansion master plans.


LEADERSHIP

SKILLS S T R U C T U R A L A N A LY S I S

ASCE PRINCETON STUDENT CHAPTER PRESIDENT

ARCHITECTURE ASSOCIATION OF PRINCETON EVENTS DIRECTOR

3 D M O D E L I N G | G E N E R AT I V E D E S I G N

C R E AT I V E

BASIC

PROGRAMMING

LANGUAGES

T H E D A I LY P R I N C E T O N I A N PHOTOGRAPHER

PRINCETON RAISING AND GIVING MEDIA / GRAPHICS DESIGN

MANDARIN CHINESE FLUENT

GERMAN BASIC PROFICIENCY


PHOTOGRAPHY

SESC Pompeia São Paulo, Brazil

View of the city from Edifício Italia São Paulo, Brazil


Puente de Lusitania MĂŠrida, Spain

Almonte River Viaduct AlcĂĄntara Reservoir, Spain


George Washington Bridge NY


FINE ARTS Venetian Mask Oil on card stock

San Marco Piazza Lino prints on canvas


Study of Sargent’s Garden Watercolor on paper

Lips/Leaves Oil on canvas


Tango Acrylic and pastel on canvas

Life study 1 Charcoal on paper

Life study 2 Charcoal on paper

Profile for Jacqueline Li

Portfolio - Structural Engineering  

Portfolio - Structural Engineering  

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