Power From Father to Son Papa Doc & Bébé Doc (1950s-1980s) Maria Carolina Prida 8B
Who were Papa Doc & Bébé Doc? François Duvalier also know as Papa Doc (Born in April 14, 1907. Died in April 21, 1971). “Graduated in 1934 from the University of Haiti School of Medicine, where he served as a hospital staff physician. Duvalier was elected president in September 1957. Setting about to consolidate his power, he reduced the size of the army. A private force responsible for terrorizing and assassinating alleged foes of the regime was created”.
The editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (7-17-15) Jean- Claude Duvalier and Francois Duvalier.
Jean-Claude Duvalier also known as Bébé Doc. (Born in July 3, 1951. Died in October 4, 2014). Son of Papa Doc- Francois Duvalier . He became president of Haiti at the age of 19 from 1971 to 1986. He replaced his father’s dictatorship when Papa Doc died. “Nevertheless, no sharp changes from previous policies occurred. No political opposition was tolerated, and all important political officials and judges were still appointed by the president.”
Claim Both François Papa Doc and Jean-Claude Bébé DocDuvalier’s dictatorship was a terrible era of abuse of Haiti’s economy and people.
Papa Doc - Source #1 George Merlis. Hispañola Blues. 1975. Haiti: Government by Greed
Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2003. Duvalier, François.
During Papa Doc’s dictatorship, in my opinion, he was abusing the rights of Haitian people: “The minimum wage in Haiti, and often it is the maximum, is $1.30 per day”. Papa Doc was not only mistreating them by extreme underpay, but also with physical violence: “Duvalier created an organization directly responsible to him, "Tonton Macoutes", the Haitian version of a secret police. Through the late 1950s to the middle 1960s this force continued to grow and was responsible for terrorizing and assassinating anyone that thought to be an opponent of Duvalier”. Papa Doc’s rule was devastating for Haiti economically. It left people below any imaginable level of decent living.
Bébé Doc - Source #2 Jean-Claude Duvalier, as we all know, is the son of Papa Doc. There are not many good things to say about his government. As dictatorship runs in the blood of the Duvaliers, Jean Claude kept on with greedy corrupt rule; but this time it was not as harsh as before: “He moderated the tyrannical and corrupt practices of his father’s regime, Duvalier instituted budgetary and judicial reforms, replaced a few older cabinet members with younger men, and released some political prisoners”. Bebe Doc kept ruling the Tonton Macoutes, which was one of the disadvantages his government, but at least it was less strict. “He also permitted limited press freedom and personal criticisms that were never tolerated by Papa Doc”. In my opinion the Duvalier’s dictatorship was getting better but still terribly abusing in terms of human rights.
Encyclopedia of World Biography | 2004. Jean-Claude Duvalier
Father and Son- Source #3 Both Bebe Doc and Papa Doc were devastating dictators for Haiti - they didn’t make an effort to improve economy and mistreated people. They didn’t take care of their country: “ This past fall the floods tore away a key bridge- Rue Delmans, Port-au-Prince. With the bridge down, a slow, bumpy, dusty detour was necessary for the truck hauling goods for export. The bridge was washed away in October; although it is a short, simple span, it still hasn’t been replaced”. This is an example of poor care the Duvaliers had for their own country. If they did’t know how to take care of a simple bridge, how were the going to take care of a whole country?
George Merlis. Hispañola Blues. 1975. Haiti: Government by Greed
Disadvantages & Advantages Haitians are said to have been murdered by Duvalier's government. An additional one-fifth of its population lives else-where in political or economic exile. Estimated 80% of Haitians employed professional fields fled Haiti under this oppressive regime headed by a terrorist.
Henri d' Anton was comprised of Cuban guerrillas and Haitian exiles. The invaders came ashore Haitian land at Les Irois, the southern part of the country. The reaction in Port-au-Prince was panic. With the help of U.S. marines and a full scale mobilization of Haitian military forces, the invaders were either captured or killed.
The fact that Papa Doc was able to control the Haitian people by ruling and maintaining a large and viscous guard, make it surprising that anyone would dare attempt to defy his orders and remove him from his coveted position. Although these attempts were generally unsuccessful and their leaders frequently met with death, they stand as testimony to the courageousness of the Haitian.
Nov. 1975 investigation. Faculty Webster Education
Thanks for watching! Ms. Stolyarova 8B Maria Carolina Prida